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Original Title: EC4 COMPOSITE STRUCTURES

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Structures to Eurocode 4

- Some Basic Concepts

Chiew Sing-Ping

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Nanyang Technological University, SINGAPORE

10 April 2015

Scope of Presentation

Design codes

Materials

Composite columns

Composite beams

Composite slabs

Effective 1 April 2015

Eurocode 1

- for loadings

Eurocode 2

- for concrete properties and some

of the concrete related checks

(such as longitudinal shear)

Eurocode 3 (many Parts)

- for construction stage, design of

pure steel beam and profiled steel

sheeting

Eurocode 4 Part 1-1

- general rules of buildings

Eurocode 4 Part 1-2

- for the structural fire design

BS 6399

- for loadings

BS 5950-1

- for construction stage, design of pure

beam

BS 5950-6

- for design of profiled steel sheeting

BS5950-3.1

- for design of composite beam

BS5950-4

- for design of composite slab

BS 5400-5

- for design of composite column

BS 5950-8

- for structural fire design

3

Eurocodes

Load safety factors

Structural steel

Material

safety Concrete

factors

Reinforcement

1.35 Gk + 1.5 Qk

British Standards

1.4 Gk + 1.6 Qk (BS5950)

1.2 Gk + 1.5 Qk (BS5400-5)

1.0

1.0 (BS5950)

1.05 (BS5400-5)

1.5

1.5

1.15

1.15

Material Strength

Concrete and steel strengths in EC4 and BS5950

BS5950

EC4

Normal

C30 C50

C20/25 C60/75

Light weight

C25 C40

LC20/22 LC60/66

355 N/mm2

460 N/mm2

Concrete

Structural steel

Cube strength

The ranges are narrower compared to EC2 (C12/15 C90/105) and EC3

( 690 N/mm2) because of more limited knowledge and experience in

composite members with very high concrete and steel strengths.

Concrete Strength

One of the most noticeable differences in Eurocodes is the way

concrete strength is specified throughout.

In British Standards,

the cube strength fcu is used.

In Eurocodes,

the cylinder strength fck is used.

BS

Cube strength

25 N/mm2

Will different

strength gives

different

resistance ?

EC

Cylinder strength

20 N/mm2

Converting from

the concrete

strength to

equivalent plastic

stress block

EC: 0.85 fck/c= 0.8520/1.5 = 11.33 N/mm2

No difference!

7

Steel Strength

EC3 has additional ductility requirements compared to

BS5950 in terms of stress ratio, % elongation and strain

ratio.

Normal strength steel

fu/fy 1.10

less than 15%

u 15y

stain

y is the yield

than 10%

u 15 y

Problem

Some product standards only have requirements on the nominal yield

and tensile strengths, or their minimum values. The stress ratio calculated

according to these nominal values cannot comply with the EC3 ductility

requirement. Also, % elongation cannot comply. Refer to BC1 for

guidance on minimal requirements and compliance under SS NA.

Grade

Nominal yield

strength (MPa)

Nominal tensile

strength (MPa)

Stress ratio

G500

500

520

1.04

G550

550

550

1.00

AS 1595

CA 500

500

510

1.02

EN 10326

S550GD

550

560

1.02

ISO 4997

CH550

550

550

1.00

Standard

AS 1397

AS 1595: Cold-rolled, unalloyed, steel sheet and strip

EN 10326: Continuously hot-dip coated strip and sheet of structural steels

ISO 4997: Cold-reduced carbon steel sheet of structural quality

Most types of profiled steel sheeting are manufactured from

G500/G550 steel in accordance with AS1397.

10

In BS 5950, the resistances of headed studs in solid slab

are given for various combinations of height, diameter and

concrete strength but the physics behind these numbers are

not explained.

governed by the strength of concrete and steel.

11

Normal Concrete (BS 5950-3.1 Table 5)

Dimensions of headed stud shear

connectors

Characteristic strength of

concrete (fcu)

Nominal shank

diameter

(mm)

Nominal

height

(mm)

As-welded

25

height

N/mm2

(mm)

25

100

95

146

154

161

168

22

100

95

119

126

132

139

19

100

95

95

100

104

109

19

75

70

82

87

91

96

16

75

70

70

74

78

82

13

65

60

44

47

49

52

30

35

N/mm2 N/mm2

40

N/mm2

12

Concrete Slab (EC4)

EC4 calculates the resistance as the minimum of two equations,

shown here as (1) and (2).

