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PROJECT SEMESTER REPORT

(July December 2016)


on

1. EFFICIENCY WITH DIFFERENT GCV OF COAL AND


EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT IN BOILER
2. COLOUR AND ODOUR REMOVAL FROM WASTE WATER USING
COAGULANT AND LOCALLY AVAILABLE COMERCIAL GRADE
LIME
Submitted by

Prabhjot Singh Tinna


Roll No. 101301042

Under the guidance of


Dr. Damandeep Singh
Utility Head
IOL Chemical and Pharmaceuticals Pvt.ltd.
Dhaula, District. Barnala, (148101)
Submitted to

Department of Chemical Engineering


Thapar University, Patiala
(Formerly known as Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology)

Patiala 147004, Punjab (India)


January 2017

DECLARATION
I hereby declare that the project work entitled
1.EFFICIENCY

WITH

DIFFERENT

GCV

OF

COAL

AND

EFFICIENCY

IMPROVEMENT IN BOILER
2. COLOUR AND ODOUR REMOVAL FROM WASTE WATER USING COAGULANT
AND LOCALLY AVAILABLE COMERCIAL GRADE LIME
is an authentic record of my own work carried out at IOL Chemical and Pharmaceuticals
Pvt.ltd as requirements of six months project semester for the award of degree of B.E.
(Chemical Engineering), Thapar University, Patiala under the guidance of Dr.Damandeep
Singh and Dr.Neetu Singh during 1st July to 30th December 2016.

Date: ______________
(Signature required)
Prabhjot Singh Tinna
101301042

Certified that the above statement made by the student is correct to the best of my
knowledge and belief.

(Signature required)
Dr. Neetu Singh
Assistant Professor
Department of Chemical Engineering
Thapar University, Patiala 147004
2

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The completion of this undertaking could not have been possible without the
participation and assistance of so many people whose names may not all be enumerated.
Their contributions are sincerely appreciated and gratefully acknowledged. However, I
would like to express my deep appreciation and indebtedness particularly to the following:
Dr. Damanjit Singh(HEAD UTILITY) Mr. Ajaypal Singh for guiding me in
boiler efficiency and helping me in suggesting methods to improve it.
Mr. Shiv Kumar(PLANT HEAD D.M PLANT) in helping out the in DeMineralised water plant and Helping me suggest a project on colour removal and all the
other staff in utility section.
And special thanks to Dr. Neetu Singh, my faculty mentor for supporting me
throughout the project.

Prabhjot Singh Tinna


101301042
B.E(4th Year), Chemical Engineering

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Declaration

Acknowledgement

ii

Abstract

Chapter 1: Introduction to IOLCP

1.1: IOLCPs Perspective

1.2: Major Products of the Company

1.3: IOLCP CHEMICALS

Chapter 2: PLANT DESCRIPTION OF UTILITY SECTION


2.1: DE-MINERALIZED WATER PLANT

12

2.2: CO-GENERATION PLANT

20

2.3: EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT

27

Chapter 3: EFFICIENCY WITH DIFFERENT GCV OF COAL AND EFFICIENCY


IMPROVEMENT IN BOILER
3.1 INTRODUCTION TO THE PROJECT

31

3.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT

31

3.3 THEORY AND BACKGROUND

32

3.4 METHODS TO CALCULATE THE BOILER EFFICIENCY

32

3.5 FORMULA FOR CALCULATING VARIOUS LOSSES

34

3.6 DATA COLLECTED FOR CALCULATION OF BOILER EFFICIENCY

36

3.7 RESULT FROM BOILER CALCULATIONS

38

3.8 GRAPH ANALYSIS OF RESULT

39

3.9 EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT OPPORTUNITY IN BOILER SYSTEM

42

3.10 CONCLUSION

45

Chapter 4: Color and odor removal from waste water using natural coagulant and locally
available commercial grade lime.
4.1 INTRODUCTION
46
4.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT

47

4.3 SAMPLING

47

4.4 MATERIALS AND METHODS

48

4.5 SOLUTION PREPARATION

49

4.6 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


4.7 CONCLUSION
Chapter 5: References

50
55
56

ABSTRACT
In these six months I worked on two projects in Utility section,
1. EFFICIENCY WITH DIFFERENT GCV OF COAL AND EFFICIENCY
IMPROVEMENT IN BOILER
Purpose of this was to measure the performance of boiler which can be measured by
calculating the efficiency as it reduces with time duetopoorcombustion,heattransfer
foulingandpooroperationandmaintenance.Deteriorationoffuelqualityandwaterquality
alsoleadstopoorperformanceofboiler.Efficiencytestinghelpsustofindouthowfarthe
boilerefficiencydriftsawayfromthebestefficiency.Anyobservedabnormaldeviations
couldthereforebeinvestigatedtopinpointtheproblemareafornecessarycorrectiveaction.
Henceitisnecessarytofindoutthecurrentlevelofefficiencyforperformanceevaluation,
whichisaprerequisiteforenergyconservationactioninindustry.
2. COLOURANDODOURREMOVALFROMWASTEWATERUSING
COAGULANTANDLOCALLYAVAILABLECOMERCIALGRADELIME
In industrial wastewater, the advanced treatment of color removal such as chemical
coagulation may be used as pretreatment in order to enhance the biodegradability of
wastewater during the biological treatments. Chemically enhanced wastewater treatment is
attracting substantial interest among the currently employed chemical unit processes in
wastewater treatment. Coagulation-flocculation has received considerable attention for
yielding high pollutant removal, especially color removal. This project presents a
formulation of coagulation- flocculation for color removal of a industrial wastewater and
illustrates its efficiency. The results show that the novel formulation can remove color
content from wastewater efficiently. The treated waste water removed color by
flocculation / coagulation treatment by using coagulant. The present study was performed
using jar test apparatus with Moringaoleifera(M.O) as coagulant. It was used to increase
the size of flocs at various pH values and at various chemical doses and different coagulants
like alum. After the process, the residual color, as well as transmittence of water were
measured. The results showed a significant increase in color removal to the extent.

Chapter 1: Introduction to IOLCP

Company was established in 1986, IOLCP is India's one of the leading generic
pharmaceutical company, and is significant player in the Organic chemicals space. IOLCP
has wide presence across various therapeutic categories like, Pain Management, Antidiabetic, Anti hypertensive, Anti Convulsants, etc.
Currently with an annual revenue of INR 600 Crores/- it is the one of the largest chemical
and pharmaceutical industry in INDIA.
IOLCP, one of largest producers of APIs, Ibuprofen and speciality chemicals in india. The
company has commenced that the manufacturing operations at its new plant of IBB having
annual capacity of 6600 Mt to ensure ready availability of basic raw material for successful
pharmaceutical product.

Since its foundation in 1986, IOLCP has been on expansion


2012 : Commissioned Multipurpose plant
2009: Commissioned Iso-Butyl Benzene, Mono Chloro Acetic Acid and Acetyl chloride plant
2006: Commissioned Co-generation Plant
2000: Commissioned Ibu-profen plant
1999: Commencement of Acetic Anhydride Production
1996: Commencement of Ethyl Acetate Production
1991: Commencement of Acetic Acid Production
1986: Incorporation of IOL Chemical and Pharmaceuticals Limited

IOLCP has through its quality-focus, dedication to technical excellence & an unwavering
commitment to its customers, developed a wide network of satisfied clientele. Having
established a strong domestic presence, company is serving the international market with its
high quality products. With in a short span of time, IOLCP has penetrated the market in 56
countries across the globe and is in continues efforts of expanding its horizons.

