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Q-1: Cooling towers, as shown in Figure are to be designed for heat rejection from a power plant. The
rate of heat rejection to a single tower is given as 200 MW. Ambient air at temperature 15C and relative
humidity 0.4 are to be used for removal of heat from the hot water coming from the condensers of the
power plant. The temperature of the hot water is 20C above the ambient temperature. Give the
formulation of the design problem in terms of the fixed quantities, requirements, constraints, and design

Q-2: The condensers of a 500 MW power plant operating at a thermal efficiency of 30% are to be cooled
by the water from a nearby lake, as sketched in Figure. If the intake water is available at 20C and the
temperature of the water discharged back into the lake must be less than 32C, quantify the design
problem for the cooling system. How is the net energy removed from the condensers finally lost to the

Q-3: Formulate the design problem for the following manufacturing processes, employing symbols for
appropriate physical quantities. (a) Hot rolling of a steel plate of thickness 2 cm to reduce the thickness
to 1 cm at a feed rate of 1 m/s; see Figure 1.10(d). (b) Solder plating of a 2-mm-thick epoxy electronic
circuit board by moving it across a solder wave at 350C, the solder melting point being 2750C. See

(c) Extrusion of aluminum from a heated cylindrical block, of diameter 15 cm at a temperature of 600 K,
to a rod of diameter 5 cm at the rate of 0.2 cm/s. See Figure.

(d) Arc welding by means of an electrode moving at 5 cm/s and supplying 1000 W to join two metal
plates, each of thickness 5 mm. See Figure.

Q-4: Coal for a steel plant is delivered by train at a station that is 10 km from the storage units of the
plant. List different ways of transporting the coal from the station to the storage units and discuss the
possible advantages and disadvantages of each approach. Choose the most appropriate system, giving
reasons for your choice. Take the typical daily consumption of coal to be 104 kg.
Q-5: For the following systems, discuss the nature, type, and possible locations of sensors that may be
used for safety as well as for control of the process.
(a) A water heating system consisting of a furnace, pump, inlet/outlet ports, and piping network, as
shown in Figure(a).
(b) A system to heat short metal rods in a gas furnace and then bend these into desired shapes in a
metal-forming process.
(c) Electronic circuitry for a mainframe computer.
(d) Cooling and fuel systems of a typical car.
(e) A forced-hot-air-flow oven for drying paper pulp, as shown in Figure(b) .


Q-6: For the air conditioning system considered in Example 2.2 of (DTS Book), discuss the types and
locations of sensors that may be employed for the safety and control of the system.
Q-7: Consider the cooling systems for an automobile and for a personal computer. Suggest various
materials that may be employed, discussing the differences between the two applications. Narrow your
choices to the best one or two candidates, giving reasons for this selection.
Q-8: Solid plastic cylinders of diameter 1 cm and length 30 cm are heat treated by moving them at
constant speed U through an electric oven of length L, as shown in Figure. The temperature at the oven
walls is Ts and the air in the oven is at temperature Ta. The convective heat transfer coefficient at the
plastic surface is given as h and the surface

emissivity as . The cylinders are placed perpendicular to the direction of motion and are rotated as
they move across the oven. Develop a simple mathematical model for obtaining the temperature in the
plastic cylinders as a function of the temperatures Ts and Ta, h, L, and U, for design of the system.
Clearly indicate the assumptions and approximations made.

Q-9: A chemical industry needs hot water at temperature Tc+/- Tc for a chemical process. For this
purpose, a storage tank of volume V and surface area A is employed. Whenever hot water is withdrawn
from the tank, cold water at temperature Ta, where Ta is the ambient temperature, flows into the tank. A
heater supplying energy at the rate of Q turns on whenever the temperature reaches Tc Tc and turns
off when it is reaches Tc+/- Tc . The heater is submerged in the water contained in the tank. Assuming

uniform temperature in the tank and a convective loss to the environment at the surface, with a heat
transfer coefficient h, obtain a mathematical model for this system. Sketch the expected temperature T of
water in the tank as a function of time for a given flow rate m of hot water and also for the case when
there is no outflow, m=0.
Q-10: During the heat treatment of steel bolts, the bolts are placed on a conveyor belt that passes
through a long furnace at speed U as shown in Figure. In the first section, the bolts are heated at a
constant heat flux q. In the second and third sections, they lose energy by convection

