You are on page 1of 120

Distribution Systems

Chapter 20

of the seriousness of a bus fault in such a large substation


it is sometimes desirable to use some type of double-bus
substation. One such station is shown in Fig. 15. This
station is similar in layout and operation to the substation
of Fig. 13(e), exeept for the double-bus feature.
Normally the station is operated with all double-throw
disconnecting 'Switches or selector switches in the positions

MAIN

AUX

Ff~.

15-Distribution substation with high- and low-voltage

double bus to permit isolating bus faults.

shown, so that all circuits and transformers are connected


tu the two main buses. Differential relays associated with
the breakers in the subtransmission circuits at the substation and the high-voltage transformBr hreakers trip all of
these breakers when a high-voltage main-bus fault occurs
thus dropping the entire station load. Service can be restored quickly to all loads, however, by closing all highvoltage selector switches to their auxiliary-bus positions
and then rcclosing the high-voltage transformer and supply-circuit breakers. This leaves the station with all
breakers in service and complete protection while the defective bus is being repaired. Similarly a fault on the lowvoltage main bus is cleared by its differential relays tripping all low-voltage transformer breakers and primaryfeeder breakers. The primary-feeder breakers need not be
opened if there is no possibility of a baek feed over any
primary feeder. However, they are usually tripped as a
matter of safeLy. Sueh a bus fault completely interrupts
service to the substation load, but this load can be picked
up in a short time by closing all low-voltage :;;elector
switches to their auxiliary-bus positions and rcclosing the
low-voltage transformer breakers and the primary-feeder
Lreakers. A normallv closed bus-tic breaker can be used
between the two low:voltage buses with half the primary
feeders ordinarily connf>cted to eneh bus. This reduces the
amount of load dropped when a low-voltage bus fault
occurs by about one half, but it complicates the low~
voltage bus relaying.
While bus regulation in the form of automatic tap~

677

changing-under-load on the substation transformer or


transformers is often satisfactory for small substations,
individnal feeder regulators are mmally required on some
or all of the primary feeders in the larger substations as
shown in Fig. 15. These regulators may replace automatic
tap-changing-under-load on the substation transformers.
At times, however, it is economical to use the individual
feeder regulators only on the feeders where needed to supplement bus regulation.
In a large distribution substation similar to that of Fig.
15, or a less elaborate large substation laid out similar to
one of the stations of Fig. 13, the short-circuit current
which the primary feeder breakers must interrupt becomes
w::ry large. Al;;:,o as the ~apacity of such a station increases,
the short circuit duty on the primary feeder breakers increases. As the station grows this duty ma.y exceed the
interrupting rating of the original feeder breakers. This
high short-circuit duty on the primary-feeder breakers
means relatively expensive feeder breakers.
A substation which provides substantially the same
quality of service and with much lower short-circuit duty
on the primary-feeder breakers is shown in Fig. 16. Also
the station capacity can be increased indefinitely without
increasing the maximum short-circuit current the primaryfeeder Lreaker~ must interrupt. The marked reduction in
short-cireuit duty on the primary-feeder breakers follows
because each transformer and primary feeder is operated
as a unit with all selector switches normally in the positions shown. Since the transformers are not paralleled on
their low-voltage sides the short-circuit current \vhich each
primary-feeder breaker can be called upon to interrupt is
limited by the impedance of its associated transformer.

Fig. 16~Distribution substation with high-voltage double bus


and low-voltage auxiliary bus and individual transformation
in each primary feeder resulting in relatively tow interrupting
duty on feeder breakers.

Eaeh transformer is relatively small because its capacity


is equal to that of its associated feeder, which will usually
be from JOOO to 2000 kva. To prevent a transformer fault
interrupting service to its associated feeder for a relatively
long time pending repairs or replacement an auxiliary lowvoltage bus is provided and arrangements arc made so that
any one primary feeder can be switched from its associated
tran~funner to the auxiliary bus. The auxiliary low-volt~

Chapter 20

Distribution Systems

678

age bus is energized through a spare Lram;f unner sho\Yn on


the right in Fig. lG. This transformer is ordinarily of the

same capacity as each of the feeder transfornwr~, becau:-;c


such a station is usually designed on the ba:3ls that only one

primary feeder is connected to the auxiliary low-voltage


bus at any one time. The saving in low-voltage breaker
cost may or may not be offset by the increased transformer
cost. The transf ormcr cost is inNeascd primarily bcc~w~e
the transformer capaeity is made up of a relatively large
number of small units. Also since the transformen:; are not
paralleled on their load sides advantage cannot be taken of
the diversity between primary feeders to r{'duce llw :sla.tiun
transformer capacity as is done in u. suGstation such as that
of Vig. 1;) This ttmdPney Lo require more transformer
capacity b usually more than oflset., hO\n~ver, by the much
smaller spare transformer capacity required. The relatively large number of tra.nsform('I'S required in sueh a
station often would result in excessive hi~h-voltag:e transformer breaker cost. FlH' this reason hig;h-voltagn fuses or
protective links as shown in Fig. I0 are ordinarily used
with each small transformer. Except. for this substitution
of fuses for breakers the high-voltage side of this station
is similar Lo Lhat of the station in Fig. 1;). Individual feeder regulation can be and usually is provided in a slution of
this type by means of automatic tap-changing-under-load
on each transformer.

The feature of unit operation of each primary feeder


'\Vith its O'\Yn relatively small transformer and one similar
spare transformer for all feeders can be applied to a sub-

station having only a single high-voltag0 bus sueh as the


station of Fig_ 13(c) ns \n~ll as to a. double high-voltage bus
~tat ion. Such a sull.station, unlike most large stations, is
very flexible in that its carxwity ean be increased economically in r<'lat ivdy small steps and thus kept close at all
timt'S to that rPqnireJ to ::;ern~ its load.
Primary Feeders--As has already been explained a
radial type of distribution system usually is not radial
from the bulk power sounc or sources to the low-voltage
buses of the distribution substations. The primary feeders
frorn the substation low-n>ltagc buses to the primaries of
the cli::;tribution transformers, hmn'VCJ' 1 arc in all cases
radial eitTuits, and the syst(:m is usually radia] from the
sulwtation low voltage buses to the consumC'rs' services.
The radial primary feeders are prin('ipally rcsponsiiJlc for
Uw lack of service continuity provided by most radial distribution systems. A fault on any one of the radial primnry--fpe(kr eireuits resnlts in an outage to many consumf'I'S.
\\'it h the radial type of distrilmtion system these
service interruptions cannot be pre\'f:nted. The amount of
lou.d dropped when certain primary-feeder faults occur can
be decreased, hmn:ver, and serviec often can be restored
prolnp11y to all or a part of the consumers aficcted.
A simple form of primary fN~d('r is sh(nvn in Fig. 17(a).
The main primary feeder branches into several subfeeders
whieh in turn divide into a number of primary laterals so
as to rea{'h all of the di~tribut.ion transformers in the area
served by the primary feeder. The main feeder and subfeeder~

arc ordinarily three-phase three- or four-wire cir-

-,---~----DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION-----~--,.
LOW VOLTAGE BUS

1----------

PRIMARY FEEDER -------~-1

(a)

(b)
Fig. 17--Simple form of radial primary feeder.

(a) Without subfeeder fuses.

(b) \Yith subfccder fw>cs to redu('e the number of


consumers affected by subfecdcr faults.

Chapter 20

Distribution Systerns

cuits and the primary laterals can be either three-phase or


single-phase circuits. Most primary laterals arc usually
single-phase circuits. The distribution transformers are
connected to the various parts of the primary feeder
through primary fuses or fused cutouts. These transformers are both three-phase banks and single-phase; however,
the great majority of them are ordinarily single-phase.
\Vhen a fault occurs any\vhere on the primary feeder
of Fig. 17 (a) the primary-feeder breaker at the substation
trips and decnergizes all loads conm>cted to the feeder.
Where the feeder is of overhead open-wirc construction
the fault may be temporary, such as an insulator flashover
or an arc bet-..vcen conductors which clears itself when the
primary-feeder breaker trips. In such cases when the
feeder breaker is reclosed it remains closed. To restore
service quiekly when primary-feeder breakers trip on
temporary faults these breakers, on overhead open-wire
feeders, are usually equipped with automatic reclosing
relays. The reclosing relaying ordinarily provides for two
or three reclosures at intervals of several seconds. If the
fault has not cleared itself after the second or third reclosure it is in nearly all cases of a permanent nature and
the breaker trips a third or fourth time and is locked open.
Most temporary faults will clear themselves upon the first
opening of the primary-feeder breaker, and to restore
service as quickly as possible in these case~:> the fin;t reclosure is often made without any time delay. Experience
indieates that in many cases 80 per cent or more of the
faults on open-wire primary feeders are temporary. This
means in the majority of cases serviee can be quickly
restored when faults occur on such feeders by making the
primary-feeder breakers automatic reclosing. If the fault
on the primary feeder of Fig. 17 (a) is permanent, all of
the feeder load is without Rervice until the fanlt can be
located and repairs made. On an overhead open-wire circuit that does not cover too large an area and contain too
many miles of cireuit the fault can usually be located and
repaired in a few hours.
If the conductors of the primary feeder of Fig. 17 (a)
are cables most faults on the fee,der will be permanent.
Because of this an automatic-reclosing feeder breaker is
rarely used on a cable feeder. The likelihood of faults on
such a feeder are much less than on an overhead openwire feeder; however, the time required to locate and
repair a cable-feeder fault will be much greater. This
means there will be fewer outages on such a feeder than
on an open-wire feeder but all customers will be without
service for a much longer time when a fault occurs. It
will often require a half day or more to locate and repair
such a fault. To reduce the number of consumers affected
by many of these long service interruptions the primary
fBeder and its branches or subfeeders are often fused as
shown in Fig;. 17 (b). When a fault occurs on a primary
lateral or subfeeder the associated subfeeder fuse blows
and disconneets the faulty section from the remainder of
the primary feeder. This confines the outage to only a
portion of the feeder load and may decrea~e the duration
of the outage some\vhat because less time may be required
to locate the fault.
In applying feeder and branch or subfeeder fuses care
must be taken that they are properly coordinated with

679

the vrimary-feeder breaker, the distribution transformer


fuscs 1 and with each other so that the first fuse on the
supply side of tJw fault and only that fuse will h1ow. This
means that on any current flowing to a fault the fuse
adjacent to the fault must blow before any other fuse that
carries the fault current will be damaged. For any possible
value of fault current all fuses must have a blowing time
less than the tripping time of the primary-feeder breaker.
Where the percentage of permanent faults is ln.rge, as in
the ease of cable feeders, seetionalizing the feeder -..vith
fuses will improve the quality of serviee rendered. On
feeders \vhere most faults are temporary and -..vhere automatic-reclosing breakers are used, such as overhead op(~n~
wirf' feeders, the use of feeder-sectionalizing fuses is questionable. This is because many fuse blowings will occur
on temporary faults and cause an outage to a portion of
the feeder load until a complaint is received and the fuse
can be replaced. If sectionalizlng fuses are not used the
entire feeder load will be dropped on these temporary
faults, but service -..vill be restored to all loads in a few
seconds by the reclosing of the feeder breaker.
The objection to fusing these overhead feeders can be
overeome, at least to a considerable extent, by using twoor three-shot repeater fuses. \Vhen repeater fuses are used
they must be closely supervised, otherwise they may be
left in operation wiLh only one fuse unLlown. Then when
another temporary fault occurs in the section an outage
to t.lw load fed from that section -..vill occur until the fuse
is replaced just as when using single fuses.
Perhaps a better method of overcoming the difficulty
of having sectionalizing fuses blow on temporary faults is
to use single fuses and relay the primary-feeder breaker
so that it trips subRtantially instantly on all feeder faults.
Thus when a fault occurs anywhere on the feeder the
feeder breaker trips before any sectionalizing fuse has time
to blow. This first tripping of the breaker modifies its
relay cont.rol so that its second and subsequent trippings
take place in the usual wa.y only after some time delay.
When the breaker rccloses the first time it remains closed
if the fau]t has cleared itself, and if not, fault current flows
long enough to blow the fuse adjacent to the fault on the
supply side. Thus no fuse blowings occur on most temporary faults because they clear themselves on the first
deenergization of the feeder.
Permanent faults and the few temporary faults that do
not clear themselves when the feeder is deenergized the
first time arc cleared by the sectionalizing fuses, and service can be restored to the affected section or sections of
the feeder only after repairs, if any, are made and the fuses
are replaced. This entire discussion of primary feeder
t:Seetionali:6ing hat:S been ou the ha:sis of Ul")ing :sediunalizing
fuses. Fuses are the most generally used sectionalizing
devices because of their relatively low cost. At t.imef:l:,
however 1 circuit breakers, usual1y reclosing breakers, are
used for this purpose.
The enectiveness of sectionalizing fuses in reducing the
extent of the outage when a primary-feeder fault of a
permanent nature occurs depends upon the location of
the fault. The fault may be so located that two or more
sections of the feeder or the entire feeder will he deenergized until the fault is located and repairs are made.

