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Exercises

195

Exercises
6.1

6.2

6.3

Construct the Lagrange interpolation polynomial p1 of degree 1,


for a continuous function f dened on the interval [1, 1], using
the interpolation points x0 = 1, x1 = 1. Show further that
if the second derivative of f exists and is continuous on [0, 1],
then
M2
M2
(1 x2 )
, x [1, 1] ,
|f (x) p1 (x)|
2
2
where M2 = maxx[1,1] |f (x)|. Give an example of a function
f , and a point x, for which equality is achieved.
(i) Write down the Lagrange interpolation polynomial of degree
1 for the function f : x x3 , using the points x0 = 0, x1 = a.
Verify Theorem 6.2 by direct calculation, showing that in this
case is unique and has the value = 13 (x + a).
(ii) Repeat the calculation for the function f : x (2x a)4 ;
show that in this case there are two possible values for , and
give their values.
Given the distinct points xi , i = 0, 1, . . . , n + 1, and the points
yi , i = 0, 1, . . . , n + 1, let q be the Lagrange polynomial of
degree n for the set of points {(xi , yi ): i = 0, 1, . . . , n} and
let r be the Lagrange polynomial of degree n for the points
{(xi , yi ): i = 1, 2, . . . , n + 1}. Dene
p(x) =

6.4

(x x0 )r(x) (x xn+1 )q(x)


.
xn+1 x0

Show that p is the Lagrange polynomial of degree n + 1 for the


points {(xi , yi ): i = 0, 1, . . . , n + 1}.
Let n 1. The points xj are equally spaced in [1, 1], so that
2j n
,
n
With the usual notation
xj =

j = 0, . . . , n .

n+1 (x) = (x x0 ) . . . (x xn ),
show that
n+1 (1 1/n) =

(2n)!
.
2n nn+1 n!

Using Stirlings formula

N ! 2N N +1/2 eN ,

N ,

196

6 Polynomial interpolation
verify that
n+1 (1 1/n)

6.5

6.6

2n+1/2 en
n

for large values of n.


Let n 1. Suppose that xi , i = 0, 1, . . . , n, are distinct real
numbers, and yi , ui , i = 0, 1, . . . , n, are real numbers. Suppose,
further, that there exists p2n+1 P2n+1 such that p2n+1 (xi ) =
yi for all i = 0, 1, . . . , n, and p2n+1 (xi ) = ui , i = 0, 1, . . . , n.
Attempt to prove that p2n+1 is the unique polynomial with these
properties, by adapting the uniqueness proofs in Sections 6.2
and 6.4, using Rolles Theorem; explain where the proof fails.
Show that there is no polynomial p5 P5 such that p5 (1) = 1,
p5 (0) = 0, p5 (1) = 1, p5 (1) = 0, p5 (0) = 0, p5 (1) = 0, but that
if the rst condition is replaced by p5 (1) = 1, then there is an
innite number of such polynomials. Give an explicit expression
for the general form of these polynomials.
Suppose that n 1. The function f and its derivatives of
order up to and including 2n + 1 are continuous on [a, b]. The
points xi , i = 0, 1, . . . , n, are distinct and lie in [a, b]. Construct
polynomials l0 (x), hi (x), ki (x), i = 1, . . . , n, of degree 2n such
that the polynomial
n

p2n (x) = l0 (x)f (x0 ) +

[hi (x)f (xi ) + ki (x)f (xi )]


i=1

satises the conditions


p2n (xi ) = f (xi ) ,

i = 0, 1, . . . , n ,

and
p2n (xi ) = f (xi ) ,

i = 1, . . . , n .

Show also that for each value of x in [a, b] there is a number ,


depending on x, such that
n

f (x) p2n (x) =


6.7

(x x0 ) i=1 (x xi )2 (2n+1)
f
() .
(2n + 1)!

