Volume – 1, Issue - 7 www.bjpkaritcell.org www.bjpkaritcell.org itcell

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June – July - 2010 itcell.bjpkar@bjp.org

Naxalism - The Enemy Within
The Naxal name comes from the village of “Naxalbari” in the state of West Bengal where the movement originated. The Naxals are considered far-left radical communists, supportive of Maoist political sentiment and ideology. Their origin can be traced to the split in 1967 of the Communist Party of India (Marxist), leading to the formation of the Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist). Initially, the movement had its centre in West Bengal. In later years, it spread into less developed areas of rural central and eastern India, such as Chhattisgarh, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh through the activities of underground groups like the Communist Party of India (Maoist). `Naxalite` or `Naxalism` is an informal name given to radical, often violent, revolutionary communist groups that were born out of the Sino-Soviet split in the Indian communist movement. Ideologically they belong to various trends of Maoism. Initially the movement had its epicentre in West Bengal. Naxal ideology owes it's origins to the abject penury and stems from the all pervasive poverty in the Indian hinterland. The Naxal movement is showing signs of better organization of its political and military wings. The Red Corridor held by Naxals stretches across the swath of forest lands from Andhra Pradesh in South India to Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, West Bengal, Jharkhand and Bihar and is expanding. Some of the quite south Indian states are also now slowing being poached by the false assurances of Naxals. Naxalites are those who fight for freedom of the downtrodden and equal social and financial status for all, irrespective of class, caste and religion. They are for decentralization of power. A radical who employs terror as a political weapon; usually organizes with other terrorists in small cells; often uses religion as a cover for terrorist activities. They are organised mostly where there is forest cover. One who espouses naxalism is a naxalite. Their motto is to show teeth and enlarge upon their ideology and if possible support the landless and poor.

Naxalism and Fascism are actually terrorism in India, often more severe than terrorist attacks. Naxalism is Terrorism in the name of Social Justice. What do you think?
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Origin Naxalist Movement - Origin and causes
Naxalism originated by a gentleman K Sanyal who believed in Communist ideology, but thought that the economic freedom will come when you fight with the rich who have amassed wealth. The term comes from Naxalbari, (a small village in West Bengal), where a leftist section of Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI(M)) led by Charu Majumdar and Kanu Sanyal led a militant peasant uprising in 1967, trying to develop a "revolutionary opposition" in order to establish "revolutionary rule" in India. Majumdar greatly admired Mao Zedong of China and advocated that Indian peasants and lower classes must follow in his footsteps and overthrow the government and upper classes whom he held responsible for their plight. In 1967 'Naxalites' organized the All India Coordination Committee of Communist Revolutionaries (AICCCR), and broke away from CPI(M). Uprisings were organized in several parts of the country. In 1969, AICCCR gave birth to Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist). After the internal revolt led by Satyanarayan Singh in 1971 and the death of Majumdar in 1972, the movement was fragmented into many competing factions. Even as on today, there are several splitter groups operating in various states. Practically, all Naxalite groups trace their origin to the CPI(ML). A separate tendency from the beginning was the Maoist Communist Centre, which evolved out of the Dakshin Desh-group. MCC later fused with People's War Group to form Communist Party of India (Maoist). A third tendency is that of the Andhra revolutionary communists, which was mainly presented by UCCRI(ML), following the mass line legacy of T.Nagi Reddy. That tendency broke with AICCCR at an early stage. A new party CPI(ML) was launched on the birth anniversary of Lenin. Charu Majumdar was elected as the Secretary of Central Organising Committee. AICCR was dissolved. Several of the splitter groups are now re-grouping to form a stronger National treat to the nation. They are continuously holding the Government responsible for the atrocities meted on innocent villagers and are encouraging them to join the movement. Kanu Sanyal declared the formation of the party at a massive meeting on Shahid Minar ground, Calcutta and CPI (M) tries to disrupt the meeting. This resulted in armed clash between CPI (M) and CPI (ML) cadres for the first time. By this time, primary guerrilla zone appear at Debra-gopiballavpur (WB), Musal in Bihar, Lakhimpur Kheri in UP and most importantly Srikakulam in Andhra Pradesh. Andhra Pradesh police kill Comrade Panchadri Krishnamurty and six other revolutionaries during a crackdown on Srikakulam struggle, giving way to sparking nation- wide protests.

