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EVIDENCE
Ateneo de Manila Law School
Prof. Eugenio H. Villareal
Section 3B, 2nd Semester, SY 2016-2017
Rule 128, General Provisions, Sections 1 and 2
Nature of evidence; distinguished from proof
Constitutional basis - Article VIII, Section 5 (5)
Factum probandum v. factum probans
Evidentiary rules in the Constitution and other laws, procedural issuances
* Bill of Rights, Article III, Sections 2 and 3 (unlawful search and
seizures) (privacy of communication and correspondence)
* Bill of Rights, Article III, Section 12 (inadmissible confessions and
admissions)
* Bill of Rights, Article III, Section 17 (right v. self-incrimination)
Gutang v. People, G.R. No. 135406, 11 July 2000
Marcelo v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. 109242, 26 July 1999
Hoffman v. United States, 34 U.S. 479, 71 S.Ct. 814, 95 L.Ed.
1118 (1951)
People v. Lauga, 615 SCRA 548 (2010)
Anti-Wire-Tapping Act (RA 4200)
Alternative Dispute Resolution Act of 2004, Sections 9 and 10, in relation
to Section 3 (h)
Rule on Electronic Evidence, 2001
Confidentiality Rule in Adoption Cases (Section 18, A.M. 02-6-02-SC)
Rule on Examination of a Child Witness (Sections 6 to 32, A.M. No.
00-4-07)
Rule on DNA Evidence (A.M. No. 06-11-5-SC)
Vallejo Standard - People v. Vallejo, 382 SCRA 192
Lucas v. Lucas, G.R No. 190710, 06 June 2011
Precautionary Principle, Rule 20, and Documentary Evidence, Rule 21,
Rules of Procedure for Environmental Cases (A.M. No. 09-6-8-SC).
Suppletory or analagous application in administrative or quasi-judicial
proceedings (Section 4, Rule1)
GSIS, et al. v. Dinnah Villaviza, et al., G.R. No. 180291, 27 July 2010.
First United Construction Corp. v. Valdez and Aldea, G.R. No.
154108, 10 December 2008.

Kinds of Evidence
Object (real), documentary, testimonial
Relevant, material, competent
Direct and circumstantial
Cumulative and corroborative
Prima facie and conclusive
Primary and secondary
Positive and negative
Expert evidence
Preponderant evidence (Rule 133, Section 1 - for civil cases)
Equipoise rule - Yuchengco, et al. v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No.
149802, 20 January 2006.
(Also applies to criminal cases - Abarquez v. People, G.R. No.
150762, 20 January 2006)
* evidence that is beyond reasonable doubt (Rule 133, Section 2 - for
criminal cases) (cf. on inconsistencies, no universal application of falsus
in uno, falsus in omnibus, which deals with the weight of evidence, People
v. Pacis, et al., L-32957-58, 25 July 1984)
* clear and convincing evidence (for charges to be filed against judges Pesole v. Rodriguez, A.M. No. 755-MJ, 31 January 1978)
* substantial evidence - Rule 133, Section 5.
Biak-na-bato Mining Co. v. Tanco, etc., et al., L-34267-68, 25
January 1991.
Rule 128, Sections 3 and 4
Admissibility of evidence
Relevancy of evidence
Knapp v. State, 168 Ind. 153, 79 N.E. 1076 (1907)
People v. Yatco, 97 Phil. 940 and Prats Co. vs. Phoenix Assurance, 52 Phil. 807
(conditional and multiple admissibility)
* Notion of curative admissibility - American rule, English rule, and
Massachusetts rule (subject always to constitutional limitations: Moncado
Peoples Court, 80 Phil. 1 - Stonehill v. Diokno, L-19550, 19 June 1967)
* Collateral matters - basis for inference as to the existence or non-existence
of facts in issue
Nuez v. Cruz-Apao, A.M. No. CA-05-18-P, 12 April 2005 - ephemeral
electronic communication
People v. Enojas, et al., G.R. No. 204894, 10 March 2014 - testifying on text
messages in criminal cases
Vidallon-Magtolis v. Salud, 469 SCRA 469
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MCC Industrial v. Ssangyong , G.R. No. 170633, 17 October 2007

