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Copyright

1972

By Technical Education Research Centers,

Copyright
after

all

is

claimed until January

1,

All rights reserved.

No

the copyright hereon

There-

1977.

portions of this work covered by

right will be in the public

Inc,

this

copy-

domain.

part of this

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PRINTED

IN

170791

THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

Published simultaneously

Delmar Publishers,

in

Canada by

a division

Van Nostrand Reinhold,


The

Number:

of

Ltd.

project presented or reported herein

was

per-

formed pursuant to a grant from the U.S. Office of


Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare. The opinions expressed herein, however, do
Education,

not necessarily reflect the position or policy of the


U.S. Office of Education, and no official endorsement

by the U.S. Office of Education should be

inferred.

The marriage of

electronics

and technology

is

creating

new demands

for

technical personnel in today's industries.

with combination

technical specialists.

many

devices of

optical
skills

New occupations have emerged


requirements well beyond the capability of many

skill

who work with systems and


mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, thermal, and

Increasingly, technicians

kinds

must be competent

also in electronics. This need for

especially significant for the youngster

is

in industrial

is

combination

preparing for a career

one of

who want

The most

pations.

is

technology.

This manual
for students

who

a series of closely related publications designed


the broadest possible introduction to technical occu-

effective use of these

manuals

as

is

combination textbook-

laboratory guides for a full-time, post-secondary school study program


that
provides parallel and concurrent courses in electronics, mechanics,
physics,

mathematics, technical writing, and electromechanical applications.

unique feature of the manuals

in this series is

technical laboratory study with mathematics

topic

is

the close correlation of

and physics concepts.

studied by use of practical examples using

modern

Each

industrial applica-

The reinforcement obtained from multiple applications of the concepts


has been shown to be extremely effective, especially for students
with widely
tions.

diverse educational backgrounds.

Experience has shown that typical junior

college or technical school students can

make

satisfactory progress in a well-

coordinated program using these manuals as the primary instructional material.

School administrators

will

be interested

in

the potential

of these

manuals to support

programs

instrumentation, automation, mechanical design,


This form of technical core program has the advantage

in

such fields

or quality assurance.

common

first-year

core of studies for two-year

as:

of reducing instructional costs without the corresponding decrease


power so frequently found in general core programs.

in

holding

This manual, along with the others

in the series, is the result of six years


of research and development by the Technical Education
Research Centers,

Inc.,

(TERC),

a national nonprofit, public service

quarters in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

corporation with head-

has undergone a

number of revisions
as a direct result of experience gained with
students in technical schools and

community

It

colleges throughout the country.

Maurice W. Roney

///

The Electromechanical Series

TERC

is

engaged

cal Technology.

The

an on-going educational program in Electromechanifollowing titles have been developed for this program:
in

INTRODUCTORY
ELECTROMECHAN ISMS/ MOTOR CONTROLS
ELECTROMECHANISMS/DEVICES
ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

ELECTRONICS/ELECTRICITY

MECHANISMS/DRIVES

MECHANISMS/LINKAGES
UNIFIED PHYSICS/FLUIDS
UNIFIED PHYSICS/OPTICS

ADVANCED
ELECTROMECHAN ISMS/AUTOMATIC CONTROLS
ELECTROMECHAN ISMS/SERVOMECH AN ISMS
ELECTROMECHAN ISMS/FABRICATION
ELECTROMECHAN ISMS/TRANSDUCERS
ELECTRONICS/COMMUNICATIONS
ELECTRONICS/DIGITAL

MECHANISMS/MACHINES

MECHANISMS/MATERIALS
For further information regarding the
its

EMT

program or for assistance

in

implementation, contact:
Technical Education Research Centers, Inc.

44

Brattle Street

Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138

iv

Preface

Technology by

its

very nature

such, the laboratory portion of

This instructional material

is

is

As

a laboratory-oriented activity.

any technology program

is

vitally

important

intended to provide meaningful experience

electronic amplifier analysis for students of

The topics included provide exposure

in

modern technology.
basic principles of solidstate

to:

devices, amplifier circuits and applications.

The sequence of presentation chosen

is

by no means

may choose

expected that individual instructors

inflexible.

It is

to use the materials

in

other than the given sequence.

The

particular topics chosen for inclusion in this

primarily for convenience and

economy

of materials.

volume were selected

Some

instructors

may

wish to omit some of the exercises or to supplement of them to better

meet

their local needs.

The

many

materials are presented

sociated with a laboratory manual.

1.

an action-oriented format combining

in

of the features normally found

in a

An INTRODUCTION which
and often includes

2.

A DISCUSSION

3.

A MATERIALS

textbook with those usually

as-

Each experiment contains:


identifies the topic to

be examined

a rationale for doing the exercise.

which presents the background, theory, or techniques needed to carry out the exercise.
list

which

identifies

all

of the items needed

in

the laboratory experiment. (Items usually supplied by the student

such as pencil and paper are normally not included


4.

A PROCEDURE

which

presents

performing the experiment.


are

In

step-by-step

in

the

lists.)

instructions for

most instances the measurements

done before calculations so that all of the students can at


finish making the measurements before the laboratory

least

period ends.
5.

An ANALYSIS GUIDE which

offers suggestions as to

student might approach interpretation of the data

draw conclusions from


6.

PROBLEMS

in

how

the

order to

it.

are included for the purpose of reviewing the rein-

forcing the points covered

in

the exercise.

The problems may be

of the numerical solution type or simply questions about the


exercise.

Laboratory report writing forms an important part of the learning


encourprocess employed in this manual. Consequently, students should be
aged to write at least a brief report for each exercise performed.
the
Students should be encouraged to study the test material, perform
on
report
technical
a
submit
and
problems,
experiment, work the review
an understanding
each topic. Following this pattern, the student can acquire
of,

and

skill

For

the job.
in a

with, basic amplifier circuits that will be extremely valuable on


best results, these students should be concurrently enrolled

course

in

technical mathematics (Introductory Calculus).

series of volumes
This material on basic amplifiers comprises one of a
at Oklahoma
staff
EMT
TERC
the
prepared for technical students by

Tinnell.
University, under the direction of D.S. Phillips and R.W.
principal author of this particular material was R.W. Tinnell.

State

The

An

Instructor's

Data Book

available

is

for

use with this volume.

and comMr. Kenneth F. Cathey was responsible for testing the materials
TERC
the
of
members
Other
piling the instructor's data book for them.
staff

madevvaluable contributions

in

the form of criticisms, corrections,

and suggestions.
It

this

is

sincerely

series,

the

materials will

hoped that

instructor's

make the study

this

data

volume
books,

as well as the other

and

volumes

in

the other supplementary

of technology interesting and rewarding for

both students and teachers.

THE TERC EMT STAFF

TO THE STUDENT
Duplicate data sheets for each experiment are provided

in

the back of

the book. These are perforated to be removed and completed while performThey may then be submitted with the experiment
ing each experiment.
analysis for your instructor's examination.

vi

Contents

experiment

experiment

experiment

experiment

experiment

DIODE CHARACTERISTICS

experiment

experiment

HALF-WAVE POWER SUPPLIES


FULL-WAVE POWER SUPPLIES
BIPOLAR TRANSISTOR, OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS
FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR, OUTPUT
CHARACTERISTICS
TRANSISTOR INPUT CHARACTERISTICS
TRANSISTOR LOADLINE ANALYSIS

experiment

BIASING

experiment

experiment 10

TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER, GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS


VACUUM TUBE CHARACTERISTICS

experiment

BIASING

1 1

AND

12
18

...

26
32
37

42

BIAS STABILITY

49
57

65

VACUUM TUBE

74

...

experiments

VACUUM TUBE

experiment 13

FET AMPLIFIER, GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS

90

experiment 14

SMALL-SIGNAL PARAMETERS

97

experiment 15

experiment 23

TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER SMALL-SIGNAL ANALYSIS


VACUUM TUBE AMPLIFIER SMALL-SIGNAL ANALYSIS
FET AMPLIFIER SMALL-SIGNAL ANALYSIS
AMPLIFIER COUPLING NETWORKS
MULTISTAGE AMPLIFIER GAIN
AMPLIFIER FREQUENCY RESPONSE
DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIERS
FEEDBACK PRINCIPLES
SINGLE STAGE FEEDBACK

experiment 24

SUMMING AMPLIFIERS

171

experiment 25

INTEGRATING AMPLIFIERS
CHOPPER MODULATORS

179

193

experiment 30

CHOPPER-MODULATED AMPLIFIERS
SINGLE-END POWER AMPLIFIERS
PUSH-PULL POWER AMPLIFIERS
AMPLIFIER TROUBLESHOOTING

Appendix

DEVICE CHARACTERISTICS

experiment 16

experiments
experiment 18
experiment 19
experiment 20
experiment 21
experiment 22

experiment 26
experiment 27
experiment 28
experiment 29

AMPLIFIER, GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS

vii

82

...

108

120

129
135
141

147

154
159
165

187

205
212
.

217

225

DIODE CHARACTERISTICS

experiment

INTRODUCTION. The
we

shall

examine the

simplest electronic device

DISCUSSION. The

essential characteristic of

an electronic diode

is

ferent characteristics
different directions.
nal

the fact that

it

+
+

in

MATERIAL

DEPLETION
REGION

the P-N junction diode, the avalanche

breakdown diode, and the thermionic high


vacuum diode.

The conductive

conductive materials

properties of so-called

(silver,

copper,

etc.)

acceptor and donor atoms

the region near

in

the junction tend to offset each other's effect


creating a region called the depletion region,

and

because

the insulating materials (mica, quartz, etc.).

of the

relative

absence of mobile

charge carriers (electrons or atoms with

in-

complete valence bands called "holes"). This


process can perhaps be better understood by

order to produce useful semiconduc-

tor devices, small, carefully controlled

P-N Junction of
Semiconductor Material

Fig. 1-1

"pure" semiconductors, such as germanium


and silicon, lay between those of the highly

In

N-TYPE

MATERIAL

sider the characteristics of only three types of

diodes:

P-TYPE

one direction than


experiment we shall con-

In this

characteristics are 'concerned, the diode

the other.

common use is the diode. In this experiment


common types of diodes.

has dif-

when electrons flow in


As far as electrical termi-

conducts more readily


in

in

basic terminal characteristics of three

amounts

observing that there will be more electrons

in

of impurities are added to silicon or germani-

the

um

of the doping process. Similarly, there will be

to produce "doped" semiconductors.

If

the impurity (called a donor) had more va-

N-type.

valence electrons).

Conversely,

if

in

the P-type material than

Conduction electrons

holes in the P-type material.

the im-

the junction, the


will

electrons than the base semiconductor, then

the depleted region.

is

Both

P-

imbalance

see that the P-type material near the junction


is

ductor material are joined together, as


in figure 1-1,

tion.

When

carriers

have a balancing effect, thereby creating

With the depletion region established, we

and N-type semi-

pieces of N-type and P-type semicon-

cated

the region of

in va-

conductor materials are electrically neutral.


If

In

called a P-type material

(P because of the positive

lence electrons).

the

the N-type

two types of charge

purity (called an acceptor) has fewer valence

the combination

in

in

material will drift toward the junction as will

be of the N-type (N for the negative imbalance


in

material than in the P material because

more holes

compared to the base matethen the doped semiconductor is said to

lence electrons
rial,

then

we have

depleted of holes and, therefore, appears to

be negatively charged, while the N-type mate-

indi-

rial

P-N junc-

is

depleted of electrons and, hence, ap-

pears positively charged.

the two materials are joined, the

The

barrier (or junc-

tion) potential created in this

manner

is

nor-

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT! DIODE CHARACTERISTICS

II

EXPANDED DEPLETION
REGION
Fig. 1-2

Reverse Biased P-N Junction

mally about 0.3 volts for a germanium device


and depends on the amount of doping and on

the diode, and the small circuit current

If

we apply

a potential across the device,

as described above, the result will be as indi-

cated

in

figure

Note the direction

1-2.

which the battery

is

in

connected, relative to P

and N ends of the device. With the battery


connected as shown, any conduction electrons
in the P-type material and any holes in the
N-type material

will

flow toward the junction,

expanding the depletion region


rier potential

The net

is

we now

reverse the battery, as

shown

elecin figure 1-3 (note the battery direction),


trons in the P-type material and holes in the
N-type material are drawn away from the

junction, thereby reducing the barrier potenof curtial and allowing a substantial amount
rent to flow across the junction.

This condi-

termed forward

The diode

tion

is

biasing.

current will be

until the bar-

across the junction

that of the battery.

called the reverse or leakage current.

the temperature of the device.

If

(l

is

very near

Q (e

39 E

(1.1)

circuit current

therefore be very small (usually about


10 //A in a typical diode) and relatively constant. This condition is called reverse biasing

will

(assuming the diode temperature to be 20C).


This equation

reasonably accurate for either

forward or reverse bias provided that E

is

Fig. 1-3

Forward Biased P-N Junction

is

EXPERIMENT

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

Fig. 1-4

DIODE CHARACTERISTICS

Diode Volt-Ampere Characteristic

taken to be positive for forward bias and nega-

lanche or zener breakdown and diodes them-

tive for reverse bias.

selves are called

A
shown

sketch of the plot of equation 1.1


in figure 1-4.

this point that

if

sufficiently, the
larly, if

It

diode

will

is

is

down

diodes break

of the diode and

increased

break down. Simi-

zener diode

increased sufficiently,

its

The

manufacture.
is

is

called the zener voltage

value can be controlled

breakdown

across the diode

is

is

achieved,

constant

and independent of the current flow.

forward current.

possible to destroy a zener diode

power
Returning to figure

1-2,

if

we

down

increase

dissipation,

in

useful characteristic of a

that after

the voltage (E

the diode junction can be destroyed by excessive

which zener

reverse bias voltage at

is

should be observed at

the reverse bias

forward bias

The

zener diodes.

It

is

by excessive

but otherwise the break-

process does not

damage

it.

the reverse bias to a relatively high value, elec-

trons

in

the P-type material (and holes

in

the
It

N-type material)
velocities as

will

be -accelerated to high

they move toward the junction.

Under such conditions, it is possible to knock


valence electrons loose from their parent atoms

in

is

not valid

when the diode

breakdown mode.

is

For practical

determined exclusively by the resistance

ef-

fectively in series with the diode.

even more carriers into conduction. This pheis

1.1

operating

is

tends to avalanche as one carrier knocks several


others into conduction and they in turn knock
or other similar ones

equation

purposes, the diode current after breakdown

and force them into conduction. This process

nomenon

should be noted at this point that

Figure 1-5 shows the schematic symbols

used to represent the P-N junction diode, the

called ava-

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT! DIODE CHARACTERISTICS

K J

HIGH VACUUM

Schematic Symbols for Various Diodes

Fig. 1-5

diode discussed below. The

letter

space charge

vacuum

zener diode, and the thermionic high

included

ZENER

JUNCTION

P-N

only for clarification and do not

first

If

thermionic high vacuum diode

who

unto

itself

space charge electrons and force

it

sive,

repel the

them
is

closer

non-emis-

We

no current flows through the diode.

therefore consider a negative plate potential

1905.

in

Since the plate

to the cathode.

developed the diode as a device

and patented

non-

a voltage to the

on the plate tends to

tive potential

built

ever,

we now apply

emissive plate electrode (iron or nickel), with


the polarity shown in figure 1-6(a), the nega-

about 1884 by Thomas Edison in


conjunction with the development of the incandescent lamp. ItwasJ.A. Fleming, how-

was

said to be at thermal equilib-

rium.

symbols are

usually appear with the symbols.

The

is

(with respect to the cathode) to be a reverse


bias.

The thermionic high vacuum diode is


composed of an evacuated envelope (usually

On

of glass) which contains a cathode capable of

emitting electrons

when

the other hand,

versed, as

heated; a filament to

shown

plate

positive

in

potential

heat the cathode, and an anode (or plate) to

charge

electrons

collect the emitted electrons.

diode.

Figure 1-6(b)

if

the battery

attracts

space

the

and current flows


is

re-

is

1-6(b), then the

figure

in

the

therefore the forward-

biased condition.

The operation

of a

vacuum diode can


As the plate electrode becomes more
and more positive, greater numbers of spacecharged electrons are drawn to it. As elec-

perhaps best be understood by considering


the cathode action with no potential applied
Let us presume that the filament

to the plate.
is

being supplied with

heating the cathode.

its

rated

power and

The cathode

is

trons flow out of the space charge toward the

is

plate, the

coated

attempt to restore thermal equilibrium.

with a thermoemissive material such as barium


or strontium oxide.

As the cathode heats

this coating emits electrons into the

space around the cathode structure.


sult of these

the point

up,

can no

evacuated

As

space charge

sufficiently great that

it

At

where the cathode

longer replace the electrons leaving the

plate as rapidly as they are emitted.


this

repels

any additional emitted electrons back into the


cathode surface coating.

an

elec-

trons flow directly from the cathode to the

This process continues until the


is

finally reached

completely neutralized by the plate and

in

the region of the cathode becomes charged


negatively.

is

in

When

space charge, then the space charge becomes

a re-

emitted electrons, the space

cathode emits more electrons

last

saturated.

condition

say that the diode

This condition rarely occurs

normal operation of

this point the

we

Under

a diode.

is

in

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT! DIODE CHARACTERISTICS

II

CATHODE

CATHODE

PLATE

PLATE

SPACE CHARGE
REGION
(A)

SPACE CHARGE
REGION

REVERSE BIAS

(B)

Fig. 1-6

Current Flow in a

Based on the above discussion, it should


be apparent that the volt-ampere characteristic

of a thermionic high

much

like that of a

vacuum diode

ly

However,

avoided as

it

very

resistor does.

shown

is

Referin fig-

ure 1-7, the static resistance at any point (P)

may

be determined by
(1.2)

sufficient-

this condition should

The dynamic

be

may

physically damages the diode.

resistance,

on the other hand,

be approximated at point P by

AE

the forward-biased direction, a diode

Al

has both a static and dynamic resistance just

Fig. 1-7

any other nonlinear

vacuum diodes

negative plate potential

high.

In

in

Vacuum Diode

ring to the diode characteristic

P-N junction.

Breakdown does occur

when the

is

as

FORWARD BIAS

Determination of Static and Dynamic Resistance

(1.3)

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT! DIODE CHARACTERISTICS

In

the case of solid-state (semiconductor)

static

and dynamic plate resistance (R

most cases the vacuum diode

diodes, the values are referred to as the static

rp).

and dynamic forward resistance and the sym-

ances will be from 200

Rq

bols

and r^ are frequently used.

vacuum diode the two

For

In

solid-state diodes

and

resist-

2000 ohms while


be more like 2 to

to

tend to

200 ohms.

values are called the

MATERIALS
1

Variable

VOM

DC power

supply (0

(volt-ohm meters) or

40V)

FEM

(field effect

meters)

220-ohm

Silicon diode type

resistor

1N914

Zener diode type 1N3018B or equivalent

Vacuum diode type 6AX5GT

or equivalent

6.3V filament power supply


Octal tube socket with mounting board

or equivalent

PROCEDURE
1.

Using the silicon diode, assemble the circuit shown

in figure 1-8.

R = 220J2

1
VARIABLE
DC
SUPPLY

Fig. 1-8

2.

-&J

220-ohm

resistor.

DC

supply

(See Fig.

1-

10,

in

1/2-volt increments

3.

Also record the circuit current (Iq = Ep/R) and the diode voltage Eq.

4.

Return the variable

5.

Repeat steps 2 and

6.

Replace the silicon diode with the zener diode and repeat steps 2 through

7.

Connect the

8.

Repeat steps 2 through

9.

On

circuit

DC

0.

On

and record the

Data Tables, pages 8-11.)

supply to zero and reverse the diode

in

the circuit.

3.

shown

a single sheet of

5.

in figure 1-9.

5.

graph paper, plot the silicon diode volt-ampere characteristic using

your measured data.


1

DIODE

The First Experimental Circuit

Starting at zero volts, adjust the variable

voltage across the

SILICON

the same sheet of graph paper, plot equation 1.1.

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT! DIODE CHARACTERISTICS

Ft

= 220n

AAAr

VARIABLE
DC
SUPPLY

rr

NC

6AX5GT

The Second Experimental Circuit

Fig. 1-9

11.

On

on a

second sheet of graph paper, plot the volt-ampere characteristic of

all

three diodes

single set of axes.

ANALYSIS GUIDE.

In analyzing these data

to the plot of equation 1.1.

Similarly,

you should compare the silicon diode characteristic


compare the characteristic curve of each diode to the

other two. Discuss any similarities and differences between the


curves.

PROBLEMS
1.

Compute the
diode current

2.

3.

4.

and dynamic resistance of each diode at the points where the


20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mA.

static
is

On a third sheet of graph paper plot curves of the static and dynamic resistance
(on
the vertical axis) versus current (on the horizontal axis).
Write a brief comparison of the resistance characteristics of
the three diodes.
Plot the silicon diode curve

on a sheet of similog graph paper.

different

from the plot on

5.

Describe

in

6.

Repeat problem 5 for a vacuum diode.

linear

paper?

your own words how a semiconductor diode works.

Why

does

it

look

EXPERIMENT

DIODE CHARACTERISTICS

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

Silicon Diode

Reverse

Silicon

Biased

Diode

Forward Biased

Fig.

1-10

The Data Tables

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

Fig.

1-10

EXPERIMENT

The Data Tables (Cont'd)

DIODE CHARACTERISTICS

EXPERIMENT! DIODE CHARACTERISTICS

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

Vacuum Diode

Vacuum Diode

Reverse Biased

Forward Biased

Fig.

1-10

The Data Tables


10

f Cont'd)

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT

Silicon

In (mA)

Diode Resistance

nD

r
r

20
40

60
80
100

Zener Diode Resistance

D (mA)

20

40

60
80
100

Vacuum Diode
lp

(mA)

Resistance

20

40

Fig.

1-10

The Data Tables (Cont'd)


11

DIODE CHARACTERISTICS

experiment

some type of DC power supply. The


types of DC supplies are the battery pack (one or more batteries) and the AC
experiment we shall examine the operating principles of one kind of AC recti-

INTRODUCTION.
two most common
In this

rectifier.

HALF-WAVE POWER SUPPLIES

Virtually

all

electronic circuits require

fier circuit.

DISCUSSION.

In

ternating current

many
is

where an electronic

cases a supply of

available
circuit

is

at

AC

perform

to a direct current.
conversion

this

in

the load

is

simply the average of the current taken over

location

one complete

The

to operate.

problem then becomes to convert the


able

The DC current that flows

al-

This current can be

cycle.

found by determining the area under the load

avail-

current curve for a complete cycle.

Circuits used to

this

are called rectifier

we

If

we do

will find that

circuits.

The most elementary

the halfwave diode rectifier shown


2-1.
in

The diode

(D-|) allows

(2.1)

rectifier circuit

current

is

in figure

(i)

to flow

And

since the

DC

load voltage

is

only one direction through the load resistor

During alternate half cycles, the diode

(R).

back-biased and no current can flow. As a

during one half of the input cycle, as seen


figure 2-2.

perfect,
finite
will

it

we have

flows through the load only

current

sult,

E DC" 'dC R

is

re-

If

we assume

that the diode

in
is

(2.2)

has zero forward resistance and

in-

back resistance, then the load current

We should observe at this

be

quantities

m
1

reality
sin cot

ode.

E DC

we never have

completely perfect

di-

of \qq and
than that pre-

will

always be slightly

less

A A
^
RESISTANCE
LOAD

VOLTAGE

*fc

DC
OUTPUT
VOLTAGE
dc>

(e)

t
Fig. 2-1

in

In actual practice, the values

AC

point that these

approximate because

dicted by equations 2.1 and 2.2 respectively.

during the nonconducting half cycle.

INPUT

are only

Basic Halfwave Rectifier

12

EXPERIMENT 2 HALF-WAVE POWER SUPPLIES

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

CURRENT

As we see from the equations

DC

the value of the

Consequently,

given above,

voltage and current de-

pends on the peak value of the


age.

Input Voltage and Load Current

2-2

Fig.

it

is

AC

common

AC

Figure 2-3 shows a halfwave rectifier

operated from a

17-volt

60-Hz

line

and using

is

the

peak

desired

As can be seen

secondary

in figure 2-2,

the

DC

volt-

age and current are by no means constant


quantities.
pulses.

DC

transformer input.

We

Em

input voltpractice to

use a transformer to establish the desired


level.

where
voltage.

is

In

They occur
most

in

the form of 60-Hz

practical circuits, such

not satisfactory.

It is,

pulsed

therefore, usual

practice to use a filter to convert the output

would, of course, choose the trans-

to a

more constant

level.

former to have a turns ratio of

ISL

0.707 E.
"m
117

The simplest type of


shunt capacitor, as shown in

117V rms
60 Hz

Fig.

2-3

Halfwave Rectifier with Transformer Input

single

figure 2-4.

When

filter

is

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT2 HALF-WAVE POWER SUPPLIES

the diode

is

2-4

Fig.

Halfwave Rectifier with Capacitor Filter

to a potential approximately equal to E

When

the voltage across the load decreases

below the value of E m

then the capacitor

discharges through the load, thereby tending

to hold the load voltage constant.

shows

Figure 2-5

voltage across the load (and the capac-

compared to the input

itor)

Unfortunately,

conducting, the capacitor charges

Notice that load voltage


constant than

it

is

AC

if

we make C

larger

and

larger, then we must provide more and more


peak charging current. This peak charging

current must flow through the diode, and

we

eventually reach a point at which the diode

damaged.
filter is

As

result,

is

the single capacitor

not frequently used

in

actual practice.

voltage.

now more

A much

nearly

was without the capacitor

work shown

more

practical filter

is

the

it

net-

in figure 2-6.

filter.

In this case,

The amount

of drop

in

load voltage de-

pends on the time constant of R and C.


the time constant

is

If

very long compared to

in

two

steps,

the filtering

and the diode

excessive charging current


tors R<|

is

is

accomplished

protected against

by the

series resis-

and R2-

the time of one input cycle, then the load


voltage will be quite constant and equal to

We

can, of course, lengthen the time

constant by making either R or


a practical case, however,

or

less

increase

fixed;

is

larger.

usually

and the only alternative

In

more
is

waveform across C<| would


be about the same as that shown in figure 2-5
(as load voltage) and the voltage across the

The

load

2-5

would be even smoother.

to

to provide a long time constant.

Fig.

voltage

Shunt Capacitor

In

some

Filtering

cases, the load current

Action

is

high

EXPERIMENT 2 HALF-WA VE POWER SUPPLIES

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

vwO

A^JK

-AAAr

R,

117V
60 Hz

Fig.

2-6

Halfwave Rectifier with

ir

Filter

vw

S
117V
60 Hz

Fig.

2-7

Halfwave Rectifier with

LC Filter

117V
60 Hz

Fig.

2-8

Halfwave Rectifier with

enough that the voltage drop across R2

is

R2 may

be

prohibitively high.

In

such a case,

The

high impedance for


relatively

low

DC

filter

AC

choke provides

seen

choke

resistance.

Such

tering

action.

When even

figure

(L<|)

unnecessary.

a filter,

finer filtering

in

is

choke may be included,

2-8.

When

included,

it

is

this input filter

Each LC pair

called an L-Section;

and

L-j C^j

in

more than two sections may be

filis

15

as

also provides over-

current protection for the diode, making

ripple while having a

while being expensive, provides very good

L-Section Filters

required, a second

replaced with an inductor called a filter choke,


as in figure 2-7.

Two

R<|

and L2C2)

extreme
used.

cases,

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 2 HALF-WAVE POWER SUPPLIES


MATERIALS
0V 220V CT)
type 1N914 or equivalent

Power transformer

Silicon diode,

Substitution box (0

220-ohm 2W

2 10

jtiF,

1 1

100 kft 2W)

FEMorVOM

Oscilloscope

Variable transformer (0

130V)

4 Sheets of linear graph paper

resistor

600W VDC

capacitors

PROCEDURE
1

Assemble the circuit shown

in

figure 2-9. Set the resistance

box for

MAXIMUM

resistance.

DIODE

VARIABLE TRANSFORMER

AkjK

<5>

OSCILLOSCOPE

RL

RESISTANCE
SUBSTITUTION

BOX

TRANSFORMER

2-9

Fig.

2.

First

Experimental Circuit

Set the input voltage for a transformer secondary voltage of


of E m

3.

The

in

50V

peak.

Record the value

the data table, figure 2-10.

Set the resistance substitution box for a

DC

load current of about 5

mA. Record

the

value of R|_.
4.

a sketch of the transformer secondary voltage

Make

waveform, then move the oscilloIndicate the amplitude and

scope to the load and sketch the load voltage waveform.


period of each part of the waveform.
5.

6.

7.

Measure and record the value of the

DC

load voltage E DC

Using the appropriate equations from the discussion with the values of E m and R L
compute and record Iqq and E D q.

Connect the 220-ohm


meter

in

figure 2-9.

diode current.

resistor in series with the

The

diode

voltage across this resistor

is

in

the position occupied by the

now

directly proportional to the

View the diode current waveform and sketch

it.

Indicate period and

amplitude.
8.

Connect one of the 10

9.

Add

fiF capacitors across

a second capacitor

(making the

the load resistor and repeat steps 4, 5, and

total filter capacitance equal to

steps 4, 5, and 7.

16

20

juF),

7.

and repeat

EXPERIMENT2 HALF-WAVE POWER SUPPLIES

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

10.

1 1

Move one of the capacitors to the other


work filter.
View the waveforms

220-ohm

resistor

forming a

tt

net-

across:

(a)

the transformer secondary

(b)

the input

(c)

the load resistance.

filter

side of the

capacitor

Sketch each of these waveforms.


12.

Measure and record the load voltage E q for each


D

Circuit Values With

Em

RL

No

ANALYSIS GUIDE.

10juF

20juF

7T

Filter

Filter

Filter

Filter

E DC

dc

Meas

Comp

Fig.

circuit.

E DC
Comp

2-10

E DC

E DC

E DC

Meas

Meas

Meas

The Data Table

In analyzing the results of this

the accuracy with which the equations given

in

experiment, you should be concerned about

the discussion predicted the unfiltered output of

Also consider the extent to which the discussion of

the rectifier.

filter

action was confirmed by

the results.

PROBLEMS
1.

certain halfwave rectifier has an input voltage of

168 sin 377t and a load of 10k


ohms. What would be the approximate values of E q and
D
D q if:
I

a)

the output were unfiltered?

b)

the output

is

filtered

AC voltage. The time


2.

3.

What would be the

effect

by

a single

constant

on E DC

if

a)

appreciable forward resistance?

b)

Draw

is

80

juF capacitor?

(Assume Eq C = the peak

RC.)

the diode

in

problem

had:

back resistance of the same order of magnitude as R ?


L
circuit

diagrams showing

how

halfwave rectifier can be used to produce:

a)

a positive

output voltage.

b)

a negative

output voltage.

c)

both a positive and a negative output simultaneously.

17

exoerimen

FULL-WAVE POWER SUPPLIES

INTRODUCTION. The full-wave electronic power supply


AC to DC converter. In this experiment we shall examine

is

perhaps the most popular type of

the operation of two basic full-wave

rectifier circuits.

DISCUSSION. Let us
of the circuit shown in
If

we apply

consider the operation

(having zero forward resistance and infinite

figure 3-1

back resistance) and the instantaneous polar-

shown

to the primary of the transformer, then the

(e<|,

D2
= E
m

we

will

D2

On

cannot.

e<|

and ^2

the alternate half

through

flows
is

common

^e

(e<|

contact to the load,

the

through the

upward through

the load to point A, then through

back to the transformer winding.

sequently, e2 will be

current flows through D<|


e 2 = "e 1 = "E
m

D<|,

from the upper half

of the transformer secondary

The

w '"

current

complete current path

that they are 180 degrees out of phase. Con-

D<|

and

Since no

on the alternate

half of the input cycle, the current waveform

sin a?t

through

we

can con-

can.

When

have a similar voltage,

main difference between

If

D<|

sin cot

Across the other half of the secondary winding

then diode

of the input cycle, D<| cannot conduct but

for example) will be


e-|

secondary winding to be as

in figure 3-1,

duct and

voltage across one-half of the secondary winding

across the

ity

60-Hz sinusoidal voltage

consider the diodes to be ideal

D<| will

The input

AC

appear as shown

waveform

is

also

in figure 3-2.

shown

for pur-

poses of comparison.

117V rms
60 Hz

Fig. 3-1

Basic Full-Wave Rectifier Circuit

Fig.

18

7T

3-2

2tt

3jt

The Current Through Diode Dj

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS
On

EXPERIMENT 3 FULL-WAVE POWER SUPPLIES

the alternate half of the input cycle,

cannot conduct but D can. During this


2
half cycle, current flows from the lower half
D<|

of

the

transformer secondary through the

ground (common) system to the load, up


through the load to point A, through D and
2
back to the transformer secondary. The current

waveform through D 2

input voltage

is

shown with the

in figure 3-3.

Since both diode currents flow through


the load in the same direction, the load current

waveform

will

be the combination of the

diode currents, as shown

in figure 3-4.

3-3

Fig.

Fig.

3-4

The Current Through Diode

D2

The Load Current

Each of the half-cycle load current pulses


will

be sinusoidal

(if

the diodes are perfect),

and we can find the average


by using

DC

(3.2)

load current

In actual practice the


a " perfect;

(3.T)

and

diodes will not be

as a result, the load voltage

current will be slightly

less

and

than the values pre-

dicted by equations 3.2 and 3.1, respectively.

Now

since the

DC
C

load voltage

DC

is

As can be seen

DC n L

age

quantities.

we

see that

pulses.

19

in figure 3-4,

the

DC

volt-

and current are by no means constant


In

They occur
most

in

the form of 120-Hz

practical circuits, such

pulsed

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 3 FULL-WA VE POWER SUPPLIES

117V
60 Hz

Fig.

DC

is

not satisfactory.

Fullwave Rectifier with Shunt Capacitor Filter

3-5
It is,

shows voltage across the load (and the capac-

therefore, usual

practice to use a smoothing filter to convert

the output to a

more constant

compared to the input

itor)

Notice that load voltage

level.

constant than

The

simplest type of

shunt capacitor, as shown


a

to

diode
a

When

is

single

in figure 3-5.

When

filter

is

AC

voltage.

now more

nearly

was without the capacitor

filter.

The amount

conducting, the capacitor charges

potential approximately equal to E

it

is

of drop

in

load voltage de-

pends on the time constant of R L and

the time constant

the voltage across the load decreases be-

is

C.

If

very long compared to

dis-

the time of one input cycle, then the load

charges through the load, thereby tending to

voltage will be quite constant and equal to

low the value of E m then the capacitor


,

hold the load voltage constant.

Figure 3-6

Em

We

can, of course, lengthen the time

FILTERED DC VOLTAGE

^UNFILTERED

DC PULSES

2tt

AC INPUT
VOLTAGE

^y
Fig.

3-6

Shunt Capacitor

20

Filtering

Action

EXPERIMENT 3 FULL-WAVE POWER SUPPLIES

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

constant by making either R or


practical case, however,
less

fixed;

crease

usually

is

and the only alternative

tering

In a

larger.

more or
to

is

accomplished

is

steps,

and the

diodes are protected against excessive charging


<|.

to provide a long time constant.

Unfortunately,

then

if

we must

peak-charging

we make C

and

larger

current.

This peak-charging

the single capacitor

quently used

filter

is

not

work shown

In

some

cases, the load current

hibitively high.

fre-

In

such a case, R^

placed with an inductor called a

practical filter

in figure 3-7.

and the voltage across

enough that the voltage drop across

in actual practice.

more

is

the

7r

relatively

fil-

low

DC

-VSAr

TO THE
FULLWAVE
RECTIFIER

3-7

ir

Type

Filter Circuit

TO THE
FULLWAVE
RECTIFIER

Fig.

3-8

The

high impedance for

net-

In this case, the

Fig.

3-6

the load would be smoother.

as in figure 3-8.

A much

would

C<|

in figure

we

As

excessive current.

waveform across

(as the load voltage),

eventually reach a point at which the diodes

may be damaged by

voltage

be about the same as that shown

provide more and more

current m.ust flow through the diodes, and

result,

two

current by the series resistor, R

in-

The
larger,

in

Filter with

21

an Inductor

filter

is

R<| is

may

filter

high
pro-

be

re-

choke,

choke provides

AC ripple

resistance.

while having a

Such

a filter,

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 3 FULL-WA VE POWER SUPPLIES

TO THE
FULLWAVE

nsw^|_j

RECTIFIER

3-9

Double L-Section

3-10

Fullwave Bridge Rectifier

Fig.

Filter

117V
60 Hz

Fig.

When

while expensive, provides very good filtering


action.
a

When

When

figure 3-9.
is

even better filtering

second choke may be included,


included,

it

this input filter

is

ondary polarity

required,

(L<|)

also provides overcurrent pro-

tection for the diode,

making

R<|

unnecessary.