1.2 IOLCPs Perspective

IOLCP

PHARMACEUTICALS

CHEMICALS

Speciality Bulk and


intermediate
chemicals having
varied uses in
majority of
industries
Largest producer of
ethyl acetate in
single location in
india

Worlds only integrated


Ibuprofen plant
Forward
integration

Product portfolio of life


style drugs
USFDA,EUGMP
APPROVED PLANT

Revenue Mix FY 15-16

25%
Revenue mostly comes from

International

Domestic

market
With dealership of 57% in Chemicals and 43% Bulk Drugs
75%
Domestic

1.3 Major Products of the Company

IBUPROFIN :- largest manufacturer in India. IBUPROFEN is a well known nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory, Antipyretic and analgesic drug and is also used in other
medical drugs.
ETHYL ACETATE :- Applications in paints, packaging, adhesives, photographic films,
flavors, surface coatings and thinners.
ACETIC ANHYDRIDE :- Applications in pharma, agro-chemicals, perfumes ,dyes and
pigments.
MCA (MONO-CHLORO ACETIC ACID) and ACETIC ACID :- Second largest
producer in the country. Both are used by the company as a raw material for the production
of IBUPROFIN.
ISOBUTYL BENZENE(IBB) :- Used as raw material for the production IBUPROFIN
ISOBUTYL ACETOPHENONE(IBAP):- Used as a raw material for the production of
IBUPROFIN
ACETIC ACID:- Applications in petroleum refineries, pharma, food processing industry,
vinegar, tanning, printing, pesticides, ester, etc.
CO-GENERATION PLANT :- Generation of 17 MW(14 MW+ 3MW) power for
industrial usage

1.4 IOLCP CHEMICALS

IOLCP CHEMICALS

ETHYL ACETATE
87000 TPA

ISO-BUTYL BENZENE
9000 TPA

MONOCHLORO ACETIC
ACID(MCA)
5200TPA

MCA (MONOCHLORO ACETIC ACID ) PLANT:-

Monochloro acetic acid plant and acitic acid plant, both are inter-related to each other
because the HCl which is produced as a by-product during the production of mono chloro
acetic acid can be used in the production of acetic acid and acetyl chloride. Acetic acid
produced during the production of acetyl chloride can be used in the production of mono
Chloro-acetic acid.
This thing can be elaborated by the following two reactions:Cl2

CH3COOH

CHLORINE

(CH3CO)2
ACETIC
ANHYDRIDE

ACETIC ACID

HCl
HYDRO CHLORIC
ACID

CH2ClOOH

MONO CHLORO ACETIC ACID

CH3COCl
ACETYL
CHLORIDE

HCl
HYDRO CHLORIC ACID

CH3COOH
ACETIC
ACID

Mono chloro Acetic acid plant is operated and controlled by the DCS (distributive control
system)system and is established in 2009.The interesting thing about mono chloro acetic
acid plant is that the acetic acid which is used as a raw material for MCA production can be
introduced in the reactor at the establishment time which is approximately 20 tonne and till
now only that 20 tonne is regenerated and is used in future as well i.e. no further need of
introducing acetic acid.
IBB (ISOBUTYL BENZENE) PLANT :Isobutyl benzene is a totally DCS system plant. Isobutyl benzene is indirectly
used for the production of the main product of the company i.e. ibuprofen but directly used
for the production of the IBAP i.e. Isobutyl acetophenone which can be shown by the
following reaction:IBB

ACETYL CHLORIDE

IBAP + HCl

The reaction for the production of isobutyl benzene is as follow:TOLUENE

PROPYLENE

Na+

CRUDE IBB

Crude isobutyl benzene is impure kind of IBB which is further purified to get maximum
purity of 99.8%.Propylene is basically we get from crude oils purifying process or during
the distillation in petroleum refineries i.e. from the atmospheric distillation unit of refinery.
The critical thing about this plant is that sodium (Na) should not come in contact with water.
If it happens then blast will take place and will be very dangerous to the manpower
working around the plant. So to prevent this phenomena before adding the water into the
reaction mixture we firstly add methanol to the reaction mixture which actually helps in
neutralizing the sodium.

IBU (IBUPROFEN) PLANT:As the major product of the company is ibuprofen and hence is manufactured in
the IBU plant of the company.
Raw material required for the production of IBU are:- aldehyde, sodium dichromate, H2SO4,
and acetone (CH3COCH3).The IUPAC name of IBB is 2-4 isobutyl phenyl propanoic acid.
Now in order to produce IBU, firstly there is a need to produce the raw materials i.e. IBAP
(isobutylacetophenone), IPCA(isopropylchloroacetate), SPO (sodiumpropoxide).
ISOBUTYL BENZENE + ACETYL CHLORIDE
IPA + MONOCHLORO ACETIC ACID
IPA + Na FeCl3

NaCl

ESTER + NaOH

HCl
ISOPROPYLCHLORO ACETATE + H2O

sodium propoxide (SPO) + H2

IBAP + IPCA + SPO


COMPLEX

ISOBUTYLACETOPHENONE+

COMPLEX + IPA

ESTER
CO2 + CH3CHOCH3

ALDEHYDE + SODIUM DICHOMATE+ H2SO4

IBU + CHROMIC ACID+ H2O

IUPAC name of ibuprofen (IBU) is 2,4 Isobutyl phenyl propanoic acid


The aldehyde which we get after the reaction of ester with NaOH is crude aldehyde. So to
make it pure we will go for the distillation at 240 degree Celsius under vaccum (725 mm
Hg).

ETHYL ACETATE PLANT:-

Initially during the start of the plant in 1996,three products were manufactured
i.e ethyl acetate, acetic anhydride and acetic acid. But now only ethyl acetate is produced
due to some reason.30-40 % of the income of the company basically comes from this plant.
Ethyl acetate plant is a totally DCS system plant i.e. (Distributive control system). The
major reaction is as follow:-

C2H5OH

Raw
mate
ETHYL
ALCOHOL

CH3COOH

PTSA

ACETIC
ACID

CH3COOC2H5

H2O

ETHYL
ACETATE

WATER

Raw material which we used during the production of ethyl acetate are bought from other
companies.The catalyst which we use in the reaction is in the solid form and generally 30
kg PTSA(para toluene sulphonic acid) is used per shift i.e. approx.. 90 kg per day. The
pumps which are used in this plant are liquid ring vaccum pump i.e. a kind of reciprocating
pump. The utilities which we used in this plant are pressurized process air (low pressure
steam 4.5 kg),city water ,cooling water etc.
According to the practical data the reaction is endothermic, but theoretically it is an
exothermic reaction. One of the interesting thing about this plant is that the heat exchanger
which is used in this plant is CAMPA BLOCK HEAT EXCHANGER which costs around
Rs.1crore .Its a foreign technology and even its maintenance cost is too high. But the
advantage is that it can handle the load of whole plant.

IPCA( ISOPROPYL CHLORO ACETATE) PLANT:IPCA is used as raw material for the production of the main product IBUPROFEN.
The reaction for this is as follow:IPA +

MCA

IPCA + WATER

The catalyst which is used in the reaction is sulphuric acid (H2SO4). Amount of raw material
used is as follow:- MCA(MONO CHLORO ACETIC ACID) = 9000 kg, IPA = (0.71*MCA)
= 6390 kg and H2SO4 = (MCA* 0.28) =2520 kg. This is a batch process. One need to
maintain a 9 hr. reaction time. After 9 hr. agitation, we will give 1.5 hr. settling time. After
settling 2 layers will be formed, one is send for IPCA recovery and other is send for
washing. In IPCA recovery we provide steam at 140 degree Celsius. Earlier operation was
provided with a vaccum and operated at 130 degree Celsius. For moisture content we have
fresh IPA < 0.2%, Recovered IPA < 1.5%, After steam < 1.1% and for MCA moisture
content should be less than 0.2%. After the quality check we again agitate for 2 hrs. and
again give 2 hrs. for settling. The recovered IPCA is again put in the batch as recirculation
and the fresh IPCA we get as 24 ton/day. This is stored in daily storage tank and transferred
to IBU plant whenever required.

POLY ALUMINIUM CHLORIDE PLANT (PAC):As discussed earlier that during the production of isobutylacetophenone
(IBAP) some amount of by-product is also formed in the quencher unit of the IBAP plant
which is nothing but polyaluminum chloride (PAC). In quencher, quenching of the reaction
mass is actually takes place which results in formation of two layers, one is organic layer
and the other is polyaluminum chloride layer. Earlier this PAC from IBAP plant will be
transferred to some other companies at low rate because of lot of impurities present in it.
As polyaluminum chloride has a lot of applications in industry as well as in daily use.
Therefore in order to sell that PAC at higher rate, plans are made to increase the
concentration of polyaluminum chloride by estabilishing a separate unit for it. Therefore
polyaluminum chloride from IBAP plant is transferred to polyaluminum plant of the
company where concentration of polyaluminum chloride can be increased according to the
sale specification set by the authorities. As PAC is the result of hydrolysis of aluminum
chloride which is an exothermic reaction too. Therefore concentration can be increased by
inputing more aluminum chloride into the polyaluminum chloride which we are getting
from the IBAP plant. One of the major cause of impurities in the polyaluminum is the
presence of solvent trichloroethene in it due its water solubility.