PRd

PRd

0.8 f u d 2 4

0.29 d 2

f ck Ecm

(1)

0.2 sc 1

d

(2)

(i) failure in the shank of headed stud and (ii) failure in concrete.

13

steel failure

concrete

crushes

Failure in concrete

14

various Design Codes

Characteristic resistance of shear stud, PRk (kN)

Headed shear studs embedded

in solid concrete slab of

normal weight concrete

25

30

35

40

90

100

104

109

95

100

104

109

81.0

92.1

100.6

102.1

Notes:

Nominal height = 100mm while as-welded height = 95mm

15

160

140

BS (d=22mm, h=100mm)

120

EC (d=22mm, h=100mm)

PR k (kN)

BS (d=19mm,h=100mm)

100

EC (d=19mm, h=100mm)

BS ( d=16mm, h=75mm)

80

EC (d=16mm, h=75mm)

60

40

20

0

25

30

35

40

45

50

Note: the differences are larger for smaller stud diameters

16

determined by EC4 is lower than BS5950.

17

Composite Slab

The design resistance of headed stud connector in composite

slab with profiled steel sheeting is more complex than in a solid

slab. It is influenced by the following factors:

The direction of the ribs relative to direction of span of the

composite beam;

The mean breadth b0 and depth hp of profiled steel sheeting;

The diameter d and height hsc of the headed shear stud;

The number nr of the headed studs in one trough;

Whether or not a headed stud is central within a trough.

18

Reduction Factor kt

Design shear resistance is taken as the resistance in a solid slab

multiplied by the reduction factor kt

hsc

hP

hp/2

hsc

b0

hp

b0

EC4:

BS5950-3.1:

0.7 b0 hsc

kt

1 kt,max

nr hp hp

and 0.63 and 0.34 for open trough profiles

For the EC4 these values are about 17% lower than the BS for re-entrant

profiles, but about 40% higher than the BS for open trough profiles.

19

Generally, most profiled sheet sheeting is designed such that their limiting

value dominates, so the reduction factor is independent of the geometry

profiled

steel

sheeting

Re-entrant

trough

Open

trough

Number of stud

connectors per

trough

nr=1

nr=2

nr=1

nr=2

Thickness t

of sheet

(mm)

1.0

>1.0

1.0

>1.0

1.0

>1.0

1.0

>1.0

EC4

BS 5950-3.1

20mm in diameter and

welded through

profiled steel sheeting

0.85

1.0

0.70

0.8

0.85

1.0

0.70

0.8

Stud not

exceeding

19mm in

diameter

1.0

0.8

0.82

0.45

For re-entrant trough profiles, the reduction factor in EC4 BS5950

20

Headed shear studs in

composite slab with profiled

steel sheeting

BS5950: Part 3:

2010

25

30

35

40

Re-entrant

95

100

104

109

Open trough

77.9

82

85.3

89.4

68.9

75.5

85.5

86.8

Notes:

(N/mm2)

Nominal height = 100mm while as-welded height = 95mm

nr=1

to 27% lower than that given in BS 5950.

21

22

Top-Down Construction

piles installed during the foundation stage

23

24

KingPost in column

bars

Install starter bars

25

Resistance to compression

Resistance to moment

Reduced moment resistance under compressive force, i.e.

interaction between compression and bending

Reduced moment resistance under compressive force, i.e.

interaction between compression and bending

F

LBA

Fcr

GNIA

Types of elastic analysis

and design

e

26

Design Concepts

Axial

compression

EC3 buckling curves

(similar to pure steel column)

analysis with equivalent member

Imperfection (simplified method)

Resistance of

member in

combined

compression

and bending

analysis with equivalent member

Imperfection (simplified method)

e0

e0

27

Compression resistance of composite column

N pl,Rd Aa f yd Ac f cd As fsd

steel

concrete

reinforcement

f yk / a

f ck / c

fsk / s

28

N Ed

1.0

N pl,Rd

The buckling reduction factor

(EC3 approach)

Plastic resistance

1.0

1.0

0.5 1 - 0.2

N pl,Rk

N cr

x

2

Euler buckling

0.0

1.0

2.0

29

30

Cross-section

Axis of

buckling

Buckling curve

y-y

z-z

y-y

z-z

s 3%

any

3% < s 6%

any

Limits

Partially concrete encased

section

Concrete filled circular and

rectangular hollow sections

S235 - S460

For steel column, the buckling curve is related to steel section and steel

strength.