Each LC pair (L 1 C 1 and l_2C 2 ) is called an


L-section; and in extreme cases, more than

two

sections

may

circuit cur-

D4

to the top

of the transformer.

of the small disadvantages of the


in figure 3-1

is

requires a center-tapped transformer.

alternate fullwave rectifier circuit

not require such a transformer


ure 3-10.

shown, the

be used.

fullwave rectifier shown


it

as

load to point A, then through

On
One

is

from the lower end of the transformer through D 2 to ground. (D3 cannot
conduct because it is reverse biased.) From
ground, the current flows upward through the
rent flows

as seen in

choke

the instantaneous transformer sec-

This circuit

is

is

D3 and back

that

An

to the transformer.

the load current waveform

which does

shown

the alternate half of the input cycle,

current flows through D-j, the load (upward),

is

As

a result,

the same as with

the other fullwave circuit.

in fig-

The same types of

called a Fullwave

filter circuits are

used

with both types of fullwave rectifier circuits.

Bridge Rectifier

22

<

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENTS FULL-WAVE POWER SUPPLIES

MATERIALS
Variable transformer (0

130V)

0/220V CT)
4 Diodes, type 1N914 or equivalent
1

Transformer

10mF,600W VDC

200ft resistor

1 1

capacitors

Resistance substitution box (0

FEMorVOM

Oscilloscope

100 kft 2W)

2 Sheets of linear graph paper

2W

PROCEDURE
1.

Assemble the

2.

Adjust the input for 10 volts rms (AC) across one-half of the transformer secondary,

3.

Determine and record the value of E


m

circuit

shown

figure 3-11.

in

117V
60 Hz

D9

RESISTANCE
SUBSTITUTION

10k

BOX

VARIABLE TRANSFORMER

TRANSFORMER

Fig. 3- 1 1

4.

Using the appropriate equation

The
in

First Experimental Circuit

the discussion, compute and record E

5.

Measure and record the actual values of E


DC and

6.

With the oscilloscope, view the waveforms:

(a)

Across one-half of the transformer secondary

(b)

Across each diode

(c)

Across the load

DC

DC

and

DC

resistor.

Make an accurate sketch

of each

waveform showing

amplitude and phase

relative

relationships.
7.

Connect the oscilloscope across the load and watch the change
10 juF capacitor is connected across the load. Sketch the results.

8.

Add

a second

10

juF capacitor across the load,

waveform.

23

in

and sketch the

waveform

as a single

resulting load voltage

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 3 FULL-WAVE POWER SUPPLIES

9.

Insert a

220-ohm

resistor

between the two capacitors forming a

7r

section

filter,

and

sketch the load voltage waveform.


10.

Measure and record the values of E DC and

11.

Disassemble the

first

DC

with the

ir

filter in place.

experimental circuit and construct the circuit shown

in

figure 3-12.

DIODE
BRIDGE

<<

10k

RESISTANCE
SUBSTITUTION

BOX

VARIABLE TRANSFORMER

TRANSFORMER

Fig.

12.

3 12

The Second Experimental Circuit

Adjust the variable transformer for 10 volts rms across the transformer secondary and
repeat steps 3 through 10.

E DC
Ckt.

Em

(Comp)-

'dc
(Comp)

E DC

'dc

E DC

'dc

(Meas)

(Meas)

(Filter)

(Filter)

First

Second

Fig.

ANALYSIS GUIDE. The

3-13

The Data Table

purpose of this experiment has been to become familiar with the oper-

ation of fullwave rectifier circuits.

Toward

that end you should discuss in your

own words how

Moreover, you should discuss the amount of agreement between your pairs
of measured and computed values of E d q and Iqq. Explain why the differences you observed
such a circuit works.

seemed reasonable.

24

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENTS FULL-WAVE POWER SUPPLIES

PROBLEMS
1.

fullwave rectifier (bridge circuit)

to an electrostatic air cleaner.


line,

2.

What would have been the

4.

the system

results in

is

to operate from a 117

VDC

VAC, 60-Hz

ratio?

problem

if

a filter

which held the load voltage

were employed?

power supply (using 2 diodes only) operates from a


What would be the average current through a 780-ohm load

certain unfiltered fullwave

220 VAC, 60-Hz


if

to be used without a filter to supply 15k

what must be the transformer turns

at the value of E
3.

If

is

the transformer

line.
is

center-tapped and has a turns ratio (ISL/NJ of 4.0?

What would be the maximum

initial charging current if a single 100 juF capacitor


was attached to the power supply in problem 1? (Hint: Ignore the load and
assume that the ripple frequency is 120 Hz during the first full cycle of operation.
Also assume that the circuit resistance is close to zero.)
filter

25

BIPOLAR TRANSISTOR
OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS

/I

INTRODUCTION. The
this

experiment we

shall

transistor

is

the basic amplifying device used

examine the output terminal

in

characteristics of

electronic circuits.

two common

In

categories

of transistors.

DISCUSSION.

Transistors

may be

righthand junction (between the

classified

N and P

re-

gion marked base and collector, respectively)

two distinct categories: bipolar devices


which depend on the interaction of two types
into

is

we ignore the
moment, we see that

reverse-biased.

If

lefthand

the only

of charge carriers (holes and electrons), and

side for the

unipolar devices which depend on

current flowing across the base-collector junc-

single

type of charge carrier (holes or electrons).

tion

would be the

reverse current called

Iqq

in a transistor.

Bipolar transistors were


in

1948 and have

shown
bol

is

representation
in

of the

figure 4-1 (a).

shown

introduced

The lefthand junction (between the P


and N regions designated emitter and base re-

Let us consider the pic-

tion in electronics.
torial

first

since risen to a central posi-

PNP

transistor

spectively)

the base region

Notice that the

EMITTER

forward-biased and there

is

hole

flow from the emitter into the base region.

(The schematic sym-

in figure 4-1 (b).

is

BASE

is

very thin

COLLECTOR

iiof a

PNP

Fig. 4-1 (a)

Pictorial Representation

Fig. 4-1 (b)

Schematic Representation of PNP Transistor

26

Transistor

(it is

If

usually only

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 4 BIPOLAR CHARACTERISTICS

few microns thick in most transistors), then


most of the holes which enter the base region
a

(about

99%

swept on across the

usually) are

base-collector junction

or

Ir-t CO

and contribute to the

Only

collector current (Iq).

a small portion

of the emitter current (about 1%) flows in the

However, when Iqq

base circuit.

'c^'c " 'CO

PNP type

In th.e

is

very small compared to

t 'ien

'cJ'

we have

transistor, figure 4-1 (b),

the holes are considered the majority carriers.


It is

equally practical to produce a second

polar transistor using the

NPN

bi-

shown

in figure 4-2.

ence

that electrons are the majority carriers

is

and the supply


that of a

The only major

polarities

PNP type

(4.2)

configuration
differ-

are reversed

In

from

almost

tion

is

all

practical cases, this

approxima-

reasonably valid.

transistor, as are the cur-

rent flow directions.

Inspection of the transistor configuration


reveals that there are six possible circuit ar-

If

we

rents to be equal to

collector current

+pl^, then the

the

common

c =+a F

nection, and the co

E +

4-2

Pictorial

in

fig-

latter

mmon emitter connection.

connections are shown

4-3 and 4-4, respectively.

(4.1)

C0
EMITTER

Fig.

three most important are:

base connection shown

ures 4-1 and 4-2, the c ommon c ollector con-

total

is

These
l

The

rangements.

consider the portion of the emitter

current which contributes to the col lector cur-

BASE

COLLECTOR

and Schematic Representation of an

27

NPN

Transistor

in figures

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 4 BIPOLAR CHARACTERISTICS

NPN COMMON COLLECTOR

(A)

4-3

Fig.

(B)

Transistors in

Common

Collector Configuration

III

M /WW COMMON EMITTER


Fig.

In

PNP COMMON COLLECTOR

any

case,

4-4

(B)

Transistors in

Common

bias current

Emitter Configuration

From the common emitter configuration


we see that

the output current and,

hence, the output voltage can be controlled

by controlling the forward

PNP COMMON EMITTER

on the

base side of the transistor.

The common emitter

circuit

is

by

far the

=
c+ e + b o
i

or

most frequently encountered circuit and will,


one dealt with further

therefore, be the only


in this

(fig-

u re 4-4),

'e =

-'c-

'b

experiment.
Substituting this quantity into equation 4.1

As indicated

in

equation 4.1, the collec-

tor current in a transistor

In

c = +a F E + C0
l

most modern

zero so

we can

renders

is

transistors

Iqq

is

And

very near

often use the approximation

= a
+ aF B +
F c

collecting

Iq

terms on

co
the

factoring

c -f"e

28

c (1 -a F )=a F B +l C0
l

left

and

EXPERIMENT 4 BIPOLAR CHARACTERISTICS

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

0O or h fe

or

ftp

"
i
r
C = -z1 -a IdB + 1-ap lm
CO
F

(4.3)7

^o

we
(Vq E

is

relatively constant;

will

above this value, the collector current depends

on the value of lg.


almost zero. So we have

directly
is

In

many

cases

fe

the transistor

common

in

Notice that at

mode
l

of operation.

= 0

//A, the collector

current depends on the term

Above
-

is

sometimes

this very small value Iq

linearly related to

called

emitter con-

Figure 4-5 shows a typical output

figuration.

characteristic for this

and the fraction p/1

g at

Ico^ 1
is

"

more or

a given value- of

= 60

mA
=

40juA

= 30 /iA

B
f

8 = 20 juA
10

mA
OjuA

L
5

V C (VOLTS

Fig.

4-5

Output

Characteristics,

Common

Emitter Configuration

MATERIALS
2 Variable

DC power supplies

(0

40V)

VOMsor FEMs

PNP

transistor, No.

NPN

transistor

2N1305 or equivalent
No. 2N1304 or equivalent

Transistor socket

2W

1k

33k 1/4W

resistor

2 Sheets of

29

resistor
linear

less

Vq E

60 juA

J4

we

have the output or collector characteris-

tics of

Iqq

TT^ = h

versus the collector current (Iq),

and

plot the collector to emitter voltage

If

For a particular transistor, the term on


the extreme right

graph paper

EXPERIMENT 4 BIPOLAR CHARACTERISTICS

Fig.

4-6

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

The Experimental Circuit

PROCEDURE
1

Construct the circuit shown

2.

in figure

4-6 using the

PNP transistor.

Measure and record the collector current (\q) for colof 0, -1, -2, -4, -6, -8, -10, -12, -14, -16, -18, and -20

Set the base current (lg) to zero.

(V CE )
Be very sure that the base current and

lector-to-emitter voltages
volts.

Repeat the procedure followed

3.

in

collector current values are read.

step 2 for base currents of 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120,

140, 160, 180, and 200/iA.

TRANSISTOR DATA
I

B 0*a)

20

40

60

'c

'c

80

100

120

140

'

160

180

200

'c

'c

'c

V CE
(volts)

'c

'c

0
-1

-2

-4
-6

-8

-10
-12

-14
-16
-18

-20

Fig.

4-9

The

First

30

Data Table

'c

EXPERIMENT 4 BIPOLAR CHARACTERISTICS

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

On

4.

teristic in

the

Repeat steps

5.

graph paper plot the output characteristics of the device. Plot the charac-

a sheet of

first

quadrant even though

through 4 using the

V CE

NPN

and c are negative


l

values.

Don't forget to reverse both power

transistor.

supplies.

TRANSISTOR DATA
l

(juA)

VCE

20

40

60

'c

'c

80

100

120

140

'c

'c

'c

160

180

'c

'c

200

'

(volts)

0
1

-2

-4
-6
-8

-10
-12

-14
-16

-18

-20
Fig.

ANALYSIS GUIDE.

The Second Data Table

4-10

In the analysis of these data

you should consider the extent to which your

output characteristics tend to verify the operation of the device as explained

To what

extent

is

How do

your curve similar to figure 4-5?

in

the discussion.

they differ?

PROBLEMS
1.

Using your curves, show

how

the value of

co

for the

PNP

transistor can be

determined,
2.

How can

3.

How

4.

How did

the value of

aF

for the

PNP

transistor be determined

does ap compare between the two transistors?


the

two

sets of curves

compare?

31

from your curves?

experiment

DUCT, N T
!hiIi
? we
th.s experiment
-

e transistor

shall

FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR

is

OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS

the bas * amplifying device used

examine the output terminal

gories of transistors, the field effect


transistor.

DISCUSStON.
into

two

Transistors

may

distinct categories:

be classified

bipolar devices

which depend on the interaction of


two types
of charge carriers (holes and electrons),
and
unipolar devices which depend

on a

single

type of charge carrier (holes or


electrons).

The type of
in

this

Electrons entering the


(drain)

by the
no

ever, since

is

the unipolar type.

unipolar transistor

is a device which
depends
on only one carrier for its
operation. The
most commonly encountered unipolar

semi-

conductor device is the field effect


transistor
(FET). This is represented pictorial
ly in fig-

ure 5-1 and schematically

in figure 5-2.

We observe from the pictorial that the


junction (gate junction) is
reverse-biased.
Therefore, the only current flow
in gate circuit is the small reverse current
of the junction.
PN

Fig. 5- 1

Pictorial

comZ
common

In

cate
cate-

end of the dedrawn to the right end


left

positive potential (E
free carriers

may

DS ). How-

flow through

the depletion region around the gate


junction,
of the drain current (l ) must flow
through

all

transistor to be considered

electronic circuits

one of the

vice (the source) are

the channel region.

experiment

in

characteristics of

In a particular transistor

the length of the channel will be


fixed.

The

more

or less

cross-section of the channel will

depend on the size of the depletion region


and hence on the value of the gate bias.
The
channel

is a conductive material,
and its resistance will be directly related to
the length

of the channel and inversely related


to the
channel cross-section. In other words,
the resistance from source to drain
depends directly
on the value of the gate bias (E

GS ).

For a

given bias value, the drain current


will be

DS

'd-rT-

of an N-Channel

32

FET

(5.1)

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENTS FIELD EFFECT CHARACTERISTICS


by an amount equal to Alp, then
equation
becomes

'd

5.1

D + Al n

=-

l'

And

substituting g

and

calling

current

DS

(l

5-2

Schematic of an N-Channel

m E GS for AI D

D + AI D

(l'

D ), we

HhhU
Fig.

+ Al,

the

new

on the

right

total drain

have

DS

'D-9 m E GS +-p
From

FET

this equation

relatively constant,

We

(5.2)

we

observe that
then when E

QS

if
is

RD

is

zero,

can define the relationship between


a change in E
(AE
and the resulting
)

q ual E DS /R D and an V change of


from this value will be directly related to E

change

Figure 5-3 shows the output characteristics


of

QS

in

QS

(Alp) as follows:

'd wiN

fi

D
DS
l

such a device.
Al,

AE GS

= g
'm

It

important to notice that,

is

practical devices,

RD

in

most

only relatively constant over small ranges of change of


E
QS
E
and

or

is

AI D =

where g
m
tance

Now,

or
if

we

is

DS

9m AE GS

called the forward transadmit-

transconductance of the device.


allow the drain current to change

Many FETs have characteristics which


are not so linear as the ones shown
in figure
5-3.
Usually the spacing between the
lines

tends to increase as

increases.

'd

ImA)

Fig.

5-3

Common Source Output Characteristics N-Channel FET


33

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENTS FIELD EFFECT CHARACTERISTICS


So

far

we

hancement types are constructed a little diffrom the junction type discussed

have considered only the N-

channel FET. It is equally possible to produce a P-channel device. The operation is the
same, but the majority carriers are holes and
all of the potential polarities and current directions

are

reversed

from

those

ferently

above.

the

of

N-channel diode.
Also,

FET

in

we

type of construction

lar

FET

have concentrated on a type of

which the gate voltage

rent flow in the channel.

a device

or

MOSFET

In this

is

FET. A second type


enhancement type FET is also used.

electrically insulated

called an

rial.

Otherwise, the operation

is

very similar.

Enhancement type FETs may be of


the case of the depletion type.

is

either N-

channel or P-channel construction just as

The operation

necessary

insulation

is

in

is

much

the same as a

handling

juA.

Some

MOSFETs

very thin; so thin

can be destroyed

in

However, en-

is

from the channel mate-

reduced to about 0.0001

value of the drain current rather than limiting


it.

field effect transistor).

junction type FET, but the gate current

enhances the

this case the gate potential

the insulated-gate

type of construction, the gate region

called a depletion type

In

is

(the letters are for metal

oxide semiconductor

limits the cur-

Such

more recent and currently very popu-

as the gate

in fact

by touching

is

caution

that

it

the contacts

with the bare hands.

MATERIALS
2 Variable

DC power

supplies (0

VOMsor FEMs

N-channel, depletion type,

Type 40468

40V)

MOSFET,

or equiv.

Transistor socket

1k

2W

resistor

33k 1/4W

Sheet of linear graph paper

resistor

PROCEDURE
1.

Examine the

MOSFET

and identify the drain, source, and gate leads using figure

5-4.

Notice that the lead wires are twisted together (or otherwise short-circuited) to prevent
Before handling the MOSFET, be very sure
your body has not accumulated a high potential electrostatic charge. This can be avoided
by holding a bare grounding strap while handling the FET.
electrostatic

damage to the

gate insulation.

D=
G=

Fig.

2.

5-4

Drain, S = Source
Gate, B = Substrate and Case

40468 Lead Connections

Leaving the gate (G) and case (B) leads shorted, connect the source (S), drain (D),and gate
(G) leads in the circuit

shown

in figure 5-5.

connect the case lead (B) to the source.

34

Then unshort the

gate and case leads and

EXPERIMENTS FIELD EFFECT CHARACTERISTICS

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

Fig.

5-5

The Experimental Circuit

Set the gate voltage (Eq5> to -5 volts.

3.

drain-to-source voltages (E

DS

of 0,

Measure and record the drain current

1, 2, 4, 6, 8,

10, 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20

very sure that the gate and drain voltages are set to the prescribed values
of drain current

is

(l

for

volts.

when each

read.

FET DATA
E GS
(volts)

-5.0

-4.5

-4.0

-3.5

-3.0

-2.5

-2.0

-1.5

-1.0

-0. 5

-0.0

'D

'D

'd

'd

'd

'd

'd

'd

'd

'd

'd

E DS
(volts)

0
1

4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18

20
Fig.

5-6

The Data Table

35

Be

value

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENTS FIELD EFFECT CHARACTERISTICS


4.

5.

for gate voltages (E


QS of -4.5, -4.0, -3.5, -3.0,
Repeat the procedure followed in step 3
volts.
0.0
and
-2.5, -2.0, -1.5, -1.0, -0.5,
)

Return both power supplies to zero. Disconnect the FET case lead (B) from the source
(S) and twist it around the gate lead (G). Disconnect the drain, source, and gate leads

and twist them


6.

On

all

together.

Disassemble the remaining circuitry.

graph paper plot the output characteristics of the device. Plot the characthe first quadrant.

a sheet of

teristics in

ANALYSIS GUIDE. In the analysis of these data you should consider the extent to which your
output characteristics tend to verify the operation of the device as explained in the
discussion.
To what

extent

is

your curve similar to the one

in figure

5-3?

How do

they differ?

PROBLEMS
1.

Using your curves, show

Egg
2.

are

how

the value of

DS

can be approximated

known.

if

E DS and

How

can the value of g


m for the FET transistor be determined from your curves?
Does the part of the curve you use effect the value of
g ?

3.

What was the approximate

value of the

MOSFET

determine g .)
m
4.

What

region of the curve did

you use

in

problem 3?

36

used?

(Use your curves to

experiment

INTRODUCTION.

In

priate input currents.

important.

In this

any

TRANSISTOR INPUT
CHARACTERISTICS

practical application of transistors

For

it

is

necessary to supply appro-

this reason the input characteristics of various solid-state. devices are

experiment we

shall

examine the input

characteristics of typical bipolar and

unipolar devices.

DISCUSSION. There

of

are,

course,

possible transistor circuit configurations:

mon

three

depletion region to have approximately con-

com-

stant width in the following discussion of the

emitter.

common collector, and common


Since the common emitter configu-

ration

by

base,

is

tered, only

far the
it

will

be considered

emitter circuit shown

matic form

On

most frequently encoun-

Let us consider the

cussion.

input characteristics.

in

pletion region

in this dis-

NPN common

pictorial

the other hand, the base-collector de-

and sche-

"effective base

than

in figure 6-1.

its

actual

base width
If

the electrode voltages (V

BE and

V CE

The

in

re-

As a result the
somewhat narrower

is

width"

is

physical width (the physical

typically only a
in

few microns).

collector voltage

and effectively make the base region even

more narrow.

Any small change

base-emitter voltage will cause very small

change

We

bias.

wide due to the

widen the base-collector depletion region

will

base-

emitter depletion region will be quite narrow

because of the forward

relatively

Moreover, any increase

are constant, then the depletion regions at the

junctions will be of constant width.

is

verse bias of that junction.

As

a result of the reduced effective base

in

the width of that depletion region.

width, an electron passing from emitter to

shall,

therefore assume the base-emitter

base

EMITTER

-BASE

Fig. 6-1

is

even more likely to continue on to the

COLLECTOR

An NPN Common
37

Emitter Circuit

INPUT CHARACTERISTICS

EXPERIMENT 6

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

The

it was at a lower collecmore of the emitter current

collector region than

tor voltage. Since

above

tends to flow through the transistor to the


collector,

to flow

in

ical

is

NPN

overall result of the discussion given

reflected in figure 6-2

which

is

a typ-

transistor input characteristic.

there are fewer electrons available

the base circuit.

As

a result the

The voltages and currents would, of

base current tends to decrease with increasing


collector voltage, provided that

base voltage constant.

If,

we wish to maintain a
then we must increase
collector voltage

is

we hold

course, be reversed for a

Since the input characteristics of a tran-

constant base current,

sistor are essentially those

the base voltage as the

diode,
tively

However, an increase of one volt

from

2 volts causes a

much

Vq E

volt to

larger relative

Vq E

from about 1k to 10k ohms.

=
in

Vq E

If

we examine

the input circuit of a field

effect transistor circuit such as the

10 volts to Vq E = 11 volts. Consequently,


the required change in base voltage \snot lin-

in

figure 6-3,

istics

early related to the change in collector voltage.

we

see that the input character-

such they tend to be about 10

Typical

NPN

Transistor Input Characteristic

38

one shown

are those of a reverse-biased diode.

(ma)

6-2

of a forward-biased

we would expect them to present relalow ohmic values.


And indeed they

typically run

in col-

change

base width than does a change from

Fig.

type transistor.

on the other hand,

increased.

lector potential

PNP

the

ohms.

As

EXPERIMENT 6

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

Fig.

MOSFET

The

A Common Source

6-3

sistances (about 10
cases).

As

10

to 10

a result the

FET

15

ohms

in

re-

most

high input resistances.

when

presents relatively

dealing

On

the other hand,

with sources which

produce

small current changes (such as strain gages,

few input resistance problems.

etc.),

The

FET

come to is that where loading is a problem,


the FETs have the distinct advantage of very

having an insulated gate

junction tends to offer even higher input

N-Channel

INPUT CHA FtA CTERISTICS

overall conclusion that

the low input resistance of the transis-

tor offers a considerable advantage.

one should

MATERIALS
3

VOMsor FEMs

PNP transistor, type 2N1305 or equivalent


MOSFET, type 40468 or equivalent

1k resistor 1/2W

Transistor socket

33k

Sheet of linear graph paper

2 Variable

DC

supplies (0-

resistor 1/2

40V)

PROCEDURE
1.

Construct the circuit shown

in figure

6-4 using the

PNP

transistor.

DC mA

BOTTOM VIEW

METER

33k

DC
SUPPLY

2N1305

Fig.

6-4

The

First

Experimental Circuit

39

EXPERIMENTS

INPUT CHARACTERISTICS

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

2.

Set the collector voltage supply for a collector voltage of -1.0 volts.

3.

Measure and record the base-emitter voltage for base currents of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80,
100, 120, 140, 160, 180, and 200 mA. Be sure that the collector voltage remains constant at the prescribed value.

4.

Repeat step 3 for collector voltages of -2.5, -5.0, -5.5, -10.0, -12.5, -15.0, -17.5 and
-20.0 volts.

5.

On

6.

Disassemble the circuit shown in figure 6-3 and assemble the circuit shown in figure 6-4.
Observe the Appropriate Precautions to Prevent Electrostatic Damage to the Gate Insu-

a single sheet of graph paper plot the input characteristics of the transistor.

lation of the
7.

and the DC mA meter to its lowest range. Vary the gate


voltage from 0 to -5V and record any indication on the DC mA meter. Prepare a data
Set the drain voltage to +1

sheet
8.

MOSFET.

if

.0 volts

necessary.

Repeat step 7 for drain voltages of

5, 10, 15,

and 20

volts.

V CE
(volts)

<B
(ma)

1.0

5.0

10.0

12.5

20.0

v BE

vB e

V BE

V BE

vB e

20

40
60
80
100
120

140
160
180

200

Fig.

6-5

The Data Table

40

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

Fig.

Disassemble the

9.

Damage

6-6

circuit.

Observe the Appropriate Measures to Prevent Electrostatic

MOSFET.

In analyzing these data

scribed in the discussion.

INPUT CHARACTERISTICS

The Second Experimental Circuit

to the Gate Insulation of the

ANALYSIS GUIDE.
from the PNP

EXPERIMENT 6

compare the PNP

Explain the results you got with the

transistor results to those de-

FET and compare them

with those

transistor.

PROBLEMS
1

Calculate the approximate value of the static input resistance of the

PNP

Compute the range of the dynamic input

transistor.

2.

resistance of the PNP transistor.


the significance of dynamic resistance so far as a transistor is concerned?

3.

If

the input resistance of an

How does your

input curve for the

PNP

is

10 12 ohms, when would this become an im-

FET were

portant factor?
4.

What

transistor

41

compare to

figure 6-2?

TRANSISTOR LOADLINE ANALYSIS

experiment

INTRODUCTION.

Transistors are widely used


in a practical

transistor will function properly


In this

established.

experiment we

shall

kinds of electronic applications.

in all

application, the

explore

how

DC

can be accomplished

this

Before a

electrode potentials must be


in

the

common

emitter circuit.

DISCUSSION.

Let us consider the

emitter transistor circuit


If

we apply

which we should recognize as a

in figure 7-1.

we

cc

-l

(Vqq and

see that

cR L

linear relation-

ship (straight line) for \q in terms of

Kirchhoff's voltage law to the

collector loop,

'

shown

common

R|_

Vq^.

would both be constants

in a

practical case.)

-V CE = 0

For any specific transistor

we

will

have

another type of information relating Iq to


or,

if

we

solve for \q, the result

^CE

is

V CC - VCE
'c

'

typical

teristic

is

We
This

may

f rm f the output characteristic.

t 'ie

example of such an output


shown in figure 7-2.

can plot equation 7.1 on the output

characteristic

be rewritten

in

the form

equation 7.1

by observing that when


is

equal to zero, then

=_cc

(7.1)
i

Fig. 7-1

A Common
42

charac-

Emitter Amplifier

(when

v CE

o>

Vq^

in

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 7

LOAD LINE ANAL YSIS

= 0 juA

VCE = V CC
Fig.

7-2

Typical

This point can be plotted at


In =

V CC

Vq E

NPN Common

= 0 and

which can flow through both the 2k load

and the

sistor

(12V/2k = 6

mA

using values from

on the Iq

If

current,

when Iq in equation 7.1


then we may solve for Vq and get
E

Similarly,

V CE

V CC ^hen c
l

and
is

we only knew the value of the base


we could determine the value of Iq

Vq E

for this transistor circuit.

cuit

Vqq

line at

is

Conse-

loadline,

as

outlined

above,

is

cir-

very

important.

= 0)

We may
It

quently, the construction of the collector

This point can also be plotted on the characteristic curve.

Vq E

axis line of the output

characteristic.

zero,

re-

transistor simultaneously for

the given value of (12V) of

L
figure 7-1)

Emitter Output Characteristic

located on the

Vq E

(12 volts using the values

determine the value of base cur-

rent in the circuit given in figure 7-1

axis

by ob-

serving that the loop equation for the base

in fig-

circuit

is

ure 7-1).

Now,

since equation

straight line,

v B b-'b r b- v be
7.1

we can simply connect

the two

which may be solved for

points already found (colored line in figure


7-2).

This

line

is

= 0

represents a

called the loadline of the

2k
_

load resistor acting in series with the transistor T


It represents all possible values of Iq
1

'B

43

lg, giving us

V BB" V BE

(7.2)

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

LOADLINE ANAL YS/S

EXPERIMENT 7

100
-

^
oil
/

"

/ /

V BB
B

60

b (mA)

40
40 juA

V BB- 0.35V

v\

20

.0.16V
-20

IX

0.1

0.2

0.3

V BE V0LTS
<

may

This equation

7-3

Fig.

NPN Common

Typical

be rewritten

the form

in

0.4

>

Emitter Input Characteristic

therefore, to arbitrarily choose a value of base

current (say 35 /xA) and, using equation 6.2,


solve for the corresponding value of
(7.3)

V BE

v be- v bb-'b r b
Notice that this
of equation as

7.

essentially the

is
1

We may

same form
In this case,
3

therefore proceed

10

just as in the construction of the collector cir-

cuit loadline.

That

is, if

V BE

is

(7.2)

then

= 1.5 - 35 X 10" 6

X 33 X

volts.
The chosen value of B
and the computed value of V

0.35

(35 fiA)

equal to zero,

V BE

BE

(0.35 volts) are then used to locate a second

point on the base circuit loadline.

This point

Vdd

"^

may

(when

V BE

0)

The base circuit loadline may then be


drawn between the two identified points, as
indicated in figure 7-3.

be plotted along the

the input characteristic where

(1.5/33,000 = 45.5
ure 7-1.)

/xA using values

This point

is

axis of

V BB /R B
from

section

characteristic curve (point

fig-

we may

shown plotted on the

V BE

input characteristic in figure 7-3, the point

where

V BE = V BB

input characteristic.

is

common

practice,

read the values of

(0.16V) for the

usually far off of the


It is

At the point of

in figure 7-3),

B (40

/iA)

and

circuit.

second and much quicker method of

arriving at a value for the base current

44

inter-

of the base loadline and the input

is

to

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

7-4

Fig.

assume

V BE

a value for

germanium

transistors

transistors.

They

Locating the

Q Point on

Use 0.2 volts for

and 0.6 volts for

in

mA

the case illustrated

in

= 41

.5 juA

we

V CE

^ 40 /iA

V BE

will

be 0.16

we may

teristic

and locate the actual quiescent opera-

fig-

"

V BE

"

V CB

" 0

<

7 4>
-

or

With the value of the base current determined,

In the

V CE" V BE

example then

return to the output charac-

ting point of the transistor.

If

the loadline (see figure 7-4) until

V CB =

we move up
we reach the

intersection with the appropriate base current

(40 juA

and

observe that

V CB

line

jtxA

this

At the same

be 5.6 volts.

will

be 40

At

Returning to the original circuit of

-R^V BE+ ^S= 47.55


- 6.05 AtA

Vq E
will

circuits.

see that Iq will be 3.2

volts.

ure 7-1,

we

figure 7-4

and

time

using

above would have been

'c

Loadline

the

both the collector and base


point

silicon

are almost always near these

values and can be used to solve for

equation 7.3. The result

LOADLINE ANAL YSIS

EXPERIMENT 7

in this

example),

we have

Similarly,

we

are related

by

located

the quiescent operating point (Q). This is the


only point on the output characteristic which

5.6

-0.16 = 5.44

see that the terminal currents

=
c +l E + B 0
l

or

'e--'c-'b

simultaneously satisfies the requirements of

45

volts

(7.5)

EXPERIMENT 7
And

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

LOADLINEANA L YSIS

using values of

the voltage

loadline analysis
l

= -3.2 X 1CT 3 - 40 X 10" 6 = - 3.24

By employing

loadline analysis

mA

we

It

R^

or

EB =

is

=
L

V CC

"

V CE

1Z0

= 6
" 5 6
-

V BB" V BE

-5-0.16= 1.34

volts

Once again the close agreement of the two


methods indicates that our graphical analysis
of the base circuit was accurate.

R = 3.2 X 2 = 6.4 volts


L = c L

or, alternately,

volts

are

also follows that the

voltage across the collector resistor

the value of

Eg = IgRg = 40 X 33 X 10" 3 = 1.34

able to evaluate all of the transistor terminal

voltages and currents.

we may compute
across Rg using

Similarly,

through
c and B found

volts

The

The close comparison between either of these


two methods of calculating E|_ indicates that

discussion

analysis technique presented in this


is

called static loadline analysis or

DC loadline analysis and

is one of the common


methods of determining the DC operating
voltages and currents in a transistor circuit.

our graphical analysis of the collector circuit


was reasonably accurate.

MATERIALS
2 Variable

DC

supplies (0-

40V)

2 Resistance substitution boxes


(0- 100k 2W)

PIMP transistor type

Transistor socket

Set of

VOMsor FEMs

common

2N1305

or equivalent

emitter input and output

characteristics for

2N1305

PROCEDURE
1.

Examine the

circuit

shown

in figure 7-5.

Note the supply voltage

polarities.

R.

2N1305

BOTTOM VIEW

Fig.

7-5

The Experimental Circuit

46

EXPERIMENT 7 LOADUNE ANALYSIS

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

2.

Using the characteristic curves and assuming:

V cc

Determine the values of

computed data
3.

Assemble the

in

= 1,5 volts

V BB

= 10 volts
\q,

Vq E

R L = 3.3k

Vg^, E V^g, Eg, and E L

lg,

R B = 47k
Record the values as

the data table.

assumed

circuit using the values

in

step 2.

Use resistance substitution

boxes for R L and Rg.


4.

Measure and record each of the values computed

in

step 2. (Note:

lg

may

be determined

by measuring Eg, then using lg = Eg/Rg).


5.

Compute

6.

Repeat steps 2 through 5 using:

the percent difference between each pair of data values.

V cc =
Vgg

R L = 4.7k

12 volts

= 2.0 volts

R B = 68k

Similarly, repeat steps 2 through 5 using:

V CC

= 9 volts

R|_ = 2.2k

Vgg

R B = 33k

volt

Circuit

v cc = 10V

R L = 3.3k

Conditions

V BB =1.5V

Rg = 47k

Quantity

'c

'e

V CE

V BE

VCB

EB

Comp. Data
Meas. Data

Diff.

Circuit

Conditions

Quantity

'c

V CC =12V

R L = 4.7k

V BB

R B = 68k

= 2.0V

V CE

V BE

Comp. Data
Meas. Data

Diff.

Fig.

7-6

The Data Tables

47

V CB

EB

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 7 LOADLINE ANALYSIS

Circuit

v CC = 9V

RL =

Conditions

V BB= 1V

R B = 33k

Quantity

'E

V CE

v BE

2. 2k

V CB

EL

EB

Comp. Data
Meas. Data

Diff.

Fig.

8.

The Data Tables (Cont'd)

Include your characteristic curves as part of the data and clearly identify each
loadline

and each

point

ANALYSIS GUIDE.
loadline

7-6

method of

how your

In analyzing these data

circuit analysis,

how

you should consider primarily the reliability of the


computed values agreed, and

well your measured and

computational accuracy could have been improved.

PROBLEMS
1.

What was the

2.

What was the dynamic output

3.

What was the

static

static

output resistance of the transistor at each


resistance at each

point?

point?

and dynamic input resistance of the transistor

at

each of the

points?
4.

What

is

the importance of the dynamic input resistance of a transistor?

48

experiment

INTRODUCTION.

If

the loadline analysis of a transistor

point must be fixed.

In this

point and holding

position.

DISCUSSION.

it in

BIASING AND BIAS STABILITY

experiment

Let us consider the

emitter circuit shown

in

we

shall

is to be reliable, then the quiescent


consider methods of establishing the quiescent

common

figure 8-1.

Under

c = -a F E + C0
l

(8.1)

normal operating conditions, the output characteristic (with collector circuit loadline)

pictured

current

in figure 8-2,

is

where a F is the ratio of the emitter current


which flows in the collector circuit to the

as

and the net collector

is

total emitter current.

Fig. 8-1

A Common

Emitter Transistor Circuit

COLLECTOR VOLTAGE

Fig.

8-2

Typical Output Characteristic

49

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 8 BIASING AND BIAS STABILITY


This

But from figure 8-1, we see that


i

may

+ c+ b =o

be rewritten

T^

c=

the form

in

J
T

^'co

<

8 2>
-

or

which
i

=
+ B
E -o c
i

the equation usually given for the

is

collector current of a

cuit.

common

typical value for otp

is

emitter

cir-

0.99; therefore,

equation 8.2 typically reduces to something


like

Substituting this quantity into equation 8.1


for

F renders
l

oi

c+

al

From

co

lg

is

100I

B + 100

c0
we

this typical relationship,

see that

constant, then any small change

in

will be reflected a hundred times greater

or

\qq

c (1-a F )=a F B + c
l

is

If

we

perature of the transistor, then

and
_

CT

F B

'CO tenc s t0
l

CO

Fig.