680

Distribution Systerns

To restore service quickly to unfaultcd sections of a feeder,


which are deenergized along with the faulty section 1 provisions are sometimes made to permit temporarily switching such sections over to an adjacent primary feeder or
feeders. One method of doing this is shown in Fig. 18.
Scctiunalizing :switche:::; are used in conjunction with the
sectionalizing fuses shown in Fig. 17 (b), or the fuses can
be omitted as in Fig. 17 (a) and only the switches used at
the feeder sectionalizing points. By the use of these sectionalizing switches and the four tie switches shown all of
the good sections of the central primary feed can be supplied over the two adjacent feeders, and the faulty section
of the central feeder can be eomplett.-:ly isolated for repairs.
The sectionalizing and tie switches can be of the disconnecting type. If they are care should be taken not to
interrupt load current with them. \Vhen the feeder, or a
portion of it, is deenergized as the result of a fault the
faulty section is first determined. The deenergized sec.
tions are then disconnected from each other by opening
their associated sectionalizing switches. The good sections
are reenergized from the adjacent feeders by closing the
tie ~:nvitch~:s. AHer the faulL is repaired the faulty section
is reenergized by closing the feeder breaker or replacing
the lJlown. furse and closing iL:s a:s:sociateU sectionalizing
switch, depending upon the location of the fault. Then
all open scctionalizing switches should be closed and the
tie switches opened after this is done. By following this
procedure no switches are required to open load current.
Howevm, the tie switches are required to open parallel
paths over which current flows.

Chapter 20

This procedure for switching loads between feeders has


the advantage of not interrupting service to the loads on
the good feeder sections when they are reconnected to
their normal feeder, At the time of reconnect ion, the
feeders between which the loads are being S\\'itched are
paralleled for a short time. This is usually not objectionable, however, should a fault occur on either feeder at the
time they are paralleled both feeders will be dcenergizcd
if sectionalizing fuses are not used, and a section of the
unfaulted feeder will probably be deenergized even if fuses
are used. If it is felt that this short-time paralleling of
feeders is objectionable the tie switches must be capable
of breaking load current.
To avoid paralleling the feeders when reconnecting good
feeder sections to their normal circuit their associated tie
switches must be opened and their loads deenergized before their sectionalizing switches are closed. Regardle:ss
of which switching procedure is used, it is safer to employ
load-break switches for both scctionalizing and tie switches
to eliminate the danger of opening a switch by mistake
when load current is flowing through it. If primary feeders
are arranged so that their loads can be switched from one
feeder to another under emergency conditions, sufficient
!o\par~ capa~it.y must he built into each feeder so that it
can carry any load which can be connected to it. When
a feeder is carrying all or a part of the load of a defective
feeder it is usually advisable for economic reason to allow
somewhat greater voltage drop over it than lli sati~factory
under normal operating conditions.
Many interrelated factors affect the choice of rating for

SECTIONALIZING SWITCH

Fig. 18-Simple form of radial primary feeder with tie and sectionalizing switches to provide for quick restoration of service
to consumers on unfaulted feeder sections.

Chapter 20

Distribution Systems

681

a primary feeder. Some of the more important factors are


the nature, density, and rate of growth of the load; the

factory voltage. Also at times of maximum load the voltage drop from this point on the primary feeder to the

necessity for providing spare capacity for emergency operation; the type and cost of the circuit cum;trudion which
must be used; the design and capacity of the associated
substation; the type of regulating equipment necessary;

consumers meter where the lowest voltage occurs must be


such that this luwesL voltage is not too low to be satis~

and the quality of service required. Some kinds of loads,


such as welJers and arc furnaces, may have to be segregated to a separate feeder or feeders to prevent their
adversely affecting other loads, The amount of such load
in the area and the voltage requirements at the load influence the rating of the feeder or feeders. The rate of load

growth and the provision for emergcney operation affect


the amount of spare capaeity a feeder should have. In
areas of heavy load density it will usually be cconomieal
to use larger capacity feeders than in the lighter loud
density areas. The feeders arc shorter, the circuits are
usually of expensive underground cable construction \Vith
low reactance per unit length, and the size and design of
the suLstation:s arc often such that higher interrupting
capacity and consequently more cxpcm;ivc feeder breakers
are required. The nature and density of the load together
\Vith the substation size also influcnec the type of regulating equipment selected. If individual fced(~r rcgula.tors are
necessary larger feeders arc usually chosen, for eeonomic
reasons, than when bus regulation is satisfactory. Relatively small suhstationB, usually found in medium and light
load density areas, are ordinarily aetompanied by smaller
feeders bceause of the lower cost of feeder breakers, the
absence of individual feeder regulators, and the lower cost
and higher reactance per unit length of circuit. The quality
of service, in addition to some of the other factors mentioned, will help determine the permissible feeder voltage
difference between the first and last tran:->formers on the
feeder, or between the first and last tram:;formers on the
group of feeders from a substation if bus regulation is used.
The amount of load that should be dependent on any one
primary feeder and interrupted when a fi~i~der fan it occurs
is influenced primarily by the necessary quality of service.

faetory. This total voltage drop should be divided among


the primary feNler, the distribution transformer, the secondary circuit, and service so as to obtain the lowest over-

all cost for these portions of the distribution system. The


permissible voltage drop on the primary feeder between
the first and last distribution transformers is usually about
2 per cent or le~s at the time of peak load. This figure will
of course be afft:cted somewhat by the type of primary
and secondary construction used and by the permissible
load voltage vanation. If the voltage at the first transformer on the primary feeder can be boosted by means of
over-compensation as the load on the feeder increases the
permissible volta.ge drop is increased somewhat. The
amount of overcompensation or boost in voltage permissible during maximum load without overvoltage at some
consumers during light loads depends upon the uniformity
of the loading of the distribution transformers. The more
uniform tht load on tiwse tmnsformms the more the overcompensation that ca.n safely be used. \Vhen a primary
feeder is loaded to the point whf~re the permissible voltage drop has been reached further load can he added, if
the current carrying capacity of the feeder has not been
reached, hy in,.,talling a voltage booster or another feeder

regulator in the feeder just on the supply side of the point


where the voltage drop becomes cxccsshe when the additional load is b(ing carried. The consideration of feeder
voltage drop \vhen t.he feeder is bUpplied from a Lm~ regulated substation is similar to that just described, except
that all primary feeders connected to the station bus must
be considered as a unit. The allowable voltage drop on

any feeder of the group is determined by the voltage difference between the high- and }o\v-voltagc points on the
group of feeders, where distribution transformers are connected1 which will just give satisfactory voltage at all
consumers at the time of peak load.

The various interrelated factors mentioned and others that

The trend in the power-factor of loads in residential

aiiect the proper rating for a primary feeder 1 can in general


be boiled down to two major factors, namely cost and
quality of service. Cost considerations most often dictate

areas has been downward for some years. This is largely


because of the intTca::;ing usc vf muLored appliances. The
lower pO\ver-faetor load.~ on the parts of distribution sys-

the use of a relatively large feeder, and a high quality of


service calls for a small feeder. After all factors have been
carefully wclghed to determine the economics and service
requirements lhe feeder capacity Hhould be made as small
as can be economically justified. Primary feeders ordinarily vary in rating from about 500 to 2500 kva with

most ranging between 750 and 1500 kva.


The permissible voltage drop in a primary feeder is an
important factor in its design. \Vhen a voltage regulator
is used on the feeder the voltage at the primary of the
distribution transformer nearest thP- suhs1 at ion low-voltage
bus is maintained constant within about plus or minus one
per cent, or if overcompensation is used this voltage is
increased somewhat as the ftuw of load current over the
feeder increases, In order to provide satisfactory voltage
conditions at all consumers the voltage maintained at the

above mentioned point must be such that at times of


minimum load no consumer receives a higher than satis-

tems serving these areas has aggravated the voltage regulation problem. Shunt capacitors are used frequently to
improve voltage conditions on distribution systems. This
improves the pmvcr-factor and thus reduces the voltage
drop::; and currents in the J'arts of a distribution system
bct\W~im thP- cnpacitorl'l and the hulk-power sources. To
get the maximum advantage from shunt capacitors they

should be connected to the system as ncar the loads as


possible. For economic reasons they are usually connected
to the primary feeders through primary fuses or fused
cutouts. \Vhethcr the capacitors arc connected to the

feeder proper or to its subfeeders or laterals depends upon


the load a.nd voltage conditions on the feeder. VVhen applying capacitors their ratings should be such that objectionable ovcrvulta.gc:s do nuL uccur 1 at light load periods,
because of the voltage rise produced by the capacitor
currents. To get the desired results from capacitors in
certain installations it is necessary to connect them to the

Distribution Systems

682

system through breakers and arrange to automatically


disconnect all or part of them at times of light load.
Series capacitors are also used on distribution feeders to
improve voltage conditions. However, they do not reduce
the currents in the system and thus permit a saving in

system capacity as do shunt capacitors. The usual application of series capacitors is in relatively high reactance
circuits, supplying fluctuating loads, to reduce abrupt voltage changes. The capacitors are selecLed so their capacitive reactance about cancels the inductive reactance of the
line. They are installed on the supply side of the location
where the improvement in voltage is desired.

Distribution Transformers, Secondaries, and


Service.-The distribution transformers step down from
the distribution or primary feeder voltage to the utilization
PRIMARY FEEDER
_r/..-FUSE D GUT OUT _ ;-~

T
~

r~

OR PRIMARY FUS~D!STRIBUTION

I I

\CONSUMER'S SERVICE

:1::
I 1\l I I I
TRANSFORMER

I I

SECONDARY CIRCUIT

Fig. 19-Typical method of connecting distribution trans-

formers between primary feeders and radial secondary circuits.

voltage. They are connected to the primary feeder, subfeeders, and laterals through primary fuses or fused cutouts as shown in Fig. 19. The primary fuse disconnects
its associated distribution transformer from the primary
feeder when a transformer fault or low-impedance secondary-clrcult fault occurs. ThP- blowing of the primary
fuse prevents an interruption of service to other loads
supplied over the feeder, but interrupts service to all consumers supplied through its transformer. Fused cutouts
shmvn in Fig. 19) which are normally closed, provide a
convenient means for disconnecting small distribution
transformers for inspection and maintenance.
Satisfactory overload protection of a distribution transformer cannot be obtained with a primary fuse, because
of the difference in the shape of ils current-Lime curve and
the shape of the safe current-time curve of a distribution
transformer. The shapes of the two curves are such that
if a small enough fuse is used to provide complete overload
protection for the transformer much valuable transformer
overload capacity is lost, because the fuse blows and prevents its being used. Such a small fuse also frequently
blows unnecessarily on surge currents. Beea.use of th iR a
primary fuse should be selected on the basis of providing
short-circuit protection only and its minimum blowing
current should usually exceed 200 per cent of the full load
current of its associated transformer.
Distribution transformers connected to overhead openwire feeders are often subjected to severe lightning disturbances. To minimize insulation breakdown and transformer failures from lightning, lightning arresters are ordinarily used. with these transformers. The protection of
distribution transformers from lightning is discussed in
Chapter 14.
The secondary leads of a distribution transformer are