Rule 129, Sections 1- 3 (What Need Not Be Proved)


Mandatory judicial notice
Discretionary judicial notice
When hearing necessary for judicial notice
*judicial notice of
*judicial notice of
*judicial notice of
*judicial notice of

laws versus of ordinances


court records, pending cases
government agencies and practices
foreign laws

Universal Textile Mills v. CIR, 36 SCRA 619


Baguio v. De Jalagat, 42 SCRA 337 (finality of judgment in case once pending)
Land Bank of the Philippines v. Yatco Agricultural Enterprises, G.R. No.
172551, 15 January 2014
Board of Liquidators v. Ricma Trading, 29 SCRA 397
People v. Mapa, 220 SCRA 670
Heirs of Felicidad Canque v. CA, G.R. 119184, 21 July 1997
People v. Bersamin, L-3098, 05 March 1951
G Holdings, Inc. v. National Mines and Allied Workers, G.R No. 160236, 16
October 2009
Vi Ve Chemical Products Products v. Commisioner of Customs, 60 SCRA 52
Fluermer v. Hix, 54 Phil. 610
Phil. Commercial & Industrial Bank v. Escolin, etc. et al., L-67896, 29 March
1974
Sy Joc Lieng v. Encarnacion, 16 Phil. 137
* Consider in regard to proving foreign law - Sections 24 and 25, Rule 132
(Presentation of Evidence) and Section 46, Rule 130 (Rules of Admissibility)
* Doctrine of processual presumption
Collector of Internal Revenue v. Fisher, L-11622, 28 January 1961
Manufacturers Hanover Trust v. Guerrero, G.R. 136804, 19 February 2003
Wildvalley Shipping v. CA, G.R. No. 119602, 06 October 2000
ATCI Overseas v. Echin, G.R. No. 178551, 11 October 2010
Jordan v. Mace, 144 Mo. 351, 609 A.2d 670 (1949)
Jao v. CA,152 SCRA 359 (1987)
People v. Madera, 57 SCRA 349 (1974)
People v. Dumanon, 348 SCRA 461 (2000)
Gener v. De Leon, 367 SCRA 631 (2001)
Republic v. CA, 277 SCRA 633(1997)
Marcelo Steel v. CA, 60 SCRA 167 (1974)
People v. Bernabe, 370 SCRA 142 (2001)
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In re Siemens Estate, 346 Pa. 610, 31 A.2d 280, 153 ALR 483 (1943)
In re Marriage of Tresnak, 297 NW 2d 109 (1980)
Ohio Bell Tel. Co. v. Public Utilities Commission of Ohio, 301 US 292, 57 S.
Ct. 724, 81 L. Ed. 1093 (1937)
Catungal v. Hao, G.R. No. 134972, 22 March 2001
Corinthian Gardens v. Spouses Tanjangco, G.R. No. No. 160795, 27 June 27
2008
Social Justice Society v. Atienza, G.R. No. 156052, 13 February 2008
Latip v. Chua, G.R. No. 177809, 16 October 2009
Rule on DNA Evidence (A.M. No. 06-11-5-C)
People v. Vallejo, G.R. No. 144656, 09 May 2002
Estate of Ong v. Diaz, G.R. No. 171713, 17 December 2007
(read with Agustin v. Hon. Court of Appeals, et al., G.R. No. 162571, 15 June
2005)
Lucas v. Lucas, G.R. 190710, 06 June 2011
Rule 129, Section 4 (Judicial Admissions)
* versus admissions by an adverse party (Section 3, Rule 26)
* relate to Section 8, Rule 8
* relate to Article 1431, New Civil Code

Cuenco v. Talisay Tourist Sports Complex, G.R. No. 174154, 17 October 2008
Toshiba Information v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue, G.R. No. 157594,
09 March 2010
Ching v. CA, G.R. No. 110844, 27 April 2000
Sps. Antazo v. Doblado, et al., G.R. No. 178908, 04 February 2010
PLDT v. Robert Pingol, G.R. No. 182622, 08 September 2010
Theresita, et al., all surnamed Dimaguila v. Jose and Sonia Monteiro, G.R. No.
201011, 27 January 2014