8-3

increase.

shifts the entire

as

shown

more

This increase

tem-

carriers

in

and

Iqq

output characteristic upward

in figure

8-3 (colored

Shift in Q-Point with Temperature

50

raise the

available in the transistor material


'

Iqq

in \q.

the reverse bias current across the

base-collector junction.

become

if

lines).

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

As the
must also

EXPERIMENTS BIASING AND BIAS STABILITY

characteristics shift, the Q-point

from

shift

its

on the loadline to a new location


result

both Iq and

values, Iq

The
change

in

Vq E

therefore continue to rise and Iq along with

original location (Q)

must

(Q').

also shift to

it

As a
new

destroyed) by
dition

and Vq^.

cur

ratio of the

Iqq

of the circuit

is

until the transistor

change

From the above

discussion,

own

we

damaged

internal heat.

(or

This con-

runaway and does

oc-

poorly stabilized circuits.


the stability factor of tran-

sistor circuits, a resistor

called the stability factor (S)

can see that the stability factor

its

called thermal

To improve

Iq for a given

in

in

is

finally

is

is

frequently inserted

in

the emitter lead of the transistor as shown

in

figure 8-4.

To

see

how

this

improves the

is

stability factor, let us observe that the input

loop equation

now

is

(8.3)

v bb-'b r b- v be +
Using the values cited before,

S=

A
factor

we would have

change

in

Iq

poor

for

recall that

re = 0

(8.4)

equation 8.2

is

stability

small

change) can cause severe problems.

subjected to a sudden change

in

or

Iqq

For ex-

ample, suppose the circuit discussed above

lp(1-a F >=aFl
+ 'CO
R T
F'B
l

is

temperature

which may be solved for B rendering

(perhaps by a nearby soldering iron) and Iqq


increases a small

^=100

transistor circuit with a


(large

However, we

amount. The value of Iq

in-

creases proportionally which generates


2

heat (Iq Rq) inside the transistor.

more
Iqq will

'8

az

'be

BB

Fig.

8-4

Stabilized Transistor Circuit

51

'C

p'C0

(8.5)

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 8 BIASING AND BIAS STABILITY

Remember

Also equation 8.1

the change
l

c = -a F E + C0

Substituting the

two values

dp

was

times the change

in

words, S was equal to 100.

0.99.)

and

(lg

RE + RB
R + R (1 -ap)
E
B

Ig) into

We

1-a F

c was 100

or, in other

the previous example

(8.6)

Ofr

equation (8.4) provides

'BB

in

Let us now suppose that


=
RB
10k and R E = 1k are used in the same
circuit. S now becomes

CO

co

(ap

be solved for E giving us

may

in

that

RB
'CO

^BE

+ 10(0.01)

,4=io
1.1

have, therefore, improved the stability fac-

by

tor considerably

'c^B

11
1

inserting the 1k emitter

In typical circuits, values for

resistor.

S nor-

mally range from about 5 up to about 20.


Fti

Q!p

CO

= 0
lr
'C

ftp

Up

to this point,

we have always

sidered circuits biased in the

which may be solved for \q rendering

figure 8-1

V BB

a F( V BB- V BE)-'CQ< R E + R B>


!

R E + R B (1-a F

which may be rewritten

F<

R E + R B (1-a F

Now,

if

first

and any change

change

RE

Vgg, ap, V BE

constant, then the


stant

RE + RB

in

Iqq.

in

+R B (1-a F

'CO
This

may

R B and R E are all


term above is a con-

practical

transistor

network

battery equivalent by Th^venizing the circuit


to the left of the points X, X.

Iq must be caused by

therefore write

RE + RB
C-R F + R B (1- ap AI CO

v bb- v ccr7Tr:

Disconnecting

we

the circuit at these points,

equivalent bias battery voltage

AI

bias

be readily reduced to the simpler two

,.

We may

easy to analyze,

is

it is not very practical because it requires two


power supplies (V BB and Vqq). A much
more practical and consequently frequently
encountered method is the single supply circuit shown in figure 8-5.

as

V
BB" Vop)
BE

in

using a separate base bias supply

While such a circuit

con-

manner shown

see that the

would be

(8.8)

and since
and

the Tb^venin's source

would be the
and R'

parallel

we have
RB =
RE + RB
R E + R B M -a F

(8.7)

R 1 R2
R 1 + R,

For purposes of analysis

resistance (R
B
combination of R 1

it is

(8.9)

often convenient

to replace the practical single supply bias net-

52

EXPERIMENTS BIASING AND BIAS STABILITY

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

Fig.

INPUT

source

8-5

The Single Supply Transistor Circuit

SIGNAL

OUTPUT

Fig.

8-6

The Two-Battery Equivalent of Figure 8-5

work with its equivalent two-battery


shown in figure 8-6.
Although

this

discussion

NPN

circuit as

transistors throughout, the results are

equally appropriate for either

has featured

NPN

or

types.

MATERIALS
2 Resistance substitution boxes

meg 1/2W)
1k resistor 1/2W
5.6k resistor 1/2W
33k resistor 1/2W
(0- 10

1
1

2
2

53

2N 1305

transistor or equivalent

DC supplies (0-40V)
VOMsor FEMs

Soldering iron (approximate 35W)

Transistor socket

PNP

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 8 BIASING AND BIAS STABILITY

Fig.

8-7

The First Experimental Circuit

PROCEDURE
1.

Assemble the

2.

Set

3.

Allow the soldering

4.

Record the value of the collector current

5.

Compute and record the approximate

6.

circuit

to zero

shown

ohms and

in figure 8-7.

the base current to 50 /xA.

iron to

warm

up.
(Iq).

value of

aF

using

aF

-Iq/(Iq +

'b^

Hold the hot soldering iron near the top of the transistor case for about three to

five

seconds.
7.

Record the

maximum

value reached by the collector current 0 ') as


C

it

increases

due to

the heat.
8.

Allow the
ured

9.

in

10.

returns to near the

initial

value meas-

step 4.

Using the

change

transistor to cool until the value of

in

initial

value of

c and

the

maximum

reached

in

step 7,

compute and record the

Iq (AIq).

a p determined in step 5, and the values of R and R compute and


B

record the approximate value of the stability factor (S).


Using the value of

11.

Repeat steps 4 and 6 through 10 for emitter resistor values of 470,


1000, 1500, 2200,
3300, and 4700 ohms. Be sure to reset
to 50 mA before each temperature cycle!
l

12.

Assemble the

circuit

shown

in figure 8-8.

54

EXPERIMENTS BIASING AND BIAS STABILITY

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

USE RESISTANCE
SUBSTITUTION

BOXES FOR

15V

R-

ANDR 0

Fig.

8-8

The Second Experimental Circuit

13.

Measure and record the values of lg and

14.

Compute and record

15.

As

16.

Replace the

17.

Again record lg and

18.

Heat the transistor as

Iq.

the values of the equivalent

Vgg

and Rg.

before, heat the transistor for three seconds and record AIq.

R^

ANALYSIS GUIDE.

R2

bias

network with the equivalent

and Rg.

Iq.
in

step 15 and record AIq.

In the analysis of these data

you should compare the values of the

factors in the first circuit with the observed change in Iq.


sider the extent to

Vgg

In

which the two bias networks appeared to

RE

'c

(ohms)

(juA)

(mA)

the case of the second circuit, con-

give the

'c

aF

(mA)

470
1000

1500

2200
3300

4700
Data from First Experimental Circuit
Fig.

8-9

The Data Tables

55

stability

same
Al

results.

(mA)

ELECTRON ICS/AMP LI

EXPERIMENTS BIASING AND BIAS STABILITY

Bias Circuit
R.j,

<B

"c

V BB

(MA)

(mA)

(volts)

RB

Al c

(ohms)

(mA)

R2 Network

V BB' R B Networ k
Data from Second Experimental Circuit
Fig.

8-9

The Data Tables (Cont'd)

PROBLEMS
1.

2.

3.

What was the

stability factor in the

second experimental circuit?

Does the relationship of the stability factor to the change in collector current
second circuit compare favorably with the trend in the first circuit?
If

the quiescent collector current

factor

is

12.6,

in a certain transistor is

what would be the new value of

from 6 juA to 10 mA?

56

mA

and the

collector current

if

co

in

the

stability

changes

fl

ovn0 r, m0 nt
exper.ment

TRANSISTOR A
GRAPHICAL A*

INTRODUCTION. The basic application of transistors is as electronic amplifying devices. In


this experiment we shall examine the graphical method of analyzing a complete amplifier stage.
Because the common emitter amplifier is the most frequently encountered type, it is the circuit
that will be considered.

DISCUSSION.

Let us consider the

emitter circuit shown

common
R

To make

in figure 9-1.

RiR
n2
1
(9.1)

B"-R. + R
2
t<l

the graphical analysis a

we can Th^venize
circuit

little

easier to handle,

And

the bias network in the base

we

shall

may temporarily
C 2 as well as the

resistance (Rg) using

ling capacitor

V BB

V CC

Fig. 9-1

Fig.

initially

DC

Practical

9-2

Common

The Simplified

57

coup-

These changes are shown

Circuit

we

load (R and

and the emitter bypass

Emitter Amplifier Circuit

DC (Q-Point)

AC

signal source (also the

figure 9-2.

concerned only

quiescent point,

ignore the

(C<|)

capacitor (C3)).

and

r: + R*

be

with establishing the

by finding the equivalent bias battery

(Vgg) and base

since

in

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIE

AMPLIFIER GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS

EXPERIMENT 9

100 M A

t
E
LU
oc
OC

o
DC
I-

o
LU

=
'b

mA

COLLECTOR VOLTAGE (VOLTS)


Fig.

The output

9-3

Typical Transistor Output Characteristic

characteristics of the transis-

write the input and output loop equations

tor will be similar to those given in figure 9-3.

=
'bb-'b r b- v be + e r e 0
i

For purposes of

illustration, let us sup-

and

pose that the circuit component values are:


R|_ =

1500 ohms

V cc

RE =

500 ohms

V BB

RB =

10k ohms

Using these values

V CC-'C R L- V CE +

5 volts
If

2 volts

we observe
t 'ien

~'c ~ 'B'

V BB

construct the col-

from

V cc on

the col-

-l

V CCV CC

15

RL + RE

1500 + 500

on the collector current

lie

axis.

= 7.5

mA

= 0orl =
c + B
E
l

re duce

the loop equa-

B (R B + R E )-l c R E

_v BE

B R E-'C< R L + R E>-

Solving these

Notice that this

V CE

The quiescent operating point must


somewhere along this loadline.

To

E
can

RE = 0

= 0

V CE

= 0

two equations simultaneously

and eliminating Iq we have

the loadline of the series combination of

and R E

we

and

lector voltage axis to

is

that

tions to

we can

lector circuit loadline

- >B

pR B +

R E )(R L

R^

(R L+ R

+R E

" R

eJ

locate the exact Q-point,

we must

L cc

)(V

Re

BB

-V BE

)
|

j
(9.2)

58

EXPERIMENT 9

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

AMPLIFIER GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS

O
The Example Circuit

9-4

Fig.

9-5

Fig.

This equation, while being quite involved,

The

AC Equivalent Circuit

duces to a very useful form when the circuit

original

values (and assuming 0.2 volts or 0.6 volts for

with the component values used

Vg[i of a germanium or silicon transistor,

ample

re-

For example, using

used.

are

spectively)

circuit

above

is

shown again

and

given previously,

V CE

it

reduces to

= 42 X 10 3

+ 7.8

= 82k

the

the ex-

following

fore, be plotted

The plot of
is

on the output

this line

they

and may, there-

(shown dotted

may

is

intersection of the bias line and the

collector circuit loadline

is

erating point of the transistor.

we

see that the Q-point

that the

about 9

is

In

circuit

the exam-

(Vq^)

is

about 3 mA, and the base current (lg)

is

R.

let

us

AC

Moreover,

resistance will be very

we may draw
in

figure 9-5.

now

the

Rg

acts in

with the input resistance of the tran-

The
is

That

total effective load in the collector

the parallel combination of R


L and
is,

We must

now

concerned.

RRi

juA.

Having determined the

is

Using these facts

rc

DC
ditions,

signal

is

the collector current (Iq)

about 25

AC

located such

collector-emitter voltage
volts,

sistor.

the quiescent op-

be so small that

the same value as before, but

parallel

The

will

AC equivalent circuit shown

line.

sin cot volts

be considered to be short circuits so

near zero.

called the emitter loadline or the bias

= 0.03

the reactance of the capac-

the battery internal

in figure

far as the

characteristics.

C 2 and C3)

itors (C<|,

relates to the collector-emitter voltage


(lg)

R = 3k ohms

ohms

R 2 = 12k ohms

volts

particular note of the fact that this equa-

(Vq> to the base current

ple,

figure 9-4
in

values:

In a practical case,

Take

9-3)

assuming

in

= 0-2 volts and the component values

^BE

tion

The

conditions within the amplifier circuit.

re-

DC operating

-rtw[

keep

bias circuits not

<

9 3>
-

mind the fact that the


shown in the AC equiva-

in

lent circuit are functioning to establish the

con-

consider the signal (AC)

quiescent operating point.

59

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 9

AMPLIFIER GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS

160

Fig.

9-6

Typical

The current from the input

Germanium

signal source

The

divides between the equivalent base resistor


and the dynamic input resistance of the transistor.

Transistor Input Characteristic

Figure 9-6 shows a typical germanium

transistor input characteristic.

change

resulting

in

change

. s _ 0.03 sin
8 " ^
2000

In

base current (Alg) and the


base-to-emitter

in

input current to the stage will

We may deter-

mine the approximate value of the transistor's


dynamic input resistance (rj) graphically using
a small

AC

then be

point

voltage

is

cot

v
15X
il=

10

sin cot

the

collector circuit the

still

determined by the

as indicated in figure 9-7.

(AV BE ):

4f% _ B

amps

operating

DC

loadline,

However, the

AC

signal has a load of

r
i

AV,BE

p.^J^L
R

(9.4)

Al B

rTr^

3000X 1500 = innn


1 00ohms
4500
,

and

rr
i

V"
BE

tn
Q

at

This load

may

be represented on the output


characteristic as an AC loadline. We may con-

point

(9.4A)

struct this line


In this case,

0.04V/20 //A = 2000 ohms.

by observing that

it

must pass

through the quiescent point, Q, and have

60

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

Fig.

slope of -1/Rcsee that,

if

V CE

9-7

Since R c

changes

to 10 volts), then Iq

EXPERIMENT 9

Operation of the

1000 ohms, we

is

volts(from 9 volts

must change by

AMPLIFIER GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS

Common

Emitter Amplifier

AC component

of the collector voltage will be


2 volts peak-to-peak and 180 out of phase

with the

AC

base current.

We

may, therefore,

write

AV CE

which

from 3

is

mA

(at

Q) to 2 mA.

plot the point P (on figure 9.7) at


volts,

Vq E

If

we

= 10

AC
that the AC

loadline through P and Q.

sin cot volts

At the same time, the collector current varies


2 mA peak-to-peak and is in phase with the

AC

base current; therefore,

Notice

is

not the same as the

DC

loadline.

Now, if we apply the AC base current


=
(ig
15 X 10" 6 sin cot) having a peak-to-peak
amplitude of 30 fiA, it will swing along the

AC

loadline

Ig

= 40 juA

V CE

= -1

= 2 mA, we may draw the 1k

loadline

will

from Ig = 10
(at

point O).

mA

(at

point

And

swing from 10 volts to 8

P)

We may

X 10" 3

sin cot

amps

define the voltage amplification

(or voltage gain) of the stage as

to

as a result,
volts.

The

(9.5)


EXPERIMENT 9

The

example above, the voltage gain would

In the

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

AMPLIFIER GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS

total source current will be

be

Av

"

0.03 sin cot

which means that the

-67
D/

RBr

- P /
" ^

R^+n

18 X 10" 6

AC output voltage is 67
AC input voltage and is

times as large as the


180 out of phase with

We may

*""

The current

it.

- n
- 03

s,n

sin cot

amps

gain

'S

Finally,

fication (or

wt/

we can

power

10,000X 2000

TTooo

mM& m

10~ 3

18 X lO" 6

cation (or current gain) of the stage as

therefore,

is,

A _|L^ 0.67X

also define the current amplifi-

sin cot

define the

power

ampli-

gain) of the stage as

(9.6)

A
where

L is the current through the load


tor (R) and ig is the total source current.
i

In

which,

in this case,

A
In

= _

o_
R

= IA v l|Aj

(9.7)

resis-

our example we see that

would be

67X41^2750

conclusion,

we have

seen

sin cot

3000

used to determine both the

= 0.67 X 10" 3

that the

graphic characteristics of a transistor

sin cot

amps

DC

and

may be

AC

opera-

ting conditions.

MATERIALS
1

Transistor type

Variable

VOM

or

2N1304

DC supply
FEM

Oscilloscope

Audio generator

Set of curves for

(0

or equivalent

40V)

2N 1 304

meg

resistor 1/2

8.2k resistor 1/2W

2 2.2k resistors 1/2W


1

33k

Transistor socket

resistor

1/2W

transistor

BOW VDC capacitors


ohm resistor 1/2W

3 10 mF,
1k

PROCEDURE
1.

On

the transistor output characteristic plot the

figure 9-8.

62

DC

loadline for the circuit

shown

in

EXPERIMENT 9

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

AMPLIFIER GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS

DC POWER
SUPPLY

Fig.

L
3.

9-8

The Experimental Circuit

Simplify equation 9.2 using the circuit component values specified


Plot the bias line

in figure 9-8.

on the output characteristics and locate the Q-point. Record the values

Vq,

\q,

and Ig at the Q-point.

4.

Plot the

AC

loadline

5.

Locate the Q-point on the transistor's input characteristics and record

6.

Compute and record

7.

Compute and

of

result

if

the input resistance of the stage

record the

10

is

on the output characteristics of the

mV

AC

transistor.

Vgg

and

rj.

(Zj).

base current (ig) and the

AC

source current

(ig)

which

rms.

Mark the peak-to-peak swing of the base current on the AC loadline. Record the
in collector voltage and collector current e and
c
c ).

8.

ponding swing

10.

Compute and

11.

Construct the circuit shown

Qty.

V CE

values of e 0 and

record the values of

corres-

Compute and record the rms

9.

will

>B

V BE

Av

Aj,

i|_.

and

in figure 9.8.

rj

Z|

le

's

Loadline

Values

Measured
Values
Fig.

9-9

The Data Table

63

'c

Av

'L

A p'

A
i

12.

14.

V CE V BE c
,

and B
l

output voltage, measure and record the

DC

opera-

Move the
rms

oscilloscope to the output of the stage and measure e

volts.

Using a
tor.

16.

Connect the oscilloscope to measure e s Adjust the audio generator frequency to 1 kHz.
Set the generator output level for an e of 10 mV (rms). Make a sketch of the input
s
waveform

in

15.

set for zero

With the audio generator


ting values of

13.

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

AMPLIFIER GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS

EXPERIMENT 9

Make

VOM,

a sketch of the

Record the value of e


Q

output waveform.

measure the rms voltage across the

Compute and record the input current

resistor in series

with the audio genera-

Using the measured value of e and the resistance of the load, compute and
record the
Q
load current (i ).
L

AC
17.

Using measured values only, compute and record

18.

Using

Av

Av

and Aj from step 17, compute and record

and

AD

Aj.

ANALYSIS GUIDE.

In analyzing this data, you should compare the loadline


values to the measured ones and evaluate the effectiveness of the loadline analysis in predicting
the circuit perform-

ance.

In particular, discuss

any areas

in

which you

feel that

the loadline analysis was completely

inadequate.

PROBLEMS
1.

What was the

stability factor of the circuit

2.

What was the

value of

compare to R E ? What
3.

What

is

X c for C3
is

in

this

in this

experiment?

the experiment (at

kHz)?

How does

this value

the purpose of this capacitor?

and C2 in the circuit? Could either one of them be


experiment without affecting the results?

the function of

omitted from

used

64

It f VACUUM TUBE CHARACTERISTICS

experiment

INTRODUCTION. The vacuum


are

tube was for

many

years the basic electronic device, and there

some applications in which it is used. In this experiment, we


two mcfst common types of tubes.

still

shall

examine the terminal

characteristics of the

DISCUSSION. The
constructed

vacuum tube

triode

by inserting a

helically

tial

is

wound

the grid tends to force the space charge back

grid wire between the cathode and plate of a

toward the cathojde.

thermionic high vacuum diode.

rangement

is

to the grid, then the negative charge on

Such an arshown schematically in figure

On

the other hand,

when we apply

positive potential to the plate, the electrons

10-1.

are attracted to

it.

Because the grid

is

much

closer to the space charge than the plate

we

If

there

is

no

um

is

the grid has the greater influence of the two.

potential applied to either the grid

The grid is consequently able to control the


amount of plate current that flows for a given
value of plate voltage. For this reason we call

formed

diode.

is,

when

consider the cathode action

or the plate electrodes,

charge

Now,

we

see that the space

just as in the case of a vacuif

we apply

a negative poten-

Fig. 10-1

this

Triode

65

element a control grid.

Vacuum Tube

EXPERIMENT

10

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

VACUUM TUBE CHARACTERISTICS

the grid-to-cathode voltage (E GK is


that
zero, then the amount of plate current
will
be
flow
dp)
will
)

If

And

we

since

started with

value of

AEq^

We may

therefore write

=
'P

where Rp

is

effective static plate resistance.

some value of

is

now

amount (Alp) which


change (AE
GK )

of proportionality
(g

current

is

under

The constant

The change

will, therefore,

in

The

p =

plate

Rp

m and

If

(10.1)

Eq^

are both

the plate current

not linearly

9m AE GK

itself.

is

constant,

and

somewhat non-

plate voltage are

related.

be

total plate current will


I

Eq^

PK
-r

static conditions.

ever, since g

If

AI P =

then the

then lp tends to vary directly with Epj^. How-

linear,

called the transconduc-

of the tube.

GK

0,

as the equation for plate current in a triode

proportional to the

is

in grid voltage.

If

ap-

the plate current will change by an

plied,

tance

(Eq^)

grid voltage

9m

'P

Eq^

be equal to

will

now

Eqk

'

held constant, then the Ep^,

lp characteristic

diode.

be

is

Changing

essentially that of a

Eq^

but does not alter

p + p

its

tends to shift the curve


basic shape

typical triode characteristic

vacuum

is

much.

shown

in figure

10-2.

or

PK
gm AE GK +-^
E

lp

G*

Let us

now

turn our attention to the

input (control grid) characteristic.

0V

-3.5 V

(mA)

150

200

250

300

350

E pK (VOLTS)

Fig.

10-2

Typical Triode Output (Plate

66

Characteristic

400

If

we apply

EXPERIMENT

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

VACUUM TUBE CHARACTERISTICS

10

DUU
- 400
+I

-E

GK

G1

(mA)

- 300

(VOLTS)

- 200

1*"

o
I

NOTE THE SCALE CHANGES


IN BOTH E
QK AND Q1

h-

0.1

at -

0.2

0.3

0.4

+E QK (VOLTS)

0.2 "

0.3
0.4 -

Fig.

10-3

a positive voltage to the grid,

forward biased diode.

is

is

On

negative,

G1 (MA)

Typical Triode Input (Control Grid) Characteristic

then

it

will

Vacuum

draw

current from the space charge and act just like

the grid voltage

_I

the other hand,

connected

in

tubes, like transistors,

considered

flowing, an occasional electron will collide

cathode

in this

circuit.

experiment)

The diagram

ration as well as those for the

grid current (about 0.1 juA usually).

and

Figure

0-3 shows a typical triode input characteristic.

common

grid circuits are

is

the

common

of this configu-

common
shown

The Three Vacuum Tube Circuit Configurations

67

plate

in figure

10-4.

(C)

Fig. 10-4

be

The most common arrangement (and the one

if

and plate current

with the grid wires causing a very small reverse

may

any one of three configurations.

COMMON GRID

EXPERIMENT

10

(A)

Ip

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

VACUUM TUBE CHARACTERISTICS

A VACUUM TETRODE

& G2 (mA)
l

E pK (VOLTS)
(B)

Fig.

10-5

OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS

A Vacuum

Tetrode and

we insert a second grid (called a screen


between the control grid and plate as

If

grid)

is

increase until they reach a point

where they

strike the plate so vigorously that

they

literally

from

it.

knock other electrons loose

These secondary emission electrons


are collected by the screen (grid) causing a

used for a while but were never very popular


because of the severe dip in the plate current

The dip

Output Characteristic
also

ities

shown in figure 10-5, the result is a four-element tube called a tetrode. Tetrodes were

characteristic.

its

dip

caused by secondary

in

plate current

and

a rise in screen cur-

rent as seen in figure 10-5(b).

emission of the plate current electrons.

As the
Electrons leaving the space charge region
are attracted toward the plate by the com-

bined effect of the screen grid and the plate.

At

plate voltage

is

As

potential

is

further

in-

it

attracted back to the plate as soon as they


are knocked free.

low values of plate voltage, the


electron velocities as they approach the plate
are also low and the characteristics in this rerelatively

gion are similar to those of a triode.

plate

becomes large enough to dominate


the screen and the secondary electrons are
creased,

To suppress the undesirable, secondary


emission effects a third grid (called the suppressor grid G ) is inserted between the screen

the

increased, the electron veloc-

68

EXPERIMENT

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

VACUUM TUBE CHARACTERISTICS

10

(A)

A VACUUM PENTODE

v G1 = ov

50

200

150

100

300

250

350

E PK (VOLTS)

OUTPUT CHARACTERISTIC

(B)

Fig.

A Vacuum Pentode and its

10-6

shown

grid (G2)

and the plate

10-6(a).

The five-element tube thus created

is

(P) as

in figure

Output Characteristic
high

tively

back to the

called a pentode.

in

is

tied electrically

which
plate.

and

is

is,

therefore, at a potential level

is,

repelled

therefore,

no dip

in figure 10-6(b).
is

Both triode and pentode vacuum tubes

quite negative with respect to the

Secondary electrons seeing

There

are

The input characteristic of a pentode


very much the same as that of a triode.

to the cathode (either inside the tube or externally)

plate.

potential

the typical pentode output characteristic

shown
This suppressor grid

negative

are in

this rela-

common

use today.

MATERIALS
High voltage, variable
volts)

(0

Low

DC

400

supply (0

with separate bias supply

50

volts)

and 6.3V filament supply

voltage, variable

DC

supply (0

40V)

Vacuum tube type 6AU8 or

9-pin miniature tube socket

10k ohm,

20W

resistor

2 Sheets of linear graph paper

VOMsor FEMs
69

equivalent

EXPERIMENT

10

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

VACUUM TUBE CHARACTERISTICS

6AU8 BOTTOM VIEW


Fig.

10-7

The

First

Experimental Circuit

PROCEDURE
1.

Assemble the

circuit

shown

in figure

10-7.

Do not

forget to connect the filament to

the 6.3-volt power supply.


2.

Set the grid circuit supply for a grid-to-cathode voltage of -14.0


volts.

3.

Measure and record the plate current


tings of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, etc.,

(|
p and plate voltage (E pK for plate voltage
up to the limit of variable plate supply.
)

set-

4.

Repeat steps 2 and 3 for grid voltages of -12.0, -10.0, -8.0,


-6.0, -4.0, -2.0, 0.0, and +2.0.

5.

Plot the output characteristic of the triode

6.

Disassemble the circuit given in figure 10-7 and assemble the


one shown in figure 10-8.
Use the bias supply output of the high voltage power supply
for the screen grid voltage
and be careful to connect all power supply polarities

on a sheet of graph paper.

properly.

7.

Set the grid voltage to -5.0 volts and the screen voltage
to

70

+150 volts.

EXPERIMENT

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

10

VACUUM TUBE CHARACTERISTICS

6AU8 BOTTOM VIEW

Fig.

8.

10-8

The Second Experimental Circuit

Measure and record the plate current


tings of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, etc.,

9.

10.

(lp)

and plate voltage (E pK

up to the

for plate voltage set-

limit of the variable plate supply.

Repeat steps 7 and 8 for grid voltages of -4.0, -3.0, -2.0, -1

On

.0,

and 0.0

volts.

second sheet of graph paper, plot the output characteristic of the pentode.

71

EXPERIMENT

10

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

VACUUM TUBE CHARACTERISTICS

EGK

I
,

(volts)

1*
-14

-12

-10

-8

'P

In
'P

In

In
'P

-6

-4

-2

+2

'P

'P

'P

'P

'P

C PK
(volts)

0
50
100
150

200

250
300
350
400

GK

-4

(volts)

-2

-1

'p

'P

'P

E PK
(volts)

'P

'P

'P

50
100
150

200
250

300
350

400
Fig.

10-9

The Data Tables

72

EXPERIMENT

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

ANALYSIS GUIDE.

In analyzing these data,

10

VACUUM TUBE CHARACTERISTICS

you should examine your curves and compare them

to the principles of operation of the tubes as explained in the discussion.

why

In particular explain

the pentode curves do not look like diode characteristics whereas the triode curves do.

PROBLEMS
1.

Compute the

2.

Repeat problem

3.

Discuss briefly the trend in

4.

Do

a similar

static resistance of
1

at

Eq

each device at

Eq

= 0 volts and Ep = 200


K

Rp

= 0 volts and E ^ = 100


p

volts.

for each device using the values in problems

examination of the dynamic resistance

73

volts.

(r

p ) of the two devices.

and

2.

/ / BIASING VACUUM TUBE

experiment

INTRODUCTION. Some

electronic devices (transistors) respond to variations


a quiescent input current level. Other

biased by establishing

These devices are


tubes, for example) respond to variation

devices (vacuum
input voltage only and must, therefore, be
biased by

in

establishing quiescent input voltage level.

input current.

in

In this

experiment we

shall

consider ways of biasing

voltage-actuated devices.

DISCUSSION.

Let us review briefly the op-

eration of a triode

heater (or filament)

which determines the

vacuum tube. The tube


warms the cathode which

filament supply

plate electrode

by the applied

grid)

is

the negative grid bias


practical

case.

obvious way,
age supply.

is

C 1 and
into

bad

may be

This method

the figure,

in

an opera-

teristics, as

shown

the quiescent operating

we

use the output charac-

in figure 11-2.

in

which

supplied

in

For purposes of illustration, let us suppose that the circuit component values in
figure 11-1 are:

is

in

the

function to couple the

and out of the

resistor.

shown

Eg = 200
E

cir-

Q=

volts

3 volts

In this circuit the capac-

plate voltage supply


cuit

(the

point of the tube,

The first, and perhaps most


by using a separate bias volt-

cuit in figure 11-1.

signal

it

in

The

supplied with a negative bias voltage.

There are three different ways

itors

To determine

effectively control the


if

of the bias.

ting circuit.

plate potential.

instantaneous plate current flow

level

not shown

but must, of course, be present

emits electrons charging the space nearby.


The space charge electrons are attracted to the

The control grid can

is

and R
L

EQ

is

AC

We may

is

the

line

the plate

cir-

stage.
is

Eg

the grid bias supply

construct the

R|_ =

33 k ohms

RQ =

DC

megohm

plate circuit load-

from Eg on the plate voltage axis to


r = 6,06 mA on th e plate current
p = Eb^ L

axis.

The quiescent operating point of the

EXPERIMENT

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

located at the intersection of the

DC

loadline and the bias curve representing

Eq

tube

is

(-3 volts).
erating

We

plate

voltage

tube,

VACUUM TUBE

electrons collide with

cases this grid leakage current

mA.

(frequently about 0.1

jiiA)

This separate supply method of biasing

tube

only

in

is

occasionally used

in

shows

practice but

very special cases.

large value of

X
Br.

a circuit using this

cause the grid current

Rq

is

Triode Circuit With Grid Leak Bias

75

in a

the grid
In

most

very small

Figure 11-3

type of

bias.

Be-

quite small, a very

normally required to pro-

^Rf

Fig. 1 1-3

is

is

the

but can be used to

establish the grid bias voltage.

is

method. As plate current flows

some

wires causing a grid current to flow.

would be about 100


would

volts while the quiescent plate current

be about 3.2

BIASING

second method of biasing a tube

grid leak

see in figure 11-2 that the op-

11

EXPERIMENT

11

VACUUM TUBE

BIASING

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

ft

F/^. 1 1-4

vide practical values.

voltage

is

Triode Circuit With Cathode Bias

For example,

to be 3 volts and

R G must be

is

if

bias

0.1 juA, then

In

most cases

less

Rq

be about

will

megohm

or

and can be ignored.

analyzing a cathode-biased circuit, we


draw the plate circuit DC loadline using R
In

G ~

'G

= 30 megohms

~;

10~7

L
+ R K (that is, the loadline which extends
from p = E /(R + R
B
L
K to Eg), as shown in
figure 11-5 (assuming a value of 1000 ohms
for R ). Then we plot equation 10.1 on the
K
l

As

the case of the separate bias supply, grid leak bias is used
occasionally, but

only

in

in

output characteristics by choosing values of


E and solving for
Q
p The results in this case

very special cases.

bias

The third and possibly most common


method is called cathode or self bias. In

are

method, plate circuit current flowing into


the cathode electrode is used to produce
the
bias voltage. Such a circuit is shown
in figure
this

lp

= -E

G /R K

11-4.

E
In

this circuit, as in the previous ones,

the grid bias

may

be defined as the

to-cathode voltage.
equation,

If

we

DC

lp

(volts)

(mA)

-2

-3

-4

grid-

write the input loop

we have
These points are then plotted at O, Q, and P
=

"'g r g-'p r

in figure

line

And if R is not extremely large, then


Q
IqRq term may be ignored, giving us
E

-l

pR

<

11-5.

and the plate

Q-point of the

the

(11.1)
tics

76

The

intersection of Xh\s bias

circuit

DC

loadline

is

the

circuit.

pentode vacuum tube has characterisonly slightly different from those already

EXPERIMENT

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

Fig.

discussed.

1-5

it is

for a triode.

VACUUM TUBE

Determining the Q-Point With Cathode Bias

Bias for a pentode

lished just as

BIASING

11

may be
In

The

estab-

resistors

R-j

and R2 are a voltage

divider used to establish the screen voltage

the case of a

separate bias supply or grid leak bias, the analysis

is

identical to that of a triode.

"2

In the case

of cathode bias, the analysis differs only be-

G2-

EB

r^Tr^

cause the pentode's screen grid current must

be considered.

pentode

Figure 11-6 shows a typical

The capacitor C3

circuit.

is

the screen bypass capac-

itor used to hold the screen voltage constant.

77

EXPERIMENT

BIASING

11

VACUUM TUBE

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

PLATE VOLTAGE (VOLTS)


Fig. 1 1-7

The output

characteristics of the

be similar to those shown


In analyzing a

draw the plate


R K as before.

pentode

in figure

pentode

Locating the Q-Point of a Pentode

circuit,

circuit loadline using


In this

example

let

will

1-7.

we

Combining these three equations and


for

EpK

solving

renders

first

E PK = E

R L and

G2 R L +E G

(11 8)
-

us suppose

that the circuit values are:

R L = 20 k ohms

Using the circuit values and equation 1 1


.2, we
see that the screen voltage is 150 volts.
From

= 5 k ohms

the output characteristic


is

R G = 470 k ohms

Eg = 200

portion of the curves. Using this value

volts

relatively constant at 1.5

mA

9.6

we

from Eg = 200 volts


shown. To plot the bias

observe that the bias voltage

And

as

"'k R K

the plate circuit loop equation

mA) and

E pK = 230 + 28

is

B -l p R L

Finally,

we

-E pK

-l

KRK = 0

(l

G2
we can

Eq

is

(11.6)

E pK

notice that the cathode current

K - lp+ G2

Q2

linear

gives

(volts)

(volts)

-2

-3

-4

174

146

118

Plotting these values at points N, O, and


P on
the output characteristic, we see that the Qpoint is located at E
135 volts,

can be described by

Choosing values of -2, -3, and -4 volts for E


Q

(11.5)

EG
E

mA over the

the circuit components,


reduce equation 1 1.6 to

loadline will extend

to lg
line,

observe that

R 2 = 15 k ohms

1.5

The

we

R K = 740 ohms

(11.7)

3.2

78

mA, and E
Q

pK

-3.5 volts.

EXPERIMENT

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

11

BIASING

VACUUM TUBE

MATERIALS

ohm resistor 2W
6AU8 vacuum tube or equivalent

9-pin tube socket

150-ohm

Variable

18 k

resistor

2W

DC power supply

DC power supply (0-40V)


VOMsor FEMs
10 k ohm resistor 2W
Set of curves for 6AU8 tube

Variable

(0-400V)

-megohm

resistor

PROCEDURE
1

DC loadline for the circuit shown


6AU8 tube (triode section).