Chapter 20

usually solidly connected to radial secondary circuits from


which the consumers services are tapped as shown in Fig.
19. Thits means that no protection is provided the transformer against overloads and high-impedance faults on its
secondary circuits. Relatively few distribution transformers are burned out by overloads. This is largely because distribution transformers are applied so that full
advantage is rarely taken of their overload capacity.
Another factor contributing to the small number of distribution transformer failures by overloads is the frequent
load checks often made and the corrective measures taken
before dangerous overloads occur. Probably high impedance faults on their secondary circuits cause more distribution transformer failures than do overloads. This is certainly true in localities where bad tree conditions exist.
Fuses in the secondary leads of distribution transformers
are little if any more effective in preventing transformer
burnouts than are primary fuses and for the same reasons.
The proper way to obtain satisfactory protection for a
distribution transformer against overloads and high-impedance faults is by means of a breaker in the secondary
leads of the transformer. The tripping curve of this
breaker must be properly coordinated with safe currenttime curve of the transformer. The primary fuse must be
coordinated with the ~econdary breaker so that the breaker
trips on any current that can pass through it before the
fuse is damaged. Faults on a consumer)s service connection
from the secondary circuit to the service S\\ritch are so rare
that the use of a secondary fuse, \vhere the service conneetion taps onto the secondary circuit, cannot be economically justified except in unusual cases such as large
services from underground secondaries.
As has been previously pointed out the allowable voltage
drop from the point where the first distribution transformer connects to the primary feeder to the serviee S\Vitch
of the last consumer supplied over Lhe feeder should be
cconomicn.lly divided among the primary feeder, the distribution transformer, the secondary circuit, and the consumer's service connection. Assuming a maximum voltage
variation of about 10 per cent at any consumer's service
switch the division of this drop among the various parts
of the system, at times of full load, may be about 2 per
cent in the primary feeder between the first and last transformers, 2.5 per cent in the distribution transformer, 3 per
cent in the secondary circuit, and 0.5 per cent in the consumer's service connection. The fact that the voltage at
the primary of the firtst distribution transformer cannot
ordinarily be maintained exactly accounts for the other
2 per cent. While these figures are typical for overhead
systems supplying residential loads, they can be expected
to differ considerably on underground systems where cable
circ~uits and large distribution transformers are w.;ed or
where industrial and commercial loads arc supplied. The
economic size of rlistrlhntion transformer and secondarycircuit combination for any uniform load density and type
of eonstruction at any particular market prices can readily
be determined once the total allowable voltage drop in
these t, wo parts of the system is determined. If the transformer is too large the secondary circuit cost and total
cost is excessive, and if the transformer is too small the
transformer cost and total cost is too large.

Chapter 20

683

Distribution Systems

\Vith the distribution transformers and secondary circuits arranged as shown in Fig. 19 any one load is supplied
through only one transformer and in only one direction
over the secondary circuit. Because of this a suddenly
applied load, such as the starting of a motor, on a consumer's service can eause objectionable light flicker on
other consumers' services f(,d from the same transformer.
The increasing use in residential arcus of motor-driven
appliances, such as washers, refrigerators, forced-air hefl..ting systems, and air-conditioning equipment, is resulting
in a considerable number of light-flicker complaints. In
some areas light flicker and not voltage regulation may
be the determining factor in the size and arrangement of
transformers and secondary circuits. The banking of rlistribution transformers is usually the best and most economical means of improving or eliminating light flicker.
The term banking transformers means paralleling on the
secondary side a number of transformers all of which are
connected to the same primary circuit as sho\Yn in Fig. 21.
The SP-(~ondary circnlt arrangement in a banked trans-

former layout can take the form shown in Fig. 21, or it


may be a loop or grid similar to that used in a secondary
network system. Because of this similarity in secondary-

Fig. 20-Pole mounted, 5 kva, single phase, 60 cycle distribution transformer with single cover mounted hiJ;th-vuHage
bushing-Hi~ volta~e-7200

circuit arrangements a banked-transformer layout it5tsornetimcs incorrectly referred to as a secondary network system. Banked transfotmers, because they arc connected
to and supplied over a single radial-primary feeder, arc a
form of radial distribution system; whereas a secondary
network loop or grid is supplied over two or more primary
feeder:s which reKulls in much greaLer :::;ervice reliability.
Banking of distribution transformers is not new and has
been used on a number of systems for many years. The

volts; low voltal!e-120/240 volts.

PRIMARY

FEEDER

As in any other part of the distribution system, load


change or load growth must be considered and provided
for in the distribution transformers and secondary circuits.

Also, as with other parts of the distribution system the


distribution transformers and secondary circuits are not
installed to serve only the loads existing at the time of
their in8tallation but some future loads as well. It is not
economical to make too much allowance for growth, however. When a distribution transformer becomes dangcrou;;;ly overloaded it can be replaced by one of the next
lar~er :;ize if the current-carrying capacity of the secondary
circuit and the overall voltage regulation permit. If not,
anoth('r tran:sfonner of about the same size can -be installed
bet,veen the overloaded transformer and the one adjacent
to it. \Vhen this is done load is remow:d from the over-

loaded transformer by connecting a part of its secondary


circuit and associated load to the nmv transformer. This
also reduces the load on the secondary circuit of the overloaded transformer and improves the overall voltage regulation. If the load in the area is reasonably uniform transformers may have to be installed on both sides of the
overloaded transformer in a relatively short time to maintain satisfactory voltage conditions and prevent overloading a part of the secondary circuit. The same result
can be obtained, however, by installing one new transformer and moving the overloaded transformer so that
it feeds into the center of its shortened secondary circuit.

'\CONSUMER'S SERVtCE

SECONDARY CIRCUIT

(a)

IT I

1
I"[ l f!1

1
I !JI I TI

SECONDARY FUSE

(b)

Fig. 21-Typical methods of banking_ transformers supplied


by the same radial primary feeder.

convendon from the usual radial secondary circuit arrange-

ment of Fig. 19 to the banked-transformer arrangement


of Fig. 21 can usually be made simply and cheaply by
closing the gaps between the radial secondaries of a number
of Lhe tran::-;former:s associated with the same primary
feeder and installing the proper primary and secondary

fuses.

684

Distribution Systems

Two major forms of protection have been used when


banking distribution transformers. The arrangement
shown in Fig. 21 (a) is probably the oldest and most
common. The distribution transformers are connected to
their primary feeder through primary fuses or fused cutouts. These fuses should blow only on a fault in their
associated transformer. All transformers are connected to

the common secondary circuit through secondary fuses.


The purpose of these fuses is to disconnect a faulty transformer from the secondary cireuit. The gjze of the secondary fuse must be such that it will blow on a primary fault
between its transformer and the associated primary fuse.
Faults on the secondary circuit are normally expected to

burn themselves clear. To prevent frequent blov~~ing of


secondary fuses on secondary-circuit faults these fuses
should have relatively long blowing times on all fault currents. Their blowing times should not be so long, however,
as not to provide some degree of protection to their transformers against secondary faults that do not burn clear
or require an unusually long time to do so. As previously
st:1ted secondary fuses cannot be expedcd to protect transformers satisfactorily against overloads and high-impedance secondary faulLs. The use of a secondary breaker
having tho proper current-time characteristics is preferable
to secondary fuses wh(m lmuking lrawsfurmers as shown
in Fig. 21 (a) because greater protection is afforded the
transformer against overloads and high-inpedance faults.
The secondary fuses or breakers ghould open in less time
than the primary fuses on any possible current so as to
prevent the blowing of primary fuses on a secondary fault.
A transformer fault is cleared by the transformer's
primary and secondary fuses without any interruption
to service. lV1ost secondary faults will elear themselves
quickly, However, when a secondary fault hangs on for
a long time or fails to clear altog~::ther several or all of the
secondary fuses blow and some of the transformers may
be burned out. Experience indieaies that, where a careful
study of the fault currents to be expected is made and
the prjmary and secondary fuses are properly selected,
this method of banking operates with very lit tic trouble.
Occasionally a secondary-circuit fault f'anse~ the blmving
of all secondary fuses or the blowing of some secondary
fuses and the burning out of a few transformers. \Vhcn
this happens the extent of the service interruption is much
greater than when radial secondary circuits are used.
The hanking arrangement shmvn in Fig. 21 (b) is preferable to that just described because there is no danger of
a complete service interruption to the banked area by a
secondary fault. It should be remembered, however, in
considering either of Lhe:se arrangements that the possibility of a secondary fault is considerably less than that of
a primary fault and that secondary faults are ordinarBv
infrequent. In this second arrangement the distributio~
transformers arc connected to the primary feeder through
primary fuses just as in the first arrangement and for the
same reason. The transformers are connected solidly to
the secondary circuit and the secnnrlary circuit is scctionalized between transformers by secondary fuses. These
fuses are selected so that for any secondary-circuit fault
they will blow quicker than any primary fuse. When a
transformer fails it is cleared from the system by iLt5

Chapter 20

primary fuse and Lhe adjaccnL secondary fuses on each


side of it. 'Thus, unlike the previous arrangement, a trans~
former fault results in a service interruption to those consumers associated with the faulted transformer. A secondary-circuit fault is usually burned clear; however, if the
fault persists for an unusually long time it is elcarcd by
the secondary fuses next to the faulty section and the
primary fuse associated with the transformer connected
to the faulty section. The secondary fuses are usually
selected so that they operate even on a high~impedance
fault, but the primary fuses arc not for the reason previously discu::;sed iu conncd.iun \vitl1 the radial-secondary
circ1~its. Thus even when a high-impedance fault occurs
and hangs on, the secondary fuses adjacent to the faulty
section blow and prevent interrupting service on the good
secondary sections. The transformer associated with the
faulty section in this case, however. will be burned out.
In order to prevent this a secondary breaker whose currenttime curve is coordinated with the safe current-time curve of
the transformer ean be used in the secondary leads of the
transformer. \Vhen such a breaker is used the secondary
fuses must be selected so that their blowing times for all
faull curnmLsa.re less Llmu the tripving Limes of the breakers.
Normally tho two banking arrangements function alike.
They reduce or eEminate light flicker and improve vollage
regulation or permit reduction in the amount of transformer capacity necessary as compared with radial-secondary circuits. This improvement in voltage regulation or
rcdnction in transformer capacity is the result of tying
sevPral radial-secondary circuits together and thus taking
advantage of the diversity amonp; a number of groups of
consumers. A considerable increase in the use of banked
transformers can be expected in the future because these
advu.utage~ often can Le obtained at no increase iu co~t
or a saving over the usual radial secondary-circuit
arrangement.

2. The Loop System


The loop type of distribution system is used most
frequently to supply bulk loads 1 such as small industrial
plants and medium or large commercial buildings 1 \vhere
continuity of service is of considerable importance. The
subtransmission circuits of the loop system should be
parallel or loop circuits or a subtransmission grid as shown
iu J<'jg~. 5 and 0. These suLtransrni~~ion circuits ~huuld
supply a diRtribution substation or substations similar to
tho'e of Figs. 13, 15, or 16. The reason for this is that as
mu<'h or more reliability should be built into the system
from the low-voltage bus of the distribution substation
back to the bulk power source or sources as is provided
by the loop-primary feeders shown in Fig. 22. The use
in a loop 8ystcm of a radial-subtransmission circuit or
circuits and a distribution substation or substations, which
may not provide good service continuity, docs not give a
\veil coordinated system. This is because a fault on a
subtransmission circuit or in a distribution substation
transform(~!' results in an interruption of service to the
loads supplied over the more reliable loop-primary feeders.
The subtransmission circuits and distribution substations
are often common to both radial- and loop-type distribuLion ::;ystems.

Distribution Systems

Chapter 20

One of the most common forms of loop-primary feeder


for supplying bulk industrial and commercial loads is
shown in Fig. 22 (a)_ Each enD of the loop-primnry feerler

is connected to the distribution substation low-voltage bus


through a primary-feeder breaker. The feeder is run or
looped through its load area and small industrial or secondary substations are connected to the loop feedt:r m;ually
DISTRISUTION SUBSTATION
LOW VOLTAGE BUS

f~

DISTRIBUTION

TRANSFORMER

tl
L

..x._

..x._

(O)

(b)

Fig.22- Two frequently used forms of the loop primary feeder.