For composite column, the buckling curve is related to the cross-section.

The strength of steel has little influence on the buckling curve.

31

Design based on

EC3 buckling

curve

Buckling curve

simplified approach second order analysis &

member imperfection

Member

imperfection

Resistance of

axial

compression

Comparison

NRd(X) / NRd(e0)

NEd

L/200

N Rd () = 4320 kN

e0

N Rd (e0) = 4108 kN

1.05

NEd

a maximum difference of 5% in comparison with design based on

the EC3 buckling curve approach.

Design data:

fy=355N/mm2, fck=25N/mm2, fsk=500N/mm2,

Cross-section: 350mm350mm, steel section: 254254 UC73.

Column length: 5.0m, 4 bars of 20mm diameter

32

Design based on EC3

buckling curve approach

N Rd( )

NRd( ) = Npl,Rd

2 -

M Ed,max = k NRd(e0 ) e0

N pl,Rk

M Ed,max M M pl,Rd

1.0

0.5 1 - 0.2

simplified approach

N Rd (e0 )

obtained by:

kNRd(e0 ) e0 = M M pl,Rd

=

N cr

Npl,Rd

Tedious approach !

NRd(e0)

Npm,Rd

N pl,Rd -N Rd (e0 )

N pl,Rd -N pm,Rd

M

Mpl,Rd

Easier approach !

k=

1

1- N Rd (e0 ) /Ncr,eff

N cr,eff =

Mpl,Rd

2 (EI )ef,II

L2cr

33

Compression and Bending

The EC3 buckling curve approach can be adopted for

composite column under axial compression, however, this

approach is not suitable for composite column subjected to

axial compression and bending moment.

In design of slender RC column, an accidental eccentricity of

the axial load in the column is introduced to calculate the

maximum moment at mid-height of the column.

Similar to slender RC column, equivalent initial bow

imperfections (member imperfections) are used in the design of

composite column for simplification.

34

NEd

e0

design axial load NEd on a composite column,

there will be a bending moment of NEde0.

column length considered both second-order

effects of end moment and imperfection is given

by:

M Ed.max k1M Ed k2 N Ed e0

NEd

related to end moment ratio

k=

1- N Ed /N cr,eff

35

Cross-section

Concrete encased section

y

z

Section

y

z

Circular and rectangular

hollow section

y

z

Circular hollow section with

additional I-section

y

with crossed H section

y

Axis of

buckling

Buckling

curve

Member

imperfection (e0)

y-y

L/200

z-z

L/150

y-y

L/200

z-z

L/150

y-y

L/300

z-z

L/200

y-y

L/200

z-z

L/200

any

L/200

z

36

Combined Compression and Bending

Compared to EC4 (1994), the simplified method for

composite columns in EC4 (2004) was improved using

second order analysis and equivalent member (initial bow)

imperfection which takes into account the effects of residual

stresses and geometrical imperfections.

Introducing initial bow imperfections into the simplified

method for composite columns, the scope of the simplified

method can be extended to sway frames.

37

k1M Ed

M Ed

M

M pl,Rd

into account indirectly in the interaction

curve. The factor d is reduced by a

relevant amount to account for the

moment due to the member

imperfection.

k1M Ed k2 NEd e0

M Ed, max

d M pl,Rd

into account in the global analysis and

hence it is not necessary to allow for

the imperfection in the analysis of the

interaction curve.

38

Nc,f

Np

Npl,a

The concrete slab works best in compression while the steel section

works best in tension; hence, a large moment resistance is generated

as a force couple.

Resistance mobilization in both the concrete slab and the steel section

is limited by the shear connection along the concrete interface.

39

IV

IV

I-I

II-II

III-III

IV-IV

V-V

resistance to hogging moment and shear and M-V interaction

shear connection @ the steel concrete interface

lateral torsional buckling

Longitudinal shear of the concrete flange

40

In BS5950-3.1, no equation is provided to calculate the

lateral torsional buckling resistance of continuous composite

beam under hogging moment over the internal support.

When checking LTB, the methods given in BS5950-1

(design of steel beam) is supposed to be used.

In EC4, the restraint of slab is taken into account compared

with steel beam in EC3.