Rule 130 (Rules of Admissibility)


Rule 130, Section 1
*object as evidence
*autoptic proference
*ocular inspection
*demonstrative evidence
*experiment results
*silent witness theory
*motion pictures
*photographs
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*paraffin test
*chain of custody
U.S. v. Tan Teng, 23 Phil. 145
U.S. v. Ong Siu Hong, 36 Phil. 735
Phil. Movie Pictures Workers Association v. Premiere Productions, Inc., 92
Phil. 843
Balian v. General Motors, 121 N.J. Super. 118, 296 A.2d 317 (1972)
People v. Bowley, 59 Cal. 2d 855, 31 Cal. Rptr. 471, 382 P. 2d 591 (1963)
Jose v. CA, G.R. No. 118441, 18 January 2000
Tangan v. CA, 373 SCRA 119
People v. Amestuzo, G.R. No. 104383, 12 July 2001
Maturillas v. People, G.R. No. 163217, 18 April 2006
Reyes v. CA, G.R. No. 180177, 18 April 2012
People v. Freddie Ladip, G.R. No. 196146, 12 March 2014
People v. Hermanos Constantino, Jr., G.R. No. 199689, 12 March 2014,
People v. Abetong, G.R. No. 209785, 04 June 2014 (Chain of Custody)
Rule 130, Section 2
* documentary evidence
* functional equivalent

Rule on Electronic Evidence (A.M. No. 01-7-01-SC)


MCC v. Ssangyong, 17 October 200, supra
NAPOCOR v. Codilla, G.R. No. 170491, 04 April 2007
Vidallon-Magtolis v. Salud, 469 SCRA 469
Aznar v. Citibank NA, G.R. No. 170633, 519 SCRA 287
Ang v. CA, 618 SCRA 593
People v. Enojas, et al., G.R. No. 204894, 10 March 2014
Rule 130, Sections 5 to 7
*Best Evidence Rule
*original of a document
*Secondary evidence
*requirement of high-intensity or diligent search
*order of preference - acceptable types of secondary evidence
*when original document is in custody of adverse party
*calling for document; not bound to offer
*evidence admissible if original is public record
Theresita, et al., all surnamed Dimaguila v. Jose and Sonia Monteiro, G.R. No.
201011, 27 January 2014
Atienza v. Board of Medicine, G.R. No. 177407, 09 February 2011
Edsa Shangrila v. BF Corporation, G.R. 145842, 27 June 2008
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Chua Gaw v. Chua G.R. No. 160855, 16 April 16 2008


Citibank NA v. Sabeniano, 504 SCRA 378 (2006)
Ebreo v. Ebreo, 483 SCRA 583 (2006)
DECS v. del Rosario, G.R. No. 146596, 26 January 2005
Asuncion v. NLRC, 362 SCRA 56
Government v. Martinez, 44 Phil. 817
Paylago v. Jarabe, 22 SCRA 1247
Baroda v. State Bank v. Peck, 209 NW 827
Municipality of Victorias v. CA, 149 SCRA 32 (1987)
Rodelas v. Aranza, 119 SCRA 16 (1982)