(a) Two sectionalizing breakers per secondary sub

station to isolate a faulted loop section without


interrupting service to any load.
(b) One sedionalizing breaker per secondary substa.w
tion for use where interrupting one load when a
loop section fault occurs can be tolerated.

through circuit breakers or fuses in the primary leads of


the substation transformers as shown. These transformers,
which step down from the distribution to the utilization
voltage, are ordinarily relatively large distribution transformers. Because these secondary substations are usually
considerably smaller than a distribution substation only
one three-phase or one bank of single-phase transformers
is used ordinarily as shown in Figs. 12 (a) and (b). In
these secondary substations the low-voltage feeders arc
operated at a utilization voltage of 600 volts or below and
they are commonly controlled by air circuit breakers.
These secondary feeders are usually radial circuits that
run directly Lo large motors, to power panels, and to
lighting panels or small lighting transformers.
The loop-primary feeder is scetionalizerl by a circuit
breaker on each side of the points where secondary substations are connected to it. The two primary-feeder
breakers and the sectionalizing breakers assoeiated with
the loop feeder arc ordinarily controlled by directionalovercurrent relays or by pilot-wire relays. Pilot-wire relaying is used where the number of secondary substations
connected to the loop is such that selective timing cannot
be obtained with directional-overcurrent relays.
With this loop primary feeder arrangement a fault on

685

any section of the loop is cleared by the circuit breakers


at the two ends of the faulty section and service is not
inh~rrupted to any secondary substation. As a fe(.dcr f:tnlt
can occur in one of the sections adjacent to the distribution
substation bus the entire feeder load may have to be fed
in one direetion over either end section of the feedPr until
repairs arc made. Suffieient tJparc capacity must be builL
into the loop feeder to permit operating with either end
section out of service \Vithout execssive voltage drop or
overheating of the feeder. A fault in a secondary substation transformer is cleared by the circuit breaker or fuse
in its primary leads and the loop feeder remains intact. If
no transformer primary breaker or fuse is used such a
transformer fault must be cleared by tripping the two
sectionalizing breakers adjacent to the faulty transformer.
In this case the loop is opened and must remain open until
the defeetive transformer is disconnected from the loop.
OIJviously a transformer fault in a single-transformer
secondary subJ:. ;tation results in an interruption of service
to all loads fed from the station. Such a fault is much
less likely than a primary-feeder fault. In some cases the
resulting Hervice interruption may be serious enough, however, to justify a more elaborate form of secondary substation, such as those shown in Figs. 13 (b) and (c). A
fault on one of the radial secondary feeders from a secondary substation is cleared by the tripping of the air circuit
breaker associated with the faulty feeder. This interrupts
service to those loads connected to that Ieeder until the
fault can be located and repain~d.
The investment in sectionalizing breakers and relaying
may make a loop system employing primary feeders similar
to that of Fig. 22 (a) more expensive than the necessary
quality of service justifies. lf an outage to a secondary
substation can be tolerated when a primary-feeder fault
occurs a loop-feeder arrangement can be used as shov.n
in Fig. 22 (h). Here only one sectionalizing breaker is used
with each secondary substation thus reducing the number
of these breakers to half of the number used in Fig. 22 (a).
The sectionalizing breakers are relayed as discussed in
connection with Fig. 22 (a). When a primary feeder fault
occurs the two breakers at the ends of the faulty section
open as in the previous arrangement. In this case, however, the secondary substation associated with the faulty
section is deenergized because its transformer is tied directly to the feeder section through a disconnecting switch,
a primary transformer breaker, or a fuse. Service to the
deenergized substation cannot be restored until the fault
has been located and repairs have been made.
There is one exception to the above. A fault in the left
feeder section just beyond the distribution substat-ion bus
does not interrupt service to any of Lhe secumlary substations. The sectionalizing breaker associated with this
line section and the adjacent secondary substation can be
omitted, and then this substation is deenergized at the
time of a fault in this section. Whether omitting this
breaker appreeiably reduces the continuity of service to
this first subetation connected to the loop, when going
from left to right, depends on whether its associated loop
section be,comes much longer than the other loop sections.
Except for primary-feeder faults this system functions
similar to the loop system previously described.

Distribution Systems

686

Sometimes a consumer connected to the loop requires


more reliable service than the arrangement of Fig. 22 (b)
provides. Service to this consumer can be improved in
several ways. Two sectionalizing breakers can be used,
one on eaeh side of the point where the secondary substation that serves him is connected to the loop, as shown
in Fig. 22 (a). Another way is to divide the transformer
capacity of the secondary substation serving this consumer

into two units, and connect one of these units or transformers to the loop feeder on each side of the single sectionalizing breaker. Each of t.he::;e transformers should
have sufficient capacity to supply the entire station load
and is usually connected to the loop feeder through a circuit breaker or fuse. The two transformers are ordinarily
bused on the secondary side through transformer-secondary breakers. When this arrangement is used a feeder
fault in either of the two loop sections immediately adjacent to the sectionalizing breaker results in the deenergization of one of the two transformers at the sub-station.
This is because the sectionalizing breaker at the station,
the sectionalizing breaker at the far end of the faulty
section, and the breaker in the secondary leads of the
transformer connected to the faulty section are tripped.
Wben this happens the secondary substation load is fed
over the good loop section which is adjacent to the open
sectionalizing breaker at the station, and its associated
transformer.

LOOP PRIMARY FEEDER

Chapter 20

A third way of improving service is to supply the consumer through a single--transformer substation arranged
so that it can be connected to either side of its associated
sectionalizing breaker by a double-throw switch or two
interlocked disconnecting switches. Service will then be
interrupted to the secondary substation when a fault
occurs in the loop section to which the station is normally
connected. The station loads can be quickly reenergized,
however, without waiting for repairs, by connecting the
substation to the good section of the loop on the other
side of the open sectionalizing breaker.
The above discussion of the loop system has been on
the basis of supplying relatively small bulk loads from
distribution substations over loop primary feeders. In
many cases, however, where the bulk loa:ds are relatively
large the loop is a subtrausmissiun loop supplied directly
from a bulk power source. In such systems the distribution
snhRtations and primary feeders are omitted and only one
voltage transformation is employed in going from subtransmission to utilization voltage. This transformation
is made at the secondary substations, which are usually
considerably larger and somewhat more elaborate than
those employed on 2400 to 4800 volt loop-primary feeders.
The arrangement of the subtransmission loop and its control and protection is in general similar to that discussed
in connection with the loop-primary feeders of Fig. 22.
Any form of loop system normally providel:l a two-way
DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION
LOW VOLTAGE BUS

DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER "7

Fig. 23-Common arrangement of loop primary feeder for supplying distributed loads.

Distribution Systems

Chapter 20

feed to the distribution transformers or secondary substations. In general, the service continuity and voltage

regulation provided is better than when using a radial


system. The amount by which the quality of service of
the loop system exceeds that provided by the radial system
depends upon the particular forms of the two systems
being compared. Ordinarily the loop system will be more
expensive than the radial system. Ah;o it is usually less
flexible than the radial system particularly in the forms
used in supplying bulk loads discussed above. This is
principally because two circuits must be run to each new

687

by opening the sectionalizing switch or switches asso-ciated with the faulty section and then reclosing one of
both of the tripped breakers depending upon the location
of the fault. Faults on the subfeeders and laterals are
cleared by their associated primary fuses. These fuse
operations do not interrupt service to any of the feeder
loads except those beyond the blown fuse on the subfeeder and laterals. AR in the case of the loop fe_.eders or
Fig. 22 this loop-primary feeder should be designed to
permit its carrying all loads that can be connected to it
when any section of the loop is out of service.

secondary substation location in order to connect the


station onto the loop. The addition of new substations on

a loop feeder also often results in relaying complications.


While the loop system has been discussed from the
standpoint of supplying bulk industrial and commercial
loads it is also u:;ed to supply distributed loads such as
residential loads. The chief reasons for supplying such
loads from a loop system rather than a radial system are
to improve voltage conditions, to equalize the load on and

take advantage of the diversity between what would otherwi:se be two radial primary feeders and to assist in the
restoration of service to the unfaulted portions of a
faulted feeder.
A common arrangement of a loop-primary feeder for
supplying distributed loads is shown in Fig. 23. The
similarity between this loop-feeder arrangement and the
radial-primary feeders of Fig. 18, where emergency Lies
are provide.d between adjacent feeders 1 is apparent.
Each end of the loop-primary feeder is connected to the
low-voltage bus of its distribution substation through
primary-fe.eder breakers. The main feeder is automatically sectionalized near its midpoint by a sectionalizing
breaker controlled by overcurrent relays. Manual sectionalizing switches are provided at other points in the
main feeder as shown in order to reduce the area that
must remain without service, until repairs are made,
wlten a fault occurs on the main feeder. Fuses are not
used in the main-feeder loop. The sectionalizing breaker
could be replaced with fuses at some sacrifice in the speed
of restoring service, but not more than one set of fuses
should be used in the loop because they will not operate
selectively for feeder faults in various locations. More
than one automatic sectionalizing Lreaker could be used
in the main loop with directional-overcurrent or pilotwire relaying, as was done in Fig. 22, to reduce the extent
of the outage when a main feeder fault occurs. The improvement in the quality of service obtained, however,
1s not ordinarily sufficient to justify the additional breakers and the more complicated relaying. The subfeeders
are provided with primary fuses or fused cutouts as in
the case of the radial-primary feeders previously discussed. When a fault occurs on the main feeder loop the
seetiona.lizing breaker opens quickly and splits the loop
feeder into two radial feeders. The primary-feeder breaker associated with the faulty half of the loop feeder then
opens and disconnects the fault from the system. This
results in an interruption of service to about half the
loads normaBy supplied over the loop-primary feeder.
Service can be quickly restored to all deenergized loads
except those connected to the faulty section of the feeder
1

REFERENCES
1. Overhead Systems Reference Book, National Electric Light Association, New York, 1927.
2. Underground Systems Reference Book, National Electric Light
Association, New York, 1931.
3. ElPtriwl Thslrilnthon Rng'ineen:ng (a book), by Howard P.
Seelye, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1930.
4. Electric Distribution Fundatnentals (a book), by Frank Sanford,
McGraw-Hill Bouk Company, Inc., New York, 1940.
f:i. Variable Elements in the Cost of Distrihut.ion of F.JP.ctrieal
Energy, by Norman H. Gibson, E.E.l. Bulletin, June 1933.
6. Fundamentals of Design and Electric Energy Delivery Systems,
by J. Allen Johnson and R. T. Henry, A.I.E.E. Transactions,
Vol. 53, 1934, pp. 1704~1711.
7. The Effects of Service Standards on System Design, by N. E.
Funk, E.E.I. Bulletin, July 1935.
8. Firm Ratings as a Guide to System Loading and Design, by
S. M. Dean, E.E.l. Bulletin, June 1936.
9. Trouble Analysis and Power System Economics, by W. B.
Elmer, E.E.l. Bulletin, October 1937.
10. Considerations Involved in Making System Investments for
Improved Service Reliability, S. M. Dean, E.E.I. Bulletin,
November 1938.
11. System Service and Economy, Electrical World, November 10,
1931.
12. Trends in Power Distribution, Electrical World, May 23, 1936.
13. Urban Distribution Symposium, Electrical West, May, 1939.
14. Progressive Distribution, by ~1erril De Merit, Electrical World,
April 27, 1935.
15. System Planning to Save Millions in Fixed Charges, Electric
Light and Power, November 1933.
16. Pertinent Facts in Primary Distribution Economics, by D. K.
Blake, Electrical World, April 22, 1933.
17. Save Money on Secondary Distribution, by D. K. Blake, Electrical World, September 23, 1933.
18. Can Distribution Cost Be Cut 40 Per Cent?, by Merril De
Merit, ~Electric Light and Power, April, 1935.
19. Distribution Service and Costs, by M. M. Koch, Electrical
World, March 16, 1935.
20. Cutting Dh;tribution Costs, by John S. Parsons, Electric Journal, March l 935.
21. Facts on Distribution Costs, by Howard P. Seelye, Electrical
World, June 20, 1936.
22. Practical Di:sLril.mtiun Economics, by H. 8. St. John, Electrical
World, September 7, 1940.
23. Secondary System Economy, by Howard P. Seelye, Electrical
World, Oc-tober 12, 1935.
24. Modernization of Power Distribution Systems, by IIow&rd P.
Seelye, A.I.E.E. Transactions, 1936, pp. 75-84.
25. Cost Reduction and Reliability Keynotes Two Decades of
Distribution Progress, by A. C. Monteith, Electrical South,
February 1041.