41

BS5950-3.1

EC4

M b pb Sx

M b, Rd LT M Rd

Where pb is determined by TB

With:

LT

TB =nt uvt

4a /hs

vt =

2

2

1+ 2a /hs +0.05 /x

0.5

LT LT

2

LT

M Rk

M cr

LT

M cr kcC4 / L Ga I at ks L2 / 2 Ea I afz

1/2

M cr C1

Lateral-torsional

buckling

2 EI z I w

L2cr

L2cr GIT

+ 2

EI

z

z

(EC4)

0.5

(EC3)

EC4

EC3

BS5950-3.1

EC4/BS

Ratio

EC4/EC3

Ratio

546 kNm

531 kNm

479 kNm

1.14

1.03

42

In this approach, the elastic critical moment Mcr is determined using the

so-called continuous inverted U-frame model.

The model given in EC4 takes into account the lateral displacement of the

bottom flange causing bending of the steel web and the rotation of the top

flange that is resisted by bending of the concrete slab.

M cr kcC4 / L Ga I at ks L /

2

E I

a afz

1/2

43

Composite Slab

Trapezoidal

Open

Trough (Trapezoidal)

Re-entrant

Moment failure near mid-span region

Debonding within longitudinal shear span along the interface between

concrete slab and decking, i.e. shear bond failure critical

44

Longitudinal Shear

How can concrete stick to profiled sheeting after bending?

How reliable is the shear bond along the interface between

concrete and profiled sheeting ?

Surface bonding due to chemical reaction

- non ductile failure, hence not so reliable.

Mechanical interlocking due to indentations or

embossments in the profiled sheeting or end anchorage

- ductile failure with rational provision, hence more

reliable.

45

Longitudinal Shear

End slip

Cracking

Test setup

46

m-k Method

BS5950-4:

EC4:

Vl,Rd

bd p mAp

vs bLs

m= 172.45

k= 0.2491

Bs ds mr Ap

Vs

kr

1.25 Bs Lv

f cu

Concrete

strength

m= 163.26

k= 0.0312

47

EC4

BS5950-4

m

172.5

163.3

0.2491

0.0312

Shear-bond

resistance

Vl,Rd (kN)

Test

79.3

Short span

60.1

81.2 kN

74.3

Long span

56.2

61.6 kN

48

Vertical Shear

BS 5950-4

EC4

Vv bb dsvc

1/3

vc =

m bv d d 25

1/ 4

1/3

1/3

Vv,Rd,min vmin k1 cp bw dp

vmin 0.035k 3/2 fck1/2

BS 5950-4

EC4

118.7kN

107.8 kN

Experiment

153.6 kN

49

Punching Shear

BS 5950-4

EC4

Vp,Rd Cp d p vRd

vRd CRd,c k 100 1 f ck

1/3

1/3

vc =

m bv d d 25

1/ 4

1/3

vmin

Critical perimeter = 4 Ds -Dp +4ds +4 length of load area Cp 2 hc 2 bp 2hf 2 ap 2hf 2dp 2hc

BS 5950-4

108kN

EC4

139 kN

Experiment

186 kN

50

Conclusions

1. Composite members with high strength steel ( S460) and

concrete ( C60/75) outside the scope of EC4. Can refer to

BCA/SSSS design guide for S550 steel and C90/105

concrete for CFT members.

2. Common grades of profiled steel sheeting cannot meet

EC3 ductility requirements in terms of stress ratio (fu/fy)

and %elongation after fracture. Design strength will have

to be downgraded. Refer to BC1 design recommendations.

3. The resistance of headed stud shear connectors is

generally lower in EC4 compared to BS5950; BC1 adopts

EC4 design resistance values.

4. For composite columns, the EC4 buckling curves are

different compared to EC3 due to contribution of concrete.

Unlike EC3, no special consideration for composite column

with S460 steel.

51

Conclusions

5. The simplified design approach using second order

analysis and equivalent member imperfection without any

need for member buckling resistance check is much

easier for composite column in combined compression

and bending moment. Approach is more similar to EC2

concrete column design.

6. EC4 provides guidance for lateral-torsional buckling check

for continuous composite beams taking into account the

beneficial effect provided by the concrete slab, i.e. the socalled inverted U-frame method.

7. EC4 provides clear guidance for testing & development of

composite slab system using profiled steel sheeting.

Existing m and k values from BS5950 cannot be used

directly in EC4 composite slab design.

52

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