You are on page 1of 3

International Journal of Research in Advanced Technology IJORAT

Vol. 1, Issue 8, SEPTEMBER 2016


Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai,Tamil Nadu,India
Associate Professor, Department of ECE, Nandha Engineering College, Perundurai,Tamil Nadu,India
Abstract: Expansive soil causes serious problem on civil engineering structures due to its tendency of
swelling when it is in contact with water and shrinks when they dry out. Soil stabilization using chemical admixtures
is the oldest and popular method of ground improvement. This study deals with the suitability of waste material like
Pond ash and lime as soil stabilizers for use in construction of buildings and pavements in expansive soil. Pond ash a
waste from the thermal power plant and the mosaic dust, a waste from the mosaic industries are being effectively
used here as a cost effective stabilizing materials. Because these materials are being dumped along the river bank
and in open pits which may be a hazard to the environment. So this method ultimately turns to be an eco-friendly
type of stabilization. Here the Pond ash and the Mosaic dust are used as a replacement whereas the lime is used as
an additive in small proportion in order to control the effect of swelling. Initially the physical properties of the
expansive soil, pond ash, mosaic dust and lime is studied by Wet sieve analysis and liquid limit tests. Then for the
purpose of determining the optimum moisture content and the strength of the virgin and the stabilized materials the
Standard Proctor Compaction Test and California Bearing Ratio Test have been conducted. The results of the
experimental research show that these dust materials can be effectively used as soil stabilizers for pavements and
buildings as the CBR value is increased.
Keywords: Expansive soil, Pond ash, Mosaic dust, CBR ,Compaction and Stabilization
engineered ash pond to take care of environmental concerns.
The fly ash as well as bottom ash produced by the plant is
Expansive soils are that clay soils which exhibit generally disposed of in an ash pond in a form of slurry in a
significant volume changes because of soil moisture ratio varying from 1 part ash and 6 to 10 parts of water
variation. Expansive soils are a worldwide problem that which are located within few kilometres distance from the
poses several challenges to civil engineers. Foundations power plant. This ash is called pond ash. The quantity of ash
constructed on these clays are subjected to large uplift forces produced varies according to the grade of coal used for
caused by swelling and inducing heaving, cracking and combustion
break up of both building foundations and slabs on grade 2.2 Mosaic dust
members. Heave problems account for more economic loss
than all other soil problems. Problematic soils, low bearing
interaction between soil and super structure and etc. always
make too many troubles during the construction procedure
or the occupation life of the structures.Many methods are
now applied or under studying in order to defeat such
Fig 2.1 Mosaic dust
problems.Soil improvement in its broadest sense is the
alteration of any property of a soil to improve its engineering
Mosaic dust is just the waste that has been dumped in the
vacant lands nearer to industries causing serious problems to
the surroundings. These mosaic dust properties are similar to
that of the marble dust properties that has been already in
2.1 Pond ash
existence as a soil stabilizing material for stabilizing the
In India, thermal power is the chief source of energy and expansive soil, The properties of the mosaic dust are as
produces nearly 70 per cent for total energy production. The follows
Chemical composition: SiO2, Al2O3, MgO, CaO,
coal ash generated from all the existing thermal power plants
is over 100 million tonnes per year. Since the production of
Water Absorption not more than 0.2%.
high ash content and low percentage utilization, most of the
fly ash has to be suitably disposed off on land by creating an
Wear abilitynot more than 0.1g/cm2.

All Rights Reserved 2016 IJORAT


International Journal of Research in Advanced Technology IJORAT

Vol. 1, Issue 8, SEPTEMBER 2016

It has a good binding property.

4.1 Liquid limit test
The liquid limit values for various mixes are shown in table 4.1


The following mixeswere used for experimental works.