688

Distribution Systems

26. DiRtrihution Planning, by C. E. Arvidson.


Part !-Calculating Overhead Primaries, Electrical World,
October 7, 1939.
Part II-Residential Loads, Diversities, Electrical World, October 21, 1939.
Part III-Design of Radial Primaries, Electrical World, ::;' ovember 4, 1939.
Parl IV-Fixing Regulator Settings, Electrical World, November 18, 1939.

Part V-Transformcr-Secondary Design for Sc.rvice, Electrical


World, December 2, 1U39.
Part VI-checking Transformer and Secondary Conditions,

Electrical YVorld, Dect'mbtr lfi, 1939.


27. Light, Portable Substation Affords Continuous Service, by 1\.J.
.J. Wohlgemuth and W. W. Richardson, Electrical World,
November 4, 1939,

28. Immediate Automatic Reclosing of Circuit Breakers, hy W. M.


Emmons, Electric Journaf, March 1935.
29. Economic Design of Overhead Primaries, by Paul H. Jeynes,
E.E.I. Bullchn, l\fay, 1938.
30. The Gathering and Evaluation of Data for Improving; 4-Kv
Distribution System Operation, by Harold E. Deardorff,
E.Kl. Bulletin, July, HJ38.
31. A Review of Overhead Secondary Distribution, by W. P.
Holben, A.l.E.E. Transactions, 1937, pp. 114-122 and 189.
32. Banking Transformers Impruves Service, by ~L T. Crawford,
Electrical World, :\ovcmbcr 23, l93fi.
33. Light Flicker Reduced at Low Cost, by B. E. Ellsworth,
Electrical World, November 23, 1935.
34. Secondary Voltage Dips, by Paul II. Jeynes, Electric Journal,
June, 1936.
35. Banking Secondaries, by P. E. Benner, Electric Light and Powor,
April 1939.
36. Trends in Distribution Overeurrent Protection, by G. F. Lincks
and P. K Benner, A.l.E.E. Transactions, 1937, pp. 13&-,"i~.
37. Systematic Voltage Survey-Procedure and Application to Dis-tribution Design, by R. W. Burrell and W. E. Appleton,
A.I.E.E. TransactionB, Hl38, Vol. 57.
38. Voltage Drops in Radial Overhead Distribution Circuits, by
W. R. Bullard, E.E.l. Bulletin, November, 1940.
39. Voltage Drop in Distribution, by E. M. Adkins, Electrical
World, September 12, 1936.
40. Is Good Voltage Regulation Xccessary and Practical?, by L.A.
Buese and Frank A. Ayres, Electrical West, December, 1934.

Chapter 20

41. A Graphical Method of Calculating Voltage Drop, by V. W.


Palen, Electric Light and Power, January, 1938.
42. Primary Limits; Application of Feeder Voltage Regulators, by
R. 0. T.oomis, Electrical World, Kovembcr 2, 1940.
43. Regulation Beyond thP Distribution Substation, by P. E.
Benner, A.l.E'.E. Transactions, Ifl35, pp. 832-37.
44. Automatic Boos1ers on Distribution Circuits, by Leonard M.
Olmsted, A.l.E.E. Transactions, 1936, pp. 1083-96.
45. Applying Shunt Capacitors to Distribution Systems, by Sherwin 'Wright, Electric Journal, :\fay UJ37.
46. Capacitors InrreRse Distribution Capacity, by Sam H. Pollock,
Elertriwl 1-Vorld, September 24, 1938.
47. Basis for a Program of Capacitor Adrlit.ions on a Growing
Dist-ribution System, by V. G. Rettig, E.E'.l. Bulletin, August,
1H40.
48. Capa.ciLon;-De:sign, Application, Performance, !Jy M. C.
Miller, Electrc T,1:ghl and Power, Oet.ohflr, 19:18.
49. Current Control Broadens Capacitor Application, by A. D.
Caskey, Electric Light and Poux:r, February, lfl40.
50. Application Dala on Scrie:s Capacitors, by V. W. Palen, Electric
Light and Power, March, 1940.
51. Series Capacitors Perform as Voltage Regulators, by V. W,
Palen, Bleclric Light and Power, April, 1940.
52. HedoBing Breakers or Reclosing Fuscs-\Vhich?, by H. A. P.
Langstaff, Electrical World, 1-Jarch 22, 1941.
53. HNent Developments in Cable Fault Locating, by James A.
Vahey, E.E.I. Bulletin, l\-Iareh, 1939.
54. Economic Benefits of Scientific Line Clearing, by T. H. Haines
and E. }i'_ Robinson, Electrical World, January 14, 1933.
5.5. Tree Clearance for Overhead Electric Lincs~--Prcliminary SugJ!estions, by G-. D. Blair, E.Kl. }Julletin, August HJ4l.
56. Realigning Transformers wif,h Distribution, by W. A. Sumner
and J. B. Hodtum, Electrical TVorld, June 22, 1935.
57. Choosing Transformer Sizes for Distribution Circuits, by R.
Bader, ElectricallYorld, January Hi, Hq7,
58. Maximum Allowable Loading on Distribution Transformers, by
Howard P. Seelye and N. A. Pope, E.E.l. Bulletin, 1\139.
59. Loading Limits for Distribution Transformers, Erik N. Nelson
and J. Edwin Davies, Electrical World, October 19, 19-10.
60. Distribution Transformer Load Testing rviethods Vsed by the

Detroit Edison Company, by W. E. Groves, E.E.l. Bulletin,


February, 1939.
6L Field Testing of Distribution Transformers, by J. A. Tenbrook
and L. R. Gaty, E.E.I. Bulletin, February, H'J39.

CHAPTER 21

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY NETWORK DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS


Revised by:

Original Authors:
John S. Parsons and H. G. Barnett

John S. Parsons and H. G. Barnett

I. DEVELOPMENT OF THE A-C NETWORK


SYSTEMS
ARLY in the history of electric power distribution

systems the d-e network system became the best


method of serving load::; in heavy load densiLy
areas of cities where a high degree of reliability was required. In the d-e network system power was carried at
utilization voltage from several substations to points in
the load area where the pmver was introduced into an interconnected grid of mains in underground ducts. Individual
loads were supplied by services tapped off the mains. The
!:Several paths of supply 'to the grirl anrl the fact that there
were normally two or more paths in the grid to any service
prevented serviee interruptions except for complete failure
of power supply. As the load density and total load increased in d-e network areas the large amount of copper required, the cost of substation sites, and large, rotating conversion equipment made the cost of the d-<J network practically prohibitive. The noise of the conversion equipment
made it difficult to find satisfactory locations for substations.

1. The Secondary Network

The characteristics of the network system, particularly


reliability and the fact that the network took full advantage of diversity among loads, made that system preferable if it could be installed economically. The relative
compactness and the quietness of transformers suggested
the use of an a-c network system in which several highvoltage feeders would be carried into the load area to supply transformers feeding into an interconnected grid of
low-voltage conductors. By 1920 there was considerable
thought being given to such a system. Some experimental
installations using fuses for protecting a low-voltage a-~
network proved to be unsatisfactory because of the opcrating limitations of fuses and possibly because of the lack
of extremely careful design. This experience showed that
directional control of pov.-er flow was required to prevent a
fault in a transformer or primary feeder from interrupting
service from the system.
In 1922 the first automatic low-voltage a-c network"
was installed using equipment which was subsequently
improved by Weslinghowse Ueveloprnents 111 20, With lowvoltage a-c network transformers and network protectors
perfected, the a-c network system equalled the d-e network
system in reliability". This high degree of reliability plus
good voltage regulation, the convenience and comparatively low cost of alternating-current equipment, and the
flexibility of the network system for load growth made

the a-c low-voltage network the recognized ideal distribution system for highest quality of service2829 In heavyload areas the network usually was cheaper than any other
system that attempted to give a high degree of reliability.
In 1926 seven cities used the network and by 1949 the
number had grown to 196.

2. The Primary Network


The attractive characteristics of the automatic lowvoltage a-c network suggested the application of the network principle to the primary-feeders of a distribution
system. As early as 1926 consideration was given to a
primary network in which the distribution-system primary feeders would form interconnecting ties between
distribution substations, network relaying would be used
at the distribution-substation transformer breaker, and
selective operation of feeder breakers would provide correct
isolation of primary-feeder faults.
The development of an overcurrent relay with satisfaetory inverse-time characteristics and the choice of
relatively small substations facilitated the first economic
application of the primary network in the Pittsburgh area
in 19317.tO.tLlz. For areas of medium load density the primary network frequently was the most economical system,
particularly where overhead construction was used. Mter
the first installation in 1931 there was a gradual increase in
the number of primary network installations; in 1942twelve
utiliLies were operating primary networks and thirteen
others had installed unit substations with primary-network relaying so that primary-network operation could be
initiated simply by completing tie circuits between substations.

689

II. THE PRIMARY NETWORK SYSTEM


3. General Description
A typical arrangement of a primary network system is
shown in Fig. 1"'9 Basically a primary network is a system
of interconneeted primary feeders supplied by two or more
subtransmission circuits through several distribution substations or network units located at the intersection points
of the interconnected feeders. Usually there are radial
primary-feeder taps from the tie circuits between the
primary-network unit substations, and in many cases radiu.l primary feeders originate at the substation buses. Distrihntion transformers are connected to the tie circuits, to
the radial taps off the tie circuits, and to the radial primary
feeders out of the substations just as in a radial system.
Two or more subtransmission circuits are taken into the
primary-network area to supply the several primary-net-

691

Primary and Secondary Network Distribution Systems

Chapter 21

power is carried as close as is reasonably possible to the

transformer and the transformer breaker are fundamen-

loads at subtrausmis:slon voltage with consequent minimum loss and voltage drop in the primary feeders.

tally the same. In both forms the primary-feeder breakers


are controlled by overcurrent and reclosing relays. In the
arrangement shown in Fig. 1 a fault on a primary tie

The primary-network unit consists of the transformer to


reduce subtransmission voltage to primary-feeder voltage
and the necessary switchgear to protect service from the
network and to control the distribution feeders. The
transformer breaker is provided with network and overcurrent relaying so that it not only opens on reversed cur-

rents to faults in the associated transformer or in the subtransmission circuit supplying that transformer but also
serves as back up protection for the feeder breakers and
isolates intersecLion fault-s. Furthermore, the network
relaying functions to close the main breaker when the
transformer voltage is such that power flows into the primary feeders when the breaker is closed.

There are two general forms of the primary network de-

feeder is isolated by the breakers at the ends of the faulted


circuit. In the other form of the system, Fig. 2, a similar
fault is isolated by the transformer breaker at the end of
the faulted section of the tie circuit and the breakers in all
the tie feeders connected to the transformer whose breaker

opens. The chief advantage of the original form of the


primary network is that less load is interrupted by a tie
feeder fault than in the later form using mid-tie breakers.
In a case where four tle circult:s are connected tu each unit
a tie-circuit fault in the original form interrupts only half

as much load as does a similar fault in the other form.


However, the system using

mid~tie

breakers uses only half

as many tie breakers as does the original form.

pending on the location and number of breakers in the tie


circuits. The original form uses two breakers in each tie
circuit, one at each end as shown in Fig. 1. The other form

4. Operation of Network with Two Breakers Per Tie

uses one breaker, normally near the middle of each tie


circuit, as shown in Fig. 21s. In the two forms the network

ers in each tie circuit is described best by reference to Fig.