Suppose that n 2. The function f and its derivatives of order


up to and including 2n are continuous on [a, b]. The points
xi , i = 0, 1, . . . , n, are distinct and lie in [a, b]. Explain how to

Exercises

197

construct polynomials l0 (x), ln (x), hi (x), ki (x), i = 1, . . . , n 1,


of degree 2n 1 such that the polynomial
n1

p2n1 (x) = l0 (x)f (x0 )+ln (x)f (xn )+

[hi (x)f (xi )+ki (x)f (xi )]

i=1

satises the conditions p2n1 (xi ) = f (xi ), i = 0, 1, . . . , n, and


p2n1 (xi ) = f (xi ), i = 1, . . . , n 1. It is not necessary to give
explicit expressions for these polynomials.
Show also that for each value of x in [a, b] there is a number
, depending on x, such that
f (x) p2n1 (x) =
6.8

(x x0 )(x xn )
(2n)!

n1
i=1 (x

xi )2

f (2n) () .

By considering the symmetry of the graph of the polynomial


q(x) = x(x2 1)(x2 4)(x 3) ,
show that the maximum of |q(x)| over the interval [0, 1] is attained at the point x = 12 .
The values of the function f : x sin x are given at the points
xi = i/8, for all integer values of i. For a general value of x,
an approximation u(x) to f (x) is calculated by rst dening k
to be the integer part of 8x/, so that xk x xk+1 , and
then evaluating the Lagrange polynomial of degree 5 using the
six interpolation points (xj , f (xj )), j = k 2, . . . , k + 3. Show
that, for all values of x,
| sin x u(x)|

6.9

225 6
< 0.00002 .
166 6!

Let n 1. The interpolation points xj , j = 0, 1, . . . , 2n 1,


are distinct, and xn+j = xj + for each j = 0, . . . , n 1. The
Lagrange polynomial of degree 2n 1 for the function f using
these points is denoted by p2n1 . Show that the terms involving
f (xj ) and f (xn+j ) in p2n1 may be written
j (x) j (x )
j (xj )
where

x xj
x xj
f (xj + )
f (xj )
j (xj + )
j (xj )
n1

j (x) =
i=0
i=j

(x xi ) .

198

6.10

6.11

6 Polynomial interpolation
Find the limit of this expression as 0, and deduce that
p2n1 q2n1 0 as 0, where q2n1 is the Hermite interpolation polynomial for f , using the points xi , i = 0, . . . , n 1.
Construct the Hermite interpolation polynomial of degree 3 for
the function f : x x5 , using the points x0 = 0, x1 = a,
and show that it has the form p3 (x) = 3a2 x3 2a3 x2 . Verify
Theorem 6.4 by direct calculation, showing that in this case
is unique and has the value = 15 (x + 2a).
The complex function z f (z) of the complex variable z is
holomorphic in the region D of the complex plane; the boundary
of D is the simple closed contour C. The interpolation points
xj , j = 0, 1, . . . , n, with n 1, and the point x all lie in D.
Determine the residues of the function g dened by
n

g(z) =

x xj
f (z)
z x j=0 z xj

at its poles in D, and deduce that


f (x) pn (x) =

1
2

f (z)
x xj
dz ,
z x j=0 z xj

where pn is the Lagrange interpolation polynomial for the function f using the interpolation points xj , j = 0, 1, . . . , n.
Now, suppose that the real number x and the interpolation
points xj , j = 0, 1, . . . , n, all lie in the real interval [a, b], and
that D consists of all the points z such that |z t| < K for all
t [a, b], where K is a constant with K > |b a|. Show that
the length of the contour C is 2(b a) + 2K, and that
|f (x) pn (x)| <

6.12

(b a + K)M

ba
K

n+1

where M is such that |f (z)| M on C. Deduce that the sequence (pn ) converges to f , uniformly on [a, b].
Show that these conditions are not satised by the function
f : x 1/(1 + x2 ) for x in the interval [5, 5]. For what values
of a are the conditions satised by f for x in the interval [a, a]?
With the same notation as in Example 6.3, let
E(h) =

(f (h) + + ) (f (h) + )
f (0) .
2h

Suppose that f (x) exists and is continuous at all x [h, h].

Exercises

199

By expanding f (h) and f (h) into Taylor series about the point
0, show that there exists (h, h) such that
E(h) =

+
1 2
h f () +
.
6
2h

Hence deduce that


|E(h)|

1 2

h M3 +
6
h

where M3 = maxx[h,h] |f (x)| and = max(|+ |, | |). Show


further that the right-hand side of the last inequality achieves
its minimum value when
h=

3
M3

1/3