CHAPTER 2: PLANT DESCRIPTION OF UTILITY SECTION


In the span of 6 months I was in Utility section which has three sub-sections :

D.M WATER PLANT


CO-GENERATION PLANT
EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT

2.1 DE-MINERALIZED WATER PLANT


The definition of demineralized water can vary slightly depending on the
source, but generally it means the water that results from the process of removing almost all
of its impurities, making the water safe to drink and virtually free from minerals and related
substances. Very tiny amounts of dissolved minerals in a few parts per million always
remain, but generally with todays advanced technologies for demineralizing water, the
quality of demineralized water is very high.
The best and most common method for making demineralized water today is done by
filtering tap water to remove commonly found minerals like salts and unwanted chemicals
such as chlorine and lead, along with most other tap water impurities.
The D.M water plant adhere to the Indian Standards listed below which are necessary for
setting up D.M water plant :
IS No. 252 : 1973 Title Caustic soda, pure and technical ( second revision )
IS No. 265 : 1987 Hydrochloric acid ( third revision )
FACTORS FOR DRAWING UP SPECIFICATION
The following factors are to be kept in view, before drawing up the specification for
demineralization plant:
a) The source of water (river water, well water, etc.) available for treatment;
b) Quality of treated water;
c) End-use of demineralized water;
d) The availability of regenerants in the vicinity of the proposed plant;
e) Disposal of regeneration wastes; and
f) The availability of utilities, such as steam, instrument air, etc.

STEPS FOLLOWED IN D.M WATER PLANT

The first step is to make a detailed analysis of raw water for various parameters
including organics, colour, suspended solids, iron, manganese besides other dissolved
solids. The analysis of raw water shall be carried out throughout the year to determine its
profile variations with the change of seasons. Sufficient margin in various constituents of
water may be kept in order to take care of variations in the coming years based on yearly
seasonal variations in water analysis. The tubewell water composition does not vary much
with the season, so in that case, it becomes easier to fix up the design parameters of water
analysis; but in surface water, fluctuations are quite high, so it becomes difficult to arrive at
the designed analysis. However, a proper assessment has to be made for fixingup

designedwateranalysis.
InthePlant,Rawwaterisactuallyundergroundwater.Analysisofrawwaterisbelowinthe
table:

COMPONENT

RAWWATER(mg/l)

BOILERFEEDWATER(mg/l)

Na*

15.3

<1.5

Mg*

11.3

<0.1

Ca*

15.7

<0.1

Cl*

11.7

<0.1

SO4*

37.4

<2

Si*

8.32

<0.5

TotalHardness

105.8

TDS

800

<10

*Dissolvedcomponent
standardsforboilerfeedwateraspermanufacturer.
TABLE1:WATERQUALITIESOFRAWWATERANDBOILERFEEDWATER
The next step is to properly pretreat the raw water to obtain water suitable for feeding into
Co-generation plant as the ion exchange resin used in demineralization plant are susceptible
to various constituents commonly present in water including iron, manganese, colour ,

suspended solids, residual chlorine, etc. The feed water for Co-generation plant shall be free
from chlorine, organics, iron, manganese, suspended solids within 2 to 3 Mg/l. It shall also
be free from oil and grease to ensure long life of the working of Boiler. All these
considerations have to be kept in view in the design of a demineralization plant.
Following is the flow-chart of D.M WATER TREATMENT PLANT:
RAW WATER TANK

DUAL MEDIA FILTER

BASKET STRAINER

REMOVE-5NTU TURBIDITY, INLET 47M3/hr., outlet 47m3/hr.

Remove-50,Inlet:47m3/hr. ,outlet flow: 47 m3/hr.

ULTRA FILTERATION(UF)

Inlet flow: 47m3/hr, Outlet flow:4 m3/hr.

UF PERMEATE STORAGE
TANK

Reject Flow-0

CARTRIDGE FILTER(5
SIZE)

Reject Flow-0, Remove 5 particle size

R.O BLOCK

Inlet flow:43 m3/hr, Permeate flow:32 m3/hr,Reject :11 m3/hr

DEGASSED WATER TANK

Reject flow:0

STRONG ACID CATION

Reject flow:25kl/day regeneration period


Inlet-30kl/ hr. , outlet :30kl/hr

STRONG BASE ANION

MIXED BED

Reject flow:25kl/day regeneration period


Inlet-30kl/ hr. , outlet :30kl/hr
Reject flow:15 kl/day regeneration period
Inlet-30kl/ hr. , outlet :30kl/hr

D.M STORAGE TANK


Dual media filter: Basic function of this is that it is used for removal of suspended solids,
turbidity and some part of colour and odour if activated carbon is used along with fine sand,
from Water & Wastewater.

Media Filters used in water & Waste water treatment are either pressure or gravity filters
depending upon the flow of water. Water is pumped through a pressure filter while water
flows by gravity in a gravity filter .They employ granular media like sand, anthracite or
activated carbon either alone or in combination as the filter media. Filters with special
media are also used to remove iron and or manganese that may be present in some bore well
waters.
Dual media filter contain anthracite along with fine

sand reinforced by marbled and

gravels. These filter consist of a coating of anthracite (1.25-2.5mm) resting on a coating of


fine sand (1-1.5mm) Anthracite is coarse and has more dirt holding capacity as compared to
fine sand. Dual media filters are used in places where the
raw water contains suspended contaminants, turbidity and
iron.

Dual media filters provide very efficient particle removal


under the conditions of high filtering system amount. These
filters use layers of anthracite and garnet contaminants as

the

filter medium, with filtering system amount of 98%


down to 2 microns. The dual media filters employ an
automatic backwashing feature, which employs a variety
of air and water to maintain unit efficiency.

Working

Principle: The

media in a

dual or multi-media filter are

arranged so

that the water moves through

media with

progressively smaller pores. The

largest

particles are strained out by the

anthracite.

Then the sand and garnet trap the

rest of the

particulate matter though a


combination of adhesion and straining. Since the particles in the water are filtered out at
various depths in a dual or multi-media filter, the filter does not clog as quickly as if all of
the particles were all caught by the top layer.

Basket Strainer: Basket strainers are used as a first stage filter to remove the large debris
and followed by a filter bag housing or cartridge type filter to remove smaller particles of
contamination. Not only do liquid strainers keep water clean, they also protect pumps and

other equipment from damage. Industrial strainers play


an important part in many industries that need clean
water and parts.
Basket strainers are an important part of desalinization
equipment where they take out dirt, or other unwanted
matter from the water before it is treated for salt
removal.

Ultra-filtration: Ultrafiltration is a pressure-driven


purification process in which water and low molecular
weight substances permeate a membrane while
particles, colloids, and macromolecules are retained. The primary removal mechanism is
size exclusion, although the electrical charge and surface chemistry of the particles or
membrane may affect the purification efficiency.
Permeate is sent to permeate storage tank and in
total 12 ultrafiltration units are installed.

Cartridge Filter: Cartridge filters are defined as


fabric or polymer-based filters designed primarily
to remove particulate material from fluids.
Cartridge filters use a variety of media to remove
contaminants, depending on your application.
The filter media in our cartridge filters
encompass a wide range from sand, anthracite and quartz to conditioned media for iron and
manganese removal, and activated carbon.
Cartridge filters range in style from particulate and high purity water cartridge filters, to
activated carbon filters, vent cartridge filters and replacement cartridge filters for laboratory
usage. Pore size is 5 microns.