Table 4.1 liquid limit values

Moisture content(%)

Mix 1clay 85%;pond ash 10%;mosaic dust 5%; lime 3%(additive)

Mix 2clay 75%;pond ash 20%;mosaic dust 5%; lime 3%(additive)
Mix 3clay 65%;pond ash 30%;mosaic dust 5%; lime 3%(additive)



Mix 4clay 55%;pond ash 40%;mosaic dust 5%; lime 3%(additive)



3.1 Wet Sieve Analysis
The sieving process is supported by water from the spray
nozzle which is located above the uppermost sieve. The
water leaves the sieve stack together with the last fraction
through the outlet in the collector. Rinsing is carried out 4.1 Plastic limit test
until the liquid leaving the sieve stack outlet is no longer The Plastic limit values for various mixes are shown in table 4.2
turbid with solid
Table 4.2 liquid limit values
Moisture content(%)

Fig 3.1 Wet sieving











3.2 Atterberg limits

The importance of the liquid limit test is to classify soils.
Different soils have varying liquid limits.The plasticity 4.2 Standard proctor compaction test
index (PI) is a measure of the plasticity of a soil. The The figure 4.1 shows the SPCT values for various mixes
plasticity index is the size of the range of water contents
where the soil exhibits plastic properties. The PI is the
difference between the liquid limit and the plastic limit (PI =

Fig 4.1 SPCT values for various mixes

4.3 CBR Test

Fig 3.2 Liquid limit

3.3 Standard Proctor Compaction Test

The Proctor compaction test is a laboratory method of
experimentally determining the optimal moisture content at
which a given soil type will become most dense and achieve
its maximum dry density.
3.4 California bearing ratio Test
The test is performed by measuring the pressure required to
penetrate a soil sample with a plunger of standard area. The
measured pressure is then divided by the pressure required to
achieve an equal penetration on a standard crushed rock

All Rights Reserved 2016 IJORAT

Fig 4.2 CBR values for various mixes


International Journal of Research in Advanced Technology IJORAT

Vol. 1, Issue 8, SEPTEMBER 2016

From the experiments, the following conclusions
have been made:
The stabilization of clay soil with pond ash,
Mosaic dust and Lime is very effective
because of their cementitious property.
The CBR value of clay when stabilized with
those waste materials is increased from 1.3%
to 21.7% which is 16 times greater than that of
the CBR value of clay.
Mix 2(clay 75%; PA 20%; MD 55%; LIME
3%) can be taken as optimum one for clay soil
stabilization because the CBR value of mix 2
is 21.71% which is comparatively higher than
the other three mixes and also we could
effectively replace the waste materials around
CBR values get reduced marginally when go
for higher percentage of replacement but those
values were greater than that of clay.
Since the clay is known for swelling by adding
materials which are rich in lime content has a
great control over swelling property of clay.
Utilization of waste material such as pond ash
and mosaic dust in our booming infrastructure
development will protect the environment and
by using them we can avoid the problems like
free swell index and plasticity index,
economically as an alternative solution to the
road construction.




RajuSarkaretal(2012) Geotechnical Behaviour

Of Lime Stabilized Pond Ashes From Delhi
Region' In Int. J. of GEOMATE, Vol. 3, No. 1
(Sl. No. 5), pp. 273-279.
Robert et al(2009) Soil Stabilization With Fly
Ash And
Rice Husk Ash International of
research and reviews in applied science, vol.1
pp 209-321.
Samson M. et al(2009) A Study On Engineering
Properties Of Cement Satbilized Sea Shore
Soils National building material and
construction week,pp156 167

BellstatedF.G.( 1996) Lime Stabilization Of Clay
Minerals And Soils Engineering Geology Vol. 42,
Issue 4, pp223237
[2] Eze U.( 2010) et al Suitability Of Quarry Dust As
Improvement To Cement Stabilized Laterite For Road
Electronic journal of Geo technical
engineering, vol.15, pp 1053-1066.
[3] Gupta S. et al(2010) Brick Kiln Dust Industry In Long
Term Impacts Bio Mass And Diversity Structure Of
Plant Communities American journal of applied
sciences, vol.99, pp 72-79.
[4] Hurley R. et al(1972) Ability Of Clay Filled To
Support Construction Plant Journal of terra mechanics
vol.2,pg34 - 39
[5] Misra A.R.K. et al(2010) A New Technology Of
Granite Slurry Waste Utilization In Roads Journal of
scientific and industrial research, vol.69, pp 67 72.

All Rights Reserved 2016 IJORAT