to the air at temperature Ta at convective heat transfer coefficients h1 and h2 in the two sections,
(a) Assuming lumped mass analysis is valid, obtain the governing equations for the three sections and
outline the mathematical model thus obtained.
(b) Sketch the temperature variation qualitatively as a function of distance x from the entrance.
Q-11: In a manufacturing process, a metal block of surface area A and volume V is melted in a furnace.
The initial temperature of the block is Ti, the melting point is Tm, and the final temperature is Tf, where
Tf >Tm >Ti. The block is exposed to a constant heat flux input q due to radiation and also loses energy
by convection to the surrounding air at Ta with a convective heat transfer coefficient h. Employing the
usual symbols for the properties and assuming no temperature variation in the block:
(a) Obtain a suitable mathematical model for the process.
(b) Qualitatively sketch the temperature variation with time.
(c) If the temperatures Ti, Tm, and Tf are given, what are the design variables?
Q-12: A water cooler is to be designed to supply cold drinking water with a given time-dependent mass
flow rate m . Assume a cubical tank of cold water surrounded by insulation of uniform thickness. Water
at the ambient temperature flows into the tank to make up the cold-water outflow. The refrigeration unit
turns on if the water temperature reaches a value Tmax and turns off when it is drops to Tmin, thus
maintaining the temperature between these two values. Develop a simple mathematical model for this
Q-13: In a heat treatment furnace, a thin metallic sheet of thickness d, height L, and width W is
employed as a shield. On one side of the sheet, hot flue gases at temperature Tf(x) exchange energy
with an overall heat transfer coefficient hf. On the other side, inert gases at temperature Tg(x) have a
heat transfer coefficient hg, as shown in Figure.

The sheet also loses energy by radiation. If L >> d and W >> d, obtain a mathematical model for
calculating the temperature T in the sheet. Assume that Tf and Tg are known functions of height x.
Also, take hf and hg as known constants. Give the resulting governing equation and its solution, if
easily obtainable analytically.
Q-14: For the following systems, consider and briefly discuss the various approximations and
idealizations that can be made to simplify the mathematical model. When are these approximations
valid and how would you relax them? Outline the nature and type of governing equations that you
expect to obtain for the different systems.
(a) Food-freezing plant to chill vegetables to 10 0C by circulating chilled air past the vegetables.
(b) A shell and tube heat exchanger, with hot and cold water as the two fluids.
(c) A system consisting of pumps and pipe network to transport water from ground level to a tank 100 m
(d) A vapor compression system for cooling a cold storage room.
(e) Flow equipment such as compressors, fans, pumps, and turbines.
Q-15: In a counter flow heat exchanger, the heat loss to the environment is to be included in the
mathematical model. Considering the case of the hot fluid on the outside and the colder fluid on the
inside, as shown in Figure, sketch qualitatively the change that the inclusion of this consideration will
have on the temperature distribution in the heat exchanger. Also, give the energy equation taking this
loss into account.

Q-16: A flat steel ( =10000 kg/m3, C = 500 J/kg-K, k = 100 W/m-K) sheet emerges from a furnace at
10 cm/s and 8000C. At distances of 10 m each, there are three rolling dies; see Figure 1.10(d). The
initial thickness of the sheet is 2 cm and at each die, a reduction of 20% in thickness occurs. In addition,
a temperature rise of 500C occurs due to friction at each of the rolling die. The sheet loses energy to the
environment, at 200C, at an overall heat transfer coefficient of 120 W/m 2K. It is necessary to maintain

the temperature of the material higher than 700 0C. Using a simple mathematical model of the process,
determine the level of heating, or cooling, needed between the rolling stations.

Q-17: A steel sphere at initial temperature to is immersed in a cold fluid at temperature Ta and allowed
to cool rapidly for hardening. At 20 time intervals i, the corresponding temperature Ti in the sphere is
measured, where i = 1, 2, 3, . . . , 20. The temperature variation across the sphere may be taken as
negligible. We wish to obtain the best fit to the data collected. What function f(), where T = f(), will you
employ for the purpose? Justify your answer.
Q-18: In a heat treatment process, a metal cube of side 2 cm, density 6000 kg/m3, and specific heat
300 J/kg-K is heated by convection from a hot fluid at temperature Tf = 2200C. The initial temperature
of the cube is Ti =200C. If the temperature T within the cube may be taken as uniform, write down the
equation that governs the temperature as a function of time . obtain the general form of the solution. If
the measured temperature values at different time intervals are given as

obtain a best fit to these data using information from the analytical solutionfor T(). Sketch the resulting
curve and plot the original data to indicate how good a representation of the data is obtained by this
curve. From the results obtained, compute the heat transfer coefficient h.

The temperature variation with height in the large oil fires in Kuwait was an important

consideration. Measurements of the temperature T versus the height H were taken and presented in
dimensionless terms as

It is given that T varies as T =A(H)a. Using linear regression methods, as applied to such equations,
obtain the values of A and a from these data. How accurate is your correlation?

Q-20: The displacement x of a particle in a flow is measured as a function of time . The data obtained

Obtain a linear best fit to these data. From this fit calculate the values at = 2.0 and 4.0. Compare
these with the given data and comment on the difference. How would you improve the accuracy of the
curve fit?
Q-21: In a heat transfer experiment, the heat flux q is measured at four values of the flow velocity,
which is related to the fluid flow rate. The velocity V was measured as 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 m/s and the
corresponding heat flux as 1, 2, 9, 29, and 65 W/m2. It is desired to fit a polynomial to these points so
that q may be expressed as q = f(V). What is the highest-order polynomial that may be obtained from
these data? Also determine a linear best fit to the given data.
Q-22: The volume flow rate Q in m3/s of water in an open channel with a slight downward slope S and
a hydraulic radius R is measured to yield the following data:

It is expected from theoretical considerations that Q varies with R and S as ARbSc, where A, b, and c are
constants. Obtain a best fit to the given data and determine these constants.