Rule 130, Section 9


*Parol Evidence Rule
*definition of parol evidence
*application to contracting parties and privies; application to stranger
*collateral/integrated and unintegrated agreements
*ambiguity/imperfection
*falsa demonstratio non nocet cum de corpore constat
*relate to Articles 1359 to 1368, 1443, New Civil Code
Augustin v. Ziemer, 211 Minn. 565, 22 N. W. 2d 925 (1946)
Lechugas v. CA, 143 SCRA 335 (1986)
Martin v. Setter, 184 Minn. 457, 239 N.W. 219, 80 A.L.R. 471 (1931)
Robles v. Lizarraga Hermanos, 50 Phil. 387
Mitchell v. Lath, 247 N.Y, 377, 160 N.E. 646, 68 A.L.R. 239 (1928)
Laureano v. Kilayco, 34 Phil. 148
Yu Tek v. Gonzales, 29 Phil. 384
Palanca v. Fred Wilson & Co., 37 Phil. 506
ACI Phil.Inc. v. Coquia, G.R. No. 174466, 14 July 2008
Seaoil Petroleum Corporation v. Autocorp Group,
G.R. No.164326,17 October 2008
Marquez v. Espejo, G.R. No. 168387, 25 August 2010
Lequin v. Sps. Vizconde, 603 SCRA 407 (2009)
Read: Farnsworth, E. Allan, Meaning in Contracts, 76 Yale Law Journal 939
Rule 130, Sections 10 - 19 (Interpretation of Contracts)
* relate to Articles 1370 to 1379, as well as Articles 788 to 794, New Civil Code.
Rule 130, Sections 20 to 24 (Testimonial Evidence Qualification of
Witnesses)
*competency
*rule on disqualification of class of persons
* oath as a pre-qualification/waiver of oath
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* mental incapacity/immaturity
* Rule on Examination of Child Witness (A.M. No. 00-407-SC)
* Disqualifications
Marriage - spousal immunity versus marital privilege (Section 24[a])
Dead Mans Statute
Insanity of adverse party
Privileged communication
Spousal privilege
Attorney-client (contrast with work product doctrine)
Physician-patient - but read together with Rule 28 (physical and mental
examination of a person)
Priest-penitent
Public officer
* journalists privilege not to reveal source (RA 53, as amended by RA 1477)
* information and statements at labor conciliation proceedings (Article 233,
Labor Code)
* secrecy of the ballot
* trade secrets (cf. Articles 291 and 292, Revised Penal Code)
* bank deposits/bank secrets
* Judicial privilege
* Government privilege
* right against self-incrimination, supra
* RA 6981 (Witness Protection Security and Benefit Act)
* Filial privilege (Section 25 below)
Washington v. Texas, 388 U.S. 14, 18 L.Ed 2d 1019(1987)
United States v. Looper, 419 F.2d 1405 (1969)
People v. Tuangco, G.R. No. 130331, 22 November 2000
People v. Golillim, G.R. No. 145225, 02 April 2004
People v. Canete, G.R. 491920, G.R. No. 491920, 28 March 2003
People v. Zheng Bai Hi, 338 SCRA 420 (2000)
Sunga-Chan v. Chua, G.R. No. 143340, 15 April 2001
Sanson v. CA, G.R. No. 127745, 22 April 2003
Ziegler v. Moore, 75 Nev. 91, 335 P.2d, 425
Zulueta v. CA, G.R. No. 107383, 20 February 1996
People v. Francisco, 78 Phil. 694
Regala v. Sandiganbayan, 262 SCRA 122 (1996)
People v. Sandiganbayan, 275 SCRA 505 (1997)
Barton v. Leyte Asphalt & Mineral Oil Co., 46 Phil. 938
Mercado v. Vitriolo, AC 5110, 26 May 2005
Krohn v. CA, 233 SCRA 146 (1994)
Gonzales v. CA, G.R. No. 117740, 30 October 1998
Almonte v. Vasquez, 244 SCRA 286 (1995)
Neri v. Senate Committee on Accountability, G.R. No. 180643, 25 March 2008
Per Curiam Supreme Court Decision in connection with the letter of the
House Prosecution Panel to subpoena Justices of the Supreme Court (dated 14
February 2012)
Banco Filipino v. Monetary Board, 142 SCRA 523 (relate to RA 1405)
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Air Philippines v. Penswell, G.R. No. 172835, 13 December 2007