1. Under normal conditions all network units are in serv-

The operation of the primary network with two break-

~---

---~PRIMARY

UNIT

NETWORK

i
i

i~,...,....,..

PRIMARY SUB-FEEDER

L_

RADIAL PRIMARY
FEEDER

iRANSFORMER

BREAKER
~------~

}---I

L_______ _jI

L _______ _j

OISTRIBUTION
TRANSFORMER

I
j ..........,...._..

i
SUBTRANSMISSION CIRCUIT

iL ______
)
i
_j

l{i
SECOioARY MAINS

Fig. 2-Typical primary-network arrangement using one breaker at the middle of each tie feeder.

692

Prima.ry and Secondary Network Distribution Systems

icc and the load is divided among the various units. Under
fault conditions the faulted element of the system is isolated without interrupting service from the rest of the
network.
Supply-Line Faults arc isolated by the breaker at the
supply end of the subtransmission circuit and the transformer breakers in the network units connected to the
faulted circuit. For cxan1ple, the subtranrsmission-line
fault at A, Fig. 1, is isolated automatieally by opening the

circuit breaker at the supply end of the faulted circuit and


transformer breaker a. In an extensive network system
a subtransmission eircuit may supply several nct\\'ork units
and the transformer breakers in all these units opC'n to
isolate a fault on the supply circuit. The transformer
breaker a, I<'ig. 1, opens on reversed current through the
transformer from the net\n)rk to the supply circuit. If a
subsequent reclosurc of the supply-cireuit breaker reenergizes the subtransmis:Sion line, transformer breaker a
reeloscs because of the ovcrvoltage-rcclosing function of
the network relays, provided the voltage on the reenergized
snhtransmission line is correct with rpspect to the network
voltage. A network-transformer fault is isolated in the
same way as a subtransmission-line fault. The faulted
transformer can be disconnected from the subtransmission
circuit by mean:s of the ~witt.:h uu the high-voltage ::;ide of
the transformer, and the subtransmission line can be reenergized to supply other loads connected to it..
Tie-Feeder Faults-The operation of the network
system on tie-circuit faults is illustrated by fault B, Fig. 1,
which is isolated by breakers b and c opening on overcurrent. These breakers open before breakers in other
tie circuits, becaus~ of the broad~range, inverse-time
characteristics of the relays, even though the fault currents through other adjacent tic-circuit breakers exceed
the minimum currents required to close the respective
relay contacts. As long as there arc at least two tic circuits
or a tie cireuit and a transformer cireuit in addition to tlte
faulted circuit connected to the same bus, selective opf'ra~
tion of the breakers is a..')surcd because the breaker in the
faulted circuit carries the sum of the currents through the
other breakers.
As soon as fault B, Fig. 11 is isolated, automatic rec1osing of breakers b and c is initiated so that each breaker
recloKcs after its respective time delay. Assume that the
time delay before redosing is 15 seconds for breaker b and
30 seconds for breaker c. Then 15 seconds after breaker b
opens it recloses. If the fault has cleared, service is restored
tu loads on the tie feeder but if the fault has not cleared,
breaker b opens and loeks out. Thirty seconds after breaker c opens (approximately 15 seconds after breaker b recloscs), brcnkcr c recloses and either reestablishes service
from the tie circuit or locks out. If the fault clears before
tbe fin;t breaker rccloscs, the sceond breaker reelosing reestablishes normal uveration of the network system. However, if the fault clears hotween the first and second rec1osnres, service to all loads is reestablished bnt the tie
circuit is open at one end and it is not capable of tramJerring; load from one unit to the other. Normal operation of
the tic circuit is reestablished by manually reclosing the
breaker which clm.,cd fin.,t all(l lockeU out.
Intersection-Bus Faults, for example at C, Fig. 1,

Chapter 21

are isolated from the system by the overcurrent tripping


of aU tie-feeder breakers connected to the faulted bus,
breakers c, e, j, and g for fault C. The overcurrent relays
for breaker g not only trip and lock out that breaker but
also trip and lock out all the fCBder breakers connected to
the same bus. This prevents the tie-feeder breakers reclosing and reenergizing a bus fault and causing unncces:;ary damage to the t5Witchgear unit. The transformer
breaker operates just as it does for a bus fault when a
primary-feeder breaker fails to open and clear a feeder
fault. The time setting for the transformer breaker is
longer than that for the feeder-breaker relays so that the
transformer breaker can provide back up protection for
the feeder breakers and still give the feeder breakers ample
time to operate correctly. For example, if breaker d
should fail to open for a fault on its associated feeder the
overcurrent relays at breaker g would trip and lock out
breakers c, d, e, j, and g. Since the transformer has a longtime setting the breakers at either or both ends of the tie
circuits connected to a faulted bus may open before the
feeder breakers at the faulted bus are tripped and locked
out by the transformer breaker overcurrent relays. In the
example sho1vn in Fig. 1, fault C might cause breakers
b, h, and k to open before breakers c, e, and fare locked
oven; the rcl5ult would be that service from any or all tie
feeders b-e, h-e, and k-f would be interrupted momentarily.
However, breakers b, h 1 and k would reclose and reestablish
service to all the interrupted loads after a time delay of 15
or 30 seconds. Before these breakers reclose, the breakers
at the faulted bus arc locked out and the fault is isolated
from the system.

5. Operation of Network with One Breaker Per Tie


Supply-Line Faults-The operation of the primary
network in Fig. 2 is the same as that of the network in Fig.
1 for subtransmission and transformer faults.
Tie-Feeder Faults-The operation for a feeder fault
is different. For example, a tic-,fccder fault at D, Fig. 2,
causes feeder breakers, m, n, and p and transformPr breaker q to open on overcurrent and isolate the faulted circuit.
The mid-tie breakers remain open but after a predetermined time delay transformer breaker q goes through a
prearranged suct:e::;:;ion uf redosures until the Lreaker
locks out on a permanent fault. or until the fault clears and
reclosing the breaker reestablishes voltage on the primary
feeders in the faulted area. If reclosing the transformer
breaker establishes normal voltage on the feeders and the
voltage is sustained for the time delay for which the midtic breakers are set, tic breakers m, n, aml p rcclm~e and
the network continues to operate normally. A fault on a
radial primary feeder supplied from one of the network
units in Fig. 2 can be treated the same as a tic~feedcr fault,
or some sectionalizing device such as a breakfr or a fused
eutout can be used to isolate a faulted rudial feeder from
the network so that a permanent fault on the radial circuit does not interrupt service from the tie feeders.

6. Comparative Characteristics
The primary net1vork has several characteristics which,
in eomparison with other general types of distribution
systems, give the primary network definite advantages in

Primary and Secondary Network Distribution Systems

1
oi-----1-______j-+-------f-,----+-!---+--+--+-+--+-+-!-- t--f--

+- --jt -

- I --1--

70~~--~+-~,--~+--+-~--1--f---1---~+---t--+,

I --

12

1-

14

693

- ------

1---

I --

t --1-

--+ -j~--!

I'-+-r-----1

V.

-+-+--f-+11-,

1--

-+- -l -+--+ -+-+-

16

IB

20

22

24

26

YEARS

Fig. 3-Comparlson of the costs of radial and primary-network systems over a period of 25 years in a uniformly loaded sixteensquare-mile area where the load growth is ten percent per year and all subtransmission circuits, primary feeders, and secondaries are overhead. A: Total load in the area. B: Total accumulated installed cost of a radial distribution system with 4-kv
primary feeders supplied from large distribution substations. C: Total accumulated cost of a 4-kv primary network.

many cases. In general the primary network provides


better service and can be adapted more flexibly to changing loads than other systems in commbn use except the
low-voltage secondary network described later in this
chapter.
Better Service results from better voltage regulation
and fewer consumer outages. In many radial systems the
primary feeders originate at relatively large substations
and the average length of the feeders is greater than that
in the primary network where small unit substations are
distributed throughout the load area in accordance with
the load distribution. This results in less voltage drop in
the primary-network distribution feeders than occurs in
radial feeders supplied Ly a large distribution substation.
Essentially the same result is accomplished in a radial
system by locating small unit substations at the load centers where primary-network units are installed. The tie
circuits in the primary network, which generally are the
main distribution feeders, are supplied from both ends.
This usually will provide better voltage regulation in the
primary feeders under normal conditions than is provided
in the distributed radial system.
Consumer Outages are lower in the primary network
system than in a radial system because the most services
that will be interrupted by any fault in a primary network

are those on any one primary feeder. Even if many small


unit substations are used in a distributed radial system
several feeders are served by each unit. If one of these
units is deenergized all the consumers served by the feeders
out of that unit suffer an outage. Dcencrgi:zing a primarynet-work unit does not ~a.use an outage for any r.ommmer.
To accomplish the same minimum consumer outage in
the distributed radial system duplicate transformers and
subtransmission supply circuits must be provided at each
radial unit substation; this requires more transformer
~apacity, more miles of subtransmission lines, and usually
more complicated relaying than does the primary network.
Losses in the primary network system generally are
lower than those in radial systems for the same reasons
that the inherent voltage regulation of the system is good.
One of the two major reasons is that power is carried as
near to the loads as practicable by high-voltage low-current subtransmission circuits instead of by long lowervoltage higher-current primary feeders. The other reason
itS that the load along each tie feeder automatically divides
between the two ends of the feeder so that minimum losses
are maintained.
Flexibility-One important feature of the primary-network system is that it utilizes small unit substations each
located at or near the center of the load it serves. This and

694

Primary and Secondary Network Distrilmtion Systems

the inter:connected system of primary feeders makes it


possible to remove or add small increments of transformer
capacity at various places in the network area without
having to make extensive reconnections of the primary
feeders or to reroute large sections of circuits. In other
words the network system is flexible in that it can readily
accommodate load growth or load shifting with minimum
disturbance to the system.
The flexibility of the primary network is a decided advantage in the long-time over-all economy of a distribution
system, particularly where the total load changes with
time or where load shifts from one section to another.
Load growth or shifts can be accommodated by the pri~
mary network with a minimum of rerouting and reconnecting primary feeders and with relatively small increments
of substation capacity. For this reason the system investment can be kept more nearly proportional to the luaU
served than in the case of other systems where substation
capacity has to be changed in large increments or major
rerouting and reconnecting must be done to avoid overloading or underloading radial substations. The effect
of this on the system investment is shown in Fig. 3. The
primary network is characterizt.-d by regular small increments of investment while the radial system occasionally
requires large additions to the system.
Large Number of Substations-The primary network requires many relatively small substations in comparison with a radial system supplied by a large substation
at the load center of a large load area. A large number of
substation sites and structureR must be provided for the
primary network. However, each of these sites usually is
cheaper than that for a large radial station. Smaller sites
are required by the relatively small primary network units.
Furthermore, in most cases several small substation sites
can be found scattered throughout a load area more readily
than can a single large one near the load center of the whole
area because the load center usually is in the most highly
developed section of the area. On the basis of real-estate
requirements the primary network is comparable with the
radial system using small unit substations distributed
throughout the load area.

Large Amount of Subtransmission RequiredThe primary network requires more subtransmission line
to supply the small substations distributed throughout the
load area than a radial sy:stem using large substations. The
amount of subtransmission circuit required depends on
the amount of interlacing of the supply circuits in the
network area. The minimum of subtransmission line is
required by parallel subtransmission, that is when each
supply circuit is taken straight through the network area
and connected to all the substations along that line. More
uniform load distribution when a subtransmission circuit
is out of operation can be accomplished by interlacing the
supply circuits so that each deenergized unit is surrounded
as completely as possible by units in operation. This
requires more subtransmission line than does the arrangement using supply lines going straight through the network area. However, the saving in spare transformer
capacity to provide for emergency operation usually more
than pays for the additional subtransmission circuit. See
section 13.