R.O BLOCK: Reverse Osmosis is a process in which


dissolved inorganic solids (such as salts) are removed
from a solution (such as water). This is accomplished
by household water pressure pushing the tap water
through a semipermeable membrane.
Reverse Osmosis works by using a high pressure
pump to increase the pressure on the salt side of the
RO and force the water across the semi-permeable RO
membrane, leaving almost all (around 95% to 99%) of
dissolved salts behind in the reject stream. The
amount of pressure required depends on the salt
concentration of the feed water. The more
concentrated the feed water, the more pressure is required to overcome the osmotic
pressure.
The desalinated water that is demineralized or deionized, is called permeate (or product)
water. The water stream that carries the concentrated contaminants that did not pass through
the RO membrane is called the reject (or concentrate) stream.
Degassed water tank: it deaerates water down to a
residual oxygen concentration below 10 ppb.
Optionally the water can be cooled down, filtered
or sterilized with ultraviolet light. The function of
the unit can be monitored and documented by an
in-line oxygen analyzer at the outlet of the unit.
Basic function is to remove gas present like oxygen
in this case.

Strong Acid Cation (SAC): SAC (T42H) resins can neutralize strong bases and convert
neutral salts into their corresponding acids. These resins are utilized in most softening and
full demineralization applications. SAC resins derive their functionality from sulfonic acid
groups (HSO3). When used in demineralization, SAC resins remove nearly all raw water
cations, replacing them with hydrogen ions, as shown below:

The exchange reaction is reversible. When its capacity is


exhausted, the resin can be regenerated with an excess of
mineral acid. Their primary asset is their high regeneration
efficiency in comparison with SAC resins. This high efficiency
reduces the amount of acid required to regenerate the resin,
thereby reducing the waste acid and minimizing disposal
problems.

Strong Base Anion: SBA resins(A23) derive their functionality from quaternary
ammonium functional groups. Two types of quaternary
ammonium groups, referred to as Type I and Type II, are used.
Type I sites have three methyl groups:

In a Type II resin one of the methyl groups is replaced with an


ethanol group. The Type I resin has a greater stability than the
Type II resin and is able to remove more of the weakly ionized
acids. Type II resins provide a greater regeneration efficiency
and a greater capacity for the same amount of regenerant
chemical used.
When in the hydroxide form, SBA resins remove all commonly
encountered anions as shown below:

As with the cation resins, these reactions are reversible, allowing for the regeneration of the
resin with a strong alkali, such as caustic soda, to return the resin to the hydroxide form.

Mixed Bed: A mixed bed exchanger has both


cation and anion resin mixed together in a single
vessel. As water flows through the resin bed, the
ion exchange process is repeated many times,
"polishing" the
water to a very
high purity
During
regeneration,
the resin is
separated into distinct cation and anion fractions. The
resin is separated by backwashing, with the lighter anion
resin settling on top of the cation resin. Regenerant acid is
introduced through the bottom distributor, and caustic is
introduced through distributors above the resin bed. The regenerant streams meet at the
boundary between the cation and anion resin and discharge through a collector located at
the resin interface. Following regenerant introduction and displacement rinse, air and water
are used to mix the resins. Then the resins are rinsed, and the unit is ready for service.
After all the above process the final product that is D.M water is sent as a feed to the Boiler
House from storage tank where it is stored at the end of process.

2.2 COGENERATION PLANT:

Power required in process plants is generated by the Co-generation plant, it consist


of a 80 TPH boiler with 40 TPH and 15 TPH in standby for the back up.It also contains
turbines of 13 MW with 4 MW turbine at stand-by.
Four materials flow in this plant, Fuel, Air, Water and Flue gases.
Fuel consists of indian coal, south African coal, Indonesian coal, pet coke, rice husk and
cow dung is either imported or bought from the local market.
DM water is used for producing the steam with a TDS of max range of 5 ppm. If it has more
than 5 ppm it will cause scaling in tubes of boilers.
Air is sucked from atmosphere with the help of FD fans and then are passed through air pre
heaters which make the air suitable for the burning of fuel in furnance.it is the hot air that
causes the boiler to continuously run and preventing the fire to run out.
Flue gases are the result of burning of fuel flue contains different compositions of C, H, O,
S that can be determined from orsat analysis or by monitoring meters. Before it goes into
the atmosphere, it is treated with ESP (Electrostatic precipitator) which has electrodes in it,

when flue gas is passed through it all particulate matter gets attached to it and the process of
hammering starts in ESP which makes the whole matter which is harmful for atmosphere
hammered down and the rest of gas is sent into the atmosphere. Flue gases are further used
in APH for pre-heating the ambient air to a particular temperature and also used for preheating the DM water.

ECONOMISER

SUPERPREHEATER

FD (Forced
draft) FLOW

STEAM DRUM

TURBINE

APH

BED-COILS

PROCESS

BOILER

WATER WALL
MEMBRANE
(RISER)

A) DM WATER FLOW B) STEAM FLOW C) AIR FLOW (from left to right)

T= 500C
BOILER
Steam to process units

FLUE
GAS
STEAM
DRUM

ECONOMIZER

DE AERATOR
DM Water
T=120C

AIR at 35C

DM water T=220 C
FLUE
GAS
Air at 123 C

APH(AIR PRE
HEATER)

Air T=35C

FD FAN

FLUE
GAS
ESP(ELECTROSTAT
IC PRECIPITATOR)

FLUE
GAS
ID FAN CHIMNEY

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE CO-GENERATION PLANT

Boiler: A boiler or steam generator is used wherever a source of steam is required. A boiler
incorporates a firebox or furnace in order to burn the fuel and generate heat. The generated

heat is transferred to water to make steam, the process of boiling. This produces saturated
steam at a rate which can vary according to the pressure above the boiling water. The higher
the furnace temperature, the faster the steam production. The saturated steam thus produced
can then either be used immediately to produce power via a turbine and alternator.
Fuel Used: Rice Husk, Indian Coal, Indonesian Coal, South African Coal, Pet Coke.
Temperature: 500C, All the Co-generation has been set up by ABB.

Economiser: The economizer also prevents flooding of the boiler with liquid water that is
too cold to be boiled given the flow rates and design of the boiler. A common application of
economizers in steam power plants is to
capture the waste heat from boiler stack gases
(flue gas) and transfer it to the boiler
feedwater.
In our steam boiler, it is a heat ex-changer
device that heats up fluids or recovers
residual heat from the combustion product i.e.
flue gases in thermal power plant before
being released through the chimney. Flue gases are the combustion exhaust gases produced
at power plants consist of mostly nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapour, soot carbon
monoxide etc. Hence, the economiser in co-generation plant is used to economise the
process of electrical power generation. The recovered heat is in turn used to preheat the
boiler feed water, that will eventually be converted to super-heated steam. Thus, saving on
fuel consumption and economising the process to a large extent.

Air-Pre heater: An air preheater (APH) is a general term used to describe any device
designed to heat air before another process (for example, combustion in a boiler) with the

primary objective of increasing the thermal efficiency of the process. They may be used
alone or to replace a recuperative heat system or to replace a steam coil.
The purpose of the air preheater in plant is to recover the
heat from the boiler flue gas which increases the thermal
efficiency of the boiler by reducing the useful heat lost in
the flue gas. As a consequence, the flue gases are also
conveyed to the flue gas stack (or chimney) at a lower
temperature, allowing simplified design of the conveyance
system and the flue gas stack.

Steam Drum: The main function of drum is to seprate


steam from water. The other function is to bear steam
pressures during lift up or backing down of loads. The third function is to keep a look at
water status in downcomers and waterwalls.
The boiler drum is pressure vessel which can bear upto 210 ksc. of pressure. It has 7 safety
valves which are provided to avoid the hazards. Boiler drum consists of down-comers,
boiler circulation pump and water-wall. The water wall are of riffle bore type tubes for
nucleate boiling. The drum consists of three separators, the first one is spinner blades this is
primary separator, the secondary one is baffle plates and final is dryer screens. The
separators separate the water and steam. The steam is than went on to steam cycle. The
drum level is maintained by feed pumps. The drum pressure is maintained by coal feeding
in the boiler.

