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Motivation and Emotion

Motivation refers to an internal state or condition that activates behavior and gives
it direction.
Motivation and Its Components
Psychologists who have analyzed motivation found that motive has two components,
need, and drive:
1. NEEDS- based on some deficit within the person.
2. DRIVES- based on needs and have the added feature of an observable change
in behavior.
Functions of Motives:
Motives have three important functions in behavior:
ENERGIZE- the motivated person is active and his activity is maintained at
relatively high levels until relevant goals or rewards are attained.
GOAL- refers to a substance, or object capable of satisfying a need.
DIRECTING- directs a person to organize his ideas around whatever goal is
important to him at the moment.
SELECTING- reinforcement, consequences, and feedback determine which of a
number of responses will be selected.

Theories of Motives
- an instinct is an innate or generally predetermined disposition to behave in a
particular way when confronted with certain stimuli.
- Clark Hull (1943) believed that organisms are motivated to eliminate or reduce bodily
tension. DRIVE is the term used to define the state of tension that occurs when a need
is not met.
- Drive theory states that the potential level of any response is a joined function of the
response habit, strength and the persons level of drive.

Motivation and Emotion

- proposes that moderate level of stimulation is the most pleasant and that both
higher and lower levels are relatively aversive.
- Arousal is an increase in the level of tension or excitement
-states that is a desirable goal can be anticipated following the completion of a
particular action, the organism is motivated to perform that action.

Primary Motives: Biological Needs

Many human motives stem from the need for things to keep an organism alive
and are necessary for survival. We consider these as primary motives, also known as
physiological motives. Primary motives are those directly related to the normal body
functions such as need for air, food, water, excretion of water, rest and sleep, protection
from heat and cold, avoidance of pain and so on. Sexual motive is also considered to be
a primary motive because the species would not be able to reproduce if the sexual
motive is not satisfied.
Hunger: The Regulation of Food Intake
Hunger is caused by rhythmic contraction of empty stomach.
The strength of hunger drive can be measured by discovering how much resistance a
human or animal will endure to overcome it.
Hypothalamus is the biological control center for hunger.
This small forebrain structure is involved in the regulation of a number of motives and
HUNGER is regulated by two systems:
Feeding system- initiates eating when food is needed.
Satiety system- stops eating when enough food has been consumed.

Motivation and Emotion

Thirst: The Regulation of Water Intake

Just as we must control the intake of food to survive, we must also regulate the
intake of water. Like hunger, the drink system and a stop drink system key mechanisms
are regulated in the hypothalamus.
Three principal cues in regulating drinking:
Mouth dryness
Loss of water by cell
Reduction in blood volume

When total body fluids decrease by even one or two percent or when dehydration
occurs, certain specialized cells in the center of hypothalamus send messages to
correct the situation. The chemically signal the pituitary gland, which is located just
below the hypothalamic drink center, to secrete Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) into the
bloodstream. When ADG reaches the kidneys, it causes them to conserve water in the
body by reabsorbing it from the urine. Simultaneously, a message of thirst is sent to the
cerebral cortex which initiates a searching for drinking liquids.
Sexual Motivation
The impulse to gratify sexual needs is also known as sex drive.
sexual motivation is one of the most important aspects of humanity.
this drive had a genetic basis as part of the species need to continue itself.
Drive reduction
A drive is a deficiency or need that activates behavior that is aimed at a goal or
an incentive.
Basic drives could be sparked by deficiencies such as hunger.
holds the view that motives are based on the bodys need to restore homeostasis
when its biological needs are unmet.

Motivation and Emotion

Psychological Motives
Psychological motives are not directly related to the biological survival of the
individual. They are needs in the sense that individuals happiness are well-being
depend on these motives. Some psychological motives are innate, while others seem to
be entirely learned. Though psychological needs are as powerful as physiological
needs, often they are more subtle and less easily identified such as needs for approval,
affection, achievement, power, prestige and so on.
Stimulus Motivation
Most people get bored easily if there is a little overall stimulation or if stimulation
is unchanging.
People and other animal have an apparently inborn motive to seek stimulation.
Functional Autonomy
Personality theorist, Gordon Allport, has proposed a Theory of Motivation called
Functional Autonomy.
His theory tells us the many human motives that arise when a means to an end
becomes an end itself.
Achievement Motivation (n-ach)
The n-ach person is 'achievement motivated' and therefore seeks achievement,
attainment of realistic but challenging goals, and advancement in school, sports,
job, and other competitive situations
Fear of Failure
People display fear of failure when they choose easy task offering assured
success or impossible task with no chance of success.
People motivated by fear of failure often find excuses to explain their poor
performances. They do this to maintain a good self-image.
Fear of Success
In 1970, Matina Horner conducted a research about what would men and
women would like to happen if they find someone in top of a medical
Horner discovered that bright women, who had a very real chance of
achieving in their chosen fields, exhibited a stronger fear of success than
did women who were average or slightly above average. Expecting
success made them more likely to avoid it, despite the obvious
advantages of a rewarding career.

Motivation and Emotion

Affiliation Motivation (n-affil)
The n-affil person is 'affiliation motivated', and has a need for friendly
relationships and is motivated towards interaction with other people.
It can be said that the people who have a motivation for affiliation need to be with
other people and to have a personal relationships.
Authority/Power Motivation (n-pow)
The n-pow person is 'authority motivated.
This driver produces a need to be influential, effective and to make an impact.
There is a strong need to lead and for their ideas to prevail.
Personal n-pow
Those who need personal power want to direct others, and this need often is
perceived as undesirable. They dont have to be effective or further the objectives
of their employer. They only want to dominate others just for the sake of
influencing and controlling
Insititutional n-pow
Persons who need institutional power (also known as social power) want to
organize the efforts of others to further the goals of the organization.

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

Love and
Safety and security

Motivation and Emotion

Emotions give life its feeling and meaning. They enrich life.
Without emotions, things would be quite a routine and dull
Emotion is a state involving pattern of facial and bodily changes, cognitive
appraisals, subjective feelings, and tendencies toward action.

Four Elements of Emotions

A stimulus situation that provokes the reaction.
Positively or negatively toned conscious experience that is felt.
A bodily state of physiological arousal produced by the autonomic nervous
system and endocrine glands.
A relative behavior that generally accompanies emotions.
Motivation and emotion are closely related concepts for three reasons:
The arousal of emotions activates behaviour as motives do.
Motives are accompanied by emotions.
Emotions typically have motivational properties of their own.

Theories of Emotions
James-Lange Theory
William James believed that the emotional stimulus is routed (by the sensory
relay center known as the thalamus) directly to the hypothalamus, which produces the
bodily reaction (fear or emotion)
This theory proposes that conscious emotional experiences are caused by the
feedback to the cerebral cortex from physiological reactions and behavior.
Theories of Emotion
states that the conscious emotional experiences and physiological reaction and
behavior are relatively independent events.
Theories of Emotion

Motivation and Emotion

According to this theory, there are two steps in the process of cognitive interpretation in
1. The interpretation of stimuli from the environment.
2. The interpretation of stimuli from the body resulting from autonomic arousal.
Information from the stimulus travels first to the cerebral cortex where it is both
interpreted and experience then a message is sent down to the autonomic nervous
system that results in physiological arousal.