Hoffman v. United States, 341 U.S. 479, 71 S. Ct. 814, 95 L. Ed 1118
Gutang v. People, 335 SCRA 479 (2000)
Rule 130, Section 25 to 35
* parental and filial privilege
* Article 215, Family Code
* admissions
* admission versus declarations against interest
* confessions - Section 33
* offer of compromise
* Good Samaritan rule
* admission by a third party
* res inter alios acta alteri nocere non debet
* admission by co-partner or agent
* admission by a conspirator
* admission by privies
* admission by silence
* previous conduct/similar acts
* propensity evidence
* unaccepted offer; relate to tender of payment (Article 1256, New Civil Code;
also the law on consignation)
People v. Invencion, G.R. No. 131636, 05 March 2003
Lee v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 177861, 13 July 2010
People v. Gaudia, 423 SCRA 520 (2004)
People v. Lising, 285 SCRA 595 (1998)
People v. Muit, G.R. No. 181043, 08 October 2008
Republic v. Bautista, 532 SCRA 598 (2007)
People v. Sabagala, 366 SCRA 618 (2001)
People v. Satorre, G.R. No. 133858, 12 August 2003
Boston Bank v. Manalo, 482 SCRA 109 (2006)
People v. Bernal, G.R. No. 113685, 19 June 1997
Dallas Railway and Terminal v. Farnsworth, 148 Tex. 584, 227 S.W. 2d 1017
People v. Villacorte, G.R. No. 172468, 15 October 2008
People v. Erguiza, G.R. No. 171348, 26 November 2008
Tamargo v. Awigan, G.R. No. 177727, 19 January 2010
Bank of Commerce v. Manalo, G.R. No. 158149, 09 February 2006
Lejano v. People/People v. Hubert Jeffrey Webb, et al., G.R. Nos. 176389 and
176864, 14 December 2010
Rule 130, Sections 36 - 47 (The Hearsay Rule)
*
*
*
*
*

definition of hearsay
verbal or non-verbal (conduct, assertive or non-assertive)
independently relevant statement
double/multiple hearsay
negative hearsay
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* Section 28, Rule on Examination of Child Witness


* dying declarations
* declaration against interest
* pedigree/family history
* res gestae in general
* verbal acts
* excited utterances
* present sense impressions
* declaration of present state of mind
* declaration of present physical condition
* business entries
* official records
* commercial lists
* learned treatises
* former testimony on deposition
* other exceptions
- circumstantial guarantees of trustworthiness
- ancient documents (aside from the exception to the Authentication Rule)
- prior judgments as evidence of facts supporting them
Comilang v. Burcena, 482 SCRA 342 (2006)
Phil. Free Press v. CA, 473 SCRA 639 (2005)
Patula v. People, G.R. No. 164457, 11 April 2012
Richmond v. Anchuelo, 04 Phil. 596
Silver v. New York Central Railroad, 329 Mass. 14, 105 N.E. 2d 923
People v. Cusi, 14 SCRA 944 (1965)
Republic v. Heirs of Alejaga, 393 SCRA 361 (2002)
Resolution on the Motion for Reconsideration - Estrada v. Desierto, G.R. No.
146710-15, 03 April 2001
People v. Aguel, L-365554, 19 May 1980
Bedol v. COMELEC, 606 SCRA 554 (2009)
People v. Tabarnero, G.R. No. 168169, 24 February 2010
People v. Serenas, 622 SCRA 485 (2010)
Parel v. Prudencio, 19 April 2006
People v. Bernal, 274 SCRA 197 (1997)
Tison v. CA, 276 SCRA 582
People v. Alegado, 201 SCRA 37 (1991)
People v. Pruna, 390 SCRA 577 (2002)
Jison v. CA, 286 SCRA 495 (1998)
Maturillas v. People, G.R. No. 163217, 18 April 2006
DBP Pool of Accredited Insurance Companies v. RMN, 480 SCRA 314 (2006)
People v. Villarama, 397 SCRA 306 (2003)
Schmidt v. Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co., 243 Iowa 1307, 55 N.W. 2d 227
People v. Ner, 28 SCRA 1151 (1969)
United States v. Napier, 518 F.2d 316 (9th Cir. 1975); 423 U.S. 895, 96 S. Ct.
196, 46 L.Ed 2d 128
Security Bank v. Gan, G.R. No. 150464, 27 June 2006
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Nestle Phils. v. FY Sons, 489 SCRA 624 (2006)