Electro-Static precipitator(ESP):
An electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is a
filtration device that removes fine
particles, like dust and smoke, from a
flowing gas using the force of an
induced electrostatic charge
minimally impeding the flow of gases
through the unit.
In this precipitator, it contains a row
of thin vertical wires, and followed by a stack of large flat metal plates oriented vertically,
with the plates typically spaced about 8 cm apart. The air stream flows horizontally through
the spaces between the wires, and then passes through the stack of plates.
A negative voltage of several thousand volts is applied between wire and plate. If the
applied voltage is high enough, an electric corona discharge ionizes the air around the
electrodes, which then ionizes the particles in the air stream.
The ionized particles, due to the electrostatic force, are diverted towards the grounded
plates. Particles build up on the collection plates and are removed from the air stream.

FANS USED IN THE PLANT

FLOW CHART OF CO-GENERATION PLANT

FORCED DRAFT(FD) FAN: A fan is


used to force air into the boiler to provide
more air for combustion. discharges directly
to wind-box of boiler for uniform air
distribution. Suction from atmosphere and
discharge to the wind-box of the boiler.
Used to provide secondary air that is the
main air supply for fuel combustion. It
pressurizes boiler so is started only after the
ID fan is started.

INDUCED DRAFT (ID)FAN: A fan is used


to extract the air from boiler post combustion
via Electrostatic Precipitator to exhaust
through the chimney. Induced Draft fans are
commonly used to draw flue gases from the
combustion chamber and through the rest of
the system to the stack. They help most to
regulate the pressure inside of the boiler
system.
PRIMARY AIR (PA) FAN: Primary air fan is used to transport the pulverized coal from
mills to the furnace area. So its main function is the carry the fuel to the furnace for the
combustion.

2.3 EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT(ETP):


Company has its own effluent treatment plant, in which near about (450-600
Litres) water comes daily in the equalization tank for the treatment. The micro-organisms
which are used for the treatment of waste water is readymade bacteria and cow dung which
are used in the quantity as per the requirement of the waste water. Only bio-degradable
organics are treated here, but if some non-biodegradable enters the equalization tank, then it
may destroy the purity norms of the plant i.e. BOD, COD etc.
Proper norms are maintained which are mentioned below in the table :-

Chemical oxygen demand (COD

less than 250 mg/L

Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)

less than 30 mg/L

pH

6.0-9.0

Total suspended solid (TSS)

less than 100 ppm

Oil and Grease

less than 100 ppm

EQUILIZATION
TANK

ANAEROBIC
TANKS
SEDIMENTATION
PRESSURE
TUBE
CLEAN
CARBON
SETTLER
WATER
SAND
CONTRACTOR
FILTERS
TANKS
FLOW CHART OF ETP

SLUDGE
V-NOTCH
DRYING
CHAMBER
BED

EQUILIZATION TANK: Waste water quantity and quality discharged during the day is
not constant flow and quantity depends upon the type of industrial process and on its
velocity during the day.
In order to feed it is necessary to make water to be treated as homogenized as possible form
point of view of both quantity and quality, in order to guarantee to bacteria a constant
feeding (that is necessary for their survival) and consequently high performance in the
abatement of pollutant substances.
Volume of tank: 1105 m3
ANAEROBIC TANKS: Anaerobic digestion is a process in which microorganisms break
down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen. Anaerobic digestion is the process

for the reduction of sludge without the use of air or elemental oxygen. In anaerobic
digestion, organic pollutants are converted by anaerobic micro-organisms to a gaseous
product (including methane gas) that has the potential for reuse. It is a very low energy
process, that produces a fraction of the waste sludge generated through aerobic biological
processes.

SEDIMENTATION TANKS : It is a physical


water treatment process using gravity to remove
suspended solids from water. Solid particles
entrained by the turbulence of moving water may
be removed naturally by sedimentation. Volume
of tank :291m3
PRESSURE SAND FILTERS: These Filters are
designed to remove turbidity and suspended particles present in the feed water with
minimum pressure drop. Raw water flows down wards through the filter bed and as the
suspended matter, which is treated by addition of a coagulant like alum or poly electrolyte,
is retained on the sand surface and between
the sand grains immediately below the
surface. TOTAL 3 IN NUMBER.

CARBON CONTRACTORS: Carbon


filtration removes contaminants from water
in 2 primary ways:

Attraction of negatively charged particles to the positively charged carbon (chlorine


and chloramines are removed in this way),

Adsorption, which removes organic compounds (adsorption is the attachment of gas


or liquid molecules to the surface of another substance, carbon in the case of water
filtration)

Total three in number.

After the pressure sand filters and carbon contractors, water is sent to
v-notch chamber further from where water is discharged into watering of
plants. Sludge left in sludge drying area is sent to a particular disposed
area.

Chapter 3: EFFICIENCY WITH DIFFERENT GCV OF COAL


AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT IN BOILER
3.1 INTRODUCTION TO THE PROJECT:
Boiler is the most useful device for any developing industries to process and production. It
is necessary to optimized good boiler efficiency. Boiler efficiency can be measured by two
method, direct method and indirect method. Both methods give a different result. Direct
method did not include any losses for calculating boiler efficiency, while indirect method
includes all the heat losses from a system to find boiler efficiency. This project gives
simulating with the various value of the fuel. GCV of fuel indicate the heating value of fuel.

Compare with the different GCV of coal to find out the proper fuel selection of fuel. There
are different parameters regarding to the boiler system which helps to improve boiler
efficiency.

3.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT:


To have the Ultimate analysis of the fuel
To find out the efficiency of the boiler by direct and in-direct method
Analysis of the result.
To find out ways to improve the efficiency

3.3 THEORY AND BACKGROUND:


Boiler is the steam generating device, which produce steam with burning of fuel. Basically
coal is used as fuel in boiler. If the fuel has higher gross calorific value, then it is able to
produce more heat per kg of fuel. It is directly proportional to the efficiency. Efficiency of
the boiler should be calculated by two method, direct method and indirect method. It
required various parameters for calculating the efficiency. These parameters are chemical
analysis result of coal, feed waters analysis, coal feeding rate, steam pressure, steam
generation per hour, flue gas analysis, and weather any heat recovery devices are attach or
not, if attach, then its data, fuel consumption rate per hour, humidity factor etc. These all are
related to each other and required for calculation.
The mathematical model in the Microsoft excel is prepared for the indirect method for
finding boiler efficiency, because these method has a lots of calculation which take up a lot
of time for this if the same calculation is required for the different value of GCV of coal. By

using Microsoft excel the repeated calculations are being quite easy and time saving. Just
change the various values and at the last you got the result immediately without any
handwritten time consuming paperwork.
Here calculation has been done for the 40THP boiler, fuel having GCV of 5800 kcal/kg and
4300 kcal/kg respectively for indian bituminous coal and Indonesian coal. Both coals have a
different chemical composition and properties.
There are lots of possibilities to improve boiler efficiency by taking necessary steps for
different parameters which are directly affected to the boiler efficiency. By considering
them it gives an opportunity to improve boiler efficiency.

3.4 METHODS TO CALCULATE THE BOILER EFFICIENCY

There are two methods to find out boiler efficiency.


1. Direct method
2. Indirect method

heat output
= heat input 100

1. Direct method :-

Q( hghf )
100
qGCV of Fuel

Q = Quantity of steam generated per hour (kg/hr.)


hg = steam enthalpy (kcal/kg)
hf = feed water enthalpy (kcal/kg)
GCV of fuel = gross calorific value of fuel (kcal/kg)
o

Cp = specific heat of flue gas (0.23 Kcal/kg C)


q = quantity of fuel per hour (kg/hr.)