Plot the

the

in figure

1-8

on the output

characteristics of

10k

MEG
350V
150J2

Fig.

2.

The Triode Cathode Bias Circuit

1-8

Using equation 11.1 and the component values, plot the bias

line

on the triode output

characteristics.
3.

Locate the Q-point and record the values of Ep, p and Eq.

4.

Assemble the

circuit

and measure the quantities determined

in

step 3.

Don't forget the

filaments.
5.

Remove the

grid

and cathode

resistors

from the

circuit

and reconnect the

circuit as

shown

in figure 11-9.

DC

Record the reading as Eq.

6.

Set the meter to the lowest

7.

With the meter reading and the resistance of the meter, compute and record the grid

voltage range.

current (Iq).
8.

Measure and record the values of Ep and

9.

On

p.

the loadline used with the previous circuit, determine the value of

sponds to the values of Ep and

lp

measured

79

in step 8.

Record

Eq which

corre-

this value as loadline data.

EXPER'MBNT11

BIASING

VACUUM TUBE

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

10k

350V

Fig. 1 1-9

10.

Disassemble the triode circuit.

11.

On

The Triode Grid Leak Bias Circuit

the output characteristics of the pentode section of the


the circuit shown in figure 1 1-10.

6AU8

tube, plot the

DC

load-

line for

12.
13.

Compute and

record the value of the screen grid voltage E

Q2

Using the
Q2 curves on the output characteristics, estimate the value of G2 near the
middle of the range grid bias range. Record the value of your
estimate in the data table.
l

14.

Simplify equation 11.6 using the circuit component


values and plot the bias line on the

output characteristics.
15.

16.

Locate the Q-point and record the values of Ep,

p , and E Q

Assemble the circuit shown in figure 11-10 and measure E


p
Record these values in the data table.

p E P1
,

E r0 and

10k

350V

Fig. 1 1- 10

The Pentode Experimental Circuit

80

GZ

'

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT

Quantity

11

BIASING

'P

VACUUM TUBE

Loadline

Data

Measured
Data

Triode Cathode Bias Data

Quantity

'p

'g

XX X

Loadline

Data

Measured
Data

Triode Grid Leak Bias Data

Quantity

G2

g2

Ep

'P

G1

Loadline

Data

Measured
Data

Pentode Data
Fig.

11-11

The Data Tables

ANALYSIS GUIDE. The


bias voltage analysis.

In

objective of this experiment has been to examine graphical methods of


your analysis of the experimental data you should consider the extent to

which the graphical analysis accurately predicted actual

circuit

performance.

Also, consider the extent to which the analyses of the bias circuits of the various devices

were

similar.

PROBLEMS
1.

Would

grid leak bias

work

as well with a

pentode as with a triode?

Explain your

answer.
2.

Why was
this

3.

it

unnecessary to include screen grid and cathode bypass capacitors

in

experiment?

What would be the


plate current

bias

was 2.5

oh

a triode

if

the cathode resistance was

mA?
81

ohm

and the

1/

experiment

VACUUM TUBE AMPLIFIER


GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS

INTRODUCTION. The

basic application of a triode or pentode tube


is as a voltage amplifier
In
shall examine graphical methods of
determining the voltage gain and power
sensitivity of a vacuum tube amplifier.
this

experiment we

DISCUSSION. In analyzing the performance


vacuum tube amplifier it is first necessary

axis to

to establish the quiescent operating point.

values,

of a

this end, consider the circuit

12-1.

The loop equation

shown

DC

for the

To

which may be solved for

in

p = E BB /(R L + R K ) on the plate curIf we have the following


circuit

in figure

plate cur-

rent circuit will be

Ebb-'pRl-Epk-'pRk^

rent axis.

12 -1>

RL

=10k

R = 10 k ohms

RK

=270 ohms

Rq=

megohm

sin cot volts

E BB = 300 volts

the form

then the

DC

loadline will be as

shown

in fig-

ure 12-2.
'

=PK_ +

~R|_

+r k"

rl

BB

+r

If

we

write the grid-cathode loop equa-

tion assuming the grid current to be zero,

This

equation

represents

the

DC

which may be plotted on the triode output


characteristic from E
BB on the plate voltage

Fig. 12-1

we

have

loadline

EG +
R = 0
p K
l

Typical Triode Amplifier

82

(12.2)

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

100

EXPERIMENT

150

VACUUM TUBE ANAL YSIS

300

250

200

12

400

350

450

PLATE POTENTIAL (VOLTS)

Fig.

12-2

Locating the Triode's Q-Point

Solving equation 12.1 and 12.2 simultaneously

for

EpK

line

renders

and the bias

we have

line

we

operating point and

observe that the quies-

cent point values are E


1

E PK" E BB + E G

mA, and E Q -3

we

duce

this

can

re-

several

a triode
ient

volts, lp

it

works well for

FETs,

etc.).

vacuum tube,

In the special case of

it is

often

more conven-

to plot the bias line using only equa-

tion 12.2:

Choosing appropriate values for Eq and evaluating Ep|< gives us

EG

-2.5V

-3.0V

-3.5V

E PK

205V

186V

167 V

These points are plotted as the bias


ure 12-2.

At the

EG

line in fig-

intersection of the

DC

'P

load-

83

electronic devices (triodes, pentodes,

transistors,

= 300 + 38 E
G

185

locating the Q-point used

above was presented because

equation to

E pK

p^

volts.

The method of
Using the circuit values specified,

the quiescent

-2.5V
9.26

mA

-3.0V
11.1

mA

-3.5V
13.0

mA

EXPERIMENT

12

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

VACUUM TUBE ANALYSIS

'

Fig.

Using this method

is

The A C Equivalent Circuit

12-3

quicker than the one de-

scribed previously but

really

is

This

only practical

slope of -1/R'

frequently encountered.

shall

cuit.

If

voltage
are low

now

consider the

AC

equivalent

change

cir-

total effective
circuit will

AC

be the

in figure

12-3.

AI

of R
L
If

R,

and the plate

circuit loop equation

E pK +l

p R'L

we

let

AE pK
Al

(12.3)

L"RjJTR

becomes

(AE pK and comput)

change

in

plate

current

-AE PK

RI

= 50

volts,

50

= -

5X

10 3

then

-10mA

using values of R
L and R given previously.
Then starting at the Q-point, we move right
50 volts and down 10 mA to point P (see figure 12-4).
The AC loadline may then be
drawn passing through points P and Q.

=0

or

voltage

resulting

The

and R,

load resistance in the plate


parallel equivalent

loadline

(Alp) using equation 12.4:

power supply have impedances that


enough to be ignored, the AC equiv-

shown

AC

the

in plate

the

ing

the circuit capacitors and the plate

alent will be as

represents

This loadline may be plotted on the output characteristic by choosing an appropriate

With the Q-point conditions established,

we

equation

which passes through the Q-point and has

vacuum tube. Consequently,


more involved method is most

for the triode

the previous,

^~ E PK

With the

(12.4)

may determine
84

AC

loadline constructed

we

the voltage gain of the ampli-

EXPERIMENT

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

200

150

50

VACUUM TUBE ANALYSIS

450

400

350

300

250

12

PLATE POTENTIAL (VOLTS)


Constructing the

Fig. 12-4

fier.

If

the input

AC

signal (e

defined as the power output per rms input

sin cot)

volts squared:

swings two volts from peak-to-peak along the


AC loadline from -2 volts to -4 volts, the
plate voltage will swing

to about

230

from about 150

This

volts.

is

volts

a total peak-to-

peak swing of 80 volts and the voltage gain

Av =

-!o

AC Loadline

Power Sens =

(12.5)

E e2

is

Since the output power to the load

_80

is

given by

2
2

E
ro

The

negative sign indicates the phase reversal

(the

plate voltage goes positive as the grid

we may

write equation 12.5 as

voltage goes negative).

Power Sens =

The power

sensitivity of

an amplifier

,V\
-

Es

is

85

'

1
^=

IV

(12.6)

EXPERIMENT

12

VACUUM TUBE ANALYSIS

Inspection of the original circuit will


veal that the input current

re-

R Q (assuming the grid current to


Therefore, we may vary the input

current over a considerable range


by choosing
different values of R
Because of

tion,

e /R
s

,M R G__A
UJ~R~

A
a

= !o_foVR

-R-) (12.7)

p-.-TT-

when

this situa-

the current and power gains


of a vacuum
tube amplifier are usually of
only casual interest. They can, however,
be determined by
= 'L_
A: =-i

and

depends only on

the value of

be zero).

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

(12.8)

desired.

The
amplifier

graphical analysis of a pentode tube

the same as that of a triode tube


However, the screen current in a
pentode does flow through the cathode
resistor and must, therefore, be
considered in
is

amplifier.

de-

termining the Q-point.

MATERIALS
Vacuum tube type 6AU8 or equivalent
Set of triode and pentode
characteristics

1
1

for the tube

9-pin miniature tube socket


Variable DC power supply (0

1
1
1

VOMorFEM

Audio generator

400V)

Oscilloscope

//F50WVDC

capacitor

3 0.1 M F600WVDC capacitors


1

10

1
1

560 ohm resistor 2W


20 k ohm resistor 2W
33 k ohm resistor 2W
320 k ohm resistor 2W

ohm resistor 2W
k ohm resistors 2W

150

2 10

PROCEDURE
1-

Using the triode output


characteristics, plot the
ure 12-5.

DC

loadlinp of
of th
Q circuit
+
loadline
the

shown

in fig-

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

2.

EXPERIMENT

Plot the bias line and locate the Q-point.

3.

Compute the

value of the

4.

Assuming an

AC

AC

12

VACUUM TUBE ANALYSIS

Record the values of E

load resistance Rj_ and plot the

AC

pK

p , and E Q

loadline.

input voltage of 2 volts, peak-to-peak, determine the peak-to-peak


out-

put voltage.
5.

Determine the voltage gain and power

6.

Assemble the circuit (do not forget to connect the filament to


audio generator for zero output.

7.

Measure and record the values of E


pK ,

8.

sensitivity.

p and E Q
,

its

rated voltage). Set the

Connect the oscilloscope for measuring the audio generator signal and set the
generator
1 kHz.
Make a sketch of the input waveform.

for a 2-volt peak-to-peak output at

Move the

9.

oscilloscope to the output of the amplifier. Measure and record the


peak-topeak output voltage. Make a sketch of the output waveform.

10.

Using the values from steps 8 and 9, compute and record the value
of the amplifier's
voltage gain.

11.

Using measured values (and the value of R) compute and record


the power sensitivity
of the stage.

12.

Disassemble the circuit.

13.

Using the pentode output characteristics plot the

DC

loadline for the circuit

figure 12-6.

Fig.

12-6

The Pentode Experimental Circuit

87

shown

in

EXPERIMENT 12 VACUUM TUBE ANAL YSIS


14.

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

Repeat steps 2 through 12 using the pentode


in determining the Q-point.

circuit.

current

Do not forget to

include the screen

"
rUWcl

Qty.

E PK

EG

'P

(P-P)

Av

Sens.

Graphical

Values

Measured
Values

Fig.

12-7(a)

Triode Amplifier Data

Qty.

PK

"P

R'l

(P-P)

Power

Sens.

Graphical

Values

Measured
Values

Fig. 12-7(b)

Pentode Amplifier Data

ANALYSIS GUIDE. The

purpose of this experiment has been to compare


values arrived at
through graph.cal analysis to those measured in an actual
circuit. In analyzing these data you
should evaluate the extent to which this objective was
reached. In particular evaluate the effectiveness of loadline analysis in predicting circuit
performance.

PROBLEMS
1.

Explain

in quantitative

had on your
2.

terms the effect that ignoring the screen


current would have

results in the experiment.

Compute the reactances of the capacitors in the


experiment and compare each one
to the resistor it is working with. Do
you feel that the assumption used in the analysis (that the reactances could be
considered zero) was reasonable?

88

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

3.

What would have been the

EXPERIMENT

12

VACUUM TUBE ANALYSIS

voltage gain of the triode amplifier

the load resistor (R) had been

in

the experiment

if

megohm?

4.

Repeat problem 3 for the pentode

5.

Which of the two amplifier circuits


Would this always be the case?

circuit.
in

the experiment had the higher power gain?

89

experiment

INTRODUCTION. The
.

f le

electronic devices.

In this

an FETamDlifier.

FET AMPLIFIER
GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS

13

d effect transistor
iransisior is raniHiw
rapidly k
becoming one of the most important
experiment we shall examine t h
\_
*
the graphical

DISCUSSION. The quiescent operating point


FET amplifier shown in figure 13-1
may be determined by plotting the DC load-

of the

and the bias

line

13-2.

The DC

by writing the drain

may be

This equation
of

This line
ure 13-2 for circuit values of:

V DD = 20 volts
Rq = 1 megohm

constructed

R = 2200 ohms

circuit loop equation,

Vdd-'dRd-Vds-'d
may be

<

technique of analyzing

drain current axis.

as indicated in figure

line,

loadline

1 3.1)

To

is

shown

R D = 2200 ohms
Rg = 200 ohms
e = 0.3 sin cot volts
s

plot the bias line

we must

solved for

in

terms

V DD- D R D- V
DS- D R
,

RD + R
S

V DS .
V(
+

v dd- v ds-'d( r

V DD on the drain
V DD/(R D + R g on the

However, we

Fig. 13-1

.<?

=0

or

V DD
r^th;

This line extends from


voltage axis to

write the

output loop equation

V DS
-1

in fig-

Typical

is

recall that

the bias voltage (E

related to the drain current

FET Amplifier Circuit


90

=
d + rs 0

by D = -E /Rg.
G
I

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT

Fig.

Substituting this value of

13-2

into the loop

Plotting these points reveals that the Q-Point


is

located at

V GS w

which may be solved for

RD + R
S^

V DS

FET AMPLIFIER ANALYSIS

Locating the FET's Q-Point

equation gives

V DD" V DS + E G

13

V DS *

12V,

D *

-- 7V ^ as indicated

in

3.5

mA, and

figure

13-2.

These values could, of course, be measured

in a

functioning circuit.

rendering
If

we now

direct our attention to the

operation of the circuit,

'ds- v dd + e g

we

see that,

AC

if

the

various capacitors are assumed to be short

cir-

the input frequency, then the AC


equivalent circuit may be drawn as shown in
cuits

(13.2)

at

figure 13-3. (The drain supply, V


DD is also
assumed to be a short circuit so far as AC is
,

Using the circuit values specified above gives us

concerned.)

V DS
And

if

= 15 + 9.33E
G

we choose

-1 .00 volts for

The

values of -0.60, -0.80 and

Q we have

to an

total effective load (R

AC

equivalent of

Eq

V DS
1

(volts
(volts)
1

-0.6

-0.8

-1.0

12.8

10.4

8.0

R D and

91

L ) presented

drain current will be the parallel


R.

RDR

L~R

+ R

(13.3)

EXPERIMENT

13

Fig.

And

DS

13-3

The

AC Equivalent Circuit

the drain circuit loop equation will be

= H R
D L

or

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

FET AMPLIFIER ANALYSIS

To make the
compute

plot of the

line passing

<

13 4 >

this relationship as

an

AC

load-

through the Q-point and having

slope of -1/R

shown with

loadline,

we

first

-R ^ V DS

+ R
==

RDR

We may draw

AC

The previous

characteristic

2200 + 2200
(2200) (2200)

^-0,91 X 10"3 mhos

Then we compute the change in


D which
would accompany a chosen change in V

is

this line plotted in figure 13-4.

DS

<
H
2
LD

D
O
z
<
Q

10

12

14

DRAIN POTENTIAL (VOLTS)


Fig. 13-4

The

92

AC Loadline

16

18

20

W
ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS
we choose AV DS

If

EXPERIMENT

as +2.0 volts, then

we

13

FET AMPLIFIER ANALYSIS

The input current

a function of

is

Rq

have
AI

DS

AV DS =

= _

R^L

-0

91 X 10

X2
if

we move down

starting at the Q-point,

mA

.82

and over 2

we draw the AC

volts to point P.

loadline through P

AC

With the

Finally,

varied simply

and Q.

loadline plotted,

this

(13.5)

power

of only small interest


is

it

type

Power

gain (A

most

in

=
p

|Aj|

cases.

input

customary to discuss amplifiers of


terms of their power sensitivity.

sensitivity

is

defined as the power out-

AC signal

(e

= 0.3

sin cot)

be from approximately

10.1

volts to

which

is

volts

(E

= 13.9 - 10.1 volts).

p p

we may compute

Since

13.9

We may

^DS

'

the output power

voltage

therefore describe the output voltage as

(13.6)

using the resistance (R) and the rms output

peak-to-peak voltage of 3.8

is

E c2

The redrain-to-source voltage would

volts

Power sens =

swing from -0.4 volts to -1.0 volts.

|AJ)

How-

to the Q-point, the gate-to-source voltage will

sulting swing in

is

in

put per square rms volts of input. That

we apply the

be

by changing the value of Rq.

Similarly, the
is

ever,

If

usually of no interest.

we may

10
AV
p

may

Consequently, the current gain of the stage

defined as

is

As

zero.

's

determine several other factors of amplifier


performance. For example, the voltage gain
of the stage

is

the current gain (Aj =

result,

Then

FET

the gate current of the

mA

= -1.82

= -2R

<j0t

equation 13.6 becomes

The minus

sign indicates the

reversal (as

V^g

increases,

apparent phase

V^g

decreases).
(13.7)

The voltage

A v = Z
e

gain

is

= -1.9

therefore

which

sin cot

is

a convenient

6.33

0.3 sin cot

ical

form for use with graph-

data.

MATERIALS
1

MOSFET type 40468 or

Set of output characteristics for the

Transistor socket

VOMor FEM

10012 resistor 1/2

Audio generator

Oscilloscope

Variable

Sheet of linear graph paper

equivalent

FET

(0- 10

1/2W
-megohm resistor 1/2W
3 10-//F,50WVDC capacitors
1

1kS2 resistor

Resistance substitution box

93

megohm 1/2W)

DC power

supply (0

40V)

EXPERIMENT

13

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

FET AMPLIFIER ANAL YSIS

Fig. 13-5

The Experimental Amplifier Circuit

PROCEDURE
1.

On

the

FET output

characteristic, plot the

DC

loadline for the circuit

shown

in figure

13-5.
2.

3.

Also plot the bias

and locate the Q-point. Record the values of

Set the resistance substitution


characteristic.

4.

line

box

for 2.2k and plot the

Record the value of R


L

in

AC

V DS

loadline

D and V QS
,

on the output

the data table.

Graphically determine and record the values of the voltage gain and the power sensitivity.
e is one volt peak-to-peak.
s

Assume
5.

Repeat steps 3 and 4 for resistance substitution box values of 4.7k, 10k, 22k and 47k ohms.

6.

Assemble the
the

FET

circuit exercising appropriate precautions against electrostatic

gate insulation.

Set the input e

damage to

to zero and the resistance substitution box to

47k.
7.

Measure and record the values of

V DS

D and V GS
,

using a

VOM.

8.

Connect the oscilloscope for measuring the value of e


Set the audio generator for an
g
output of one volt peak-to-peak at a frequency of 1 kHz. Make an accurate sketch of the
input waveform.

9.

Compute and record the

10.

1 1

12.

value of the reactance (X

c)

of a 10-mF capacitor at

kHz.

Move the

oscilloscope to the output and record the peak-to-peak value of e


Q
accurate sketch.

Make an

Using the values of e and e


s
Q compute the actual voltage gain of the amplifier.
,

Compute the power


ting

and the value of

sensitivity of the amplifier using the resistance substitution

Av

determined

in

step

94

1 1

box

set-

EXPERIMENT

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

13

FET AMPLIFIER ANALYSIS

Repeat steps 7, 8, 10, 11, and 12 for resistance substitution box settings of 22k, 10k,

13.

4.7k, and 2.2k.

on the

Plot a curve of the amplifier voltage versus the load resistance (resistance

14.

hori-

zontal axis).

Xc @
V DS

(Volts)

V GS

D (mA)

kHz

(ohms)

(Volts)

Resistance

Box Value

4.7k

2.2k

10k

22k

47k

10k

22k

47k

RL =

\=
Power sens =
(A)

COMPUTED DATA

Resistance

Box

VQg

Setting

2.2k

4.7k

(volts)

Iq (mA)

V GS
e
e

(volts)

(volts p-p)
(volts p-p)

Power

sens.
(B)

Fig.

ANALYSIS GUIDE.
ity

13-6

MEASURED DATA
The Data Table

In analyzing these data,

of the analysis techniques used, and

you should be primarily concerned with the

in particular,

consider the following specific points:

Why?

1.

Did the Q-point shift as the load on the amplifier changed?

2.

Did the computed and measured values of voltage gain and power sensitivity agree?

3.

Did the input or output waveform change shape as the load changed?

95

Why?

valid-

EXPERIMENT

13

FET AMPLIFIER ANAL YSIS

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

PROBLEMS
1.

Would the Q-point of an FET shift if the total


drain circuit
was held constant wh.le the ratio of R to R
was
varied?
D
s

with a numerical example.


2.

certain amplifier has a

operating a
3.

0k ohm

load.

resistance (R

Mlustrate

power sensitivity of 0.01 watts per


What is the voltage gain?

D + Rs

youFanswer

volt squared

when

the load or a stage is increased (R is made


smaller), will the voltage gain
increase
or decrease? W.ll the current gain increase
or decrease? Will the power gain
increase
or decrease? Illustrate your answers with
an example showing the AC leadline
for
each case.
If

96

I/I SMALL-SIGNAL PARAMETERS

experiment

INTRODUCTION. In many practical cases, an amplifier must handle very small signal levels. In
this experiment we shall explore ways in which amplifier circuit analysis may be approached
when the

signal levels are

DISCUSSION.

In

too small to plot on the output characteristic curves.

analyzing the small signal

performance of an amplifier,

we

and

establish the

quiescent operating point using the bias and

= h
+ h Qe V CE
fe B

(14.2)

where:

When the very small AC signal is


applied, we assume that the variation around
the Q-point will be small and linear; then we
loadline.

consider only the

AC

h ie "

operation of the am-

9V BE

and

input resistance when

plifier.

h re

Consider the simplified amplifier stage

shown

in

figure

14-1.

(V BE ) and output current

The input voltage


(i
c must both be

9V BE

and

av CE

age amplification

(i

B ) and

(Vq E ).

fe=3iJ

and

amplification
In

many

cases the relationships used to


'oe

le'B

constant.

is

the reverse volt-

when

ig

is

constant.

is

the forward current

when Vq E

is

constant.

9ir

represent the transistor are

v BE-

is

Vq E

linear functions of the input current

the output voltage

the dynamic

is

3ii

+ h v
re CE

Fig. 14-1

and

is

output admittance when

(14.1)

9V CE

Simplified Amplifier Circuit

97

the dynamic
ig

is

constant.

EXPERIMENT

14

SMALL-SIGNAL PARAMETERS

Fig.

re

14-2

V CE(

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

Transistor

These quantities are referred to


as the hparameters for the common emitter
configu-

ration.

Hybrid Equivalent Circuit

much

Based on these equations, we can


draw
the hybrid equivalent circuit
of the transistor

shown

in figure 14-2.

Notice that equation


describes only the input half
of the

14.1

in

figure

equivalent circuit

shown

as

simpler equivalent circuit than the one

shown

One such

14-2.
is

simplified

the hybrid-ir arrangement

in figure 14-3.

In this equivalent circuit the


value of the

transconductance g
m

will

usually

be quite

close to

equivalent circuit, while equation


14.2 applies only to the output
side of the equiv-

m - 39

Iq

mhos

alent circuit.

and the input resistance

Take
this

is

particular notice of the fact that

the equivalent circuit of the


transistor
alone and does not include the
components
used with the transistor in an
is

amplifier circuit.

Most modern small-signal


transistors are
sufficiently linear that
we can usually use a

The main advantage of


alent

is

that

it

this small-signal equiv-

involves only the

~o

'BE

o-

-o
Fig.

14-3

The Hybrid-n Equivalent Circuit

98

two param-

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

Fig.

eters
ters.

EXPERIMENT

14-4

Simplified

Vacuum Tube Amplifier

and g m instead of the four h-parameAlso it includes parameter changes due to

ait

in

the g
m definition.

Vacuum tubes may be analyzed in very


much the same way. For example, consider
the simplified
figure 14-4.

(i

p)

must be

and

de.

is

the dynamic trans-

conductance when ep

is

constant.

3ep

vacuum tube circuit shown in


As before, we observe that the

output current

Circuit

where:

Q-point shift by using Iq

SMALL-SIGNAL PARAMETERS

14

and

is

(plate) resistance

a function of the

the dynamic output

when e^

is

constant.

output voltage (ep) and some input variable.

From

Since the input current {\q) will be zero for


practical purposes, then
a 9e

e Q^ as t 1e
'

frequently used

we

equation

lent circuit for a

use the input volt-

n P ut variable.

this

figure 14-5.

The equation

This

we can draw

vacuum tube
is

the equiva-

as

shown

in

the equivalent circuit of

the tube alone and does not include other am-

is

plifier circuit

components.

(14.3)

Fig.

14-5

It is

worth noting

at this point that there

The gm eQ Equivalent Circuit for Vacuum Tubes

99

EXPERIMENT

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

SMALL-SIGNAL PARAMETERS

14

r
e

1
Fig.

is

a third

signal

14-6

The e G Equivalent Circuit for Vacuum Tubes

commonly used vacuum tube

parameter called

product of g and r
m
p

M=

mu

(//)

which

smallis

the

figure

14-6.

we

m rp

(14.4)

multiply equation 14.3 by

'P

9m r P e G +

3i

/3e

3ip

M
If

Returning to the definition of

M(M = g m r p ) and recalling that g


m =
while r = 3e /3i
we
have
p
p
p

3e

p we have

3e
'

p _ 3e p
"

3i^

3^

Consequently, ju may be interpreted as the


forward voltage amplification factor when
p

or

is

=
P

'P

P "

constant.

Both of the vacuum tube equivalent cirThe first one (figure 14-5) is
usually used with pentode tubes while
the
second (figure 14-6) is most useful with

9m r P e G

cuits are useful.

And

since

jjl

= g r we have
m p
,

p = p r p -jue G

Using this equation,

vacuum tube

we may draw

equivalent circuit, as

Fig.

triodes.

(14.5)

14-7

Field effect transistors are also frequently


a

second

shown

used as small-signal amplifiers.

in

shows

Simplified

100

a simplified

FET

FET Amplifier Circuit

Figure 14-7

amplifier circuit.

EXPERIMENT

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

As before, we can observe that the drain


a function of the drain voltage

and the gate voltage (\q

0).

frequently used to describe the

The equation

FET

SMALL-SIGNAL PARAMETERS

An FET Equivalent Circuit

Fig. 14-8

current will be

14

Let's
closely.
sistor

look at the second method more

The

je

and h re for a tran-

may be approximated from

characteristic.

is

values of h

hj

is

(14.6)

the input

defined as

av BE
ie"

dl

and may be approximated by

same as g m
D
m
and rp for a vacuum tube. We can draw the
equivalent circuit shown in figure 14-8.

where

and

are defined the

In the case of

an FET,

we can

also define

when Vqe

= g r
m D However, the m factor
used in analyzing FET circuits.
.

The

is

constant.

This relationship can


in figure

14-9a.

rarely

small-signal parameters for a parti-

cular device (transistor, tube, or

determined

in several

FET) may be

ways:

<

H
Z

Manufacturers often supply data sheets

(a)

ie

be evaluated graphically as indicated

the forward voltage amplification factor as


li

is

AV BE

LU

showing typical parameter values.

cc

They may be approximated

(b)

using the

LU

input and output characteristics of the


device.

They may be measured.

(c)

The
ther

wish

first alternative will


in

to

this

discussion;

look at

some

not be examined

fur-

however, you

may

typical

0,1

0.2

0.3

0.4

BASE-EMITTER VOLTAGE

data sheets
Fig. 14-9a

yourself.

101

Approximating h je

EXPERIMENT
On

SMALL-SIGNAL PARAMETERS

14

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

the other hand,


h

3V BE

9V CE

re

can be approximated by

when
this

\q

is

re

constant.

approximation

On

is

BE

AV CE
Graphic evaluation of

shown

the other hand, h

in

figure 14-9b.

being defined as

fe

0.1

0.3

0.2

0.4

0.5

BASE-EMITTER VOLTAGE

fe"^-

B
Fig.

may be approximated by

Determining h
re Graphically

and can be approximated using

Al n

if

14-9b

- ^| when V CE
B

is

constant
h
n

while

oe

when

AV CE

lg

is

constant

These two parameters may be found graphi-

^oe

cally using the transistor

av CE

output characteris-

tics as indicated in figure 14-10.

40

B = 40 /uA

30
30

10

12

20 juA

mA

10mA

14

COLLECTOR VOLTAGE

DETERMINING h
Fig. 14-

10

10

12

14

COLLECTOR VOLTAGE
h

(A)

mA

mA

20 iiA

10

mA

e =

(B)

A^E =2i^= 83X10

mhos

DETERMINING h-PARAMETERS GRAPHICALLY

Determining h-Parameters Graphically

102

"6

EXPERIMENT

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

14

SMALL-SIGNAL PARAMETERS

For Tubes
dep

For FETs

AEp

de
r

9ip
35

&

AU
9

AE D
AI

D ^ Alp
9e ~AE
G
G

ai

D-3i D

^ AEp
^-3e G ~AE G |p= K
3ep

parameter values for tubes

Small-signal

and Field Effect transistors are determined


the same

way

voltmeter.

Of

as those illustrated above.

their

parameters

small-signal

approximations used are shown

in

(Vpg)

The

resistor

the table

AC

is

ammeter. At the same

and the source

C<|

We may,

bypass capacitor Cg.

fore, calculate the value of g

ammeter reading

voltmeter reading

measuring the small-signal parameters

we

(3i

held constant at the Q-point value

is

dividing the

of a device,

drain current

by the bypass capacitor

above.
In

AC

measured by the

is

time, the value of the drain-to-source voltage

may be found

using only the output characteristics.

which

The varying

measured with the

FETs and tubes do not require


amounts of input current, all of

course, since
significant

OVgg)

voltage

in

(in

(in

there-

mhos) by

amps) by the

(in volts):

hold one variable constant,


9ir

vary a second, while measuring a third as well

For example,

as the first two.

if

we

9m

wish to

measure the g
m of an FET, the circuit shown
in figure 14-11 could be used. The quiescent

We

when Vpg

is

constant

GS
shall

use methods similar to the one

operating conditions are established as usual.

above to measure some of the small-signal

The audio generator provides

parameters.

audio

f~

generator!

a varying gate

Fig.

14-11

Circuit for Measuring

103

gm

EXPERIMENT

SMALL-SIGNAL PARAMETERS

14

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

MATERIALS
1

MOSFET type 40468

Transistor type 2IM1304 or equivalent

Complete

or equivalent

2 220-ohm resistors

ohm resistor
1.8k ohm resistor
2.2k ohm resistor
10 mF BOW VDC capacitors

Set of

Audio generator

above devices

Transistor socket

DC supply (0 40V)
VOMsor FEMs
330k ohm resistors 2W
Variable

2
2

1k

set of characteristics for

vacuum tube output

characteristics

PROCEDURE
%

Using the transistor output characteristics,


graphically determine the value of h, near
fe
= 2 volts and
= 25 A.

V CE
2.

Assemble the

circuit

jit

shown

in

figure 14-12.

10V

AUDIO

"

GENERATOR

Fig. 14-

3.

Connect

12

Circuit for Measuring

h fe

meter across the 330k resistor and set the audio


generator for
1 kHz.

a reading of

2.5 volts rms at


4.

5.

Compute and

record the

7.

base current 3ig.

Connect another meter across the 220-ohm collector


at this point (e

6.

AC

Compute and
Compute

fe

AC

resistor

).

record the

Record

AC

collector current

this value as a

9i

measured quantity.
104

and record the

AC

voltage

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

8.

Using the

FET output

V DS

= 7 volts and

near
9.

Assemble the
electrostatic

circuit

damage

EXPERIMENT

characteristic, graphically

V QS

shown

= -1 .0

in

the region

14-13.

in figure

Observe the necessary precautions to prevent

13

Circuit for Measuring r

kHz and the output

level for

readable

on the two meters.

AC

11.

Record the

12.

With the

13.

Compute and

14.

With the
10 volts

VOM

voltage from drain-to-source as


reading,

9V D g,

compute and record the

AC

drain current 3i

record the value of rp.

FET output characteristics,


and D = 6 mA.

graphically determine the value of g

near

V DS

shown

15.

Assemble the

16.

Adjust the audio generator to


rately.

determine the value of

volts.

Adjust the audio generator output frequency to


values

SMALL-SIGNAL PARAMETERS

to the FET.

Fig. 14-

10.

14

circuit

Record this value as

in figure

14-14.

kHz and
3VQg.
1

VTVM

reading just large enough to read accu-

17.

Measure and record the voltage across the 220-ohm drain

18.

Compute and record the AC

19.

Compute and

record g
m

drain current, 9ip.

105

resistor.

(e

A Q>

EXPERIMENT

14

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

SMALL-SIGNAL PARAMETERS

-VNAr

m
"

40468

10juF

AUDIO

GENERATOR

220to

1k

10juF

22on

'1.8k

10mF
30V

jFig.

14-14

Circuit for Measuring g.

fe

Values from
Characteristic curves

Transistor

FET

Data

Data

9V DS
e

AC

9i

9V GS

fe

AC

9m

Fig.

14-15

The Data Table


106

9m

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

ANALYSIS GUIDE.

EXPERIMENT

In analyzing these data,

14

SMALL-SIGNAL PARAMETERS

you should discuss each

circuit used

and the extent

to which your graphically determined values agreed with the measured values.

PROBLEMS
1.

Using the output characteristics of the transistor, graphically determine the values
of h

2.

je ,

re ,

and h
Qe

With the vacuum tube characteristics supplied with the experiment, determine the
m r p and ju near E = 250 volts, Eq = -2 volts.

values of g
3.

Draw

4.

Explain

a circuit

pK

diagram for measuring the m of a triode vacuum tube.

how you would

determine g m and

107

for a transistor.

INTRODUCTION.
we

shall

TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER
SMALL-SIGNAL ANALYSIS

15

experiment

Transistors are frequently used as small-signal amplifiers.

examine the performance of such an amplifier using the

DISCUSSION. The common emitter amplifier


shown in figure 15-1 is one of the most widely
used transistor amplifier circuits.
cent operating conditions

The

we

shown

we can

AC

simplify

operit,

If

in figure 15-3.

get figure 15-3b

GRB

e
s

B
Using this circuit

compute R B and R using


L

V BE
RtR 2

we can

RG + R

=
'C

B r 7T

9m V BE

'CC

Fig. 15-1

> CE

Typical Transistor Amplifier Circuit

108

write input and

and

R2

we

GRB

output loop equations

R 1 + R0

hy-

have the circuit

will

To

its

simplify the input circuit using

as

R 1 and R 2 appear to be in
do R c and R. We may, therefore,

we

shown

source,

KB

Rc + R

replace the transistor with

equivalent

in figure 15-2.

parallel as

we

brid-7r

The component values


may be found by observing that, from the

signal

RCR

may be determined

are interested in only the

ation of the circuit,

small-signal parameters.

RiL =

using the customary graphical techniques of

If

experiment

and

quies-

loadline analysis.

In this

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT

CIRCUIT WITH TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT

(A)

(B)

Fig.

CIRCUIT WITH INPUT SIMPLIFIED

15-3

The Hybrid-it Equivalent

can use these two equations to find the

five basic amplifier parameters.

3.

2.

The current

The

gain (Aj = \qI\^)

voltage gain (A

V CE /V BE

The power
=

These param-

eters are:
1

TRANSISTOR ANAL YS/S

The Simplified AC Equivalent Circuit

Fig. 15-2

We

15

IAj|

gain (A p

109

Vce'C^BE'B

|A V |)

4.

The input

5.

The output

resistance (Rj
resistance (R

Each of these quantities

will

=
0

V BE /ig)
=

V CE /i c

be discussed

indi-

EXPERIMENT

TRANSISTOR ANAL YSIS

15

Fig. 15-4

vidually after

we

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

The Hybrid Amplifier Equivalent Circuit


output current to the input current

have examined another equiv-

alent circuit.

we

If

replace the transistor with

brid equivalent,

we

will

its

hy-

have the hybrid equiv-

This has been done


The input circuit has also been
further simplified by using its Th^venin's
alent of the entire stage.

From equation 15.2 we have

in figure 15-4.

'C

= h
+ h V
fe'B
oe CE

equivalent:

RG R B

e
d

And from the hybrid


15-4), we see that

GRB

For the input circuit of the transistor we

V CE-

may

write the equation

V BE
And

five

tVB

_i

CR L

Combining these two relationships we have

+h V
re CE

for the output circuit

We

equivalent circuit (figure

we

write

= h
+ h V
fe'B
oe CE

c -h fe B -h oe c R L
i

Collecting the i^ terms renders


(15.2)
'C

'choe^-hfe'B

can use these two equations to find the


basic

amplifier

parameters

listed

prei

viously.

cussed

in

Each of these quantities are

dis-

the following paragraphs.