Chapter 21

If the primary network with well interlaced subtransmission circuits is ~ompan~d with a radial system using
small unit substations distributed throughout the load
area each of which is supplied by only one subtransmission
circuit the network requires more subtransmis....:;ion line.
The additional line is primarily due to the interlacing.
Interlacing accomplishes no useful purpose in the radial
system. However, if duplicate supply circuits to each
radial unit substation are used to reduce the number of
consumer outages the radial system may require more subtransmission circuit than a primary network.
Primary Feeders About Equal-The primary network uses about the same amount of primary feeder circuits as does a distributed radial system. The main trunk
feeders usually are about the same in a given area for
either system, But in the primary network additional
1:5hort sections of primary circuit may be required to make
the tie circuits continuous between substations. Also in
the network the tie circuits must have the same size copper throughout their length while radial primary feeders
sometimes are graded down to smaller size copper as the
load decreases along the circuit. However, the vrimaryfeedcr circuit required by the network may be no greater
than that required by thfi radial system if it is necessary
in the radial system to extend feeders from one substation
area into another area to equalize the loading on the radial
substation units or if normally open ties are provided so
that the load in one radial-substation area can be picked
up by other substations when that unit is out of service.
See Chapter 20, Fig. 18.

7. Economic Field
It is impossible to say that the primary network is
economically applicable in any specific range of load density because many factors affect the relative overall costs
of the various systems that may be considered adequate
in specific cases. The voltage class, type of construction
used for the subtransmission and primary-feeder circuits,
the load density, the anticipated rate of load growth, the
required quality of service, real-estate cost, type of substation required, and local labor and material costs affect
the eoonomic comparison of systems in any particular
case. The choice of the type of distribution system to
supply any load area should be based on the overall cost
of distributing power in the area; the cost should include
installed coRt of equipment and circuits, cost of the losses,
and the cost of accommodating load changes over a reasonable number of years.
While no conclusive generalizations can be made regarding the economic field of application of the primary
network some specific comparisons 13 show where the primary-network system is likely to be the economical one.
The comparisons shown in Fig. 4 show the relative cost of
five types of system for four types of circuit construction
in a sixteen-square-mile area where the uniformly distributed load is assumed to grow at the rate of ten percent
per year. ThP- four sets of curves, Fig. 4 (a, b, c, and d),
show that for medium load densities in the range from 500
to 5000 kva per square mile the primary-network is likely
to be economical, particularly if the system is to be pre~
dominantly of overhead construction. If all the subtrans-

360

1\

l\

340

320
300

I~

240

\D

260

\ ~

220

c, 1\E

I~ 1\E

280

1\

........
A2

180
16 0

i\:1--

"'

f\.

'~ ~ !'-.."\

200

~ ~ R--... AI
!'"- ~ t--

s.. 120
:s 100

\'-.. \ 1\
~

\~

!\~; ~ ~

...........

!'F-:-' ....." ~
r-ro--. 1'- !:::... t- t--

"

r---r--

AI

~,

--.....

140

r- t::-= ~ r::.::

(a)

~ 80
"

1000

a:

"'
360
Q.

..

l:l 340
::l 320

2000

(b)

3000

4000

5000

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

8 L\

-l

J\

300

\ 1\E
\
ll
!'\ ~ _i

280
260
240
220

'

1\

l{_l

20 0

'

~E'\

1\\ ~

1\.

~' ~ t0

18 0
16 0

..

' K ::--- ~ :....


'0'-- ~

14 0

12 0

\ ~~

1\~ ~

--

=s
r--- r-:- t:::::-

o"- ~ ~ t::--.

~~

100
80

AI

(C)
0

1000

2000

3000

(d)
4000

5000

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

LOAD DENSITY-KVA PER SQUARE MILE


FlJa. 4-Relative cost of several types of distribution systems for vat'lous load densities ln a eixteen~square mile area where the unl~
formly distributed load grows ten percent per year. (a) Subtransml86lon circuits underground; all other circuits overhead openwire.

(b) Main subtransmission circuits underground; branch subtransmlssion aerial cable; 4 kv primary feeders and secondaries

overhead open~wire. (c) Subtransmission circuits aerial cable; all other circuits overhead open~wtre. (d) All circuits overhead open~
wire. AI: Radial system with 4-kv radial primary feeders with individual voltage regulators supplled by a 12 000-kva distribution sub~
station. Al: Same as At except for 24 OOO~kva substation. B: Radial system with bus-ref!ulated distribution substation and 4-kv
primary feeders. C: Radial system with 13.2-kv subtransm.lssion circuits supplying dlstrlbutton transformers. D: Primary network
with 4-kv primary feeders. Offset in curve at 1500 kva per square mile is due to increasing interruptina capacity of primary-feeder
breaker8. E: Overhead secondary network.

696

Primary and Secondary Network Distribution Systems

Chapter 21

mission circuits are underground the relatively higher cost


of that part of the system penalizes the primary network
because more suhtransmitision circuit is required as compared to thP radial systems.

The cost of the network is consistently low throughout


the range of load density considered. Even in those narrow ranges of load density where the cost eurve of some
other type of system drops below the primary-network
curve the primary network is only slightly more expensive

than the other system, cxecpt for very lm\' loa.rl densities
when underground subtransmission is used. This is important in load areas where the load density is not uniform
Lhroughout the arc>a. The flexibility of the primary-net~
work system for accommodating load growth makes it
better for nommiform load density and irregular load
growth than any radial system, particularly one using
large centrally located substations. The use of large substations depends on accurate long-range load forecasting.
l\Iany large substations localed on the basis of long-time
load predictions are never fully loaded because the load
does not grow as rapidly or as much as anticipated. Bflcause the network system can be expanded in small increments long-time forecasting is not necessary and irregular
load growLh can be accommodated more economically by
the network system. Therefore, in many cases where the
primary-network system appenrR to be slightly more expensive than some other systems on the basis of uniform
load density and regular load growth the additional cost
uf the network is more than compensated by the flexibility
of the network system.
The curves of Fig. 4 are not conclusive evidence that the
primary network is the most economical system for medium load densities. However, the curves do indicate that
the primary network is likely to be economical in areas
where the overall load den:::;ity is between 500 and 5000 kva
per square mile.

8. The Primary-Network Unit


Basically the primary-network unit consists of a transformer tu step dmvn the voltage from the subtransmission
voltage to the primary-feeder voltage and circuit breakers to control the fP-eder cireuits and protect the system
from faults that mav occur in the various circuits. These
basic elements and~ their associated auxiliary equipment
usually are assembled into a self-contained unit substation
such as shown in Fig. 5. However when the primary network uses only one breaker ncar the middle of each tie
circuit the network unit is usually an a.;semhJy of the
transformer, the transformer breaker, and auxiliary equipment. The mid-tie feeder breakers are located along the
tie mrcuits usually in the form of switchhouses.
The Transformer-A three-phase oil-immersed selfcooled transformer generally is n:o;cd in a primary-network
unit. Frequently air-blast equipment is provided so that
occasional high overloads can be carried without exceeding
safe operating temperatures in the transformer. The additional load capacity with air blast oHen is used as the
spare capat".ity in the unit to take care of emergency loads
when a subtransmission circuit is out of operation. The
trend is toward air-blast cooling on all network units.
The primary-network transformer usually is provided

HIGH-VOLTAGE
DISCONNECT
SWITCH

\_5<

~.....-N~TWORK TRANSFORMER WITH


TAP-CHANGING-UNDER-LOAD

7LJ

TRANSFORMER
BREAKER

~I ~I ~I ~I

PRIMARY FEEDERS

(b)

Fig. 5- Typical primary network unit. (a) Unit substation


consistin~ of transformer with air-blast fans and tap-changing-under-load and throat-connected metal-enclosed switchgear. (b) Schematic diagram of a unit substation for operation
in a primary network.

with a manually-operated primary disconnecting switch


built into an oil-filled compartment on the transformer.
The switch generally is capable of interrupting exciting
current so that the transformer can be disconnected from
the subtransmission supply r:ircuit without deenergizing
the supply circuit. Either a two-position or a three-position switch can be used depending on whether it is desirable
to have a ground position in addition to closed and open
positions. The ground position is for grounding the incoming supply circuit. The three-position switch generally
is preferred.
A completely-self-protected transformer frequently is
used in a primary-network unit. Such a transformer in~
eludes high-voltage fusible protective links, integral lightning protection, and a thermal relay for tripping an associated transformer breaker. When these elements are
properly coordinated with the thermal characteristics and
insulation of the transformer it is completely protected
from damage from external causes. The completely-selfprotected power transformer is described in detail in
Chapter 16.
Voltage Regulation-Tap-changing-under-load
equipment is generally built into the transformer part of
the network unit so that the primary-feeder voltage of
the net\vork system can be maintained at the proper level.
The operation of this equipment is described in Chapter
5. A range of plus or minus ten percent usually is used
although in some cases a smaller range is adequate. The

Chapter 21

Primary and Secondary Network Distribution Systems

choice of regulation range should be based on the maximum probable variation of subtransmi:-:;sion voltage at the
network units and the voltage buck or boost to keep the
primary-feeder voltage within the required limits. Since
each primary-network unit normally serves a relatively
small area the feeders out of any one substation are about
the same length and have the same type of loaU. Under
such conditions bus-voltage regulation is adequate. Furthermore, feeder-voltage regulation in a network system
\Vould be complieated and expensive.
The operation of voltage-regulating equipment in a primary network invo1ves a problem that docs not occur in
the regulation of radial circuits. In the network system
the voltage-regulating equipments in the various network
units are operating essentially in parallel. When one regulator raises the voltage ahovc the general level of the nct\vork system undesirable circulating currents flow through
the network units and the tie feeders. If the control of the
regulators is compensated* in the normal way so that the
regulators hold higher voltage for peak load than for
minimum load the circulating current may be increased as
soon as it is established. The reason for this is that the
eireulating current appears to be a load current at the
regulator that establishes the higher voltage and appears
to be a reduction of load at regulators holding lower
voltage. The result may be that once the unstable operaLion of the regulating devices is initiated the regulator
holding the higher voltage tries to raise the voltage until
the regulator reaches the upper limit of its range and the
regulators holding low voltage try to lower the voltage
until those regulators reach the lower limit of their range.
The resulting circulating current may open several breakers and may completely interrupt the operation of the
syRtem.
The path of the circulating current is a closed loop extending from the power source through a subtransmission
line to the transformers supplied by that line, thence
through the primary net-work tie circuits, and back through
network units to another subtransmission circuit by which
it returns to the power source. The impedance of the loop
is predominantly reactance. Therefore the circulating current lags the system voltage by a much larger angle than
do luaU currents. This provides a simple means for preventing unstable operation of the regulating equipment in
the primary network. lnterconneet.ing the regulator controls in widely separated network units is not practicable.
However, by the simple expedient of reversing the reactance elements 11 of the 1ine-drop compensators in the control
systems of the network-unit voltage regulators stable
operation of the regulators can be enforced. This can be
explained briefly by stating that a highly reactive circulat23

*This compensalion is accomplished by means of a line-drop compensator. The


compensator eonsists of a vanable resistance clenwnt and a variable reactance clement. These clements are connected in series with the secondary winding of a current transformer in th., circuit through the voltage re~<.ulat.or. The rc~>ulting voltage
dro!> in the two clements are proportional to the line current of the tel!;nlilted rircuit.
The two vohl>P,e drops are introduced into th<: voltagE>-tn<:-asuring circuit of the regulator control in series with a voltage proportional to the sy;;tem voltage at the regu
lator. The rt>o>istance element produces a vnltnge <omponent 180 degr<>es from the
regulator current, and the reactance element. as normally connected, produces a voltag:e lagging the currtont by 90 degrees. These clements nrc variable and can be adll.!stcd so that the regulator holds not a constant Yolta,11;e ut the regulator but a voltage
h1gh enouRh to compensate for the rtsista!lce and reactance drops in a radial cin:uit
and thus to maintaill con,taut vo!taj.\:c at some predetermined point along the line.
This explanation of the line drop compensator is rigidly rorre<::t only for a feeder reguitH-or in a single line with load only at thecnd of the line. However, the line-drop compensator is used generally in all feeder arrangements to ~ompound the vo!ta!!_e regulation so that a higher voltage i'< maintained ~>.t. t"gh-lmtd than at light-load pel"iods.