2. In-direct method:
By this method, efficiency could be measured easily by measuring all the losses
occurring in the boiler.
The following losses were applicable to all the fuel used, weather it is solid, liquid or
gas fired boiler.
L1 loss due to dry flue gas
L2 loss due to hydrogen in fuel
L3 loss due to moisture in fuel
L4 loss due to moisture in air
L5 loss due to CO formation
L6 loss due to un-burnt fuel in fly ash
L7 loss due to un-burnt fuel in bottom ash
L8 loss due to radiation and convection (surface loss)

Boiler efficiency = 100

=100(1+2+3+4+5+6+7+8)

3.5 FORMULA FOR CALCULATING VARIOUS LOSSES :

Step 1. Theoretical (stoichiometric) air requirement:


Theoretical air requirement (TA) =

11.6C+34.8 H 2

O2
+4.35 S
8

Kg/Kg

100

of fuel
Where H2, O2, C, S are percentage of carbon hydrogen oxygen and suphur present in
fuel.
Step 2. % excess air requirement

% excess air requirement (EA) =

O2
*100
21O2

( CO 2 ) t(CO 2 ) a

CO 2
100()t

( CO 2 ) a
7900

Step3.Actualair(totalair)requirement

Actual air (total air) requirement (AAR)= Theoretical air * (1+EA/100 ) kg of air/kg
of fuel
Step4.Findallheatloss
1.Dryfluegasloss=% heat loss due to dry flue gas=

mCp( Tf Ta )100
GCV OF FUEL

= mass of CO2 +mass of SO2 + mass of N2 + mass of O2 (water vapor mass is neglected)

C
s
44
64
( AAR Ta)44
100
100
AAR77
+
+
+
12
100
100
12

)(

)(

)(

m=massofdryfluegas(kg/kgoffuel);AAR=actualairrequired(kg/kgoffuel)
o

Tf = temperature of flue gas ( C) ; Ta = ambient temperature ( C)


2.HeatlossduetoevaporationofwaterformedduetoH2infuel

9H 2{ 584+Cp ( Tf Ta ) }
GCV OF FUEL

3Heatlossduetoevaporationofmoistureinfuel
=

M {584+ Cp(Tf Taa)


100
GCV of fuel

M= % of moisture present in fuel = kg of moisture in 1kg of fuel

4.

Heat loss due to moisture in combustion air


=

AASHUMIDITY FACTORCp(Tf Ta)


100
gcv of fuel

Cp = specific heat of super-heated steam (0.45 Kcal/kg C)

Humidity factor = % of water in dry air =

Kg of water dry air


Kg of dry air

5 . Heat due to un-burnt in fly ash =

TOTAL ASH Collected per kg of fuel burntGCV of fly ash100


100
gcv of fuel
6.Heatlossduetounburntinbottomash
=

TOTAL ASH COLLECTED PER KG OF FUEL BURNTGCV OF BOTTOM ASH


100
GCV OF FUEL

7 . Heat loss due to CO formation


%COC
5744
= %CO%CO2
100
GCV OF FUEL
8Heatlossduetoradiation&convection
=0.2to1.2forlargecapacityboiler
%surfaceheatloss=radiationloss+convectionloss
%radiationloss=

SBCA( Ts 4Ta 4 )860


GCV of Fuel1000
1.25

%convectionloss=

CA( TsTa ) 860


GCV of Fuel100

Step5:findsumofallheatlosses
totallosses=sumofallheatlosses=1+2+3+4+5+6+7+8

3.6 DATA COLLECTED FOR CALCULATION OF BOILER EFFICIENCY


Fuel Type

Indian Bituminous

Indonesian coal

40000 kg/hr.

40000 kg/hr.

rate
Operation hours

8640 hrs./year

8640 hrs./year

Steam pressure
Steam temperature

32 kg/cm2
380O C

32 kg/cm2
380oC

Coal firing rate

5846 kg/hr.

4300 kg/hr.

GCV of fuel

4300 kcal/kg

5800 kcal/kg

Total surface area

150 m2

150 m2

Humidity factor
Ambient

0.021 kg/kg of dry air

0.021 kg/kg of dry air

Steam Generation

temperature
Wind velocity
Surface temperature

33 C

33 C

3.9 m/s

3.9 m/s

210 oC

210

A. Feed water analysis from laboratory


Feed water temp.
TDS
pH

220 oC
180 ppm
7.1

220 oC
180 ppm
7.1

B. Flue gas analysis with flue gas analyser


Flue gas Temperature
%O2 in flue gas

600oC
8.12%

600oC
8.12%

%CO2 in flue gas

11.6%

11.6%

%CO in flue gas

0.42%

0.42%

C. Ultimate analysis of coal from Laboratory


C
H2
N2
O2
ASH
Moisture
SULPHUR

37%
2.9%
1.1%
4.5%
36%
17%
1.5%

59%
3.1%
1.1%
10.4%
12.1%
12.9%
1.4%

D. ASH analysis
GCV of BOTTOM ASH
GCV of FLY ASH
Bottom ash to fly ash
ratio

700 kcal/kg
150 kcal/kg
45:55

700 kcal/kg
150 kcal/kg
45:55

By using the above values and using excel to get results from the formulas,
efficiency was calculated.

3.7 RESULT FROM BOILER CALCULATIONS:


INDIRECT METHOD:

INDIAN
COAL

INDONESIAN COAL

Theoretical air requirement

7.5313

7.5313

Method 1

10.25%

63.34 %

Method 2

11.30%

64.85 %

Actual Air Requirement

8.303

12.302

Mass of dry flue gas exhausted

8.845

13.243

Heat loss(dry flue gas)

8.245%

6.112 %

Heat Loss(H2 In Fuel)

4.814%

5.146 %

Heat loss (Moisture in fuel)

2.625%

1.477 %

Heat loss(Moisture in Air)

0.3248%

0.3567%

Heat loss (CO Formation)

1.727%

2.041%

Heat loss(Unburnt fuel in fly ash)

0.2321%

0.3442 %

Heat loss(Unburnt fuel in bottom


ash)
Heat loss(Radiation and convection)

0.8863%

0.6571 %

6078.301

6078.3

Surface loss

3.626%

3.655 %

Efficiency

77.51

80.20 %

% Excess air required

DIRECT METHOD :
Direct method

79.05

79.68

Efficiency Find Out by Direct and Indirect Method


Boiler efficiency

Indian bituminous coal Indonesian coal

Indirect method

77.51

80.20

Direct method

79.05

79.68

3.8 GRAPH ANALYSIS OF RESULT

GRAPH 1: efficiency with GCV of coal


GRAPH 1: shows the boiler efficiency with the GCV of the coal. As the coal used with
higher GCV, efficiency is increased. indian coal with 4300 kcal/kg gives a 77.51% in this
boiler, while Indinesian coal with 5800 kcal/kg gives 80.20% efficiency in this boiler. So as
the higher grade coal is used, efficiency will be increase.

GRAPH 2: efficiency with wind velocity


GRAPH 2: shows that while wind velocity is increased that time surface loss is increased so
the efficiency is decreased.

GRAPH 3 Efficiency with % of moisture in fuel


GRAPH 3 indicate that if fuel is moister, than it is directly affected the combustion of fuel,
so increasing in the moisture content in the fuel means decreasing in efficiency.

GRAPH 4 efficiency with % of moisture in air


GRAPH 4 shows the effect of moist air on the boiler efficiency. It is called seasonal
effect.in the monsoon season air is more humid, and in summer and winter the air is dry. Air
has less water particles in the summer and winter. So as the moisture content in air is
increased the efficiency of the boiler is decreased

GRAPH 5 Efficiency with ash % in fuel


GRAPH 5 show that the coal has a more ash content; it decreased the efficiency of the
boiler. Indian coal has up to 40% ash content and other high grade coal like Indonesian coal
have less ash content than the other coal. So increasing in % of ash in coal is result in a
decreasing of efficiency.
3.9 EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT OPPORTUNITY IN BOILER SYSTEM
These are the parameters which are useful for improvement of the boiler efficiency.
Proper water treatment:

Various forms of contaminations arise with water and they must be removed before feeding
to the boiler system by proper water treatment. Otherwise they moves with water and
concentrate in the boiler, as a result deposition and scales are form which may reduce the
heat transfer, reduce the boiler efficiency, increase the operation & management cost and
damage the tubes.
I. TDS control
Total dissolves solids comes with feed water into the boiler, water is heated and converted
into the steam bur TDS are remaining in the boiler and concentrated, and eventually reach at
a level where their solubility in the water in the water is exceeded and they deposit from the
solution. Thus they form scale and reduce heat transfer and also overheat the tubes and
puncture those tubes. Thus TDS control is essential by manual blow down or automatic
blow down system.
II. pH control
pH is the measure of how acidic or basic the feed water. Feed water must be neutral which
save the energy. pH is controlled by either removing impurities or adding other chemicals to
neutralized the water or by blow down of water.
Proper fuel preparation:
Fuel contaminants (dirt, dust, suspended particles, moisture etc.) , they must be removed by
proper fuel treatment otherwise, they forms the scales and reduces the heat transfer rate or
excessive moisture uses a lot of energy as required to change the phase and this energy
carried over with flue gas as loss. A quality feed into the boiler raise the efficiency level of
boiler and also reduce the maintenance costs.