Current Gain.

As suggested above, the

rent gain of an amplifier

=
c (1+h oe R L
)

fe

Therefore,
'C

cur1

is

the ratio of the

'B

110

1+h oe R L

(15.3)

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

15-5

Fig.

This equation

is

EXPERIMENT 15

commonly used

the current gain of a

common

TRANSISTOR ANAL YSIS

Signal Current in an Amplifier Stage

to calculate

or

emitter tran-

sistor amplifier.

'C

should be noted at this point that,


since h
Qe R L is often much much less than
unity, then

=,

Rc

o^

+R

It

ratio of

(15.4)

^fe

is

The

to ig

is

the current gain

Aj,-

therefore,

_ic_

o tR c +R)(R B

+R

)
i

frequently a valid approximation for the

current gain.

which may be rewritten as


Equations 15.3 and 15.4 apply only to
the transistor, not to the circuit as a whole.
Returning to the original circuit, we see that
could be redrawn as shown in figure 15-5
the AC action alone is considered.

R B RC
(R B +

RjMR c +

R)

it

if

The

circuit

The base

signal current

is

Q /i can be interpreted as the whole


gain (&) and we have

ratio

related to the

generator current by

R B R c Aj
R.

<R

=
B L9 R + Rj
B

while the output current


collector current

+R)

(15.5)

for the entire amplifier circuit.

related to the

by

Jlc

'o

is

B + Rj)(R c

'C

Voltage Gain.

c+R

Solving for the voltage gain of

a transistor stage

111

is

somewhat more involved

EXPERIMENT

TRANSISTOR ANALYSIS

15

than solving for the current gain. As indicated


previously, the voltage gain

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

V CE

Collecting

left gives

terms on the

us

is

V CE A h + V CE ^=- h fe V BE
or

To determine

we must

this ratio

solve equa-

tions 15.1 and 15.2 simultaneously.

the best method

by the use of determinants.

is

Therefore

The equations to be used


= h

V BE

ie

V CE(^h + ^)=-hfeV B E

Perhaps

are

+ h V
re CE

Av =

(15.1)

'CE

^fe

A h + h ie/ R L

V BE

and

And
'C"

+ h V
fe'B
oe CE

(15.2)

Vq^

These equations may be solved for

if

we

multiply both the numerator and

denominator by

re-

A vw =

sulting in

v CE

h V
ie'C- fe BE
h h
" h fe h re
ie oe

we

R|_,

fe

+
ie

have

RL

(15.7a)

Ah R L

The denominator of

which

is

an h-parameter equation that can be

used for finding the voltage gain of a

When

emitter transistor amplifier.


this expression

is

common

the hybrid-

usually
7r

equivalent

is

used, the voltage gain

is

simply

called delta-h(Afr).

Ah

= h h
ie oe

" h fe h re

Av =

(15.6)

Actually

symbol for the denominator,

Using the

from the
h

ie'C" h fe V BE

From the

= n
ie

C-

itself.

V BE

we

and

is

appropriate

However, since

see that

V CE

then the whole circuit gain (K = e /ej)


v
Q
equal to the value given in equation 15.7.

n fe V BE

equivalent circuit (figure 15-4)

=
in

(15.7b)

equation

original circuit

or

V CE A h

this

mR L

only for the transistor

we have
_

-g

we

KV = A V

is

(15.8)

see
r

CE

Power Gain. The power gain of an amplifier


may be most easily found by determining Aj
and Av as described above and then using

We may therefore write

V C EA h

Ap =

h ie V CE

-^kf=-hfe V BE
112

|Aj|

|A V

(15.9)

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

And

for the

whole amplifier

K =
p

|Kj|

EXPERIMENT

circuit:

TRANSISTOR ANA L YSIS

15

or

IKJ

(15.10)

!=

YBE

>B

input resistance

we

To

And

since

Placing

with equation 15.2.

of the right side terms over the

all

=
C n fe B + h oe V CE

gives us

p _

c = -V CE /R L we may write
,

V CE_
~R7"-

ie

+ h h
ie

oe R L

fe

+h v
oe CE

fe re

RL

two numerator terms

gives

d ^
i_

+h oe V CE

- h

^e^L

Factoring R|_ from the

ie

+ h h
h h
ie oefe re)
(

1+h oe R L

"

-hfei B
Finally,

V CE

'

or

Factoring

solve for the amplifier's

start

common denominator
i

ie_:rTho^I

Input Resistance.

fe re

we

observe that the terms within the


parentheses is the quantity previously called

out of the lefthand terms

A n We may therefore write


.

+
Vrc
CE -5R
V L

h rt

J
=-hn (fe'B

h
R: =
1

or
"h

R,

Ah R L
(15.11)

1+h oe R L

fe'B

Using this h-parameter equation we may compute the input resistance of the common emitter amplifier. For the hybrid-7r equivalent, Rj

+h oe

Multiplying both denominator and numerator


by R L gives us
-n

ie

fe B
_
V CE_1+h

'

equal t0

As before,
the transistor

RL

this

equation applies only to

itself,

not to the amplifier as a

whole.

R
oe L
In figure 15-5,

Substituting this relationship


15.1 (V

into equation

BE = h je B + h re V CE for
i

V BE

- "ie'B -

Then factoring

V CE

in

fe
- re

sistance of the

whole

we

see that the input re-

circuit will

be

renders
(15.12)

RL

+ ho R
B
; L
i

Output Resistance.

We may

determine the

value of the Thevenin's equivalent output im-

the righthand terms

pedance (R =
0

VQ E /i c

by

starting with equa-

tion 15.1.

fe re L
lh
V BE-'Bihie-fTh^

V BE
113

= h

ie

+ h V
re CE

(15.1)

EXPERIMENT

TRANSISTOR ANAL YSIS

15

Observing from the hybrid equivalent circuit


(figure 15-3) that

if

v BE

is

short-circuited, then

_i

B RS

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

therefore write

Ah

Using this relationship

+ h oe R S
R
h
ie* S

equation 15.1

in

we

Finally, since R equals V


Q
CE /i c we
the reciprocal of each side and have
,

have

may

take

-'BRs^ie'B + hreVcE
(15.13)
Collecting ig terms on the lefthand side gives

R S" h ie'B- h re v CE

-'B

which
use

the h-parameter equation

is

in

we

shall

determining the value of R Q for the


alone.
When using the hybrid-^

transistor
i

B (R s

je

)--h re V CE

it

which may be rewritten

in

we assume

equivalent

that R Q

is

so large that

can be ignored.

the form

The output impedance of the


h

re

V CE

(excluding the load resistor R) will be the par-

""hie + R S

combination of

allel

Substituting this value of ig into equation

15.2

(i

c=

fe

entire stage

Rq and R Q

RCRQ

(15.14)

B + h oe V CE gives us
)

For the hybrids circuit Z


Q
equal to Rq.

is

approximately

'c-^eVcE-hJ+Rg^E
To
Dividing both sides of the equation by

Av

Vq E

eters

renders

use the equations developed for Aj,

and R Q the values of the h parammust be known. They may, of course,

Ap,

Rj

be determined from the input and output


h

_,

'C

characteristics of the transistor.

fe re

In

a practical situation, the

problem

is

frequently the measurement of the circuit


Placing

all

of the righthand terms over the

common denominator

parameters rather than their calculation.

provides

this point

niques
'C

'CE

ie

oe-

fe re

ie

+ h R
oe S

we

appropriate

for

carrying

first

as those

+R S

two numerator terms

we

out these

measurements.
Voltage Gain Measurement.

The

At

turn our attention to tech-

shall

are the

have been calling A^.

same

of an amplifier

We may

may

the circuit shown

114

The

voltage gain

be readily measured using

in figure

15-6.

An

appro-

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT

15

TRANSISTOR ANAL YSIS

LOAD R

Fig.

priate signal

is

15-6

Measuring Voltage Gain

applied while the values of the

readily be

input and output voltage are measured with

The voltage

voltmeters.

gain

is

shown

then

measured using a

in figure 15-7.

put current

is

<o4

(15.15)

p.
e

circuit of the

In this circuit

in

while the input current

Current Gain Measurement.


uation

it

gain that

is

is

In a practical sit-

normally the whole circuit current

is

of interest.

*9

This quantity can

LOAD

Fig. 15-7

Measuring Current Gain

115

Rj

type

the out-

EXPERIMENT

15

TRANSISTOR ANAL YSIS

Fig.

The current

15-8

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

Measuring Input Resistance

gain of the amplifier circuit

is,

very high resistance),

therefore

e;

we may
e

write

*in

or
(15.16)
(15.17)

Input Resistance Measurement.

The input

resistance of an amplifier circuit can be de-

termined

in

number of ways.

One

of the

ways is illustrated in figure 15-8. Since the


same current (i
flows through both Rj and
g
R jn (assuming the two voltmeters to be of
)

Output Resistance Measurement. The measurement of the output resistance of an amplifier

is

slightly

more involved than were the


It can, how-

three previous measurements.


ever, be carried

one shown

out using

in figure 15-9.

a circuit

such as the

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPE RIMENT

the equivalent generator voltage


e
A is
held constant, then the
output loop equation
with only load R connected
will

TRANSISTOR ANAL YSIS

15

If

be

^-'oRo-'o""
e

And

since

o( R o + R

Tr(R 0 +

Since e

'

is
is

the

two equations

is

R>

R Q renders

(15.18)

ft'*)
which allows us to determine
R Q using the
load voltage measurements
and the two

two

load resistance values.

Rj

now
The value of Rj should be chosen to
provide a change in output
voltage of about 10
percent.

A=#(R 0+

R')

MATERIALS

2N1304 transistor (or equiv)


Set of transistor curves for the
above
Transistor socket

Breadboard with

1
1

47k

clip terminals

1/2W

7.5k resistor 1/2W


2 2.2k resistors 1/2W

470-ohm

resistor

10-MF50WVDC

capacitors

Variable DC power supply


(0-40V)
Audio generator

VOMsor FEMs

Oscilloscope

220-ohm

1.8k

1/2W

box

megohms 1/2W)

Resistance substitution

(15-10

resistor

the

R')

'

we may equate

Solving this relationship for

RR;

and the loop equation

for e

we connect load R, in parallel


with
load R, the total load (R')
becomes

R +

value of output voltage.

#(R 0 + R)=^(R 0 +

if

R' =

new

held constant,

= e /R, we have
Q
e

Then

where

ohm

resistor
resistor

2W
1/2W

PROCEDURE

"

Z ^^T^T

4.

Assemble the

circuit neatly

on

,he discussion ' compu,e and record

a breadboard.

117

K" K

EXPERIMENT 15

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

TRANSISTOR ANAL YSIS

J
Fig.

15-10

The Experimental Circuit

5.

Using a meter, measure and record the values of

6.

Construct the audio generator circuit shown

7.

Connect the audio

in figure

Iq,

in parallel

with the 2.2k

and

Also connect the oscilloscope to

load resistor.

Adjust the output of the audio generator to a frequency of


that which

lg.

15-11.

signal to the input of the amplifier.

the output of the amplifier


8.

Vq^,

kHz and

produces a visibly distorted sinewave at the amplifier

output

1.8k

AUDIO

GENERATOR
2200

Fig.

15-11

AUDIO
SIGNAL

Audio Generator with Voltage Divider


118

a level well

below

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

9.

10.

EXPERIMENT 15

TRANSISTOR ANALYSIS

Record the peak-to-peak audio output voltage.

Move the

oscilloscope to the amplifier input terminals


and record the peak-to-peak audio

input voltage.
1 1

12.

Record the value of

Kv thus

measured.

Using the appropriate techniques and the


resistance substitution box for
record Kj,

Qty

R jn and R
Q

V CE

R if measure and
1

'c

ie

fe

re

oe

Kv

K,

R in

Ro

Computed
Values

Measured
Values

Fig.

ANALYSIS GUIDE.
to which the

15-12

The Data Table

In analyzing the results of this

experiment, you should consider the extent


ones. Explain any major disagreement

computed values agreed with the measured

between them.

PROBLEMS
1.

If

the value of h

|e

for a particular transistor changed

would R change? Assume that


jn
2. Will Kj
3.

Is

R0

always be greater or

less

all

than Aj?

a linear or nonlinear quantity?

by 100 percent, how much

other quantities remained constant.

Why?

Why do you

119

think so?

experiment

VACUUM TUBE AMPLIFIER


SMALL-SIGNAL ANALYSIS

16

INTRODUCTION. The vacuum

tube amplifier, while not the most popular circuit, is still found
this experiment we shall examine some of the more important

some electronic applications. In


vacuum tube amplifier parameters.
in

DISCUSSION.

In

this

experiment we

shall

If

consider both triode and pentode amplifier


circuits.

Because

it

is

slightly simpler

we assume

negligible,

(no

that the grid current \q

is

then the input resistance becomes

equal to the value of the grid resistor (Rq).

screen grid current), the triode will be considered

first.

R in" R
G
Triode Amplifiers.
plifier

is

quiescent

shown

in

operating

basic triode

figure

16-1.

point

is

am-

The DC

located

In order to

using

determine the value of the

stage voltage gain,

conventional loadline analysis techniques.

AC

plate current

we must observe

is

The AC characteristics of the amplifier


can be examined using the equivalent circuit
shown

(16.1)

in figure 16-2.

BB

R,

that the

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT

VACUUM TUBE AMPLIFIER

16

AW

K 6-

Fig.

where R'
L

and

is

the parallel combination


of R,

Also,

the

the cathode

if

(16.3)

+ R

adequately bypassed by
(Z
at
^
the
0
signal frequency), then
K
is equal to e
We may therefore rewrite

AC

jn

we now have

RLR

Ri

CK

Equivalent Circuit of a Triode


Amplifier

R.

r;

16-2

is

plate current equation as

as the voltage gain of


the triode amplifier.

The
amplifier

Me in

'P-r p+

we can

while the output load current

'o

Therefore

The current

nce

*. overa,,

Rg

observe

0 --i p R'L

by noting that

L
'm

it

is

R'

the equivalent circuit


that the output voltage is

si

can, however, determine

the input current

From

And

gain of a vacuum tube


of only casual interest
because

the tube does not respond


to current inputs.

We
i

current
is

is

= e /R
o

gain

is

then

p + Rj_

vo lte9e sain

is

Z^o^Yn^Z

defined a S

may be determined, however,


(16.2)

Kn =

121

IK,

IK V/

in

the usual way:

(16.5)

EXPERIMENT

16

The output

VACUUM TUBE AMPLIFIER

resistance (R

of the triode

stage (Thevenin's equivalent resistance) can be

determined by removing the load resistor (R


in figure 16-2) and examining the remaining

between the output terminals. When


done, we see that R
Q is simply R|_

resistance
this

and

is

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

in parallel.

Pentode
triode

tube,

Amplifiers.

the case of a

the output characteristics are

similar to those of a constant voltage source


(a

small change in e

large

change

in

).

produces a relatively
p
Hence, we usually see a

p
constant voltage equivalent circuit to represent
a triode.

From the output


pentode tube we see
(16.6)

large
in

In

ip

changes

in e

16-3

Typical Pentode Amplifier

122

that

even

relatively

produce only small changes

(figure 16-3).

inO

Fig.

characteristics of

As

a result,

we

usually

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT

use a constant current equivalent


circuit to
represent a pentode amplifier. We
can arrive
at the pentode equivalent circuit

VACUUM TUBE AMPLIFIER

16

output resistance

is

by Norton-

izing the circuit given in figure


16-2.
this we short circuit the output

To do

(16.6)

terminals and

compute the

circuit current,

which

_e

and since n/r


p

Then because

m we may
,

(i

Q through load R)

write
'o

m e G R^Tr

9m G

the internal resistance of the


draw the constant current

shown

in figure 16-4.

of course, only applies for

circuit,

to the triode case.

The output current

is

equivalent circuit

identical

be

will

And
r

we may

tube,

Me G

equal to g

is

'>

also

is

AC

the current gain becomes

This

quan-

The DC parameters are found using


conventional loadline techniques.
tities.

From

this

equivalent

R in
if

ig

if

is

cathode

is

Similarly,

circuit

we

see

equal to e
is

as

is

that

The power

=R G

jn ,

(16.1)

the case

effectively bypassed

gain

may

when the

by C
K>

be determined as

before with

zero as was the case for a triode.


if

the load (R)

Kp =
is

IK,

removed, then the

Fig.

16-4

The Pentode Equivalent Circuit

123

IK

(16.5)

EXPERIMENT

Finally, the voltage gain can

denominator

be found by

toR 0

recognizing that

e0 =

-i

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

VACUUM TUBE AMPLIFIER

16

in

equation 16.8

may be reduced

RQ + R

R=-9meG^R

RQ

if

R0

and the voltage gain becomes

And

the voltage gain

is

K v ~-g m R

r0 r

(16.8)

n R + R
Q

e in

(16.9)

Amplifier Measurements.
the case with other amplifiers, the five

Vacuum Tube
when eg =

As

ej

in

is

basic circuit

One
value of

special case

R0

is

much

is

of interest.

larger

If

parameters (Kv Kj, K p , Rj n ,


be measured using the arrange-

and R 0 ) may
ments shown in

the

than R, then the

figure 16-5.

e
K =

K p = Kv
l

Kjl

(A)

(B) Ft,

Fig.

16-5

FOR BEST RESULTS

Measuring Amplifier Parameters

124

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT

(C)

R1
e

e Q'

Fig.

16-5

VACUUM TUBE AMPLIFIER

^Rjn FOR BEST RESULTS

16

CONSTANT FOR BEST RESUL TS

is

o with R connecte d
'

^0.9 e Q

for best results

Measuring Amplifier Parameters (Cont'd)

125

EXPERIMENT 16

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

VACUUM TUBE AMPLIFIER

MATERIALS
1
1

Vacuum tube 6AU8


Complete

set of

z n
*

or equivalent

output

characteristics

hP finOVW \/nr ranapitnrc

muqio genciaiur
Resistance buuoLiiuuun uux

9 pin miniature tube socket


Breadboard

7.5k resistor 1/2W

VOM

1/2W
150ft resistor 1/2W
300k resistor 1/2W

Variable

1.8k resistor

22012

1
1

1
1
1

10k

10

resistor

juF,

50W VDC

or

FEM
DC power

supply (0-400V)

1/2W

resistor

2W

capacitor

PROCEDURE
1.

the triode characteristic curves, locate the quiescent operating point for the circuit

On

shown

in figure 16-6.

Record the values of Eq, Ep, and

p.

Fig.

16-6

The Experimental Amplifier

126

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT

VACUUM TUBE AMPLIFIER

16

1.8k

AUDIO

GENERATOR
AUDIO
SIGNAL

220fi

Fig.

2.

Audio Generator and Voltage Divider

16-7

Using the characteristic curves, determine the


values of
the Q-point. Record these values in the data table.

3.

Select the appropriate equations and

4.

Assemble the

5.

Measure and record the values of E


c , E p and p
Connect the oscilloscope across the 10k load resistor.

ju,

and

in

compute the values of K


v K jf K p R jn and R Q
,

circuit neatly

on

7.

8.

in figure

16-7

Set the audio

kHz.

Connect the audio


level

9.

Assemble the audio generator and voltage divider


shown
generator to a frequency of

a breadboard.

6.

the vicinity of

signal from the voltage divider to the


amplifier signal input
of the generator for a small undistorted sinewave
at the amplifier output.

Set the

Using the resistance substitution box for R,


and the appropriate techniques, measure and
record Ky/ K;, K
R jn , and R
,
Q
p
.

Quantity

EC

EP

'P

Kp

R in

9m

Computed
Values

Measured
Values

Quantity

Computed
Values

Measured
Values

Fig.

16-8

The Data Table

127

Ro

EXPERIMENT

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

VACUUM TUBE AMPLIFIER

16

ANALYSIS GUIDE. The

objective of this experiment has been to examine the parameters of a

vacuum tube amplifier. In analyzing these data you should consider the extent to which the
computed values agreed with the measured quantities. In particular, you should explian any
major diagreements.

PROBLEMS
1.

Using the

shown
2.

If

6AU8 pentode

curves, repeat experimental steps

1, 2,

and 3 for the

in figure 16-9.

an input of 0.5

sin

1256t volts

is

a)

the output voltage across the

b)

the

AC

applied,
1

what

will be:

-megohm load?

plate current?

MEGJ2

Fig.

16-9

Circuit for

128

Problem One

circuit

p ET

AMPLIFIER
SMALL-SIGNAL ANALYSIS

experiment

2/

>xs^i^^r^
typ^^^ t tr.^
fl

^-.parameters

of a

DISCUSSION. The AC
flows

drain current which

a field effect transistor

in

governed

is

by the equation

If we multiply each
term by the
we have

DrD

-II

ne
f the m

exa mi ne the small-

If we connect
the FET into a common
source amplifier circuit such
as the one shown

(17.1)

become

has

figure

17-2,

we

find

that

its

output

characteristics are of the constant


current type
That is, a large change in V
a

small

DS produces only

change

in

if

v QS

is

constant.

value of

9m r D v DS + VDS

Recognizing that g
m r D = M and rearrangwe have

ing the expression,

" V GS-'"D r D + v DS

We may

interpret

this

=0
relationship

as

being the output loop equation


for the FET.

circuit

shown

is

which would produce

this equation

in figure 17-1.

'GS

O-

10

15

20

V DS (VOLTS)

Fig

1 7- 1

Equivalent Circuit of an

FET

Fig.

129

17-2

FET Amplifier and Characteristics

EXPERIMENT

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

FET AMPLIFIER

17

Fig.

Current

Because of the constant current nature


of the

FET

characteristics

probably more

it is

equivalent

convenient to use a constant current equivalent


circuit based

shown

on equation

7.

'o

we must determine

tional loadline analysis techniques.

When

we

is

Ro

\/

m GSr q +

Ro
R

in

RQ + R

while the input current has a value of

Then we

the vicinity of the

in

these things are done,

use the equivalent circuit

simplified

the

quiescent operating condition using conven-

Q-point.

(i

this

observe that the out-

such as the one

determine g m and

Using

Gain.

circuit

put current

in figure 17-3.

In a practical case

FET Amplifier

Constant Current Equivalent of an

17-3

shown

in

_ "in

we may

'in"

figure 17-3

FU

to determine the amplifier's parameters.

Consequently,

FET

is

very small,

have, for the current gain

of the stage

Input Resistance. Since the input current


of an

we

we normally assume

that the input resistance of the amplifiers

is

(17.4)

equal to

Rq:
R in" R G

(17.2)

Output Resistance.
load resistor (R)

the

output

in

If

we

disconnect the

figure 17-3,

we

see that

(R 0 )

the

parallel

resistance

is

combination of rp and Rq. That

is

(17.3)

Redrawing the equivalent

we have

circuit to

the circuit shown

in

show R Q

figure

17-4.

Fig.

130

17-4

The Simplified Equivalent Circuit

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT

Voltage Gain. With the value of output


current

known we may

Is

readily determine the

o=

-i

0R =

K = " Kv
i

gmeinR^R-

And

if

9m R +R
e
in"
o

RQ

R,

then

is

useful

K =
p

approximation of voltage

F0R BEST RESULTS


Fig.

17-5

IKJ IK V

(17.7)

basic amplifier parameters discussed


above

can easily be measured using the circuits shown


gain.

in figure 17.5.

'

^ R in

FET AMPLIFIER MEASUREMENTS.


The

R =

R1

(17 6)

Power Gain. As in the case of any other


power gain of the stage can be
found using

K v~9m R
a

W)

amplifier the

therefore

is

This fact becomes apparent when equations


17.4 and 17.5 are compared to each other.

(17.5)

RQ + R

re-

Ro R

=_lo =
~

by

lated

from which we see that the voltage gain


k-

perhaps worth noting at this point

that the current and voltage gains are

value of the output voltage,

Ro R

is

FET AMPLIFIER

17

r^Tr
e

R!

^R

= e
o

in

WITH S CLOSED

FOR BEST RESULTS

Amplifier Parameter Measurements


131

FOR BEST RESULTS

jn

CONSTANT

EXPERIMENT

FET AMPLIFIER

17

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

MATERIALS
1

MOSFET type 40468

Set characteristic curves for the above device

2 200ft resistors

Transistor socket

Variable

Breadboard

Oscilloscope

0.1 juF capacitor

Audio generator

VOM

320k

Resistance substitution

jiiF

or equivalent

600W VDC
capacitors BOW VDC

resistor

(100K + 220K) 1/2W

1.8k resistor

or

(15 -10

1/2W

2W

DC power

supply (0

40V)

FEM
box

megohm 1/2W)

PROCEDURE
1.

Using the output characteristics of the FET, determine the quiescent operating conditions
for the circuit shown in figure 1 7-6. Record values for V
Vgg, and

D g,

2.

From the

curves determine the values of

Record these
3.

/i,

and r^

in

the vicinity of the Q-point.

values.

With the appropriate relationships, compute and record values for K


v

4.

Construct the circuit neatly on a breadboard.

5.

Measure and record the values of V^g, V^g, and p.

Kj,

R jn and R Q
,

o+
V DD

= 18

VOLTS

SIGNAL %k LOAD

OUTPUT^

R
2.2k

SIGNAL

INPUT

Fig.

17-6

The Experimental Amplifier


132

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT

17

FET AMPLIFIER

1.8k

^\ j

AUDIO

/generator
220n,

AUDIO
SIGNAL

Fig.

6.

7.

17-7

The Audio Generator and Voltage


Divider

Connect the oscilloscope across


the 2.2k

rL ^

in figure

d iv der to th

'

amplifier output.

eVe

reOTd

your analysis you should consiriP th

QTY

V DS

V GS

'D

signal (e

Ki '

Kp

9m

i?,.

Kv

- *

sinewave at the

also

LtT

7-7

nput of the amp,ifi

Ri "' and

Sma "

'

Measure the peak-to-peak value of


the output

"

In

load resistor.

Assemble the audio generator and


voltage divider shown

9.

ohm

r -

'"--

measured these same

Kj

Kp

R in

Computed
Values

Measured
Values

XX
77-5

r/?e

133

Data Table

values.

EXPERIMENT

17

FET AMPLIFIER

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

PROBLEMS
1.

A
of

2.

FET has a g m of lOOOju mhos and an r D of 8K. What would


K v and R Q if this device were used in the experimental circuit?

certain

Make

sketch of

Kv

versus R

(the circuit

load)

be the values

for the amplifier used in the

experiment.
3.

Does the value of R Q depend

in

any way on the value of R? Explain your answer

in detail.

134


experiment

sr*

18

ln ,his

AMPLIFIER COUPLING NETWORKS

experimen '

"

DISCUSSION. As mentioned

in the introfrequently necessary to couple


two (or more) amplifier stages together
to
achieve a desired result. Figure 18-1

duction,

it

two amplifier

stages

&

Z Change the frequency of the signal


8. Add or remove signal information

each type (input, interstage, or output}


the coupling network must effectively
convey
In

the desired signal

from

input to

its

or perform any other specialized

plished without the loss

output.

its

Because a comprehensive study of coup-

would be accomof any energy. In

practical situations such lossless


coupling

scope,

is

is

of necessity very broad

shall limit this

common

experiment to only

circuits.

Untuned (nonresonant) amplifiers employ


basic methods of coupling.
These
basic methods are:

conveying the desired

Change the level of signal


Block undesired signal frequencies

1.

Resistance-Capacitance (RC) coupling.

2.

Transformer coupling.

3.

Direct current (DC) coupling.

o-j

INPUT

COUPLING
j

NETWORK

I.NTER-

|
i

|
|

STAGE
COUPLING

NETWORK

Fig. 18- 1

I
|
I

NETWORK

The Three Basic Types of Coupling Networks


135

COUPLING

1
I

OUTPUT

in

three

from circuit to circuit the coupling


network may do one or more of the following:

2.

we

the most

signal

/.

networks

ling

rarely possible.

to

ser-

vice required.

ideal conditions this

addition

Delay the signal by a specified length


of time

and three basic types of

coupling networks.

In

Limit the signal amplitude


Serve as an impedance matching device
Change the phase angle of the signal

5.

shows

Under

3.
4.

is

EXPERIMENT

AMPLIFIER COUPLING NETWORKS

18

INPUT COUPLING

INTERSTAGE COUPLING
Fig.

We

shall

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

consider

each

of

18-2

these

OUTPUT COUPLING

RC Coupling Circuits

briefly.

Notice that

if

impedance matching

is

impor-

it must be accomplished by adjusting


R s and R jn (or R). The value of the

tant then

RC Coupling: This type is one of the


most frequently encountered basic coupling
When

methods.
sistance

of

the

it

used the output

is

driving

circuit

R0

(or

capacitor

is

re-

Xc

coupled

is

chosen such that

in

(18.1)

(or R)

through a capacitor to the input resistance


of

the driven circuit.

typical

examples of such

18-2 shows

Figure

at the lowest

frequency to be coupled.

circuits.

Transformer Coupling:

RC

coupling

is

used

when economy

an important factor and the goal

AC

signals while blocking

any

is

is

to couple

DC component.

are to be coupled and

transformers

may

be

used.

INTERSTAGE COUPLING

OUTPUT COUPLING
18-3

signals

DC component

blocked while effecting an impedance match,

INPUT COUPLING

Fig.

When AC

any

Figure

18-3

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT

shows typical examples of transformer-coupled circuits.

As
mally

18

AMPLIFIER COUPLING NETWORKS

(direct current) or

when the DC component


can be used to establish the desired
quiescent
conditions in the driven stage.

stated before, transformers are nor-

when

used

impedance

matching

important as would be the case


amplifier or

turns ratio

power
is

in a

There are many ways

is

current

may

coupling

The transformer

shows only

normally chosen according to

coupled to

T-j

amplifier.

limit the

lo,(
R in

(18.2)

^2/

when an impedance match


Transformer coupling
used when:
1.

signal

is

desired.

is

also frequently

phase reversal

is

desired (the

may

be

reversed to effect 180 phase shift),

when the

signal

18-4
is

base current.

is coupled very
such that the collector voltage of
is equal to the
base voltage of To.
T 2 couples the signal to T through a
break3
down diode (Dj) which causes a fixed re-

duction

voltage.

in

through the

T3

is

coupled to

resistive voltage divider

T4

R 2 and

R3
By adjusting the values of the resistors,
the base voltage of T
may be set at any

DC

frequency

is

-V BB and the positive collector


T 3 Finally, T 4 is coupled directly

point between
voltage of

to the load R.

In

are

used

Figure

using a single series resistor to

T2

nections.

is

which direct

few popular ones. The source

directly to

The driving circuit and driven circuit


do not have common ground con-

Direct Current Coupling:

in

achieved.

windings of the transformer

2.

be

summary we should note

three

that there

basic

coupling methods:
RC,
transformer and direct coupling. All are
used

coupling
near zero

in practical circuits

may be

used

and more than one method

in a single

application.

-o +v cc

Fig. 18-4

Various Direct Coupling Methods

137

EXPERIMENT

18

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

AMPLIFIER COUPLING NETWORKS

MATERIALS
1

1
1

Transistor type

2N1304

or equivalent

type 40468 or equivalent


Set of curves for the above

FET

2 Transistor sockets
1

Breadboard

3 10

juF capacitors

BOW VDC

meg

1k resistor 1/2W

470^

resistor

1/2W

220S2

resistor

2W

VOMorFEM

Oscilloscope

Audio generator
Variable DC power supply (0-40V)
Capacitor substitution box (0.0001

1/2W
100k resistor 1/2W
1
68k resistor 1/2W
1
7.5k resistor 1/2W
1
2 2.2k resistors 1/2W

resistor

-1.0 /xF

600W VDC)

Sheet of graph paper

PROCEDURE
1.

conditions for both


Using the characteristic curves determine the quiescent operating
V CE and V BE in the data table.
of the amplifiers shown in figure 18-5. V DS V GS
,

Fig. 18-5

ends of the same breadboard.

circuits at opposite

Assemble both amplifier

3.

Measure the quantities computed

5.

The Experimental Amplifiers

2.

4.

in

step

and record the

results in the data table.

Using the capacitor substitution box, couple the two amplifiers together as indicated
figure 18-6. Set the box for its maximum capacitance value.

Connect the oscilloscope, audio generator,


and 10

/xF

capacitor as

shown

VOM,

in figure 18-6.

138

2.2k load resistor,

megohm

in

resistor,

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT

18

AMPLIFIER COUPLING NETWORKS

VOM

Fig.

6.

18-6

The Experimental Circuit

Set the audio generator to a frequency of 1kHz and adjust the

level for

the

maximum

undistorted output sinewave.


7.

Record the overall current gain of the

circuit

and the value of the capacitor substitution

box.
8.

Reduce the capacitor substitution box one step and repeat step

9.

Continue reducing the capacitance, repeating step 7 for each value available

7.

in

the

substitution box.
10.

Interchange the positions of the transistor amplifier stage and the


steps

4 through

9.

Quiescent Conditions

QTY

FET
v DS

Circuit

vGs

Transistor Circuit

V CE

Computed
Value

Measured
Value

First

Test Circuit

Capacitor

Second Test Circuit


Capacitor

Fig.

18-7

The Data Tables


139

V BE

FET

stage

and repeat

EXPERIMENT
11-

On

18

AMPLIFIER COUPLING NETWORKS

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

a single sheet of graph paper plot curves of the current gain versus the values of

Xc

for the data runs.

ANALYSIS GUIDE. In the analysis of these


Explain why the gain went down
results.

data you should discuss the trend revealed by your


as

Xq

went up and why the two

sets of results

were different.

PROBLEMS
1.

certain amplifier has an output resistance of

8K2 and

82 load.

transformer having 3000 primary turns

secondary

is

found to be tapped

18-8).

How would you

is

at 100, 300, 1000,

is

to be used to drive an

available.

The transformer

and 1500 turns

(see figure

connect the transformer for the best impedance match?

1500

TURNS

1000

TURNS

3000

TURNS
300 TURNS

Fig.

2.

Explain

why RC and

situation described in

18-8

Transformer for Problem

direct coupling

100

TURNS

TURNS

would probably not be

problem one.

140

satisfactory in the

experiment

mlesome
hP.nmT?,
becomes roub

MULTISTAGE AMPLIFIER GAIN

19

V CaS6S the gain 0f 8 multi age amplifier

to handle.

common

It is

log r.thm.c un.t called

is such a large number that


it
practice in such a case to express the
gain in a

a decibel. In this experiment


units are applied in amplifier
gain analysis.
,

DISCUSSION. An
some signal power

electronic circuit
(P,)

applied to

having

its

input

we

which

examine the ways

shall

in

which these

of course, the same as the product

is,

of the three individual gains.

and subsequently reproducing it at


a different
output level (P ) is said to have
a power
0

K pT - K p1 Kp 2 K p3

gain of

Expressed

in

decibels this

(19.3)

becomes

(19.1)

G T = 10
often convenient to express this
gain
terms of decibels as
It

K pT

is

G = 10

log Kp(decibels)

in

or

G T = 10

G T = 10

additive.

For example, consider the three


stages shown in figure 19-1,
where the gains

and

are given as ratios.

If

we apply

the power at
will

have

kW.

1.0
will

10W and

The

overall

mW

at P

mW. At

P2

log

K p1 + 10

log

K p2 + 10

log

K p3

finally

Gj - Gpi

to the input, then

be 100

K P1 K p2 K p3

which we may rewrite as

the advantages of expressing gain


decibels is that successive gains
are simply

in

log

(19.2)

One of

log

+ Gp2 + Gp3

(19-4)

we

Q the power will be

power

gain

million

K PT

is

one

In

other words,

we may simply add

the

individual stage gains to get the total gain

PT-rmW =1

they are

all

expressed

in decibels.

In the

example, the individual gains are

'

Fig. 19- 1

3-Stage Amplifier

141

if

above

EXPERIMENT

19

G = 10
and the

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

MULTISTAGE AMPLIFIER GAIN

K v1 = 10K v2 = 50 and K v3 = 20

100=20 db

log

'

total gain will be

these gains could be expressed in decibels as

A v1 =20

G T = 20 + 20 + 20 = 60 db
which
result

A v2

= 20 log 50 = 34 db

A v3

= 20 log 20 = 26 db

of course, equivalent to the previous

is,

(K pT = 106 ).

may

Since the input and output powers

And

10= 20 db

log

the total voltage gain

in

db would be

be expressed as

A vT
e-

Pi

=1*7-

P0

20+34+26 =

80 db

=^

The input and output powers can

also be

expressed as

we may

rewrite equation 19.2 in the

form
P =
i

= 10

log

R andP0 = 0 2 R L
i

2
0 /R|_

Therefore, equation 19.2 can be written as

/Ri

*i

And

if

Rj

and R|_ are equal, we may write

G = 10

-10

And when

which may be arranged

G = 20

Rj and R|_ are equal,

= 10log(-)
(19.5)

(decibels)

log

we have

the form

in

log

2
0 RL

e
i

In

many

to R|_.

which may be rewritten

practical cases, Rj

Equation 19.5

is

is

as

not equal

nevertheless,

monly used to express the voltage

com-

= 20 log f- (decibels)

(19.7)

gain in

decibels.

