Exercícios de integração polinomial

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Exercícios de integração polinomial

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195

Exercises

6.1

6.2

6.3

for a continuous function f dened on the interval [1, 1], using

the interpolation points x0 = 1, x1 = 1. Show further that

if the second derivative of f exists and is continuous on [0, 1],

then

M2

M2

(1 x2 )

, x [1, 1] ,

|f (x) p1 (x)|

2

2

where M2 = maxx[1,1] |f (x)|. Give an example of a function

f , and a point x, for which equality is achieved.

(i) Write down the Lagrange interpolation polynomial of degree

1 for the function f : x x3 , using the points x0 = 0, x1 = a.

Verify Theorem 6.2 by direct calculation, showing that in this

case is unique and has the value = 13 (x + a).

(ii) Repeat the calculation for the function f : x (2x a)4 ;

show that in this case there are two possible values for , and

give their values.

Given the distinct points xi , i = 0, 1, . . . , n + 1, and the points

yi , i = 0, 1, . . . , n + 1, let q be the Lagrange polynomial of

degree n for the set of points {(xi , yi ): i = 0, 1, . . . , n} and

let r be the Lagrange polynomial of degree n for the points

{(xi , yi ): i = 1, 2, . . . , n + 1}. Dene

p(x) =

6.4

.

xn+1 x0

points {(xi , yi ): i = 0, 1, . . . , n + 1}.

Let n 1. The points xj are equally spaced in [1, 1], so that

2j n

,

n

With the usual notation

xj =

j = 0, . . . , n .

n+1 (x) = (x x0 ) . . . (x xn ),

show that

n+1 (1 1/n) =

(2n)!

.

2n nn+1 n!

N ! 2N N +1/2 eN ,

N ,

196

6 Polynomial interpolation

verify that

n+1 (1 1/n)

6.5

6.6

2n+1/2 en

n

Let n 1. Suppose that xi , i = 0, 1, . . . , n, are distinct real

numbers, and yi , ui , i = 0, 1, . . . , n, are real numbers. Suppose,

further, that there exists p2n+1 P2n+1 such that p2n+1 (xi ) =

yi for all i = 0, 1, . . . , n, and p2n+1 (xi ) = ui , i = 0, 1, . . . , n.

Attempt to prove that p2n+1 is the unique polynomial with these

properties, by adapting the uniqueness proofs in Sections 6.2

and 6.4, using Rolles Theorem; explain where the proof fails.

Show that there is no polynomial p5 P5 such that p5 (1) = 1,

p5 (0) = 0, p5 (1) = 1, p5 (1) = 0, p5 (0) = 0, p5 (1) = 0, but that

if the rst condition is replaced by p5 (1) = 1, then there is an

innite number of such polynomials. Give an explicit expression

for the general form of these polynomials.

Suppose that n 1. The function f and its derivatives of

order up to and including 2n + 1 are continuous on [a, b]. The

points xi , i = 0, 1, . . . , n, are distinct and lie in [a, b]. Construct

polynomials l0 (x), hi (x), ki (x), i = 1, . . . , n, of degree 2n such

that the polynomial

n

i=1

p2n (xi ) = f (xi ) ,

i = 0, 1, . . . , n ,

and

p2n (xi ) = f (xi ) ,

i = 1, . . . , n .

depending on x, such that

n

6.7

(x x0 ) i=1 (x xi )2 (2n+1)

f

() .

(2n + 1)!

up to and including 2n are continuous on [a, b]. The points

xi , i = 0, 1, . . . , n, are distinct and lie in [a, b]. Explain how to

Exercises

197

of degree 2n 1 such that the polynomial

n1

i=1

p2n1 (xi ) = f (xi ), i = 1, . . . , n 1. It is not necessary to give

explicit expressions for these polynomials.

Show also that for each value of x in [a, b] there is a number

, depending on x, such that

f (x) p2n1 (x) =

6.8

(x x0 )(x xn )

(2n)!

n1

i=1 (x

xi )2

f (2n) () .

q(x) = x(x2 1)(x2 4)(x 3) ,

show that the maximum of |q(x)| over the interval [0, 1] is attained at the point x = 12 .

The values of the function f : x sin x are given at the points

xi = i/8, for all integer values of i. For a general value of x,

an approximation u(x) to f (x) is calculated by rst dening k

to be the integer part of 8x/, so that xk x xk+1 , and

then evaluating the Lagrange polynomial of degree 5 using the

six interpolation points (xj , f (xj )), j = k 2, . . . , k + 3. Show

that, for all values of x,

| sin x u(x)|

6.9

225 6

< 0.00002 .

166 6!

are distinct, and xn+j = xj + for each j = 0, . . . , n 1. The

Lagrange polynomial of degree 2n 1 for the function f using

these points is denoted by p2n1 . Show that the terms involving

f (xj ) and f (xn+j ) in p2n1 may be written

j (x) j (x )

j (xj )

where

x xj

x xj

f (xj + )

f (xj )

j (xj + )

j (xj )

n1

j (x) =

i=0

i=j

(x xi ) .

198

6.10

6.11

6 Polynomial interpolation

Find the limit of this expression as 0, and deduce that

p2n1 q2n1 0 as 0, where q2n1 is the Hermite interpolation polynomial for f , using the points xi , i = 0, . . . , n 1.

Construct the Hermite interpolation polynomial of degree 3 for

the function f : x x5 , using the points x0 = 0, x1 = a,

and show that it has the form p3 (x) = 3a2 x3 2a3 x2 . Verify

Theorem 6.4 by direct calculation, showing that in this case

is unique and has the value = 15 (x + 2a).

The complex function z f (z) of the complex variable z is

holomorphic in the region D of the complex plane; the boundary

of D is the simple closed contour C. The interpolation points

xj , j = 0, 1, . . . , n, with n 1, and the point x all lie in D.

Determine the residues of the function g dened by

n

g(z) =

x xj

f (z)

z x j=0 z xj

f (x) pn (x) =

1

2

f (z)

x xj

dz ,

z x j=0 z xj

where pn is the Lagrange interpolation polynomial for the function f using the interpolation points xj , j = 0, 1, . . . , n.

Now, suppose that the real number x and the interpolation

points xj , j = 0, 1, . . . , n, all lie in the real interval [a, b], and

that D consists of all the points z such that |z t| < K for all

t [a, b], where K is a constant with K > |b a|. Show that

the length of the contour C is 2(b a) + 2K, and that

|f (x) pn (x)| <

6.12

(b a + K)M

ba

K

n+1

where M is such that |f (z)| M on C. Deduce that the sequence (pn ) converges to f , uniformly on [a, b].

Show that these conditions are not satised by the function

f : x 1/(1 + x2 ) for x in the interval [5, 5]. For what values

of a are the conditions satised by f for x in the interval [a, a]?

With the same notation as in Example 6.3, let

E(h) =

(f (h) + + ) (f (h) + )

f (0) .

2h

Exercises

199

By expanding f (h) and f (h) into Taylor series about the point

0, show that there exists (h, h) such that

E(h) =

+

1 2

h f () +

.

6

2h

|E(h)|

1 2

h M3 +

6

h

further that the right-hand side of the last inequality achieves

its minimum value when

h=

3

M3

1/3

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