Fuel selection:
The proper fuel specification can also have a effect on efficiency. In the case of gaseous
fuel, the higher the hydrogen content, the more water vapor is formed during combustion,
which leads higher heat loss due to evaporation of water form by hydrogen in fuel. To get
an accurate efficiency calculation, a fuel specification that represents the job site fuel to be
fired must be used.

Eliminate incomplete combustion:


The heat produced from incomplete combustion of fuel is less compared to complete or
good combustion of fuel. It is ultimately a heat loss.
The main causes of incomplete combustion are:
Excess fuel supply
Shortage of combustion air
Improper firing of fuel
Improper sizing of fuel (in case of solid fuels)
Poor atomization of fuel (in case of liquid fuel)
Poor mixing of fuel and air
A proper selection, operation and good servicing of burner system can reduce the problems
of incomplete combustion. In coal firing system, un-burnt coal found in the bottom ash or
carried over with flue gas or fly ash. This un-burnt coal is known as un-burn losses. In
pulverized firing system, excessive fines may cause the higher un-burnt loss. In gas fired
system, vaporizes light oil contained in the gas can condense, when the gas is expanded in a
pressure reducing station. The condensed oil can carbonized in the gas burner and cause
poor fuel distribution, which cause incomplete combustion.
Pre heat the combustion air:
The waste hot flue gas has enough heat to raise the temperature of combustion air before
using for the combustion. Thus waste heat can be recovered from the boiler flue gas.
Approximately, 1% thermal efficiency will be increased by raising air temperature by 20oC.
Pre heated combustion air is supplied to the burner, which properly mix this air with fuel
and fires into the boiler. Most oil & gas burner in the existing boiler system cannot
withstand high air temperature. Which can raised the combustion efficiency of boiler.

Controlling the excess air:


Excess air is the additional air supplied beyond the theoretical air to ensure the complete
combustion of fuel, so that C, H, & S of fuel are converted into CO2, H2O, & SO2
respectively. Excess air is supplied to the combustion of fuel because a boiler firing without
sufficient air or fuel-rich is operating in a potentially dangerous condition. So, excess air

is supplied to the burner to provide a safety factor above the actual air required for
combustion. A quality design will allow firing at minimum excess air levels of 15% (3% of
O2). O2 represents oxygen in the flue gas. Excess air is measured by sampling the O2 in the
flue gas. If 15% excess air exits, the oxygen analyzer would measure the O2 in the excess
air & shows a 3% measurement.
The optimum excess air level is depending on burner design & type, furnace design, fuel
and process variables. It can be estimated by conducting various performance tests with
different fuel/air ratios.
Boiler load fluctuation:
The load on the boiler is fluctuating in nature. The efficiency of boiler varies according to
load. As load is suddenly increased, steam demand is also increased and pressure will be
dropped. Burner is start to fire at its full rate to meet this demand, but pressure continues to
drop because boiler is taking some time to respond. Similarly, if load is suddenly decreased,
steam demand is reduced and steam pressure is increased, burner immediately lower the
firing rate, but again it will take some time, so that steam pressure over shoots the relief
valve setting. The maximum efficiency of boiler will occur at nearly 70-85% of full load.
Beyond or under this load limits, the efficiency will be decreased
As the load falls, the fuel & air supply is reducing; hence mass of flue gas will be reduced.
The reduction in flow rate of flue gas for some heat transfer area will also reduce the exit
flue gas temperature. These all raise the efficiency of boiler.
As the load falls below 50%, most combustion appliances need more excess air to burn the
fuel completely. This increases the sensible heat loss and lowers the boiler efficiency.
Thus, boiler should be operated near to full load for achieving the maximum efficiency

Reduce scale and soot formation:


Formation of deposits (scales and soot) on water sides or gas sides can reduce the heat
transfer and increase the flue gas temperature. The deposits are like a thermal insulation on
the tubes, they must be cleaned periodically for better heat transfer and better efficiency.
Reduction of scaling on water side:

By proper water treatment and blow down


Cleaning the tubes at shut down period
These deposits are corrosive and may damage to the water tubes in the boiler furnace,
economizer, and air preheater or super heater. Thus deposits can reduce the efficiency of all
heat exchangers throughout the flue gas path.
Reduction of soot on gas sides
Use of soot blowers, soot blowers are used to soot out the deposits from the tube surface
and clean the heat transfer surface by utilizing steam at high pressure. Stack temperature
should be recorded regularly, when the flue gas temperature increased about 20oC above the
normal value, soot blowers are operated and remove the soot deposits.it is advisable to
install a dial type thermometer at the stack to monitor the exhaust flue gas temperature.
Periodic off line cleaning of furnace surfaces, tube banks, heat recovery equipment.

3.10 CONCLUSION
Conclusion derived from the data related to the boiler, if higher GCV coal is used,
then the efficiency should be increased. Ash and Moisture content inside the fuel will affect
the efficiency. Here by using semi bituminous coal efficiency is 80.20% because of its high
heating value and less moisture and ash content, while Indian lignite coal gives 77.51%
efficiency on the same boiler because of it has a more ash and moisture contents than the
semi bituminous coal. From this Indirect Method mathematical model, the efficiency should
be easily calculated. Simulation should be carried out by the adding different value of
data.With the help of simulation, necessary changes should be carried out for the improving
boiler and steam system efficiency. Parameters which can be improved the boiler efficiency
is gives a best rest, if they are applies to the boiler system

Chapter 4:Color and odor removal from waste water using


natural coagulant and locally available commercial grade lime
4.1INTRODUCTION:

Industrial wastewaters are clarified to remove turbidity and color from chemical industry. In
a water treatment chemical treatment that will remove, color and turbidity present in raw
water in the form of flocs. Coagulants neutralize the repulsive electrical charges (typically
negative) surrounding particles allowing them to "stick together" creating flocks.
Flocculants facilitate the sticking of the coagulated particles to form larger floccules and
thereby fasten gravitational settling. Coagulation is the destabilization of colloids by
neutralizing the forces that keep them apart. Cationic coagulants provide positive electric
charges to reduce the negative charge of the colloids. As a result, the particles collide to
form larger particles (flocks). Rapid mixing is required to disperse the coagulant throughout
the liquid.
The enormous use of water in industries has caused a serious problem of drainage of
industrial waste water. Effluents from industries are deteriorating the surface and
underground water quality through seepage, due to chemical constituents of undesirable
concentration and thus creating water pollution. Heavy metals are groups of pollutants
which are non biodegradable and tend to accumulate in living organisms. Heavy metals are
toxic because they cannot be degraded biologically into harmless Products, hence they
cause serious health hazards. All heavy metals at high concentrations have strong toxic
effects and are an environmental threat . The pollutants of wastes chemical are of inorganic,
organic and toxic nature and require elaborate treatment before disposal to prevent physical,
chemical and biological pollution of the receiving body of water. Wastewater with high
concentration of dissolved solids, suspended solids, chloride, color, chromium etc. were
being discharged every day in the receiving water.
Coagulation and flocculation processes are intended to form particles large enough to be
separated and removed by subsequent sedimentation, or alternative clarification processes.
The coagulation stage occurs when a coagulant, such as alum, is added to the water to
neutralize the charges on the colloidal particles in the raw water, thus bringing the particles
closer together to allow a floc to begin to form. The flocculation process, following
coagulation, allows smaller particles formed during the rapid coagulation stage to stick into
larger particles to form settle able and/or filterable floc particles. Numerous substances have
been used as coagulant and flocculation aids, including alum[Al2(SO4)3,18H2O], ferric
chloride [FeCl3/6H2O], ferrous sulfate [FeSO4.7H2O] and calcium carbonate [CaCO3].
As the chemical method helps to remove turbidity, color and chemical oxygen
demand reduction. The present study is on the performance of coagulation and flocculation.
An approach of this technology is made for chemical waste water also for different

industrial wastewater treatment.