Even when Rj

A =20

log

K v (db)

is

not equal to

Rj_,

we

use this

relationship to express current gain in decibels

(19.6)

as

Voltage gains

in

decibels are handled in

the same ways as power gains


instance,

if

figure 19-1

in

db.

Aj = 20 log Kj (db)

(19.8)

For

the voltage gains of the stages

in

And,

were

142

as in the case of

power and voltage

gain,

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

the total gain of several stages

by

EXPERIMENT 19 MULTISTAGE AMPLIFIER GAIN


may be found

addition.

K i1 "

10^

express

them

voltage, current,

K j2 =
in

A i2 =

in

figure

and K
=
i3

2,

5,

K v = 5/10 =

19-1 are

we may

Kj

20log

Expressing the gains

2= 6db

total current gain

Av

14 db

would be

Aj

A jT =20+6+14 = 40db
some

= 20

log 0.5

the output

be

less

level.

than one.

level

may be

= 10

log

in

illustrate this,

consider

the circuit shown in figure 19-2.

Fig.

= 0.01

-20

log

= -20

= 10

100 = -20 db

Notice that the decibel gains are negative

A Passive Network
143

log

log

numbers and may be considered

19-2

50 = -34 db

log 0.01

= -10

log

we have

2 = -6 db

log 0.02
log

decibels

greater than

In such a case the gain will

To

=20

= -20

cases (particularly with passive

the input

~ 3

= -20

In

0.5

= 10/500 = 0.02

= 50 x
Kp
p

10 = 20db

A j3 =20log 5=

circuits),

this

decibels as

A n =20 log

And the

and power gains of

network are

the current gains

If

The

losses.

EXPERIMENT

19

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

MULTISTAGE AMPLIFIER GAIN

'

Av

= -6 db

Av

= -30 db

Aj = -3 db

A; -

30 db

G =

Odb

db

0>
I

IMPEDANCE
MATCHING
FIRST AMP

SOURCE

Fig.

Most

19-3

LOAD

NETWORK

SECOND AMP.

COUPLING CKT.

Typical Multistage Amplifier

Ajj = 26

practical multistage amplifiers have

- 3

+ 30 + 30 = 83 db

both positive gains and negative gains present


in

the circuit.

arrangement

Gj

Figure 19-3 shows a typical

= 20 -

+ 24 + 0 = 43 db

In this case the total gains are

are

Decibels

= 40 - 6 + 34 - 30 = 38 db

used

amplifier

discussing

A vJ

very

frequently

performance

and

in

are,

therefore, important to the technician.

MATERIALS
2
1
1

NPN

transistors

(2N 1304 or equivalent)

100k resistor 1/2W


47k resistor 1/2W

2 6.8k resistor 1/2W

Oscilloscope

Audio generator

Resistance substitution box

(15-10 megohms 1/2W)

(25W VDC)
2 100 mF capacitors (25W VDC)

2 10

3.3k resistor 1/2W

ohm
100 ohm

2 560

resistors

resistor

supply (0-40V)

Variable

2 4.7k resistor 1/2W


1

DC power

1/2W
1/2W

jizF

capacitors

PROCEDURE
1.

Assemble the
substitution

shown in figure 19-4


about 22k ohms.

circuit

box

for

neatly on a breadboard.

2.

Assemble the audio generator and voltage divider

3.

Set the generator frequency to

4.

Connect the source to the input of the amplifier.

kHz and

circuit

the output

the 4.7k load resistor.

144

shown

level

in

Set the resistance

figure 19-5.

to zero.

Also connect the oscilloscope across

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT

MULTISTAGE AMPLIFIER GAIN

19

-O

15

VOLTS

4.7k

RESISTANCE
SUB.

10;uF

BOX
To

ft
2N1304

SIGNAL

^\

4.7k

INPUT

100

6.8k
juF

>

'

560ft

100mF

^
r/?e

^/ff.

5.

Increase the source level until

&

Experimental Circuit

you have the maximum undistorted

6 reSiStanC6 SUbSti,U,i n b X

fW

^ktoed
?
'

8.

*
10
'

SSI?"

'

7 a ,ernattlV Un,H

*e

'

he

b rand g

0SC Pe

rnd

*" '"^

?T*

n <Kv3
'

OSCillOSCOPe '

" d re0 rd

T
'

he Si9nal

GENERATOR

19-5

The Experimental Source

145

POSSible undistt

*.

<2>

Than compute the gam

AUDIO

Fig.

undis,orted

4.7k

step 7 <e).

100k

100ft

signal across the

^
in

* * *

U,PL" '

?g ro*d

^ ,nd

"

maXimUm

maXimUm

Record the peak-to-peak output voltage


achieved

y^J^

lta e

<

e1

between

in

db and

< collector

EXPERIMENT

Compute and record the

12.

K y2 and A v2

voltage gains (both

of the coupling network.

Move the oscilloscope to the audio generator terminals and measure


e
value. Compute e s using e and the voltage divider values. Record s
g

13.

14.

Compute and record the

15.

Compute and
e

and

voltage gains (K v1 and

A v1

record the overall voltage gains (K VT and

Record the

g
in

the data table.

A VT

using the values of

Using A' vT compute and record K' vT

7.

of the input stage.

A v1 A v2 and A y3

Determine the overall voltage gain by taking the sum of


values as A^j. Compute and record K' v y.

16.

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

MULTISTAGE AMPLIFIER GAIN

19

Record the

Input Stage Data

Output Stage Data

A v3

Kv3

e2

eo

e
g

K v2

A v2

Fig.

ANALYSIS GUIDE. The

K vT

19-6

To

A vT

Av-j-

K'

VT

The Data Tables

objective of this experiment has been to

relationships in a multistage amplifier.

two methods

A v1

K v1

Overall Gain Values

Coupling Circuit Data


e

become

familiar with gain

that end you should consider the extent to which the

of expressing gain are consistent.

PROBLEMS
the value of

1.

If

2.

Would the

3.

If

4.

Adding

Av

is

K v for

results

a certain amplifier

be the same

in

doubled,

is

problem

for

K v change?

G by 10

P /Pj increase?

146

increase?

K and G?

decreased by 20 db, by what factor must


a stage to an amplifier increases

how much does A v

db.

How much

did the ratio of

20

experiment

INTRODUCTION.

AMPLIFIER FREQUENCY RESPONSE

All amplifier

circuits include some reactive quantities.


Because these quanchange reactance with frequency, the gain of an amplifier
also varies with frequency
In this
experiment we shall examine the way in which gain varies at low,
medium, and high

tities

frequencies

DISCUSSION. For
there

fier,

a given single-stage ampli-

nearly always a range of frequen-

is

which the reactive effects of the


circuit components may be ignored. This range
cies within

of frequencies

is

called the

mid-band

range.

mid-band range the gain of the amplinot affected by the reactive components

In this
fier

is

and we may compute the gain value using the


familiar small-signal equations.

the mid-band gain


the symbol

Am

is

The value of

usually represented

by

If

we

then we can draw the low frequency equivalent circuit of an amplifier as


shown in figure 20-1. In the mid-band range,
the reactance of the coupling capacitor will
be
much less than the amplifier input resistance.

Consequently, the gain of the coupling netwill be approximately


)

work (C c and R
jn
zero decibels (that

we

allow the input signal frequency

elements

es
Am

jn

).

The

overall

to decrease, the reactances of


itive

is,

gain will, therefore, equal

As the
If

consider only the input coupling

network,

the

in

all

circuit

(f)

of the capacwill

signal

frequency

increases until at

some point

R in

we have

At

this point

is

lowered,
(f|)

it

Xq

equals

increase

according to

X C =R in
:

X C"2^fC
In

most

practical

capacitors
effect

will

on the gain

cases,

the signal coupling

have the most pronounced


at

low frequencies.

27rf-,C

= R;
in

Fig.

20- 1

An Amplifier Low Frequency Equivalent Circuit


147

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 20 AMPLIFIER FREQUENCY RESPONSE


Solving this equation for

f<|,

we

see that

it

The

is

overall gain at

f^

is,

therefore, either

equal to

A
f1 =

27rR

in

A m A45

= 0.707

(20.1)

Cc

at

or

This frequency

is

normally considered

A=

to be the lower limit of the mid-band range.

Below

this

and that

-n

R jn and C c form
ej

will

= e
s

this equation

-j

At frequencies below

a voltage

A 1o

(20.2)

Rjn -jX c

cies,
'in

es

R in -i R in

e
in
;

= c
e
s

1.414Z.-45

A m\i

Rin<i-iD

the overall gain

then

the

if

is

shown

we

(f-,/f)

increased.

if

the

At high frequen-

may be

ignored.

increase the frequency enough,

shunt

we

of

capacity

At these

significant.

frequencies,

= 0.707 e c A45

(20.3)
j

the same thing occurs

frequency

However,

= e<
Cs
\i-ji

the coupling capacitors

becomes
1

Somewhat

becomes

in

f<|,

continues to decrease according to

be

R;
es

expressed as

or in decibels, respectively.

signal

Gjn

is

can determine the overall gain by

observing that

At

Am

depending on whether
e /ej

divider

3) decibels

frequency the coupling network

has an important effect on the overall gain.

We

(A m -

the

amplifier

relatively high

can use the equivalent circuit

in figure 20-2.

Notice that

Ct

is

the

total equivalent shunt capacity of the amplifier

And

the gain of the coupling circuit

is

device, circuit,

and

load.

It

has been lumped

together for simplicity.

= 0.707 =

-3dbatf 1

As the

Fig.

20-2

An Amplifier High

signal

frequency increases, a point

Frequency Equivalent Circuit

148

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

(f

2)

will eventually

equal R

At

be reached where

frequency we

this

EXPERIMENT 20 AMPLIFIER FREQUENCY RESPONSE

x ct

will

X Ct wil
have

and the

overall gain will be

A m ^-45

= 0.707

= R<
o

at f-

or

A=
27rf

2 Ct

=
no
" R.

(A m -3) decibels

Beyond

2 the gain

will

continue to

decrease according to
Therefore,

2 must have a value of

1
2 ~ 27rR C
0 t

A hi
If

-i

= e
0

xc

R 0 -ix Ct

Am

(20.4)

At f 2 the voltage divider formed by C


t
and R
0 will produce an output voltage of

e'

(f/f

(20.5)

2)

we now combine the low, mid, and


we have an equivalent

high frequency effects,


circuit like the

one shown

in figure 20-3.

The

frequency response of such an amplifier


will
fall off at both the low and high
frequency end.

= 0.707 e n Z.-45*

If

we

would

plot gain versus frequency, the result


be as shown in figure 20-4.

1
Fig.

203 A

Broad Band Amplifier Equivalent


149

Circuit

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 20 AMPLIFIER FREQUENCY RESPONSE

It

is

worth noticing that the gain

usually plotted in decibels while frequency


in Hertz.

Semilog graph paper

is

is

from

amplifier extends

<|

to i^.

is

BW =

normally used

(20.6)

f-j(Hz)
2-

for plotting frequency response curves.

usually taken

usually

Frequency response data

considered to be the mid-band range between

by holding the

input signal

the -3 db points on the frequency response

while varying the signal frequency and meas-

The bandwidth of the amplifier

curve.

In

is

uring the output

other words, the bandwidth of the

is

level

constant

level.

MATERIALS
1

Integrated operational amplifier

(type

SN724 or

DC

equivalent)

supply (0-30 volts)

Variable

IC socket for the amplifier

VOMor FEM

Audio generator

Oscilloscope

1/2W

220k

47fi resistor 1/2W

resistor

Breadboard

Sheet, 3 cycle semilog graph paper

(K&E 46 5490
1

megohm 1/2W)

0.01 juF capacitor

0.1 juF capacitor

600W VDC

2 1k resistors

600WVDC
150

or equivalent

Resistance substitution box (15-10

2W

ELECTRONICS/AMPLiFIERS

EXKmHEHTX

AMPLIFIER FREQUENCY

-15V
Fig.

20-5

The Experimental Circuit

PROCEDURE
1.

Assemble the
isolated

shown

circuit

In figure 20-5.

from ground.

Be sure tkat hth


b th P Wer Suppl terminals
V
are

2.

Connect the oscilloscope across the


amplifier output terminals.

3.

tXl^T
he

ZcL

erator for the

PUt V0 ta9e h6,d


'

s of:

100 Hz

200 Hz
300 Hz
400 Hz
500 Hz
600 Hz
700 Hz
800 Hz
900 Hz

maximum

~'

kHz
2 kHz
3 kHz
4 kHz
5 kHz
6 kHz
7 kHz
8 kHz
9 kHz
1

5.

Compute and record the

6.

On

7.

Using the 220k resistance and

undistorted output at

meaSUre 9nd

"

10 kHz
20 kHz
30 kHz
40 kHz
50 kHz
60 kHz
70 kHz
80 kHz
90 kHz

semilog paper, plot the frequency


response of the amplifier.
0.01

M F, compute and record

757

kHz

Record the

tne output vo,ta e at


g

gain in decibels for each


frequency in step 4.

Cc =

f,

fre-

EXPERIMENT 20 AMPLIFIER FREQUENCY RESPONSE


No
f

(Hz)

(volts)

Cap.

\
(db)

Series Cap.

*
(volts).

Both Cap.

\
(db)

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

(volts)

(db)

100

200
300

400
500
600
700

800
e

900
1k

in

u
Comp.

2k

3k

Curve

4k

5k

Comp.

6k

h
Curve

7k

8k
9k
10k

20k
30k

40k
50k
60k
70k

80k
90k
Fig.

152

20-6

The Data Tables

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

&
9.

"F

'Si
From your

EXPERIMENT* AMPLIFIER FREQUENCY


RESPONSE

aPaCi,0r

"

MrieS Wi,h

curve, determine the value


of

^< " A and repsa, ep

10.

Using the 47fi resistance (R


2 ) and

S^T^V'
1

From your

2.

of th'"

0.1

M F, compute and record

capacitor across the input of the


amplifier at point B and

curve, determine f

23^iff
Some
them
consider

Cs =

d3ta

""n?'
Did the computed

th6re arS S6Veral

'

are:

and graphical values of


measured frequency response curves
agree with figure 20-4 in general
shape?

U
1

that

you should

agree?

Did

PROBLEMS
1.

If

the value of

second stage
2

is

for the first stage of a two-stage


amplifier is 50
150 Hz, what would be f , for the whole
amplifier?
f

d ' band 93in


"

at

5oH^?
e

"

4.

aH 0

C nd St

"e 8b0Ve

ab Ve

f,
1

100 (4 db) what wou| d be


'

for the

its

gain

What wou,d be '*

gain

'

m, d " band 9ain

H z?

What would be the

iS

Hz and

overall gain

f 140 (4 db)

"

above at 10 Hz? At 200 Hz?

153

vZ
"

experiment

NTRODUCTION.

21

Differential

are

circuits

amplifier

experiment we

In this

applications.

DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIERS

used

great variety of

in

some of the most .mportant

shall consider

ele^onic

character.st.es

of these circuits.

DISCUSSION.
measurement

In

many

situations,

compare two electronic


an output

would thereoutput of a practical amplifier

instrumentation and
it

is

signals

fore be

necessary to

and produce

proportional to their difference.

is
amplifier which performs this function
amplifier.
called a difference or differential

An

in
Let us consider the amplifier shown
indeed
If the amplifier does
figure 21-1.

amplify the difference between


then the output voltage will be
e

We may

and e 2

e-j

mode

which shows

that,

Aei
if

gain.

Al + A;
(21.2)

= Ae 2

While this

output.
in

most

is

practical cases

if

e<|

and

are

different.

the difference amplifier

to operate ideally, then both

the other hand,

exactly equal (and non-zero), then the output


should be zero since the difference voltage
_ e
In practice this will not be
is zero.
e(|
2
the case because A<| and A 2 are slightly

we

If

define the

common mode

input voltage e c to be equal to the average


of

and e 2 must
to
experience the same gain (A) from input
is

e-j

On
form

(21.1)

and e 2 are different (non-zero)


average
values, then the overall gain will be the
difference
of A-| and A 2 and is called the
If

= Aie-i
e
M 1 e 1 - Aoe
2 2

ei - e 2 )

rewrite this relationship in the

e-j

and e 2

e-|

e-j

theoretically possible,

and e 2

will

undergo

amplification.
slightly different values of

The

+ e2

= e we have e c - Q\ - e 2
2
and equation 21 .1 becomes

Then when

e-,

A 1 e c" A 2e c

-^=A -A 2
1

This ratio
e

(e /e

c)

is

called the

gain (A c ) of the amplifier:

A C = A 1 -A 2
Fig.

common mode

21-1

Differential Amplifier

154

(21.3)

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 21 DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIERS

COM.

Fig.

The

quality of a differential amplifier

by taking the

usually judged

mode

difference

is

Ad

Measuring

is

Then

we have

collecting voltage terms,

of the

ratio

common mode
common mode

gain to the

This ratio

gain.

21-2

called the

A +A ?
1

rejection ratio

Ai +

However, since

common mode and

the

(21.4)

respectively,

and

is

we

define

frequently expressed

It

worth noting

is

the

= e
d
1

and the

difference

input

_e 2

common mode
e

mode

if

which

as

we may

mode

gains

Ad e d

A ce c

<

21 7 >
-

the equation normally used to describe

is

of measuring

input as

shown

+ e
2
If

(21.6)

e-|

-) are

Equation 21.7 also provides us with

solve simultaneously for

difference

the output voltage of a difference amplifier.

< 21 5 >

the

then
then

and

we have
e

in decibels.

at this point that

A2

(A<| -

and

Ad

Ac

and

means

Consider the circuit

in figure 21-2.

two

resistors in figure 21-2 are equal,

e-|

-e

and from equations 21.5

and 21.6

2 and get
e
1

= e + 1/2 e and e = e ~ 1/2 e


c
d
2
c
d

e<|

- e

e-j

- (-e

e<|

2 volts

and
Substituting these values into equation 21.1

<

+ 1/2 e d>

A2

<

ei

renders
c " 1/2 e d>

Since e
c

+ e2

e<i

is

zero,

A
A

e
1

e
1

-A 2 e c +

A2

d
e

155

'

- = 0 vo

we can measure

and compute Aj.

or

ei - e 9

(-eo)

ts

Q and e^

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 21 DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIERS

-m

COM.
e

21-3

Fig.

Similarly,

shown

we can measure A c with

in figure 21-3.

therefore, e d =

0 and

= 1/2

Therefore, by measuring e 0 and e c

Measuring

(e<|

= e
2

using any type of active

+ e 2 ).

we have A c

Ac
maybe constructed
devices and may have

Differential amplifiers

the circuit

In this case e

or

either

balanced

shown

in figure 21-4.

unbalanced outputs, as

Ac4
c

In

With

Ad

common mode

and

Ac

some

rejection ratio using equation

achieve a

BALANCED OUTPUT
Fig.

21-4

the emitter resistor

is

replaced with a third active device (transistor


or FET). When this is done, it is possible to

known, we find the

21.4.

(A)

cases,

common mode

(B)

UNBALANCED OUTPUT

Transistor Differential Amplifiers

156

gain close to zero.

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 21 DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIERS

MATERIALS
1

Integrated operational amplifier (type


or equivalent)

SN724
1

1
1

Data sheet for the above IC


Variable DC supply (0- 40V)

VOM

or

Oscilloscope

IC socket

Breadboard

2 10k resistors 1/2W

FEM

2 220

Audio generator (with balanced underground output)

ohm

resistors

1k resistor

2W

2W

100k

AUDIO
GENERATOR

30V

DC
SUPPLY

(OUTPUT

(UNGROUNDED)

UNGROUNDED)

220H

Fig.

21-5

The

First

Experimental Circuit

PROCEDURE
1-

Assemble the operational amplifier

2.

Connect the oscilloscope to the amplifier output

3.

Set the audio generator for an undistorted amplifier output at

4.

Record the value of the output

5.

Move the

6.

Compute and record e^ and

circuit

signal, e

shown

e-|

and e 2

Compute and record

8.

Compute

the

either

Ad

common mode

or

Be sure to use the correct

Ac

kHz.

these calculations.
7.

oscilloscope to the input and measure


e

in figure 21.5.

as the case

may

be.

rejection ratio of the amplifier, p.

157

signal polarities in

making

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 21 DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIERS

30V

DC
SUPPLY
(UNGROUNDED)

Make the changes

9.

The Second Experimental Circuit

21-6

Fig.

in

the circuit shown


the input connections required to produce

in

figure 21-6.

10.

Repeat steps 2 through 7 using this

1 1

Compute the common mode

circuit.

rejection ratio of the amplifier, p.

In the analysis of these data,

ANALYSIS GUIDE

you should compare your measured values

data
and p to those given in the manufacturer's
any difference between the values.

of

Ad

Also consider possible reasons for

sheet.

PROBLEMS

1
'

volts

= -0-5V. When e-, =


value of A d A c and p?

1V and e 2 = 1V, the output

What would be the output

voltage in problem

2.

50

output of
certain differential amplifier has an

3.

Draw

0.05

ei

volts.

= 0.5V and

What

is

the

a circuit diagram of an

Qty

is

when

FET

e1

if

Ckt

Second
Ckt
!

21-7

and e 2 = 0?

differential amplifier with a balanced output.

First

Fig.

The Data Table


158

Ac

Ad

SS

experiment

INTRODUCTION.
with

signal

In electronic amplifiers

the input signal to

examine

shall

FEEDBACK PRINCIPLES

a typical

it

type of feedback and

DISCUSSION. To produce

its

electronic feed-

back, a sample of the output voltage or the

output

current

more common, we

shall

the
is

input

perhaps

common

in

effects

us

21-1

a portion of the

examine the

circuit

case of voltage feedback.

shown

put voltage

(j3

is

connected

the

sum

is

of the signal voltage and the feedback

voltage,

In this circuit

in

= e + e
0 o
s

we

Substituting
gives

this

value

into

equation

us

is

A=

o8 +

pe 0

(22.1)
in

and that the output voltage

with

the input circuit such that the input voltage

given by

(j3).

in series

in

generalized

that the gain of the amplifier alone

feedback network

we

limit this discussion

which represents

output

on amplifier performance.

Let

mix

practice to

the circuit performance. In this experiment

it.

figure

see

to

Since voltage feedback

circuit.

to

back

fed

is

is

produce a change

is

sampled by the

portion of the out-

Fig.

22-1

Aes +

A(3e 0 = e 0

21.1

ELECTRONICS/ AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 22 FEEDBACK PRINCIPLES

Collecting the e 0

on the

There are several advantages to be had


by employing negative feedback. For example,
let's consider what happens to the overall gain

right provides

Ae s = e 0

A0 e 0

(A')

and

if

overall gain

Ae s = e0

- A/3

is

A' =

- A/3

which may be rewritten

the form

in

Differentiating A' with respect to

1_

that the ratio of e Q /e s


gain with feedback.

we

If

(22.2)

the

illustrate

suppose that

j3

equation 22.2

When
j3

two

raises

negative)

then

This condition

sign,

A'
is

ie.,

both positive or both

can

be greater than A.

(|3e

is

in

is

dA' =

is

and

0.1,

equation,

this

= -1000.

From

we have
-1000 =
-9.9

1-Aj3

101

suddenly (or otherwise) changes to

A'

A(1-Aj3)

Therefore,

signal.

=
dA
u
"

when

-9.9

81,900

X 100=

changed

by

is

-0.0121

10%,

A'

changed by only about 0.1%. That is, when A


changes from -1000 to -900, A' changes from

employed extensively

oscillator circuits but

if

of

effect

(22.3)

-900 then dA would be -100 and dA'

fed back

phase with the input

This type of feedback


in

Now

called regenerative or pos-

feedback and occurs when the

voltage

(A and

positive

is

- A0)

~m dA

A' =

possible feedback situations.

the product of Aj3

have the same

itive

very important one

is

A(1

Ad

we have

This equation

A'

dA' =

this overall

call

A'

Bl =

- A/3

and

To

it

have

observe

the overall

in fact,

is,

dA

we

Returning to the original circuit

as

A we

1-A/J

dA'

gain A', then

The

the open loop gain (A) changes.

only rarely used

-9.9 to -9.8. As a result

with amplifier circuits.

we

say that the feed-

back has stabilized the gain against variation.

On
(A and

j3

the otherhand,

have opposite

when
signs,

Aj3

is

negative

bne

ie.,

Another advantage of degenerative feed-

positive

and the other negative) A' will be less than A


and the situation is termed degenerative or
negative feedback.

common

This

is

by

far the

case in amplifier circuits.

degeneration, the output sample

To
(j3e

back

Consider

more

desired

is

the area of distortion reduction.

an

amplifier

which produces the

output voltage and adds some

tortion voltage (D) of

achieve
)

in

is

its

own.

the net distortion voltage

fed

(/3D')

dis-

fraction of
is

fed back

back 180 degrees out of phase with the input

180 out of phase with the input signal and

achieved by

appears at the output amplified by an amount

signal.

having a

In

most cases

this

is

The net output


the sum of the original

equal to the open loop gain.

negative gain (-A) and a' positive

distortion (D') then

<+/.

160

is

ELECTRONICS /AMPLIFIERS

EXPE Ft I MENT 22 FEEDBACK PRINCIPLES

distortion plus the amplified fraction that

is

fed back

"m

A'u:

hi

D' =

D+

"

Am +
/3

and
f/f

and

Am

Aj3D'

=
a'
A
1o-1-A

and

m ^-jf

/f

and the upper and lower three db points

become

(22.4)

Using the previous example,

if

f2

the open

f 2<

-A m 0)

and

f^d

A m 0)

loop distortion was 10 percent of the output


then the distortion with feedback

(22.5)

voltage,

would be

Feedback also tends to alter the input


and output resistances of an amplifier. In the

D =
'

**

case of the input resistance, the voltage fed

ao01

back

out of phase with the input signal

is

and therefore opposes the flow of


or approximately

.1

percent of the output.

As

current.

result

increases with feedback

The bandwidth of an amplifier is also


affected by feedback. Under normal circum-

R';

= R

(1

the

input

input

resistance

by an amount

_ Aj8)

(22.6)

stances the high and low frequency gains of

an amplifier are equal to

A hi

TTjW2 a

In the case of the

reduce

Am

the mid-band gain,

and f 2
lower and upper three db points,
respectively, while f is the operating frequency.
is

it.

general

change

where

output resistance, the

gain stabilizing effect of feedback tends to


It

is

very difficult to arrive at a

expression

which

will

predict

the

output resistance caused by feedback. However, in many cases


in

are the

(22.7)
If

we

substitute these

two

relationships

into equation 22.2, they reduce to

is

a useful

approximation.

MATERIALS
1

ntegrated operational amplifier

SN724 or
C socket

Breadboard

Variable

Oscilloscope

Resistance substitution box

equivalent

DC power

supply (0- 40V)

Audio generator

0.1

100k

100n

3 1k

(15-10

megohm 1/2W)
161

mF

capacitor

1/2W
1/2W
1/2W

resistor

resistor

resistors

600W VDC

2W

7.5k resistor

VOMorFEM

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 22 FEEDBA CK PRINCIPL ES

PROCEDURE
1.

Assemble the amplifier

Fig.

2.

circuit

shown

22-2

The

in figure

First

22-2.

Experimental Circuit

Assemble the audio generator and source voltage divider as shown

in figure 22-3.

100k

I,

^/

AUDIO

GENERATOR

>

(BALANCED
OUTPUT)

AUDIO SIGNAL
TO AMPLIFIER

* 100T2

INPUT

>
Fig.

3.

22-3 The Audio Source

Connect the oscilloscope to the amplifier output and the audio source to the amplifier
input.

4.

Adjust the audio generator for the

Record the output voltage

(e

maximum

0 ).

162

undistorted amplifier output at 1kHz.

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS
5
"

(Air"

.o7ga!n

&

7.

EXPERIMENT 22 FEEDBACK PRINCIPLES


amP,if,er inP

"

V ,tage (e
s>-

JS-t' " "


0Ut

Co

VO ta9e

^ ^ ~rd
te

' 7 7

'

"

the open

Increase the

input signal level until the


output waveform is quite visibly
distorted
Record the peak-to-peak output (e
and
)
make a sketch of the waverorm.
x
wavefo
Reset the
input level to that established
4.

in step

th e reSiStanCe SUbStitUt

"

Rfa nd R o
9

e
'

fture2

0.

11.
12.
13.

4.

'"

0n

arV Chan96S

Fig.

Remove the source

22-4

ex P erimental| V<

record the values of

drCUit t0 produce the

*"

ci

^own

in

The Second Experimental Circuit

voltage divider

from the audio generator and repeat step

Adjust the audio generator for the


same output as

Repeat steps 5 through 7 recording the

results as

Increase the input signal level until


the output
sketch of the waveform.

Repeat step 8 and record the

^ermine and

results.

163

is

in

step 4.

3.

Record the value as

"feedback values"

equal to that recorded

in

e'

the data table.

in step 7.

Make

'

EXPERIMENT 22 FEEDBACK PRINCIPLES


15.

In this circuit,

and record
16.

equal to the voltage divider ratio of R 1 and R

is

Compute

this value

it.

With the value of


the values of A'
m

QTY

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

and the open loop parameters measured above, compute and record
2 R'j and R 0 using the equations given in the discussion.

j8

f
s

Ro

Rj

Open Loop
Values

Feedback

Values

Computed
Values

Fig.

ANALYSIS GUIDE.

22-5

The Data Table

of your results you should consider the effect of feedback


on the amplifier parameters and the extent to which the equations given in the discussion
In the analysis

accurately predicted the effects.

PROBLEMS
1.

A single-stage transistor amplifier


h fe = 50
h oe = 40

h je = 1500

10-6

mhos

R L = 5k ohms
If

a feedback

has the following parameters:

network having

re

ohms

= 7 5 x 10-4

= 50 Hz
= 18 kHz

D = 5%

R s = 5k ohms
a total effective

j3

of +0.05

is

used,

what would be

the values of:

2.

(a)

Av

(d)

Rj

(g)

f!,

(b)

A;

(e)

RQ

(h)

?2

(O

Rj

(f)

R'

(i)

D'

Assume that everything else in problem 1 remained the same when the transistor
was replaced with another having an h of 100. Which circuit parameters would
fe
change?

3.

Repeat problem

substituting h

fe

from problem
164

2.

ex per i men

23

SINGLE-STAGE FEEDBACK

)N. One of the most common


ways
of applying feedback to a
single-stage amplifier
is to leave the
emitter resistor unbypassed as

shown

in figure 23-1.

The output

If

we assume

o ~ ~'C R L

resistor

be

-i

ERE

Fig.

cRE

(23.2)

Since both the emitter voltage and


e
are directly proportional to i^,
we conclude
that e

is

(23.1)

and the voltage across the emitter


will

the emitter current

voltage in

this case will be

that

approximately equal to the collector current,


then we can say that

23- 1

is

proportional to e
e

Amplifier With Unbypassed Emitter

165

E=^o

In other words,

EXPERIMENT 23 SINGLE-STAGE FEEDBACK

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

Fig.

Substituting

equations 23.1

this expression for e

23-2

FET and Vacuum Tube

and 23.2 into

Q and e E

Circuits

and we may simplify the gain to

respectively,

we have
(23.4)
*C

R E "0'C R L

When

this

is

the case then the gain becomes

or

A'- --^

(23.5)

(23.3)
It

The
will

gain of the amplifier with

be

unbypassed

be

However,
1,

worth noting

much

RE

- Aj3

is

much

greater

istics

Aj3^-A]3

(if

RL

is

much

of feedback such as reduced distortion,

improved gain
-

if

All of these amplifiers exhibit other character-

then

one only

The amplifier discussed above used a


bipolar transistor as an active device.
The
same circuit can be constructed using an FET
or vacuum tube as indicated in figure 23-2.

the product Aj3

if

at this point that lA/Jl will

greater than

greater than

A' =

than

is

lAj3l

1)

etc.

166

stability,

broader bandwidths,

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 23 SINGLE-STAGE FEEDBACK

The idea of using the emitter


resistor to
provide degeneration can
be carried to the
extreme by eliminating R
L entirely and taking
the output across R
as shown in figure 23-3
E
Such a circuit is called an
emitter follower or

common collector amplifier.


In

such a circuit e
0
e

o=

is

given

Consequently, 0 becomes

and the gain of the stage

by

A' =

--=

(23.6)

o
is

(23.7)

R
'E E

and the amount of feedback


present

-0eo =

is

can

E RE

This special type of


feedback amplifier
also be constructed
with an FET or

tube as shown

ov

in figure 23-4.

Such amplifiers

1
-o

23-3

Fig.

A Common

DD

167

Collector Amplifier

EXPERIMENT 23 SINGLE-STAGE FEEDBACK

are called

common

drain and

common

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

plate

impedance inputs and low impedance outputs.


They also have extremely wide bandwidths

amplifiers (also source followers and cathode


followers).

All three are frequently used for

(typically several megahertz).

electronic impedance matching, having high

MATERIALS
(15-10

100juF50WVDC capacitor
10 juF BOW VDC capacitors

2.2k resistor 1/2W

Resistance substitution box

Variable

Audio generator

VOMorFEM

Oscilloscope

megohm 1/2W)
DC power

supply (0 - 40V)

2N1304

Transistor type

Transistor socket

Breadboard

or equivalent

1
1

1/2W
1/2W
100fi resistor 1/2W
47k resistor 1/2W
560 ohm resistor 1/2W
10k

resistor

100k

resistor

PROCEDURE
1.

Assemble the

circuit

shown

Fig.

in figure

23-5

The

23-5.

First

Experimental Circuit

168

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

EXPERIMENT 23 SINGLE-STAGE FEEDBACK

Measure and record the values

of:

a)

The

circuit voltage gain, A.

b}

The

circuit input resistance, Rj.

c)

The

circuit

Remove

output

resistance,

R Q1

the 100 /zF emitter bypass


capacitor and repeat step

Using the circuit values compute


and record

2.

0.

.With the appropriate equation


from the discussion compute and record A'.

Rearrange the circuit as shown


series to

in figure 23-6.

produce the 2.76k emitter

Use the 2.2k and the 560fi

resistors in

resistor.

V CC =12V
10k
10/uF

10juF

INPUT
2.76k

47k,

Fig.
7.

Repeat steps

QTY

2, 4,

COMMON

23-6

and

OUTPUT

The Second Experimental Circuit

5.

Av
R0

Meas.
Circuit With

Emitter

Bypassed
Circuit With

Emitter

Unbypassed
Emitter

Follower

Fig.

23-7

The Data Table


169

A'

XX
Comp

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 23 SINGLE-STAGE FEEDBACK


ANALYSIS GUIDE.

In the analysis of these data

had on the original amplifiers' parameters.


equations given

in

You

the discussion were effective

in

you should examine the

effect that feedback

should also consider the extent to which the


predicting circuit performance.

PROBLEMS
1.

Explain

why

the input resistance of a

be larger than that of a

common

2.

What would be the approximate


how you arrived at your answer.

3.

What

is

the value of

j3

in

common

collector amplifier

value of the overall gain

each stage of figure 23-8?

Fig.

23-8

would normally

emitter amplifier.

Circuit for

170

Problem 2

in figure

23-8?

Explain

24

experiment

T^

'

,Ie?raTs,?m
algebra.c
sum of several s.gnals.

summing operation

DISCUSSION.

is

SUMMING AMPLIFIERS

mPOrtant USeS f 80

perational am P |ifier is t0 take the


In this experiment we shall examine
the way in which the

performed.

Let us consider the operational

amplifier circuit

shown

in figure 24-1.

open loop gain of the amplifier


and the output voltage is only

If

the

is

very large

few

will

or

if

ij

is

very small compared to either

s,

volts,

then the value of the amplifier


input voltage
(e) must be very small.
The currents flowing

through R and R
f

Then

's-'f
or

be

" fo
R

fs
Rj

'f

e -e
e - e*
= 0
andi s =
-R7
-R:

which

may

be

Now

if

0 or es
to
e

very small compared to either


can simplify the current equations

rearranged

into

the form

Rf

is

we

And we

recognize e /e as the overall gain of


Q s

the amplifier. That

"Rf

and '

as

-fe

Fig.

24-1

An

Operational Amplifier

171

is

operational

practice,

In

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

SUMMING AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 24

amplifiers are

The

2.

circuit

may

be

also

used

to

designed specifically to satisfy the conditions.

multiply e s by a constant coefficient

Their open loop gains high (usually well over

equal to -Rf/Rj.

1000) and their input current

(ij)

is

held to as

small a value as possible (frequently

or

In actual practice, the value of Rj

100 juA

less).