Tarapen v. People, 563 SCRA 577 (2008)
Barcelon Roxas Securities v. CIR, 498 SCRA 126 (2006)
Canque v. CA, 305 SCRA 579 (1999)
MERALCO v. Quisumbing, G.R. No. 127598, 22 February 2000
Estrada v. Desierto, 365 SCRA 108 (2001)
Africa v. Caltex, 16 SCRA 448 (1966)
Rule 130, Section 48 to 50 (Opinion Rule)
*fact-opinion dichotomy
*expert opinion
* concurrent expert evidence - hot-tub method
* lay opinion
* collective facts rule
Domingo v. Domingo, G.R. No. 150897, 11 April 2005
Tijing v. CA, 345 SCRA 17, relate to (other) DNA cases, supra
ISAAA v. Greenpeace (and related cases), G.R. No. 209271, 08 December 2015
Jimenez v. Commission on Ecumenical Mission, etc., 383 SCRA 326 (2002)
People v. Duranan, 349 SCRA 181 (2001)
Virginia Ry. & Power Co. v. Burr, 145 Va. 338, 133 S.E. 776
Hernandez v. Juan-Santos, 595 SCRA 464 (2009)

Rule130, Section 51 (Character Evidence), Rule 132, Section 14


* in criminal cases
* in civil cases
* impeaching or rehabilitating credibility of witness when evidence of good
character allowed
People v. Lee, G.R. 139070, 29 May 2002
CSC v. Belagan, 440 SCRA 578 (2004)
People v. Deopita, 436 SCRA 794 (2000) Special Considerations Rule on Examination of Child Witness (A.M. No. 00-04-07-SC)
Rape Shield - RA 8505 (Rape Victim Assistance and Protection Act, 1998)
History of abusive conduct in regard to applications for protection order (RA
9262, in relation to A.M. No. 04-10-11-SC, Rule on Violence against Women
and their Children, 15 November 2004)
People v. Canete, G.R. No. 491920, 28 March 2003
Obedencio v. J. Murillo, 422 SCRA 21 (2004)
People v. Baring, 374 SCRA 696 (2002)

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Rule 131 (Burden of Proof and Presumptions)


*
*
*
*
*

onus probandi (burden of proof)


burden of proof versus burden of producing evidence
nature of presumption
conclusive and disputable presumptions
presumption of negligence - res ipsa loquitur

Manonsong v. Estimo, G.R. No. 136773, 25 June 2003


Datalift Movers v. Belgravia Realty, G.R. No. 144268, 30 August 2003
Davao Light and Power v. Operia, 477 SCRA 58 (2005)
Bautista v. Sarmiento, L-45137, 29 September 1985
People v. Navaja, G.R. No. 104044, 30 March 1993
Manila Bay Club v. CA, 249 SCRA 303 (1995)
People v. Sendaydiego, and related cases, L-33252-54, 20 June 1978
DM Consunji v. CA, 357 SCRA 249 (2001)
Ramos v. CA, 321 SCRA 584 (1999)
Estate of Ong v. Diaz, 540 SCRA 480 (2007)
Del Carmen v. Bacoy, G.R. No. 173870, 25 April 2012
People v. Caranto, G.R. No. 193768, 05 March 2014

Rule 132 (Presentation of Evidence)


* Examination of witnesses (Sections 1 to 18)
* open court and under oath, on record
* Judicial Affidavit Rule (A.M. No. 12-8-SC)
* direct examination
* cross-examination; English rule versus American rule
* re-direct examination
* re-cross examination
* leading and misleading questions
* witness credibility
* impeachment of adverse partys witness - evidence of past crimes or
misconduct
* evidence of subsequent acts
* non-impeachment ones own witness, except pars. d and e, Section 10,
Rule 132
* witness impeached by prior inconsistent statements
* evidence of good character, supra
* referral to memorandum - revival of present memory, revival of past
recollection
* Authentication and proof of documents (Sections 19 to 33)
* public documents
* private documents
* reply letter rule
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* ancient private document