4.2 Objectives of the project:


To find the initial characteristics of waster water

Testing different samples with different doses


Comparing all the results and finding out the best dosage that helps

4.3 SAMPLING:
Sampling of waste water is done at the main collection sump of effluent treatment plant
from industry and using grab sampling method, the sampling bottle was of 40 litre capacity
which are cleaned several times with tap water, then with distilled water and rinsed fully
with 1N HNO3 for removal of living micro-organisms, pathogens and odour of the
sampling bottle. Immediately the sample is aided with 15ml/l of 2N HNO3 is added for
preservation of the sample. After collecting preserving the sample Initial parameters of the
sample like ph, colour, odour, turbidity, transmittance, absorbance, TDS and conductivity
were tested. The sample was basic in nature (ph 8) and it is brought to acidic condition (pH
5) by adding 1 drop of 1N H2SO4.

S.N

PARAMETERS

INITIAL VALUES

pH

7.5-8

TDS

19730ppm

Conductivity

97.5ms/cm

Transmittance

2%

Odour

Objectionable

o.

colour

Brownish pink

Absorbance

1.23

Turbidity

49 NTU

INITIALWASTEWATERCHARACTERISTICS

4.4MATERIALSANDMETHODS
Effectofnaturalcoagulantsinwastewatertreatment:
Naturalcoagulantsarethemostwidelyusedintreatmentofwastewaterandithas
provenqualityintreatmentofvariouswastewatersfromindustries.Researchsays
thatwhenalumwasincludedalongwiththenaturalcoagulantstoknowtheimpact,
alumgavearelativelyhigheffectivenessinremovingthedyeandthatm.oalong
withalumisanrealalternativecoagulantfortheremovalofinorganicmetalsalts.It
wasalsoconcludedfromtheirstudiesthatM.Oisnoteffectiveincaseoflowturbid
samplesbecauseofthelowinterparticlecontact.ThehigherdosageofM.Owill
leadtoincreasetheresidualturbidity,anditwilleventuallyleadtothesaturationof
polymerbridgessitesandcausedestabilisationofparticlesduetoaninsufficient
numberofparticlestoformmoreinterparticlebridges.SeedofM.Ocontains
materialsthatareeffectiveascoagulant,anddirectfiltrationofwaterwithM.Oseed
ascoagulantbringsaboutasubstantialimprovementinitsaestheticandmicrobial
quality.Experimentsshowedahighcoagulationactivityforthehighturbiditywater.
Thecoagulationactivitywaslowforlowturbiditywater,whileusingnatural
coagulants,influenceofthephonthesystemfoundtobesignificantonturbidity
removal.Thestudyclearlyindicatesthatatoptimumphsystemconditions,thereis
significantreductionincoagulantdoserequiredandinsomecasesafurtherincrease
inturbidityremoval.AproteinextractedfromM.Oleiferaseedhasdemonstratedits
effectivenessinwastewatersystemsremoving99%ofsuspendedsolidswithout
changingthephofthewater.It is concluded that Moringaoleiferaseeds acts as a

natural coagulant, flocculent, absorbent for the treatment of drinking water. It


reduces the total hardness, turbidity, acidity, alkalinity, chloride after the treatment. It
also acts as a natural antimicrobial active against the micro- organisms which is
present in the drinking water and decrease the number of bacteria. The combined use
of Moringaoleiferaseed powder and chlorine can give best results and the water can
be suitable for drinking. The addition of alum in primary settler could improve
purification of wastewater to satisfactory level. But, as a result, a large quantity of
aluminium will be discharged in nature, both as purified wastewater and treated
sludge. Application of natural coagulants has a numerous advantages. Wastewater
purification is good, production of biogas is enhanced and anaerobic sludge has not
contained aluminium salts. Although the cost for common bean is higher than for
alum, overall cost of wastewater treatment spokes in favour of application of natural
coagulants. Its application represents important progress in sustainable environment.

4.5Solutionpreparation:
Moringa olifera (drum stick) seed was taken and dried in sunlight for few days till it
looses all its fluid contents and then it is powdered to get fine particles. Then it is
sieved using 75 micron sieve. 20gms of seed powder was weighed and mixed with
250ml of distilled water. It was filtered using filter paper and the extract is used as
coagulant. 15gms of coagulant aids like alum, ferrous sulphate, calcium carbonate
were mixed with 250ml of distilled water.
200ml of preserved sample is taken in a clean 500ml glass beakers and dosages of
5ml, 6ml, 7ml, 8ml of various coagulant combinations were given to the samples.

The coagulant combinations taken were

alum+moringaolifera
alum+lime
lime+moringa
lime+ferroussulphate

Polyelectrolyte solution is added in each beaker containing sample to enhance the

coagulation process. Then the samples with coagulants are placed in jar testing
apparatus. Initially flash mixing is done for 10 seconds and normal mixing of
150rpm is given to the samples for 10 minutes. Then the detention time of 30minutes
is given. Final parameters of the samples were checked after 30minutes of detention
time after removing the sample from jar test apparatus.
4.6RESULTSANDDISCUSSION:
The below table portraits by varying the dosage of coagulants the change in
initial parameters of waste water is drastically changed to lower acceptance
satisfactory limits. The conductivity is reduced to 70.2ms/cm, Transmittance is
increased to 76% and neutral ph is achieved.

Effectofalum+moringaolifera
S .no

Dosage

Conductivity ms/cm

ph

Transmittance %

Initial

Final

Initial

Final

Initial

Final

97.5

83.2

31

97.5

82.7

32

97.5

79.6

38

97.5

77.7

42

Effect of alum + lime


S .no

Dosage

pH

Conductivity ms/cm

Transmittance %

Initial

Final

Initial

Final

Initial

Final

97.5

76.7

19

97.5

75.8

21

97.5

72.3

22

97.5

70.7

27

Effect of lime + moringa olifera


S .no

Dosage
Mg/L

Conductivity ms/cm

pH

Transmittance %

Initial

Final

Initial

Final

Initial

Final

97.5

84.6

16

97.5

82.7

21

97.5

80.6

23

97.5

80.6

25

Effectoflime+ferroussulphate
S .no

Dosage

pH

Conductivity ms/cm

Transmittance %

mg/l

Initial

Final

Initial

Final

Final

97.5

88.3

24

97.5

94.9

33

97.5

95.6

62

97.5

82.1

76

Effect of moringa olifera and lime aided with some chemical coagulants

4.7 CONCLUSION:

Thus it was proven that natural coagulants can treat chemical industry waste water
efficiently. Moringa olifera (drum stick) seeds are available abundantly in India. And also
by using moringa olifera seed extract as coagulant sludge volume index in treatment
operation will be reduced
When compared to other treatment processes and coagulants. Transmittance was increased
to 76% . Color and odor were removed completely. Other initial parameters were also
reduced drastically. Lime is also available and it has proven quality in removing hazadrous
elements in waste waters. Fig 1-4 represents the change in pH concentration from acidic
conidition (pH 5) to a neutral pH range (pH 6). Fig 5-8 represents the change in
conductivity of the waste water and it is reduced to accepted level. Fig 9-12 represents the
change in transmittance value from 2% to 76%. These results prove the effectiveness of
natural coagulant and lime in colour and odor removal of leather tanning industry
wastewater. So, this can be applied for large scale treatment process in effluent treatment
units for color and odour removal.

Chapter 5: References

1. V. K. Gaudani, Energy Efficiency in Thermal System. Vol. III. IECC Press.


Delhi 2009
2. Rahul Dev Gupta, SudhirGhai, Ajai Jain. Energy Efficiency Improvement
Strategies for Industrial Boilers: A Case Study. Journal of Engineering
and Technology. Vol 1. Issue 1. Jan-June 2011
3. Nazmul Islam KM, Khaled Misbahuzzaman, Ahemd Kamruzzaman Majumder
and Milan Chakrabarty, Efficiency of different coagulants combination for
the treatment of effluents
4. ScholarsJournalofEngineeringandTechnology(SJET)Sch.J.Eng.Tech.,
2013;1(3):133139
5. ABBCompanysmanuals
6. Generalelectricwaterhandbook
7. PPCB(Punjabpollutioncontrolboard)handbookforstandardsforworking
inindustry.