Returning

to

equation

one,

we may

and

pre-

a very

good

23.1

suming the approximation to be

is

usually

between 1k and 10k ohms; and


the ratio of R f /Rj is normally held to between
These restrictions force Rf
0.01 and 100.
restricted to

to

between

lie

write

To
let's

illustrate

suppose

we

10 ohms and

we

megohm.

the use of such amplifiers,

have a signal which

to multiply by 3.5.

(24.3)

To

we wish

achieve this operation

write
e o = ^-5 e s

Examination of

may

this equation reveals that

we

figure 24-1

in

use the circuit given

either of
1.

in

and we

two ways:
If

Rf =

Rj,

it

up the

circuit

shown

in figure 24-2.

However, since the output of this


then the circuit serves

is

-3.5 e
s

That

in

figure

as an inverter or sign changer.


is,

set

simply changes the sign of e s

we must add an
24-3.

35k

24-3

Multiplying e

172

by 3.

circuit

shown

This circuit satisfactorily

performs the required multiplication.

A/W

Fig.

inverter as

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 24

SUMMING AMPLIFIERS

o-

R2
e

O-

-AAAr
R3

R4

'4

yvv

O-

R|\|

'JS/VFig.

24-4

A Summing Amplifier

Performing computations
called electronic analog

is

in this manner
computation and

Then

forms the basis for so-called electronic analog


computers.

if

ij

0,

e.

we have
e

if

-i

or

4
'n

now

Let us
circuit

shown

turn our attention to the

figure 24-4. Using the same


type of analysis as applied previously, we
in

Finally,

see that

Rf

's

And

multiplying through by R
f

=i 1 +

since e

'2

0 (A

is

'3

'4

very

large),

'2-R"2

e3

2-R-3

Using this relationship

'R"3
-

voltages,

R,
e

3-^4
(24.4)

Rn

'

-fl

Rf

Rf

^-R^l ~T2

we have

multiply each

we may take
by

several

constant and

sum them.

e4

If

that,

Therefore,

R3

'

R4

if

is

perhaps worth noting at this point

we let Rj = R = R = R3 = R
1
2
4
= R n then equation 24.4 becomes
,

Rf

o--R7

<

+ e2 + e + e + ... + e
3
4
n

and
(24.5.
i

which, of course, shows the summation ability


of the amplifier more clearly.

173

EXPERIMENT 24 SUMMING AMPL IFIERS

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

VOLT

Fig.

Fig.

To illustrate
summing device,

24-6

24-5

Producing -3ej -6

Circuit for e

the use of an amplifier as a


let

us suppose that

circuit

we have

We may do

many

in

- 2e

+ 6

volts

to

by first combining the two


shown in figure 24-5, and then

24-6.

not the only circuit which would


results.

alternate possibilities.
solve

Indeed, there are

The

usual goal

the problem using the smallest

number of operational

amplifiers.

Using analog techniques, the constant

this

positive terms as

adding

3e-|

is

in figure

produce the desired

is

shown

This

two varying voltages (e<| and e 2 ar| d we


wish to combine them in such a way that
e

= 3ej -2e 2 + 6

quantities can be

the 2e 2 term giving the complete

of ways.

174

combined

in a

great variety

W
ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 24 SUMMING
AMPLIFIERS

MATERIALS
DC power supply
FEM

Variable

VOM

Audio generator

Oscilloscope

Integrated operational
amplifier type
SN724 or equivalent

or

90V)
1

Sheet of linear graph


paper

33k

resistor

1/2W

4.7k resistor 1/2W


1.8k resistor 1/2

socket

Breadboard

2 1k

(0 -

resistors

2W

8.2k resistor 1/2W

Resistance substitution box

(15-10

megohm 1/2W)

PROCEDURE
1-

Apply power to the operation,


amplifier

NOTE:

From
in

this point

figure 24-7.

on

it

Tte

will

oZe f

following steps.

as

shown

atc^j

in figure

*u

P W6r '*
3Pp,ied as show "
PP V COnnectl will not be
indicated in the
'

+15V

-15V

Fig.

24-7

Power Supply Connection


175

24-7.

EXPERIMENT 24 SUMMING AMPLIFIERS

Fig.

2.

24-8

Compute and record the

The

First Experimental Circuit

gain of the circuit

the f6edbaCk netW rk Sh Wn

'

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

shown

in fi9Ure

boTfor R f

24-8.

24-8 USin9 the resistance


substitution

4.

Measure and record the gain of the

5.

Repeat steps 2 and 4 for resistance substitution


box settings

n
"

(h
7.

in figure

(a)

470 ohms

(b)

1k

(f)

(c)

2.2k

(g)

(d)

4.7k

(h)

She

orL n ta^y)

Add

circuit.

^^

e)

10k

33k
68k
100k
9

*"

a second input resistor to the


amplifier as

of:

(j)

2 20k

(j)

470k

shown

Versus the ratio

in figure 24-9.

O-

Fig.

24-9

The Second Experimental Circuit

176

W*\

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 24
8-

Compute and record


the Qutput

9-

Construct the source


voltage
,ra 9e divider shn
shown

'

COnneC,,heSOU

<"^a m

SUMMING AMPLIFIERS
= " 723

<

in figure

vo '*

24-10

p,i, ier8ndmeasuree

ei =

+2.77V

COMMON

AUDIO

GENERATOR
(BALANCED
OUTPUT)

e2

= -7.23V

O
*9- 24-10

Circuit for Producing


e

First Circuit

ande<

Second Circuit

Comp

The Data Tables

177

~
I

Meas

EXPERIMENT 24

SUMMING AMPLIFIERS
lE
-

In

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

analyzing these data you should try to evaluate the validity of the

circuit analysis presented in the discussion.

In particular, consider the extent to

calculations for the first circuit agreed with the measured values.

which your gain

Also, consider the agreement

between the e values for the second circuit


Q

PROBLEMS
1.

Draw a diagram which will produce an output


when values of e<|, e 2 and e are applied.
What equation

= -e - 3e + 2e + 2 volts
1
2
3

2.

of e

describes the output of the circuit

Fig.

24- 12

Circuit for

178

in

figure 24-12?

Problem 2

'

25

INTEGRATIN G AMPLIF

s^a^sssssr
DISCUSSION. Let us consider
the operational
shown in figure 25-1

amplifier circuit

Perat ona a mplifiers


are normally
/
seed so that the gain (-A) is very
'

the

mput

mm

current

(i,, is

that the gain

is

high and
very very small If
we
so large that the

aPPr aCheS Z6r0 and


th
aol*
approaches zero, then
the feedback

ln P

becomes equal to the


source current-

'fis
Since e = 0, then

we
=

de-

i,-

cu'rrent

(25.1)

see that

^R

(25.2)
Fig.

and

Combi n ng

qc =

^because

and 25.2
will,

C^2C
dt

cec

&

= C e
0

Differentiating each side


renders

t3kin9

Then, since

-C
=

with

equation 25.1

in

the form

-R^ esdt

^
~

Circuit

R~

which we may rewrite


de

dt

result

gives us

of course, be

c and eQ are equal, we may

Integrating Amplifier

this

e = e
c
o

The charge on the


capacitor

An

25-1

inte9ra
'

" *

RC\/es dt

(25.3)

dT

dQc/dt/ we may

^^

or

other words, the


output of the amplin figure 25-1 is
directly proportional to
the mtegral of
the input signal.
For this

fy

in
,

ampler
179

C,>CUit

'~

EXPERIMENT 25

INTEGRA TING AMPL IFIERS

Fig.

The
25-1

is

integrating amplifier

sometimes used

as a

shown
a

The

circuit

to

in figure

25-2

will

produce

-R^/E m sin "tdt = + ^cosa;t + K

sin cot

where K
and we wish

shown

sinusoidal
e

= Em

sin cot

an output of

shifter.

voltage represented by

e<|

Em

Integrating

in figure

90 phase

we have

Let us suppose that

25-2

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

shift

its

phase by 90 to

will

create

is

the constant of integration and

equal zero

if

the capacitor.

there

is

no

initial

appropriate constant as shown

$2 ~ E m cos

we have

cot

change on

Then, by multiplying by the


in

figure 25-3,

the desired result.

cos cot

Fig.

25-3

Generating e

180

= E cos
m

cot

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 25

INTEGRATING AMPLIFIERS

90

135

VERTICAL

COMPONENT
E cos

u>t

= E

180

HORIZONTAL
COMPONENT
-E

sin

wt

sin o>t

270
Fig.

25-4

Resolving e Into
Q

By

using this phase shift


capability of an
integrating amplifier it is
possible to build
a phase shifter to
provide any desired amount
of phase shift from 0 to 360.

For example,
wave (ei = E
'

let

us consider

sin

wt)

may

how

a sine

be shifted by 135.

If

we draw

a vector

diagram of the original voltage


and
the desired output it would
appear as shown

figure 25-4,

and we see that e can be


0
resolved into horizontal and
vertical components of -E sin wt and E cos
cot, respectively.

If

Its

Components

we

generate these two components


and
add them, we will have the
desired output.
Figure 25-5 shows a circuit
for producing
the 135 phase-shifted
sinusoid.
Indeed, by
adjusting R
2 and R 3 in this circuit (also Rand C), we may adjust the
phase of the output from 90 to 180 with
respect to the input
voltage. Also by adjusting
R we may control
f

the' output level while


holding the phase shift

constant.

o;R

R2C

Fig.

25-5

Circuit for 90- 180 Phase


Shifting

181

cos tot

sin (u>t

6)

INTEGRA TING AMPL IFIERS

EXPERIMENT 25

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

AAAr

e1

N O-

AAAr

Fig.

25-6

A Summing Integrator

Integrating amplifiers are not limited to

and

They can, in fact, have any


number as indicated in figure 25-6.
analyzing this circuit we assume (as before)

a single input.

reasonable
In

deo =

"R7c

dt

e
1

-R^C

-2 dt

that
"

Then

And we

integrating both sides renders

observe that

i<|

Therefore (since e

\2

B
i

+
+
R
e

"s

-R^/e

From

if

is,

as before, equal to

this equation

-C^2
_c
hT

a result

we may

we

see that the circuit

Such

output which

sum of

a circuit

is

is

the integrals of

called a

summing

integrator.

Integrators

As

-R^/e 2 dt ---

figure 25-6 provides an

proportional to the
the inputs.

'f

dt

(25.4)

in

the other hand,

assumed to approach zero)

is

On

e dt
R^C N

write

other

than

may be

phase

used for several things

shifting.

For example,

suppose we wish to generate an output such


de

o_

dt

that

Ri

R2

E0 =

182

-3t + 2volts

(25.5)

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

Fig.

EXPERIMENT 25 INTEGRATING
AMPLIFIERS

25-7

Establishing the Constant

Term

To

achieve this result we pretend


that we have
the desired function at
the output of a system.
Then we draw a circuit which
will provide the
necessary constant term

At this point we must


multiply by (-1) to
allow for the inversion of
the integrator

We
now have 2t - 3 as the input of the
integrator.
We now add this portion of the circuit

(+2 in this case) and


determine the required variable
input to this
stage. See figure 25-7.

as seen

figure 25-8.

repeat

Next we
to determine
for

an

differentiate the variable


terms

to

dE<

produce the desired

signal

dE,

dT
E2 =

differentiating

And we connect

= - 2t + 3

input of -1

volt as

500k

25-8

Adding the

First Integrator Stage

183

we

outlined
(s)

dE,

another integrator having an

F/g.

process

2"'iir-'--Tr=-i

VW
1

installed

before using the remaining


variable term

what input would be required

integrator

the

With this stage

shown

in

figure

25-9.

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

INTEGRATING AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 25

10k

y~vw

= -t 2 + 3t

Fig.

One

2
Complete Circuit for Generating EQ = 1 -3t + 2

25-9

additional feature

is

also included in

capacitors

but to explore them further


would be beyond the scope of this experiment.

on and off.
charge on the

in

of turning the function generator


also insure that the initial

zero.

There are many other uses of operational


amplifiers in general and integrating amplifiers

the diagram, the switches connected across


the integrating capacitors are for the purpose

They

is

particular,

MATERIALS
DC power

1k resistors

supply (0 - 40V)

2W

Variable

Audio generator

IC socket

VOMorFEM

Resistance substitution

1
1

Oscilloscope

Integrated operational amplifier

meg 1/2W)
10 mF 600W

type

SN724

or equivalent

Set of data sheets for the above IC

Breadboard

juF

box (15-10

VDC oil-filled capacitor


600W VDC oil-filled acpacitor

1.6 volt battery

Sheets of linear graph paper

184

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 25

INTEGRA TING AMPL IFIERS

PROCEDURE
1.

Connect the power supply to the operational amplifier

in

the manner prescribed by the

manufacturer's data sheet.


2.

3.

Set up the operational amplifier as an integrator using


the resistance substitution box for R).

Connect the audio generator to the input of the

C = 10 juF, and R =

integrator.

megohm

(use

Set the frequency to 10

Hz

and view the output waveform with the oscilloscope.


4.

Make sketches of the input and output

signal

5.

Change C to

4.

R (ohms)
E0

(volts)

/xF

and repeat steps 3 and

showing the

relative

phase and amplitude.

meg

680 K

470 K

330 K

220 K

100 K

(Sec)

(Sec)

(Sec)

(Sec)

0.5
1.0
1.5

2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5

4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5

6.0
6.5

7.0
7.5

8.0
8.5

Fig.

25- 10

The Data Table


185

(Sec)

(Sec)

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

INTEGRATING AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 25

6.

Change R to 100k and repeat steps 3 and

7.

Return the amplifier to the conditions set

8.

Connect the 1.6 volt battery to the

9.

Short circuit the capacitor.

When

centimeter.

4.

in

step 2.

input.

Set the oscilloscope for:

the trace

is

on the

left

volt per

CM

and

of the screen and on a vertical

second per

line,

remove the

short on the capacitor and observe the trace of the oscilloscope.


10.

Make

a sketch of the trace

observed on the oscilloscope, recording the amplitude.

(Let

the trace run for approximately five to eight seconds.)


1 1

Change the value of R to

12.

Similarly repeat step

ANALYSIS GUIDE.

9-10

00k and repeat step

0.

for resistance values of 10k, 1k, and 0.1k.

In the analysis of

your

results

from

this

experiment you should be chiefly

concerned with evaluating the effectiveness of the amplifier as an integrator.

To

this

end you

could plot the integrals of the two functions used and compare them to your plots of the

results.

PROBLEMS
1.

Draw

a block

diagram of an electronic phase shifter which

input sinusoid
2.

Draw
volts.

degrees.

a function generator

Show

all

3.

What equation

4.

Draw
in

300

operational

all

operational

component

component

values.

values.

fewer operational amplifiers which

3.

Fig.

the phase of an

diagram which would produce an output of eQ = 6t 2 + 4

describes the output voltage of the system

a circuit using

problem

Show

will shift

25- 1

Circuit for

186

Problem 3

shown

will

in

figure 25-11?

generate the function

experiment

26

CHOPPER MODULATORS

electronic systems

DC signa

up a

so that

it

can be amplified by

some examples of modulator

DISCUSSION. Modulators
to

convert

signals.

DC

electrical

circuitry

The output amplitude of the

into

AC

AC
must

vary with the amplitude


of the input DC and
the phase must shift
by 180 degrees if the
polarity of the DC
reverses.
Modulators are
used where DC control
signals in a

system

must be converted and


amplified by an AC
amplifier for use with
AC-operated devices

such as

AC

vert an

of the

AC.
output

is

voltage

also necessary to con-

necessity of reversing
the
exists,

an

examine

cannot

demodulators.

One type of modulator


figure 26-1.

is

shown

in

an electromechanical
switching dev.ce called a
chopper. Notice that
the
chopper reed is balanced
between the poles
of a magnet.
If we apply an
to

alternately
it

the

the

rectifier

ordinary

power

It is

When

the

coil,

magnetized

the reed tip

the

reed tip will be


by the coil field

is an induced
north pole
the right, making the
righthand
contacts and breaking
the lefthand ones
During the next half of
the coil current cycle
the reed will be an
induced south pole. Now
.t

w.ll turn to

MAGNET

INSULATORS

TERMINAL

Electromechanical Contact
Modulator

187

be used.
Circuits
that can accomplish
this function are
called

current

AC signal to DC with polarity reversals


DC for 180 degree phase shifts of

When

supply

will

alternating

servomotors.

Sometimes

experiment we

and operation

are devices used


signals

2X

amp'f

where

them t0

USe

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

CHOPPER MODULATORS

EXPERIMENT 26

TRANSFORMER

OUTPUT AC
DC INPUT SIGNAL

(A)

VOLTS
C
I

TIME

TIME

(B)

(C)

INPUT
Fig.

it

swing to the

will

contacts

left,

26-2

making the

A
left

at a fixed voltage

other words, the chopper operates


synchrolike a motor-driven switch which is
current
coil
nized with the alternating
In

used
cuit.

chopper can be

an electromechanical modulating
The vibrating reed chops up the

in

input signal into a rectangular wave

The input

signal of figure

AC

26-2

is

change

DC control

discussing a

signal

time axis here


even days.

may

in

DC

DC value,

but the

level

can

the source changes.

when the input

value,

signal

is

a particular

the vibrating reed connects this

X and Y when

it is

up.

is
down, this same
The frequency
applied between Z and Y.

voltage

When

shown

would vary with the excitation frequency of

the reed

is

reed and the output voltage amplitude

the

would vary with the input

signal level.

The same voltage is applied to points


X-Y and Z-Y by the switching action of the
However, you will observe
vibrating reed.
first up
that the direction of the current is

it

mind that the

signal will

if

a steady

voltage between points

be calibrated in hours or

The DC control

other words,

signal.

and then speak of

changing with time, keep

is

26-2(a),

signal

DC

In

Again directing your attention to figure

which can change in amplitude and polarity depending upon changes


is taken.
in the system from which the signal
While it may seem odd to you that we are

as a

the system being mon-

any given condition of the source, input

voltage

cir-

DC

if

does not change.

itored

for

how

OUTPUT

Modulator Circuit

and breaking the righthand ones.

Figure 26-2 shows

(D)

SIGNAL AT X-Y

then

remain

188

down through

the primary of the trans-

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

former resulting

in

EXPERIMENT 26

the output signal

shown

figure 26-2(d).

Observe the amplitude


changes of the output as time varies along
in

the time axis from

to B and from B to C.

Also, note the phase change that takes place


at

B when the polarity of the input

input signal

CHOPPER MODULA TORS

applied from the center tap of

is

the excitation transformer through

D-j

and

the bottom half of the output transformer.

The current

direction

DC

polarity of the

will

depend on the

input.

reverses.

As you probably have already figured

The

ring

modulator

the mechanical vibrator

a circuit in

is

which

replaced by semi-

is

out,

the other half cycle of the excitation

voltage

turn

will

conductor diodes.

applying the input

switches and are

D3

The diodes are used as


controlled by the excitation

voltage.

on diodes D 3 and

DC

signal current

D4
through
,

to the top half of the output transformer.

Note that the

DC

input was alternately applied

to the top and then bottom of the output

The

circuit of a ring

in

figure 26-3.

is

such as to

When

modulator

is

shown

the excitation voltage

make point

positive with

and D 2 are
by current from the excita-

transformer

respect to point B, diodes D-j

with a reverse
signal.

In this

condition the
6.3V

DC

in

EXCITATION

fwmwx

RING

MODULATOR

Ring Modulator Circuitry

189

is

as with

As

DC

input

normally compared to

the line signal used for excitation.

AC

26-3

the polarity of the

This phase

TRANSFORMER

Fig.

way

before, the phase of the output will reverse

forward-biased

tion transformer.

exactly the same

in

the electromechanical modulator circuit.

CHOPPER MODULA TORS

EXPERIMENT 26

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

MATERIALS
1

Output transformer

4 Diodes type

N270

0Ofi ct - 4/8/1 62)

or equivalent

Input transformer (500ft ct - 200ft

560 ohm

ct)

2W resistor
10 ohm 2W resistors

DC power

Oscilloscope

Variable transformer (0 -

VOMorFEM

supply (0- 40V)

130V AC)

PROCEDURE
1.

2.

Connect the

circuit of figure 26-4.

Starting at zero, carefully adjust the variable transformer for

6V AC

across the input

transformer secondary.
3.

Connect the

DC power supply to

the input with the polarity indicated.

117V AC

INPUT TRANSFORMER

AC OUTPUT
SIGNAL

Fig.

26-4

The Experimental Circuit


190

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 26 CHOPPER MODULATORS

Z^ZTS

"line" synchronization

line sync.

Reverse the leads of the

Input

DC

DC power supply and

mstructor

,f

repeat step

"T^''

you don't know how to use

4 above.

Output Signal
(Show Amplitude and Phase)

Voltage

+
0

+
10

15

20

+
0

+
0
Fig.

The Data Table

+
-5

-10

-15

+
0

-20

26-5

191

ANALYSIS GUIDE.
phase of the output

and

its

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

CHOPPER MODULATORS

EXPERIMENT 26

is

the
circuit operation including how
Give a detailed explanation of the
observed
signal. Explain any distortion
reversed by reversing the DC input

probable cause.

PROBLEMS
DC

Sometimes

1.

signals are converted to

of direct-coupled amplifiers.
2.

AC

in

order to use

AC

amplifiers instead

Why?

fed to one phase winding


from the ring modulator is ultimately to be
Hz l.ne
other phase winding is excited by the 60
of a two-phase motor while the
DC
to the motor as the polar.ty of the
Draw the system and explain what happens
input to the ring modulator is reversed?

The

AC

signal

3 Suppose the output of the


'

then fed to a

DC

motor.

ring

What

modulator

is

to be amplified by an

AC

amplifier,

amplifier
device would be necessary between the

and motor?
4.

What

are

some advantages of the

circuit investigated

compared to the mechanical

device explained in this discussion?


5.

Price out the experimental circuit

and the one

192

in figure

26-2 and compare them.

27

experiment

INTRODUCTION. Choppers
amplifiers. In this

ducers

DC

provide

amplifier

will

examine

a simple

low

produce a few

millivolts

now

recorder will

level

of

example of a chopper-modulated

AC

amplifier.

output voltage to decrease by ten percent. The

input trans-

slowly varying

By looking

Thermocouples, for example,

output.

typically

AMPLIFIERS

or synchronous switches are sometimes used as modulators for

experiment we

DISCUSSION. Many

CHOPPER-MODULATED

DC

see a voltage of 0.9 volts.

at the recorder record

we would

think that the thermocouple signal had changed

when,

output that changes relatively slowly.

in

fact,

was

it

DC

level

inside the

amplifier changing.

One way of amplifying such a signal


employ direct-coupled amplifier stages.
When this is done we must immediately
become concerned with amplifier drift.
is

We call
DC level

to

in

the error caused by the change

measurement

drift

instrumentation
Drift

any change

which causes the

istics

To

is

illustrate

DC

in figure

27-1.

consider the

1mV DC

of

1000.

level

very

change
large

Under these

the amplifier
use an

AC

signal to

signal.

change

in

the surrounding temperature one of the amplifier stages shifts its

the amplifier

in

an early stage can cause

change

the

in

output

level.

Q-point, causing the

Fig.

27-

DC

is

Another way

one way.

an

AC
DC

quantity.
signal

can

is

to

This process of

to an

AC

one for

chopping or modulating

amplification

is

the signal.

Figure 27-2 shows a complete

called

system of this type.

An Amplifier System
193

drift

amplifier and convert the input

converting a

suppose that due to

If

in

Using negative feedback around

be reduced.

conditions the recorder should see a one-volt

Now

systems.

troublesome

There are several ways that

and that the direct-coupled amplifier

has a voltage gain

very

Suppose that

input transducer produces a

signal

DC

output to change.
let's

is

has a relatively high gain, then a very small

amplifier character-

the problem,

system shown
the

in

This kind of

signal.

drift

EXPERIMENT 27

CHOPPER-MODULATED AMPLIFIERS

LOW

MODULATED

LEVEL
DC
SIGNAL

(AC)

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

AMPLIFIED
AC SIGNAL

AMPLIFIED
DC SIGNAL

SIGNAL

INPUT

TRANSDUCER

RECORDER

(THERMOCOUPLE)

Fig.

In this
is

system the low

converted to an

Then the
the

AC

AC

signal

signal

signal
is

level

DC

Modulated Amplifier System

The modulator or chopper used between

signal

by the modulator.

amplified.

the input transducer and the amplifier

be either of two types:

Finally

DC

converted back to a

is

(demodulated)

AC

27-2

signal

electronic.

by the demodulator section

per

and fed to the recorder.

The important thing to notice


amplifier

handles only

quently any

DC

AC

is

signals.

that the

An

shown

somewhat

An AC

excitation voltage

as

This excitation

is

is

in

figure 27-3.

applied to the

usually 6.3

VAC

at

However, some units are designed to

operate at 50 Hz, 100 Hz and 400 Hz with a

can be prevented from reaching the recorder.

27-3

The electromechanical type chop-

vibrator

60 Hz.

Conse-

electromechanical or

usually a balanced armature synchronous

coil.

changes inside the amplifier

Fig.

is

may

variety of voltages.

Electromechanical Chopper

194

E LECTRO N ,CS/AMPL,

EXPmT27 CHO^OOU^O AMms

F1ER s

INPUT

AMPLIFIED

TRANSFORMER

CHOPPED SIGNAL

DC
SIGNAL

OUTPUT

CHOPPER
EXCITATION
6.3V 60 Hz

Fig.

The
netizes

27-4

Chopper-Modulated Amplifier

excitation voltage temporarily


magpole pieces in

the

synchronization
with the excitation frequency.
Consequently
the pole pieces alternate
between being north
and south magnetic poles.

The permanently magnetized


armature

(some units use permanent


magnet pole pieces
and induced armature poles
but the operation
is
substantially the same) is
magnetically
moved first to one side, then
to the other.

The
to-side

contact

The chopper

signal to the

transformer.

side

with
the

arm contacts move from


the
fixed

action

side-

armature and alternately


contacts.

This
is

top and bottom of the


input
Consequently, the transformer

what is substantially a
rectangular
wave whose frequency is
the same as the

chopper excitation

signal

(60

Hz,

in

this

instance).

The amplifier stage amplifies


this square
AC signal and it is subsequently
de-

modulated (converted back to

DC

level)

after amplification.

action

synchro-

This switch-

used to modulate (or


chop)
the amplifier input signal.
Figure 27-4 shows
is

a typical circuit

alternately connects this


input

sees"

wave

produces a switching action


that
nized with the excitation
signal.
ing

Let's suppose that the


DC input signal
a slowly varying voltage
of about one volt

We
later.

will

look

Right now,

closer
let's

at

demodulation

observe that mod-

ulation in this sense

is a process of
alternate
switching. There are several
electronic circuits

diagram of a chopper-mod-

which are also used to perform


this function.
Figure 27-5 shows several of
them.

ulated amplifier.

195

EXPERIMENT 27

CHOPPER-MODULATED AMPLIFIERS

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

DC
INPUT

CHOPPER
OUTPUT

(A)

CHOPPER
EXCITATION

DIODE CHOPPER

DC
INPUT

CHOPPED
OUTPUT

CHOPPED
OUTPUT

DC
INPUT

CHOPPER
EXCITATION

CHOPPER
EXCITATION

-bf=h
W

-R

-bFtSERIES TRANSISTOR CHOPPER

Fig.

27-5

(C)

Electronic Choppers

196

TWO TRANSISTOR CHOPPER

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS
The

first

of these

EXPERMENT27 CHOPPER-MODULA TED


AMPLIFIERS

(figure

27-5a)

is

diode chopper or ring modulator.


The chopper
excitation turns on diodes D-,
and D 2 on one
half of its cycle, connecting
input 2 to terminal
1 of the input transformer.
During the alternate half cycle, diodes D
3 and D 4 are on,
connecting input 1 to terminal
2 of the
transformer.

mechanical

wave

is

As

in

the case of the electro-

chopper, a substantially square

DC output when

small

troublesome.
figure 27-5c
errors

VCE

In

maybe
by

created
of

QV

used.
l

CQ

not only offsets


and the saturation
It

but also insures an input

sistance that

ohms).

it is turned off
that is
such cases, the circuit in

is

This

re-

very low (usually below


50

makes

it

particularly

useful

with low resistance transducers.

produced.
After the chopped signal has been
suitably
it must be demodulated
(converted
back to a DC value). As was the
case with the
amplified

Figures 27-5b and 27-5c are


transistor
choppers requiring a square wave
excitation.
In

figure

turns

27-5b

the

square

wave simply

Q, on and

off producing a chopping


sinewave excitation can be used
when the shape of the chopped output
need
not be square.
In some very precise cases
action.

modulation process, demodulation may


be by
either electronic or
electromechanical means.

the leakage current,

CQ

through

causes a

^OPPED

27-6

of

some

type.

Figure 27-6 shows the general-

ized case.

AMPLIFIED

INPUT

Fig.

Electronic demodulation is usually


accomplished by employing a rectifier
and filter

CHOPPED OUTPUT

A Chopped DC-to-DC System


197


EXPERIMENT 27

CHOPPER-MODULA TED AMPLIFIERS

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

-o

T"N

INPUT

OUTPUT
ol

HALFWAVE DEMODULATOR

(A)

(B)

FULLWA VE DEMODULA TOR

I
(C)

BRIDGE DEMODULATOR

(D)

VOLTAGE DOUBLER DEMODULATOR

VW

O(E)

Fig.

The demodulator

CLAMPER TYPE DEMODULATOR

27-7

rectifier
filter

in fact,

compared

is

to

any other type of electronic

the

period

and

short

of

polarity

is

compared to the
in

the

systems work,

DC

output

Moreover, since the output

follow reversals

practical applications.

let's

in

that this

assume that the amplifier

exactly out of phase with

is

(much engineering

always the same, only one polarity

many

most commonly

To understand how the electromechanical

Electromechanical demodulators are also


in

the

Their principal advantage

input polarity.

of input signal can be accommodated.

used

of

that the output can

chopper

the

period of any anticipated changes


signal.

is

two

circuits.

normally selected to be long

excitation signal

input

shows

employed

in figure

The time constant of the

circuit.

circuit

27-8

section in this system

could be any one of those shown


27-7, or,

Electronic Demodulators

is

its

input

effort goes into assuring

a reasonable assumption).

Moreassume that we are dealing with

over,

let's

truly

rectangular

waveforms.

Figure 27-9

shows representation of the input and output


under these conditions.

Figure

198

E L E CTRON,CS/AMPL,HERS

EXPERIMENT!? CHOPPER-MODULA
TED AMPLIFIERS

CHOPPER
EXCITATION

(B)

Fig.

Now,

let's

27-8

keep

in

TWO CHOPPER SYSTEM

(A)

SINGLE CHOPPER SYSTEM

Electromechanical Modulating-Demodulating
Systems

mind that

connect choppers

X}

and

X2

UTJ

a typical

electromechanical chopper is a
synchronous
devjce, that is, it vibrates
in a fixed relationship to its excitation
signal.
So we can
in figure

INPUT

27-8a

so that they both connect


the armature to
transformer (input and output,
respectively)

terminal

similar

terminal

at the

DC

that the

is

member
nized).
circuit

time.

input voltage

transformer

be negative.
positive,

same

As an

when

output terminal

and

input
1

is

negative

OUTPUT

will

when input terminal 2

output terminal 2
that the

positive

polarities,

positive,

Also,

So, assuming

is

is

(re-

two choppers are synchro-

overall result

waveforms shown

we can

in figure

sketch the

27-10.

199

Fig.

27-9

Input and Output in an


Electromechanical System

EXPERIMENT 27

CHOPPER-MODULATED AMPLIFIERS

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

n
f

J
(A)

INPUT DC

(B)

AMPL,

Fig.

n other words,

we have

-DC output The system

effectively

modulating,

modulating the input

INPUT

27-10

(C)

27-8a

(D)

DEMODE OUTPUT

System Signals

+ DC input and

in figure

AMPL. OUTPUT

is

amplifying and de-

signal.

Electromechanical choppers are also used


in

a variety

of feedback systems employing

additional windings on the input and output

transformers.

Moreover, they are used

in

systems which stabilize the characteristics of


Figure 27-8(b)

is

very

much

the same

type of system except that the input and output are grounded on alternate half cycles. As a
result,

put

is

the polarity of the demodulated outreversed as

shown

in

figure 27-1

DC

amplifiers.

We

shall

not deal with these

more complicated types of chopper applications here. However, you may wish to look
up "chopper stabilization" in a text book
on amplifier circuits for your own information.

1.

+E

(A)

INPUT DC

(B)

Fig.

27-

1 1

AMPL. INPUT
Signals in a Single

200

(C)

AMPL. OUTPUT

Chopper System

D) DEMODE OUTPUT

EXPERT V

ELECTRONS/AMPLIFIERS

CHOPPER-MODULA TED AMPLIFIERS

MATERIALS
1 Circuit board
2 Transistors (type

2N1304

2 Resistors 6.8k 1/2W


or equivalent)

2 Resistors 47k 1/2W


3 Capacitors 10 juF 50W

DC power supply (0 - 40V)


5 Diodes (type 1N270 or
equivalent)
2 Resistors 10ft 2W
1

1
1

Power transformer

Resistor 220ft

(1:1 ct)

2W

Resistance substitution box


(15

Transistor input transformer


(200ft -

10

megohm 1/2W)

100ft ct 1/2W)
1

VDC
25W VDC

2 Capacitors 100/xF

VOM

Resistor 470ft

1/2W
2 Resistors 560ft 1/2W
2 Resistors 3.3k 1/2W
1
Resistor 4.7k 1/2W

or

FEM

Oscilloscope
Variable transformer (0 130V
Sheets of linear graph paper

AC)

PROCEDURE
1.

2.

Construct the amplifier system


shown

in figure

27-12

Construct the power supply


divider network shown

box for

maximum

(see
in

page 202).

fiaure
9

resistance.

27

n- wt
Set
'

tho substlt
u
the
ution

RESISTANCE
SUBSTITUTION

BOX

TO
15 VDC
POWER

SUPPLY

TO AMPLIFIER
DC SIGNAL
INPUT

Fig.

27-13

Power Supply Divider Network


201

EXPERIMENT 27

CHOPPER-MODULATED AMPLIFIERS

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

O
>

o
o
CM

DC

*z ~
<
DC

DC

Q.

DC

c:
q>

O
H
w
z
.

q>

cc

H
Q>

II

CM

WSr

CM

II-

202

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 27

CHOPPER-MODULATED AMPLIFIERS

3.

Connect the power supply divider network to the amplifier

4.

Connect

6.3

transformer.

5.

Do

VAC 60 Hz

input.

chopper excitation to the amplifier using the variable


AC until you are very sure it is 6.3 VAC.

not connect the

Connect the oscilloscope between ground and point A. Point

is

the amplifier output

before demodulation.

6.

Decrease the resistance substitution box setting step-by-step


until you see a signal at the
oscilloscope. Continue decreasing the resistance substitution
box setting while carefully
watching the output waveshape. When you notice the output
just beginning to distort,
increase the substitution box setting one step.

7.

Externally

sync the oscilloscope on the undemodulated output signal.


Have your
your circuit to insure that the scope is properly synchronized.

instructor check

8.

9.

Measure and record the DC

On

point

(E

graph paper sketch the waveform showing

period, and

10.

level at

Move

DC

).

its

starting point, relative phase,

the vertical input of the scope to point B on the


other side of

externally synchronized on point A.

1 1.

2.

13.

amplitude

level.

Repeat steps 8 and

D5

Keep the scope

9.

Move the

vertical input of the scope to the output terminal of


the system. Repeat steps
8 and 9 (external sync on point A).

Make

these same measurements and sketches

at:

Point C located at the secondary of


Point E located at the primary of

Point F located at the primary of T-|.


Point G located at the secondary of T-

Point H located at the secondary of T-

The DC

signal input (E|).

E0

EG

Fig.

27-14

The Data Table

203

eh

EXPERIMENT 27

CHOPPER-MODULATED AMPLIFIERS

ANALYSIS GUIDE.

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

Using your waveform sketches, discuss the operation of the system.

particular attention to the

DC

levels

and time relationships of the various

signals.

Also discuss

the overall DC-to-DC amplifier effectiveness.

PROBLEMS
1.

How would

you define the DC-to-DC gain of the amplifier

2.

What was the

value of the DC-to-DC gain for your amplifier?

3.

What was the AC

gain

from point C to point

in

your amplifier?

4.

What was the

AC

gain

from point C to point B

in

your amplifier?

5.

Why

are the three values of gain

from problems

204

2, 3,

in

the experiment?

and 4 different?

Give

experimen

28

discussion. Electron icpovM?ra/77p//i7ws


are
built in a number of
different circuit configurations.

In

this

experiment

we

shall

consider only one type of circuit,


the singleended transformer-coupled amplifier.

Such

amplifiers are typically found

in

the output

stage of audio frequency


equipment.