India- birth place of Naxalism

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An Overview of the History
1948-Struggle in Telangana: In June 1948, a leftist ideological document 'Andhra Pradesh Letter' laid down a revolutionary strategy based on Mao Tsetung's New Democracy. 1964-Split in United CPI: CPM splits from united CPI and decides to participate in elections, postponing armed struggle over revolutionary policies. to the day of the revolutionary situation in the country. 1969: A new party CPI(ML) was launched on the birth anniversary of Lenin. Charu Majumdar was elected as the Secretary of Central Organising Committee. 1965-66 – Naxalite Movement: Communist leader Charu Majumdar wrote various articles, which formed the basis of naxalite movement. 1967-Naxalbari Uprisal: CPM forms a coalition United Front government in West Bengal with Bangla Congress. This lead to schism in the party with younger cadres, including the "visionary" Charu Majumdar, accusing the CPM of betraying the revolution. This gave way to Naxalbari Uprisal 1968: May 14: AICCR was renamed as- All India Coordination Committee of Communist Revolutionaries (AICCCR) with Comrade S Roy Chowdhury as its convenor. The renamed body decides to boycott elections. Charu Majumdar, inspired by the doctrines of Mao Zedong, provided ideological leadership for the Naxalbari movement, advocating that Indian peasants and lower class tribals overthrow the government and upper classes by force. A large number of urban elites were also attracted to the ideology, which spread through Majumdar's writings, particularly the 'Historic Eight Documents' which formed the basis of Naxalite ideology. In 1967, Naxalites organized All India Coordination Committee of Communist Revolutionaries (AICCCR) and later broke away from CPM. Violent uprisings were organized in several parts of the country. In 1969, the AICCCR gave birth to Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) (CPI(ML)). A separate offshoot from the beginning was the Maoist Communist Centre, which evolved out of the Dakshin Desh-group. The MCC, later fused with the People's War Group to form the Communist Party of India (Maoist). A third offshoot, was that of the Andhra Pradesh revolutionary communists, mainly represented by the UCCRI(ML), following the mass line legacy of T. Nagi Reddy, broke with the AICCCR at an early stage.

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Naxalism in States
1. Chhattisgarh: In May 2005, a state government intelligence report stated that Maoists have become a dominant force in nine of the 16 districts and have partial but fast growing impact in four other districts. In July 2005, Chhattisgarh Director General of Police, Mr. O.P. Rathor said that more than 40,000 square miles spread over 10 out of the 16 districts of the state was under the operational sphere of the Naxalites. Official sources estimate the number of cadres of the Naxals in Chhattisgarh to be about 3,000.The majority of the cadres of the Naxals are Adivasis, as the Naxalites adopted a policy to forcibly recruit one person from each Adivasi family. The girls had to be given if there is no male member in the family. 2. Jharkhand: The region received minimal development funds from undivided Bihar based on a time-honored presumption: tribals live there and they need little. Resettlement and rehabilitation issues were—and continue to remain—poor on delivery. The area’s displaced tribals were gradually organized by a tribal rights and right-to-statehood organization, Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (JMM). Bihar’s response was to send a large team of armed police, which intimidated and arrested at will. To protest, an estimated 3,000 tribal’s gathered in September 1980 in Gua, a mining-belt town near Saranda forests to the state’s south, for a public meeting. JMM leader Guruji—Soren—became a bulwark for key tribal leaders, who led movements in Saranda to prevent the illegal felling of trees such as sal and teak. As resentment peaked through the 1980s and 1990s, leaders sought allies with greater firepower- the Maoists—through the Maoist Communist Centre (MCC), the key rebel entity in undivided Bihar. Saranda is a Maoist area of operation and sanctuary. MCC has merged into the Communist Party of India (Maoist), the presiding conglomerate, that marked governance in Jharkhand since it attained statehood in 2001. 3. Andhra Pradesh: Andhra Pradesh is the red cradle that nurtured the movement and serves as the guerilla movement's main base. The Naxal movement in Andhra Pradesh started in the late sixties in the 'Agency Area' (tribalinhabited forests) of Srikakulam district, (neighbouring areas of Orissa and Jharkand ). It was only after the formation of the Peoples' War Group (PWG), by K. Seetharamaiah on 22 April 1980, that Andhra Pradesh became the Maoist hub of India. As many as 19 out of the state's 23 districts have been declared as the naxal infested areas. 4. Karnataka: Naxal presence in Karnataka was confined to the north of the state, particularly Raichur district, which borders Andhra Pradesh. Wildlife experts see no reason other than the eviction issue for Naxalism to flourish in the region. A study by the Samajawadi Adhyayana Kendra, a Bangalore-based NGO, on the socio-economic problems of the Naxal-affected Malnad area revealed that the feudal system, caste related problems and economic disparity, which gave rise to Naxalism was one of the causes. COPYRIGHT © 2010 All rights reserved