* proving genuineness of handwriting
* proof of official record
* irremovability of public record
* alterations in document
* documentary evidence in unofficial language
* Offer and objection (Sections 34 to 40)
* offer of evidence; when
* objections
* continuing objection
* striking out answer
* general v. specific objection
* waiver of objection
* tender of excluded evidence
* Newly-discovered evidence (Rule 121, Sections 2[b] and 6[b])
* Demurrer to evidence (Rule 33, Section 1, and Rule 119, Section 23)
Rosete v. Lim, 490 SCRA 125(2006)
People v. J. Ayson, 175 SCRA 216 (1989)
Capitol Subdivision v. Prov. of Negros Occ., 99 Phil. 633
Dans, Jr. v. People, 285 SCRA 505
Chua Gaw v. Gaw, G.R. No. 160855, 16 April 2008
Canque v. CA, supra
People v. Plasencia, 249 SCRA 674
People v. Sherwin Bis, G.R. No. 191360, 10 March 2014
Suerte-Felipe v. People, G.R. No. 170974, 03 March 2008
Siguan v. Lim, 318 SCRA 725 (1999)
Antillon v. Barcelon, 37 Phil. 148
Lopez v. CA, 81 SCRA 153 (1978)
Security Bank v. Triumph Lumber, 301 SCRA 537 (1999)
Anstine v. McWilliams, 24 Wash. 2d 230, 163 P.2d 816
Malayan v. Phil. Nail and Wires, 380 SCRA 374 (2002)
Heirs of Lacsa v. CA, 197 SCRA 234 (1994)
Sanson v. CA, 401 SCRA 349 (2003)
Mariano v. Roxas, 385 SCRA 500 (2002)
Lazaro v. Agustin, 618 SCRA 298 (2010)
Patula v. People, G.R. No. 164457, 11 April 2012
Pan Pacific v. CA, 482 SCRA 164 (2006)
Delfin v. Billones, 485 SCRA 38 (2006)
Cruz v. Cristobal, G.R. No. 140472, 07 April 2006
People v. Yap, 229 SCRA 787 (1994)
Bloodgood v. Lynch, 293 NY 308, 56 N.E. 2d 718 (1944)
Faden v. Estate of Midcap, 112 Colo. 573, 152 P.2d 682
Atlas Consolidated v. CIR, G.R. No. 159490, 18 February 2008
Dizon v. CA, G.R. No. 140944, 30 April 2008
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Cruz-Arevalo v. Layosa, A.M.-RTJ-06-2005, 14 July 2006


People v. Godoy, 250 SCRA 676 (1995)
Luzon Hydro v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue, G.R. No. 188260, 13
November 2013
Design Resources International v. Eristingcol, G.R. No. 193966, 19 February
2014

Process; Perpetuation of Testimony; Discovery; Examinations


* Rule 21 (Subpoena)
* Rule 23 (Depositions pending action, de bene esse)
* Rule 24 (Depositions before action or pending appeal, in perpetuam rei
memoriam )
* Rule 25 (Interrogatories)
* Rule 26 (Admission by adverse party)
* Rule 27 (Production and inspection of documents or things)
* Section 10, Rule 116 (Production or inspection of material evidence in
possession of prosecution)
* Sections 12, Rule 116 (Examination of witness for accused before trial)
* Section 13, Rule 116 (Examination of defense witness)
* Section 15, Rule 116 (Examination of witness for the prosecution)
* Rule 28 (Physical and mental examination of persons)
Rule 133 (Weight and Sufficiency of Evidence)
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

burden of proof
Equipoise Rule
English Exchequer rule
circumstantial evidence
preponderance of evidence
proof beyond reasonable doubt
extra-judicial confession; corroborated by corpus delicti for conviction
circumstantial evidence
substantial evidence
power of the court to stop further evidence
evidence on motion

Land Bank v. Oate, G.R. 192371, 15 January 2014


Laborte v. Pagsanjan, G.R.183860, 15 January 2014
Raymundo v. Lunaria, G.R. No. 171036, 17 October 2008
Go v. CA, 351 SCRA 145, at p. 152 (2001)
Sabili v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 193621, 24 April 2012
People v. Teehankee, 249 SCRA 54 (1995)
New York Life Insurance v. McNeely, 52 Ariz. 181, 79 P.2d 948
People v. Quizon, G.R. No. 142532, 18 November 2003
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People v. Coderes, 414 SCRA 134 (2003)


People v. Lorenzo, 240 SCRA 625 (1995)
People v. Base, 329 SCRA 158 (2000)
Rimorin v. People, G.R. No. 142532, 18 November 2003.
Zabala v. People, G.R. No. 210760, 26 January 2015
Grade Computation
Recitation/Quizzes
Mid-Terms
Finals

30%
30%
40%.

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