The

basic

deliver the

power amplifier problem

SINGLE-END
PO WER AMPLIFIERS

In analyzing a

type the procedure


as for other

the Q-point

power amplifier of
is

common

substantially the

emitter circuits.

noted

that the

DC

resistance of the transformer

Therefore,

is

to

maximum

undistorted power to a
The circuit shown in figure 28-1 is
one
of the most frequently
encountered arrange-

ments.

the

DC

load line

is

drawn from V
cc on the

collector-emitter voltage axis of the


transistor

output characteristic to

V CC

,.

Rc + Ro

X
28- 1

DC

primary often constitutes an important


part
of the collector circuit resistance.

load.

Fig.

First,

located by laying out the


load line and the bias line. It
should be
is

this

same

Typical Single-Ended Power


Amplifier

205

EXPERIMENT 28 SINGLE-END AMPLIFIERS


On

the collector current axis, R

DC

the

of course,

is,

resistance of the transformer primary

winding.

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS
voltage

5 volts (P = 5 X

is

the current

may

the voltage

is

way we can
The bias line is plotted
employing the equation

v ce

(R

in

L + R E )(R B + R E

'b

the usual

way

(R

-V BE

10

15

20

volts

volts

volts

volts

1.0

0.5

0.33

amp

amps amps

'c

Ro
2

V BE is approximated at 0.2 volts for germanium transistors or 0.6 volts for silicon devices.
Since one of the objectives of a
power
is to deliver maximum
power to the
load, it followsthat the input power
should be

amplifier

as the active device

this case) can

(transistor,

average power that can be applied to a


transistor (or other device) is limited
by the
heat-dissipation

ability

of the device.

If

we

The

rating of a particular device

is

normally specified by the manufacturer

in

watts.

plot these points

device

power

dissipation of a

on the output characteristic curves

and

loadline

bias

figure 28-2 (as

is

are

line

the

AC

utput char-

also

if

the

maximum
will get

Q-point

lies

dissipation line,

too hot.

Q-point

is

sipation

line,

far

On

shown

in

loadline).

A few moments of reflection


that

will

can plot the

curve will appear as shown


by the dotted color line in figure 28-2. The DC

confirm
above the 5 watt
then the transistor
will

the other hand,

below the

if

5W maximum

the
dis-

then the output signal power

be unnecessarily limited.

common
We

on the

0.25

amps

the

acteristic,

in

accommodate. The maximum

heat-dissipating

^ watts

(28.1)

V CE

large

results will be

Rd=
B
R7T^' V BB- v CCR^TR^and,

as

in this

tabulate pairs of current, voltage

where

amps when

Proceeding

volts.

Ri

R-i

= 5W). Similarly

values which satisfy the relationship

and the

L + R E )(V BB

10

^CE'c

R.

V CC

not exceed 0.5

As

a result

it is

practice to locate the Q-point near,

but well beneath, the

maximum

dissipation

line.

using the equation

P=

For example,
transistor

free air.

is

V CE'C

let

us suppose that a

rated at 5 watts

(28.2)

With the Q-point established, the AC


loadline may be drawn. The AC load
on the
transistor (R ) is the resistance reflected
into
p
the transformer primary by the secondary

power

load (R|_).

when operated

in

For this device the collector current

cannot exceed

amp when

the collector

206

If

are

we assume

negligible,

that the transformer losses

then

the

AC

primary and

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 28 SINGLE-END
AMPLIFIERS

1.0

0.9

0.8

n 7

<
0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

UJ
cc

QC
r-

UJ
-J
J

o
0.2

-
1

0.1

mA

LK
l

12

14

R = 0

16

COLLECTOR-EMITTER POTENTIAL
(VOLTS)

Fig.

28-2

Graphical Analysis of a

secondary powers are


equal:

The output

Power Amplifier

and secondary

circuit

and observe that

C = PC

AC power

is

given

by

Po = E
0 0
I

while the primary

AC power is

S Ub8* itUtlng these curre


nt relationships
above equation, we have

intn the
th
into

c = v CE c
i

^CE

Consequently we have

vce'c =
We

e0 0

2
_ E0
RL

or

can apply Ohm's law


to the primary

207

R p- R

V CE x2
Ll~E

EXPERIMENT 28 SINGLE-END AMPLIFIERS


And we

equal to the turns ratio

former.

V CE /E Q

recognize the ratio

N /N s

We may therefore

as being

of the trans-

ELECTRONICS/ AMPLIFIERS

is located midway between E


max
and E m n as well as midway between
max
and
then
the
peak
collector
voltage
and
n

the Q-point

write

current swing will be

V CE(peak)

(28.3)

as the value of the

stage

the

and

AC

this

is

AC

load resistance of the

the value that

we

Since

the

signals

handled

by power

normally determined graphically.

signal analysis

stages.

is

=
'C(peak)

amplifiers are typically very large, the gain


is

and

use to draw

loadline.

Small

= E Q- E
min

'q " 'min

For most practical transistors,


be so small compared to Iq that
neglected and

we may

write

not used for power amplifier

Let us consider the amplifier repre-

sented by the curves given

in

figure 28-3.

If

208

C(peak)

'q

it

n will

may be

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 28 SINGLE-END
AMPLIFIERS

Therefore, the rms collector


current will be

We

should remember that this is


the maximum
power output that we can
expect if the
transistor

(28.4)

portion

equation

And

since

the

rms voltage across

V CE(rms)

and the output power

'c(rms)

is

given

is

biased in the center of the


usable

is

of

the

loadline.

above

Moreover the
presumes a perfect

(28.6)

transformer.

Actually, it is much
more
reasonable to assume a transformer
efficiency
of about 75%. If this is
done, equation 28.6

becomes

by
2

Po

we may

V CE(rms)

write

po~3/8(i

'c(rms)

the following equation


for

'C (rms)

P
o

And finally
we have

in

R
"p

(28.5)

And

in

2
in

(rms) R in

the power gain (K

terms of the turns ratio and


R,
L

K -

becomes

(28.7)

N.

o^

/2(l

P)

Qiq

RL

(28.6)

and

is

usually expressed in decibels.

MATERIALS
1

Power

Output

transistor (type

T13027

characteristic for the

or equivalent)

above transistor

Output transformer
4 ohm load resistor 1W

1
1

100juF50WV DC

10 mF

capacitor

50WVDC capacitor

DC power
VOMor FEM

Audio generator

Oscilloscope

ohm 2 watt resistor


10k ohm resistors 1/2W
1

Variable

supply (0-40V)

PROCEDURE

2
-

ShZ

t^"*'

0 ' plot ,he

209

stage

be

will

R|

The input power to the amplifier

output power:

Q ^)

DC

lMd,ine

* ~

EXPERIMENT 28 SINGLE-END AMPLIFIERS

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

10/uF

INPUT

Fig.

28-4

The Experimental Circuit

3.

Locate and record the Q-point values of

4.

Plot the

maximum power

Eq and

Iq from the curve.

dissipation curve for a free-air dissipation of 2 watts.

whether or not the transistor

is

shown

operating

in

5.

Assemble the

6.

Connect the audio generator to supply an input

circuit

4-ohm load

across the

in

resistor.

Determine

the proper region.

figure 28-4

and measure the values of

Adjust the audio

at

and

Iq.

Connect the oscilloscope

kHz.

level for

Eq

the largest input signal that

produces a relatively undistorted output waveform.


7.

Record the

levels of

both the output and input signals [E


0 rms and E jn
)

8.

Determine the input resistance of the amplifier (Rj ).


n

9.

Using P
levels.

rms
nL
j

and P jn =

in
(

rms

rrns )]

determine both the input and output power

"in

Record these values as measured quantities.

10.

With the appropriate equation from the discussion, compute the approximate value of P
0
using circuit component and output characteristic quantities.

11.

Using the measured values of P and P


compute the power gain of the stage
Q
jn
,

270

in decibels.

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

Qty

Rc

EXPERIMENT 28 SINGLE-END
AMPLIFIERS

N /N s

(rms)

Kp

(rms)
'in

in

(db)

Measured
Values

Computed
Values

xj.xl

xjxl

Fig.

ANALYSIS GUIDE. The

28-5

The Data Table

objective of this exoerimpnt h

PROBLEMS

3.

If

the c,>,/f

of a power amp.if ier

% eff = "tput signal

is

defined as

powpr

dc power input

wha,

w the peroen, efficiency of the

circu in , he

211

x 100

experiment

INTRODUCTION.

Single-ended

PUSH-PULL PO WER
AMPLIFIERS

29
power

amplifiers require relatively large values of quiescent

when no

current with the result that considerable heat must be dissipated even

One way

to avoid this large no-signal

amplifier.

In this

DISCUSSION.
shown

circuit

experiment we

power

dissipation

Let us consider the amplifier

The

29-1.

figure

in

(Np<|)

Both

PNP

base signals.

input signal

is

see

primary.

that during the half


1,

supplied with power by transistor

T2 remains

applied,

is

we

of the input cycle marked No.

types, respond only to negative

When no

of the output transformer

Consequently,

transistors have zero base bias current, and,

being

power

a circuit.

coupled to the load through the lower half

circuit

operation can be explained as follows:

present.

is

to use a class B push-pull

is

examine the operation of such

shall

signal

the load
T<|

while

cut off.

both transistors are operating at cutoff and,


therefore, have very small collector currents.

During the alternate half cycle (No.

Figure 29-2 shows the output characteristic of


T<|

a transistor operating in this

manner.

cut off while


If

we apply

a sinusoidal

stantaneous polarities marked

then

transistor

input current and

in figure

T2 experiences
is

which

input to the

primary of the input transformer and the

negative

input

is

amplified and delivered to the load

We may
transistor

and

amplified

flected

plot the

output

i*

'

Basic Push-Pull Amplifier Circuit

212

AC

loadline for each


is

re-

into the output transformer primary

<

29- 1

2> of the

by observing that the load

Fig.

positive

driven further into cutoff.

which

experiences a negative input

transformer primary.

29-1,

Transistor T-j, on the other hand, experiences


a

is

T2

through the upper half (N

in-

2),

experiences a positive input and remains

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 29 POWER AMPLIFIERS

AC LOADLIIME

Q.

h-

Z
ai
oc
oc

D
O
DC

O
LU

COLLECTOR-EMITTER POTENTIAL
(VOLTS)
Fig.

29-2

Loadline Plots for Zero Bias

according to

And

the

power

delivered

to

the

output

transformer primary becomes

Rp-R L

(29.1)

Each transistor can accommodate


collector current swing
along the

AC

peak

loadline

of

Finally,

And

since

'max

"

the output

is

'q

normally very small compared


'max' we may approximate the peak
collector current swing by
l

*'rms)

transformer has a typical


efficiency of around 75
percent, the output

power
'C(peak)

if

(29.2)

is

t0

'n

the

input

serves to couple the

'C(peak)

When

this

is

valid,

the rms

two bases with

collector current will be

the transformer

power amplifier to any


an impedance matching

preceding stage, as
device and as a phase

'max

approximation

circuit,

splitter,

to supply the

signals that are

180 apart.

While the circuit shown in


figure 29-1 is
in the sense that it
will work, one
major problem grows out of the
fact that the
input characteristics of
the transistors are
practical

max
'rms*

V2213

EXPERIMENT 29

POWER AMPLIFIERS

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

quite nonlinear.

Figure 29-3 shows a typical

silicon transistor input curve.

input curve

is

Notice that the

relatively linear for base cur-

mA, but is
and 0.25 mA.

rents above about 0.25

between zero

linear

quite nonIf

we

bias

the two push-pull transistors at zero base cur-

<
E

rent,

then some distortion of the output


This

result.
LU
DC
DC

type

of

distortion

crossover distortion and

biasing

LU

both

transistors

may

is

be avoided by

slightly

above the

nonlinear portion of the input curve.

CQ

will

called

Figure

29-4 shows a push-pull amplifier circuit

which bias has been provided for

In this circuit

base
0

0.4

0.2

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

29-3

resistors.

and also to contribute

Typical Silicon Transistor

Input Characteristic

Fig.

29-4

this purpose.

and R2 are the usual

The emitter

R^, are included to improve the bias

BASE-EMITTER POTENTIAL (VOLTS)

Fig.

bias

R<|

Biasing Against Crossover Distortion

214

in

resistors,

stability

slightly to gain stability.

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 29 POWER
AMPLIFIERS
MATERIALS
Output
1

characteristic for the

Output transformer
(10O2 CT - 16/8/4fi 5W)
Input transformer
(500ft CT - 200tt CT 1/2W)

4-ohm

resistor

2 0.47-ohm
1

470-ohm

15k

2W
2W

resistor

Oscilloscope

VOMorFEM

1
1

resistor

resistor

above device

Variable DC power supply


(0
Sheet of linear graph
paper

40V)

Resistance substitution
box (15-10

megohm 1/2W)

1/2W

1/2W

Audio generator

0.01 fiF capacitor

600W VDC

PROCEDURE
1.

2.

Measure and record the


DC resistance
primary and the center
tap.
Determine the turns

ratio

3.

Assemble the

4.

Measure and record ft.

5.

U S1 9 , he Mlues from

a.

us

circuit

ng the value of

ft

h
ot
betW6en
ne end of the output transformer

between one ha
half
th
f nf
*
f the out P ut transformer primary
and the
'

4-ohm secondary.

^
I

shown

in figure 29-5.

DC cCectcr curren, and the

step 4i p|ot , he

Rl and the tums

point

^^

determ|ne

co

lector. emi

effective

er v0 age

^
OUTPUT
TRANSFORMER

INPUT

TRANSFORMER

-O
500ft

Fig.

29-5

The Experimental
Amplifier

215

16^

8ft

EXPERIMENT 29 POWER AMPLIFIERS

7.

Plot the

of

AC

loadline

on the output

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

From your

characteristic.

plot determine the value

'maxrecord the output power using equation 29.2.

8.

Compute and

9.

Connect the audio generator to the input and adjust it for the maximum undistorted
Record the value of e Q
1 kHz signal across the 4-ohm load.
.

2
the output power, P Q = E L /R|_.

10.

Compute

1 1

With the oscilloscope view the waveform:

(a)

at the input terminals.

(b)

across each half of the input transformer secondary.

(c)

across each half of the output transformer primary.

(d)

across the load resistor.

Make an accurate sketch of each waveform on


Insert the resistance substitution

12.

box

linear

graph paper.

with the audio generator and connect a

in series

meter across the box.


13.

Adjust both the resistance box setting and the audio generator such that you have the

same value of e Q

as before

14.

With

15.

Compute the power

and

a readable voltage

the meter reading and


gain,

resistance

box

on the meter.
value,

compute the input power

K p = P Q /Pj.
P

Qty

'c

(Pj).

V CE

'max

o
comp.

P
e

Pi

meas.

meas.

Value

Fig.

ANALYSIS GUIDE.

29-6

In analyzing these data,

The Data Table


you should consider the effectiveness of the experihow each of the waveforms viewed contributes

mental circuit as a power amplifier. Also consider


to the overall performance of the amplifier.

PROBLEMS
1.

Assuming that the same transformer is used, what would have been the output
power if the load in the experiment was connected between the common tap and
the 8-ohm tap of the output transformer?

2.

Explain

how

the input resistance of the amplifier

in figure

29-5

is

related to the

input resistance of one of the transistors.


3.

Explain crossover distortion

viewed

in

in

your own words, and

tell

how each

of the waveforms

the experiment would have been affected by this type of distortion.

216

nt

TwJZ

peZrl

AMPLIFIER TROUBLES

^^^^f ^ ^ ^r
0

types of amplifier trouble.

fail

DISCUSSION. Amplifier
failures may be dia number of
major categories.

The following

In

nal

amplifier with a normal


input

may have no output at all.

basic

The

,s

we assume

An

oscillate at

Each of these

some

may

contain

errors in cir-

and

(b) errors in circuit


design
of these can usually
be corrected
quickly by carefully
checking the circuit
against the original
diagram
first

and examining

each connection.

The second type of


difficult to correct.
The

No Output
amplifier
signal,

is

much more

usual process
all

is

to

the operating

(normally done graphically)


and

small signal performance.

are sure

that neither of the


two
types of errors mentioned
above are occurring,

only one

the circuit

(This

possibility Qf

|f

the input signal to an

normal and there

is

no output

we

can conclude that at


some
point in the signal path
there is a component
which has failed in such
a

way as to completely block signal


flow. Our problem
then
is to locate
this single defective
component
To better understand the
troubleshooting

process, let us use the


circuit
30-1 as an example.

shown

in figure

first

step in any troubleshooting


to check the DC
operating potentials
In the example
circuit, we would measure the values of V
and V
of

process

is

each trancc
CE
the case of an FET,
we measure
v DS , while for a tube we
measure E PK , E ro
and observe filament
operation).
Normally'
sistor

(.n

a class

or E

217

is

Signal.

then

The

error

perform a detailed analysis


of

we

in

or design

is

now proceed with


each of the five types of
troubles.

five types

(a)

If

that there

failures, but does let


us deal with
one problem at a time.)
With these basic assumptions in mind, let us

amounts of noise or hum.

Before discussing individual


trouble categories, ,t is worthwhile
to recognize that, in a
laboratory situation, two
additional types of
trouble can arise. They
are;

potentials

in circuitry

problem to be located
does not exclude fhe

of trouble is discussed
individually in the following
paragraphs.

cult wiring,

no error

Afferent

amplifier's output

objectional

The

that the circuit was


functional be(This is the same as assuming

Secondly,

may

frequency.
5.

f.rst is

that there

may

common

make two

An

amplifier

ex .

assumptions upon which to


proceed

fore the failure.

An

4.

, this

troubleshooting an amplifier
(or other
system), we normally

normal input may


have seriously reduced
output.
amplifier with a normal
input
produce a distorted output.

3.

electronic

sig-

An amplifier with a

2.

p r0 p er y

we may proceed in dealing


with the five
troubles outlined originally.

major divisions will include


the
vast majority of
troubles:

An

locating the causes of

then

vided into

1.

t0

appro P nate

PK

amplifier,

we expect V
CE (V DS
V cc (V DD

to be approximately 1/2

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 30 AMPLIFIER TROUBLESHOOTING

Fig.

or Egg).

class

Typical Amplifier Circuit

B amplifier, on the other

hand, usually has a

aboutQhO V cc

30-1

Vq^ (VqS

value, then

we would suspect

that stage of

being defective.

or ^PK^ *

(V DD or Egg).
After checking the operating potentials

As
about

a result,

6V

we would expect Vq^

for the first

two

transistors

about 10V for the two output


the

of the circuit,

and

transistors.

we should apply

to the input of the amplifier.

check the

If

signal level

normal

signal

We may

then

(using an oscilloscope

value measured for one of the tran-

or other instrument) at various points within

was greatly different from the expected

the circuit. By starting at the input and work-

Vqe

sistors

to be

218

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 30 AMPLIFIER
TROUBLESHOOTING

toward the output, we


can locate the
point at which the signal
becomes lost. In
the example circuit, the
signal should be
ng

checked

Reduced
either a

at:

A serious-

usually caused

(transistor with

the base of

nal level at the input

(c)

the collector of
Ti
the base of

the collector of

(f )

the base of

(g)

the collector of

(h)

the base of

T2

T3
T3

T4
T4

found at

network
can check

m the emitter circuit of T-,. We


each of these components
one at a time to
find the fault. Moreover,
the operating potenmeasured at T, may help

in

locating the

V cc then T2 must
Or if V
CE is zero, then

equal to

circuit.

shorted or another device (X,


or
the emitter resistor) is
open. Measuring the
DC voltage across the emitter resistor
will
is

in-

dicate whether or not current


if

current

is

in

je

will

DC opera-

Transformers can fail causing a


severe
reduction (or even total loss) of
signal. If one
or more turns of any
shorted,
into all

is flowing in the
flowing, then there can

winding becomes
then the short circuit is reflected
of the windings. This trouble
is dif-

ficult to identify

and

is

usually the last possi-

bility

way

to be investigated.
to test a transformer

another

known good

T2

in

ting potentials.

which no signal is present, then


we
can usually isolate the
defective component
by a careful examination of the
circuit. For
instance, suppose that the
signal is present at
the base of T and not at the
collector of T
2
2
This being the case, we
conclude that the defect must be caused by
transistor T , transformer Xj, or the resistor-capacitor 2

be an open

Tj

the output terminals

is

the signal

(h ) for T
However, a change
je
2
normally cause a serious change
in

(j)

VCE

if

is normal at the
colthe example circuit, and severely reduced at the base
of T , then the coup2
ling capacitor may have
abnormally high reactance (low capacitance). This
symptom could
also be caused by a reduced
input resistance

lector of

the collector of

If

Perhaps the best


is to replace it with

one.

Distorted Output.

Distortion in the output


most frequently caused by a
Q-point of one of the devices. Such a

of an amplifier
shift in

is

Q-point shift will normally be


accompanied
by a change in operating
potentials.
The
two most common causes of

distortion are:
defective devices (transistors,
tubes, FETs)
and (b) leaky coupling capacitors.
(a)

The second

of these

(leaky capacitors)

by allowing

shift

DC

causes Q-point

current to leak from the

output (collector) of one device


to the input
(base) of another.

be no open-circuited component.
It

In this

which

is

way we can

locate

any component

causing the signal to be

sig-

and output of each device

usually reveal the cause of


the trouble.

For instance,

T2

(e)

bya

the

will

by

low h f

(b)

(i)

circuit,

Signal.

Notice that what we are doing


here is
checking the signal at the input
and output of
each device, proceeding from
the input to the
output of the amplifier. When
the point is

either

weak device

is

or low g
in case of tubes and
FETs) or
defective coupling network.
Checking

(d)

defect.

Weak) Output

the input terminals

(a)

tials

(or

reduced output signal

ly

pull

lost.

torted

219

should be noted that output of a push-

B amplifier becomes severely


one of the devices fails.

class
if

dis-

EXPERIMENT 30 AMPLIFIER TROUBLESHOOTING


Noise and

Perhaps the most troublesome

Oscillation.

amplifier problem

when

cillation occurs

Hum. Noise

is

randomly-distributed energy usually produced

portion of the output

within electronic components (resistors, tran-

of one stage gets into a previous input circuit

sistors, capacitors, etc.).

and supports the input

transistors

Oscillation

signal.

is

watch the output noise

regenerative feedback can occur

resistors

briskly with a pencil

When
wiring

circuit

done.

carelessly

is

a noisy

placed with a

level

is

to

with an oscillo-

or other light object.

component is located, it is reknown good one. Noise is the

one trouble which

is

frequently caused by

more than one defective component


or

circuit

(b)

and

scope while suspected components are tapped

when:

(a)

Carbon

perhaps the worst offenders

are

and the usual troubleshooting process

therefore the result of regenerative feedback.

Accidental

thermally-generated,

Os-

spurious oscillation.

is

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

component

shielding

at a time.

is

inadequate.

Hum

low frequency noise and

is

most always

some component has

(0

signals

several stages applied to

the circuit gain

(d)

AC

60-Hz

from

fier in

it.

has sharp peaks.

Hum may

line.

(a)

The

DC

undesirable oscillation occurs, the

the

moving

is

an

moved

when

pass

allowing a

through

hum
the

into

amplifier.

while

oscilloscope

in oscillation

filtered

inad-

to observe

components, wires, and

circuit

Any change
part

with

oscillation

is

get into an ampli-

power source may be

to

signal

usual troubleshooting technique

al-

one of four basic ways:

equately

When

is

related, frequency-wise, to the

(b)

shields.

a particular

indicates that the part

Ground loops (ground points which


are at different

duce

hum

Any

high

have

hum

AC

can

levels)

in-

into amplifier circuits.

one

is

of the affected ones.


(c)

magnetic

fairly

an amplifier
tering.

common
is

cause of oscillation

inadequate power supply

Such inadequate

current from

in

power

filtering allows signal

of the stages to flow through

In

connections

may

also

common

Vacuum

tubes with

given.

220

one

filament

into amplifier circuits.

the four possibilities

amined

to several stages.

hum

AC

particularly prone to

troubleshooting excessive

fier,

cause oscillation by providing a resistance that


is

it by stray
from transformers,

lines, etc.

inducing

providing a feedback path.

ground

can

induced into
fields

voltages are

the power supply internal impedance, thereby

Faulty

circuit

fil-

(d)
all

impedance

hum

in

an ampli-

named above

are ex-

at a time, usually in the order

'

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 30 AMPLIFIER
TROUBLESHOOTING

MATERIALS
NPN transistor type 2N1304
PNP transistor type 2N1305
Power

transistors type

or equivalent
1

TI3027 or equivalent

Transistor sockets

Breadboards

Output transformer
(10012 CT
16/8/4ft 5W)
1

nterstage transformer
(500ft

200ft

4-ohm

470-ohm

47k

resistor

CT

1/2W

1/2W
1/2W
1/2W

VDC

capacitors

100-//F50W VDC capacitor


Audio generator

2W
2W

resistor

resistor

resistor

4 10-//F50W

2 0.47-ohm resistor
1

1
10k
2 15k

CT 1/2W)

resistor

6.2k resistor 1/2W


6.8k resistor 1/2W

or equivalent

Oscilloscope

VOMor FEM

01

fxF,

600W VDC

capacitor

2 1k resistors 1/2W
1.8k resistor

1/2W

PROCEDURE
1.

Assemble the circuit shown


in fiaurp in o
board and the power
amplifier on nother'
ther
as possible.

r~

KeZ y ur
Keep

'

T 7 = 2N1304

Cl

tW0

'

't

Sta9eS n ne bread "



wiring as neat and
orderly

T 3 = TI3027

T 2 = 2N1305

T4 = TI3027

See figure 30-2 for


additional values

4
"

d^uXh^

amPimer

*~

instructor

ss^^
(a)

The nature of the problem:

(b)

Circuit

(c)

symptoms:

i.e.,

some

no output, hum,

i.e.,

high or low

V ri=E

\d n +u

Using the information


recorded above
of the defect in the
data table.

C rCU,t

'

locate thp

Recheck the

7.

Repeat steps 3 through


6 for as many defects as
possible.

221

in

96S

"''"^

Hnw
^
Ct 3nd
COrrect

6.

normal operation as

'

'

which could cause the


symptoms.

step 2.

the

(install a

distortion, etc

one of thp

in

point, etc.

Possible causes of the


trouhlp

circuit for

"bug"

Ent,

point, distortion at

5-

'

ist

the

'

9nal at

some

com P-

Enter the cause

'

EXPERIMENT 30 AMPLIFIER TROUBLESHOOTING

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

e
CO

00

>
id
CN

'

\jj

IS
^

CN

- o

II

o
CN
xr
ii

LO LO LO LO y_ LL
LL LL LL LL a =*

=t a. a. a. r
o
ooo9
T- V- 1- X- T- o
ii

ii

ii

ii

ii

i- CN CO

ii

LO CO

o o o o*t o o

AAAHh

II

^
*
OO
O * CN CO
Orrrr

LO
*-

'

II

II

II

II

II

00
DC O. QC DC DC CC

DC

-vw-Hi'

^
II

g^

in ro

(DT-tOr-r-rII

II

II

II

II

II

v- CN CO
LO CO r**
CC DC CC DC QC DC CC

-VNAr
CO
DC

-AAAr

222

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

EXPERIMENT 30 AMPLIFIER
TROUBLESHOOTING

Possible Causes

Fig.

30-3

The Data Table

223

Actual Cause

EXPERIMENT 30 AMPLIFIER TROUBLESHOOTING


ANALYSIS GUIDE.
culties

why

In analyzing the results of this

you experienced

each of the defects

PROBLEMS. The

ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

experiment, you should discuss any diffiwork properly in the first place. Also explain
encountered caused the symptoms that you observed.
in

getting the circuit to

following

symptoms

refer to the circuit

shown

30-1.

In

each

the components which could be defective and give the nature of the defect.
example: "second stage emitter resistor open-circuited."

For

case,

in figure

list

1.

Input signal normal, output dead,

2.

Output severely

3.

Severe

hum

in

distorted,

V CE

output (even

if

V CE

of

T3

input

of
is

is

first stage is

10

volts,

V CE

12

volts.

of

T4

is

zero volts.

V CE

of

all

stages

no output

at

T2

collector.

short-circuited),

is

slightly

low.
4.

Input signal to second stage normal at base of


of

T2

is

zero.

224

Vq E

DEVICE CHARACTERISTICS

APPENDIX

225

DEVICE CHARACTERISTICS

APPENDIX

226

DEVICE CHARACTERISTICS

APPENDIX

(V) iNaauno asva - a

227

APPENDIX

DEVICE CHARACTERISTICS

228

DEVICE CHARACTERISTICS

APPENDIX

229

DEVICE CHARACTERISTICS

APPENDIX

P-N-P

ALLOY-JUNCTION

GERMANIUM POWER TRANSISTOR


TYPES TI3027, TI3028
600

15

10

COLLECTOR POTENTIAL

230

(-

VOLTS)

DEVICE CHARACTERISTICS

APPENDIX

TRANSFORMER DATA
TRANSISTOR

OUTPUT TRANSFORMER

PRIMARY:
100

Ohms

500

mA DC Max.

C.T.

SECONDARY:
3.2

Ohms

8 Ohms
16

Ohms

POWER LEVEL:
10 Watts

TRANSISTOR
DRIVER TRANSFORMER

PRIMARY:
500

OHMS C.T.

SECONDARY:
200

OHMS C.T.

POWER LEVEL:
500

mW

231

EXPERIMENT
Date:

Name

Class

Instructor

Silicon Diode

Reverse

Silicon

Biased

Fig.

1-10

The Data Tables

Diode

ER

Zener Diode

Zener Diode

Reverse Biased

Forward Biased

ED

I'D

Fig. 1-10

ER

The Data Tables (Cont'd)

ED

EXPERIMENT

Name

Date:
Class

Instructor

Vacuum Diode

Vacuum Diode
Forward Biased

Reverse Biased

Fig.

1-10

The Data Tables (Cont'd)

Silicon

In (mA)

Diode Resistance
Rr\

D
u

20

40

60
80
100

Zener Diode Resistance

D (mA)

20

40
60
80
100

Vacuum Diode
lp

(mA)

Resistance

20
40

Fig.

1-10

The Data Tables (Cont'd)

EXPERIMENT

Name

Date:
Class

Circuit Values With

-m

DC

Meas

Fig.

No

Instructor

Filter

'DC

Comp

2-10

Comp

The Data Table

10juF

20 nF

7T

Filter

Filter

Filter

DC

Meas

DC

Meas

"dc

Meas

EXPERIMENT

Name

Date:

Class

Instructor

'

t
Ckt.

r>
DC

(Comp)<

'DC
(Comp)

t DC

'dc

(Meas)

(Meas)

First

Second

Fig. 3- 13

The Data Table

E DC

'dc

(Filter)

(Filter)

EXPERIMENT
Date:

Name

Class

Instructor

TRANSISTOR DATA
i

B (ma)

20

40

60

80

'c

w
'c

uu

on

160

V CE
(volts)

'C

'c
w

'C

0
-1

-2
-4
-6
-8

-10
-12

-14
-16

-18

-20
1

Fig.

4-9

The First Data Table

~^

1
A r\
140
1

180

200

'c

TRANSISTOR DATA
n

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

'c

'c

'c

V CE
(volts)

0
_1

-2

-4
-6
-8

-10

-14
-16

-18
-2

Fig.

4-10

The Second Data Table

EXPERIMENT

Name

Date:

Class

Instructor

FET DATA

Fig.

5-6

The Data Table

Fig.

6-5

The Data Table

EXPERIMENT

Name

Date:
Class

Circuit

Conditions

Circuit

Conditions

Fig.

7-6

Instructor

v cc =iov

R L = 3.3k

V BB

R B = 47k

= 1.5V

V CC =12V

R|_

V BB

Rg = 68k

" 2.0V

= 4.7k

The Data Tables

Circuit

V CC = 9V

R L = 2.2k

Conditions

v BB = iv

R B = 33k

Quantity
'B

Ii

CE

'BE

Comp. Data
Meas. Data

Diff.

Fig.

7-6

The Data Tables (Cont'd)

XB

EXPERIMENT

Name

Date:
Class

Instructor

'B

(ohms)

(mA)

aF

C
(mA)

Al

(mA)

470
1000

1500

2200

3300
4700
Data from First Experimental
Circuit
Fig.

Bias Circuit

R-|,

8-9

The Data Tables

'b

'c

V BB

(AA)

(mA)

(volts)

RB
(ohms)

ai

(mA)

R2 Network

Vgg, R Network
B
I

Data from Second Experimental


Circuit
Fig.

8-9

The Data Tables (Cont'd)

EXPERIMENT 9
Date:

Qty.

'CE

Z:

BE

'B

Loadline

Values

Measured
Values

Fig.

9-9

The Data Table

A;

GK

(volts)

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

'P

'P

>P

'P

'P

PK

(volts)

50
100
150

200
250
I

300

350
400
Fig.

10-9

The Data Tables

EXPERIMENT

11

Name

Date:
Class

Instructor

Quantity

EP

'P

Loadline

Data

Measured
Data

Triode Cathode Bias Data

Triode Grid Leak Bias


Data

Quantity

G2

EP

g2

Loadline

Data

Measured
Data

I,

Pentode Data
Fig.

11-11

The Data Tables

'P

G1

Mi


EXPERIMENT

12

Name

Date:
Class

Qty,

Graphical

PK

Id

RL

(P-P)

Power
Sens.

Values

Measured
Values

-A

I
1.

Fig. 12-7(a)

Triode Amplifier Data

Qty.

PK

'P

RL

(P-P)

Graphical

Values

>

Measured
Values

Fig. 12-7(b)

Pentode Amplifier Data

Power
Sens.

EXPERIMENT

13

Name

Date:
Class

Instructor

r~

V DS

(Volts)
l

D (mA)

(B)

Fig.

13-6

V GS

MEASURED DATA
The Data Table

Xr @
(Volts)

kH?

(ohms)

EXPERIMENT

14

Date:
Instructor

fe

Values from
Characteristic curves

Transistor

FET

Data

Data

9V DS
e

AC
r

9V GS

"fe

AC

9m

Fig.

14-15

The Data Table

9m

EXPERIMENT

15

Name

Date:
Class

Qty

CE

"B

'ie

Instructor

're

'oe

Computed
Values

Measured
Values

Fig.

15-12

The Data Table

EXPERIMENT

16

Name

Date:
Class

Fig.

16-8

The Data Table

Instructor

EXPERIMENT

18

Name

Date:
Class

Instructor

'

QTY

FET
V DS

Circuit

V GS

V CE

Computed
Value

Measured
Value

_
First Test Circuit

Capacitor

Second

Tes5tC rcu t

Capacitor

Fig.

18-7

Transistor Circuit

The Data Tables

j4

EXPERIMENT

19

Name

Date:

Class

Instructor

Output Stage Data


e

Kv3

Input Stage Data

A v3

Coupling Circuit Data


e

&2

K v2

K v1

Overall Gain Values

A v2

Fig.

19-6

K,

vT

The Data Tables

K'

vT

EXPERIMENT 20
Date:
Instructor

Li

Fig.

21-7

The Data Table

EXPERIMENT 23
"

QTY

Name
Class

'

Instructor

R0

Meas.
Circuit With

Emitter

Bypassed
Circuit With

Emitter

Unbypassed
Emitter

Follower

Fig.

23-7

The Data Table

A'

Comp

EXPERIMENT

24

Name

Date:
Class

First Circuit

Second Circuit

Ohms

A'

A'

Comp

Meas

470
1k
2.2k
4.7k

10k

33k
68k
100k

220k

470k
I

J.

Fig.

24-11

The Data Tables

Comp

Meas

EXPERIMENT

25

Name

Date:

Class

R (ohms)
EQ

(volts)

mea
(Sec)

Instructor

680 K

470 K

(Sec)

ooU

(Sec)

nr
1

2 0
9 R
o.u

35
40
J.

C A
O.U

R R
fi

AR
O.O
7.0
7.5

8.0
8.5

Fig.

2& 10

The Data Table

[\

220 K
i

\oec)

100 K

(Sec)

EXPERIMENT

26
,

Name

Date:
Class

Input

DC

Instructor

Output Signal
(Show Amplitude and Phase)

Voltage

+
0

+
5

+
10

+
15

20

+
0

U
Fig.

The Data Table

-5

-10

+
0

-20

26-5

EXPERIMENT

27

Date:
Instructor

EA

EB

E0

EC

Fig.

EE

27- 14

EF

The Data Table

Ei

EXPERIMENT

28

Name

Date:
Class

Fig.

28-5

The Data Table

Instructor

EXPERIMENT

29

Name

Date:

Class

Instructor

'

Qty

max comp.

'CE
Value
|

I.

Fig.

29-6

The Data Table

o
meas.

meas.

EXPERIMENT 30

Name

Date;

Class

Nature of Problem

Circuit

Fig.

Symptoms

30-3

Instructor

Possible Causes

The Data Table

Actual Cause

470