AntiAnti-Naxalism - Policies in the Indian Context
The time is ripe enough to focus on our internal security situation instead of devoting so much time to other issues. The most challenging task before the government today is the elimination of the naxal terror network in its entirety. These anti-national elements are the biggest stumbling blocks for the progress of the nation and hence cannot be allowed to flourish in a democracy. If our police forces are unable to tackle the situation, they have to be made capable through well chalked out capacity building measure on priority. This is going to take significant time. However, till such time police forces become fit enough, other options may be exercised without any further delay, to ensure the safety of human lives and preventing damage to public assets.

If naxal activities have to be stopped, the government must act firmly even if they have to be neutralized by the selective use of armed forces including the Indian Air Force. The intelligence network has to be strengthened significantly. Not only the training and equipping of the police forces but also the development of police leadership needs special focus. It should not be forgotten that social issues like development of under developed/backward and remote areas, provision of employment opportunities, implementation of education policies, provision of quality health services and ensuring safety and security of human lives and public assets are priority obligations on the part of the government. Such steps must be taken in a time bound manner with a clear and implementable approach. Let us remember that now the threat is more from these anti-national elements as compared to hostile neighbouring countries. All available instruments of national power must now be exploited to eliminate these terror outfits from society.

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If Sri Lanka can eliminate a well trained and suitably equipped and armed LTTE, India can very well root out illequipped and poorly armed anti-national elements from its soil, provided the political leadership displays its will clearly. While it is essential to have more and more police personnel trained in counter-insurgency operations, it is equally important to equip them suitably. The services of the Army leadership and personnel at all levels may be suitably requisitioned by the police, to fill the void temporarily, if considered appropriate. A well planned and clear cut strategy will definitely bring these anti-national elements to their knees. All their known leaders/sympathisers must be arrested immediately. Such an action might be considered as going too far by many. But it is necessary when lives are at stake in a civilized society. The mere issuing of statements or condemning naxal activities is not going to fetch results in the present context any more. Politicians and ministers should not find any more solace in blame games between central and state leadership. Prioritising vote bank requirements above that of human lives is not likely to yield any breakthrough. INDIA FIRST PAGE 5 OF 6

Eradication Through Education
North Eastern part of India are mostly tribals. With little education or no education, they are easy prey for these Naxal/Maoist elements. By educating the tribals, Naxalism can be eradicated to some extent. Naxalism is prevalent in almost half of India from Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra to right up to Assam and beyond in the East. One thing is common; most of these active Naxalite areas are also rich in minerals situated in jungles where only the jungle law prevails. These people should be taught of judiciary, the laws, and the value of public property or the National property which is possible only by educating them. It is also believed that this problem poses grave threat to the internal security. And the most important cause may be the poor implementation of the different welfare programmes and policies in the needy areas in the country. The state governments as well as the national government need to take adequate steps to deal with this problem which needs consistent efforts and strong political will.

If young minds can be captured by teachings of naxalism, why cant the same minds be captured and changed through education? Today's problem is how to change uneducated minds which are already on the path of naxalism? The demand and need of the moment is to prevent uncaptured minds from giving way to naxalism. If the problem is prevented as a whole, then there will be no need to think of solving solutions! The Government has been trying to convince them to leave the weapons and join the main stream to end this internal ménage.

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