697

ing current flowing through the network unit toward the


network causes the regulator to rednce the voltage at that
point because of the effect of the reactive current acting
through the reversed-reactance element of the line-drop
compensator. Conversely a reactive current from the
network through the nct,vork unit causes the regulator
to raise the voltage. As a result the voltage difference between the units that causes the circulating current is corrected and stable operation of the regulators is maintained.
The resistance element of the compensator can be used
to give a rising voltage characteristic at the primary network unit for increasing load currents. This generally requires somewhat higher settings for the resistance compensation than is necessary \\Tith normal reactance compensation. The most. practical method of adjusting the
compensator elements is to start with a fairly high reactance setting and a relatively low resistance setting and
then by trial arrive at the best combination of settings.
The reactance compensation can be reduced gradually
until the minimum setting is found where stable operation is positive. This can be determined by manually
moving the regulator away from the pu:;itiun curret:iponding to the desired system voltage. The regulator should
return to the desired position automatically instead of
continuing, in the direction of the manual displacement,
to the end of its range. The resistance can then be increased to give the necessary compounding. Small readjustment::-; in the reactance clement may be necessary after
thf'o rP-Ristanrn element is adjusted. These adjustments
should be made during light load because unstable operation is more likely at times of light load than at heavy
load.
If it is sufficient to maintain con:;tant voltage aL the intersection buses in the primary network, the line-drop
compensator docs not function. In other words it is adjusted for zero resistance and reactance compensation. In
such a case the regulators operate stably regardless of the
connection of the reactance element. In fact if the voltage
at some point on every tie circuit decreases as load increases on the adjacent network units the regulators
operate stably \Vith the reactance element not reversed.
The most economical rating of transformer usually will
be between 1000 and 3000 kva depending on circuit construction, load density, location of units (outdoors or
underground), and existing primary conductors. In order
to use large units it is necessary to have correspondingly
large primary-feeder circuits or to have a large number of
feeders out of each substation. The latter means that the
circuits are relatively long and that some of these cireuits
may hu.vc to be carried some distance from the station
before any load is served. The additional cost. of primary
feeders may more than offset the savings in the cost of
network unit and subtransmission circuit. The longterm total annual cost of large units is likely to be higher
than that of smaller units because large units make it
necessary to add capacity to the system in large increments. This is particularly important \Vhere the load is
not uniformly distributed in the load area or where load
growth is irregular. Both these conditions are more prevalent than uniform load density and a regular rate of
growth. Past experience indicates that a 1500 or 2000 kva

698

Primary and Secondary Network Distribution Systems

unit (1875 or 2500 kva with air blast) is usually most


economical. Large units may appear economical in areas
of heavy load density. However, in such areas the lowvolLage secondary network should be carefully considered
because it is probable that the secondary network is less
expensive and it provides better service than the primary
network.
Switchgear and Relaying-The two general arrangements of switchgear in a primary network are shown by
Figs. 1 and 2. In the type shown in Fig. 1 there arc two

breakers in each tie feeder, one at each end. The arrange~


ment in Fig. 2 uses one breaker in each tie feeder and this
breaker is usually located near the middle of the tie; however, it may be located at any point in the feeder. From
the standpoint of interrupting duty and of load affected
by a feeder fault the midpoint location is best.
The one-breaker primary network costs less because it
uses fewer breakers of lower interrupting capacity. Reclosures to reestablish service on faulted feeders do not
d.i~iurb loads on the remainder of the network. In the
two-breaker primary network feeder, faults drop less load
and there are fewer locations where equipment must be
maintained.
The switchgear for the two-breaker primary network is
shown schematically in Fig. 5(b). The transformer breaker is provided with reversed-power and overvoltage-reclosing (network) relaying. The network relay disconnects
the transformer from the network in the case of a transformer or sub transmission supply line fault and reconnects
the transformer to the network when such a fault has
been repaired and the relationship between the transformer
and the network voltages is correct. The transformer
breaker is also equipped with very-inverse-time overcurrent relays to isolate the transformer from bus faults and
to provide back-up protection for the feeder breakers.
This overcurrent relaying on the transformer breakers also
trips and locks out the tie-circuit breakers connected to
the same bus.
The network relay is inherently sensitive enough on
reverse current to trip the transformer breaker on transformer exciting current when the transformer is energized
from the low-voltage side. This makes it possible for the
network relay to i:;;o)ate single-line-to-ground faults on
subtransmission circuits supplying the network, when
using network transformers with their primaries connected
in delta. It also facilitates testing and maintaining the
supply circuit because it is not necessary to go to the primary-network units in order to deenergize the associated
subtransmission line. This is particularly convenient
when no radial loads are supplied by the same circuit that
supplies network units because then the subtransmission
circuit can be openeJ without interrupting any load. The
use of sensitive-reversed-current tripping is complicated
by the possibility of momentary reversals of power flow
through the network transformers when radial loads are
supplied by the same circuits that feed the network units.
This is particularly true if the radial load is characterized
by large abrupt fluctuations, as, for example, when large
industrial motors or furnaces are started. To prevent such
momentary reversals of power from opening the networktransformer breakers a desensitizing relay" can be used to

Chapter 21

delay the tripping of the breaker on reverse currents up to


about 150 percent of normal full load on the associated
transformer. Thus momentary reversals of power that
disappear before the time-delay interval is completed do
not open the transformer breaker, but if the reversal persists the breaker opens at the end of the time delay. A
delay of one to five minutes usually is long enough to take
care of momentary reversals. With this arrangement reversed fault currents, which generally exceed two or three
times normal rated current of the transformer, trip the
breaker and isolate the faulted element without intentional
time delay.
The feeder breakers are controlled by overcurrent relays and time-delay reclosing relays. The overcurrent relays should have broad-range, very-inverse-time characteristics to insure selective operation of the breakers in the
various tie circuits so that a primary-feeder fault causes
only the faulted circuit to be isolated. Current discrimination alone is inadequate for selective operation of tie-circuit breakers. If current-discriminating relays in aU the
tie feeders are set low enough to trip their respective breakers correctly on the minimum faults, the breakers in several tie feeders probably trip incorrectly on severe faults.
The minimum fault current in a faulted tie feeder generally
is lower than the maximum current in that feeder for a
fault in an adjacent feeder. Definite-time settings for the
overcurrent relays can be used to obtain satisfactory operation of the tie breakers if the settings are carefully selected
for the various breakers. This method' requires carefully
planning the relay settings and depends, for correct operation, on accurate settings and the proper geographical
sequence of the time delays in the tie feeders of the network. The broad-range, very-inverse-time relay scheme is
the most practical method of providing selective operation
of the feeder breakers because it permits uniformly low
minimum current settings throughout the network and
generally allows all the tie-feeder relays to be given the
same settings.
The feeder-breaker overcurrent relays are set faster than
the transformer-breaker relays so that any feeder fault is
cleared by the feeder breakers before the transformer
breaker can trip unless the feeder breaker that should isolate the faulted feeder fails to operate. If the feeder
breaker fails to open, the transformer breaker operates
and, in conjunction with the other feeder breakers connected to the same bus, isolates the faulted circuit.
Redusing of lhe primary-feeder bn~akers is used in the
primary-network system, as in radial systems, to reestablished service from a faulted circuit if the fault clears
when the feeder is deenergized. Most temporary faults are
cleared before the first or second reclosures. In the primary network two reclosures for any tie feeder can be provided conveniently by one reclosure at each end of the
circuit. To prevent both rec1mmres occurring simultaneously or near enough together that the fault is not deenergized between reclosures it is necessary to use different
time delays before reclosure at opposite ends of the line.
The shorter time delay is made long enough that both
breakers have ample time to open. The longer time delay
is made long enough that the two reclosures do not occur
simultaneously as a result of a large difference in the

Chapter 21

699

Primary and Secondary Network Distribution Systems

opening times of the two breakers in the faulted feeder.


Time delays of 15 and 30 seconds are generally adequate
for the Lwo reclosuret:~. Using only one reclmmre for each
breaker minimizes the operating duty on the breakers.
ThP transformt:::r hreaker in the primary network with
one breaker per tie feeder, Fig. 2, is controlled by network
relaying and overcurrent relaying in essentially the same
way that the transformer breaker in Fig. l is controlled.
However, in addition to network and overeurrent relaying
the transformer breakers in Fig. 2 are provided with reclosing relays so that the transformer breaker recluses on
primary-feeder faults. Two or three successive reclosures
are made before lock out. In the form of the network
shown in Fig. 2 the transformer breaker usually is included
in the transformer structure to form a completely~self~
protected single-circuit unit substation.
The mid-tie breakers in Fig. 2 differ physically and
functionally from the tie breakers in Fig. L These breakers are usually located along the tie feeders remote from
the substation in widely separated locations and cannot be
assembled together to form a switchgear unit. However,
the breakers can be located anywhere along the tie feeders.
If they are located at the intersections, those at a particular intersection can be grouped together to form a switchgear assembly. Mid-tie breakers can be mounted on a
pole, on a platform, or on the ground. The control for a
pole--mounted breaker is in a separate pole-mounted housing. A hreakP.r mounted on a platform or on the ground
can be either an outdoor breaker or a breaker in a switchhouse. Outdoor breakers require a separate weatherproof
cabinet for the control and operating mechanism while
the switchhou:se tyve of mounting provides a weatherproof structure for the control, operating mechanism, and
the breaker.
Mid-tie breakers are controlled by very-inverse-time
overcurrent relays and voltage rcclosing relays. The midtie breaker opens on overcurrent in either direction through
the breaker and recloses only after ~uL~tantially nurmal
voltage is maintained on both sides of the breaker for a
predetermined length of time. Power for closing the
breaker can be taken from the tie feeder on either side of
the breaker or from an adjacent secondary main supplied
by the tie feeder.
The interrupting duty on breakers in any primary-network :;;:.ystem depends not only on the short-circuit current
of the adjacent network transformer but a]so on the characteristics of the network system because currents can
flow to any fault over two or more paths. Unless the
average tie-feeder impedance is more than about three
times the network-transformer impedance, the network
transformer -..vill supply less current to a fault at its terminals than will the remainder of the network. Therefore,
tie-circuit construction, load density, and the extent of the
network are important factors in the interrupting duty on
circuit breakers in a primary network system. In the type
of system shown in Fig. 1 the duty on all the breakers at
any substation is about the same and uRu::.dly the variA.tion
of interrupting duty from one substation to another is not
enough to justify using different breaker ratings in different substations. The interrupting duty on the tie
breakers in the form of the primary-network sysLcm shown

TABLE 1-RANGE OF INTERRUPTING CAPACITY USUALLY


REQUIRED FOR BREAKERS IN PRIMARY NETWORKS

Type of Primary Network


Breaker
---~

Transformer
Tie-Feeder

Two Breakers Per


Tie Feeder

One Breaker at Middle


of Each Tie

100 000 to 250 000 kva


100 000 to 250 000 kva

100 000 to 250 000 kva.


25 000 to 100 000 kva.

~------1--~----

in Fig. 2 depends largely on their location in the tie circuits.


If these breakers are located electrically at the middle of
the tie feeder the maximum duty on them may be as low
as a third of the maximum duty on the transformer breakers because the impedance in the tie circuit limits the fault
currents. Table 1 shows the ranges of interrupting ratings
generally required for the various breakers in the two
forms of the primary network.

9. Designing the Primary Network


The design of the primary network, like that of any distribution system, must be based on complete and accurate
load and geographical data, such as, (I) location, size, and
character of large loads; (2) the amount, location, distribution, and character of the small loads; (3) anticipated load
growth in the area being studied; (4) location of bulk
power substations; (5) location and capacity of existing
distribution circuits, transformers, and substations; (6)
available sites for substations and other distribution equipment; and (7) available routes for distribution circuits.
Preliminary analysis should reduce the load data to quan~
tity of load and load centers corresponding to relatively
small areas such as mile or half~mile squares.
Network Unit [ocations-On the basis of the loads
and location of load centers in the small areas network
units are located at the load centers of larger areas each
comprising a load corresponding approximately to the
proportionate share of the total load in the network area
that each unit will normally carry. The proportionate
share of load for each 1mit is determined by the total
number of units that must be installed in the network area.
There must be enough units in normal operation so that
under emergency conditions when one subtransmission
circuit, and the network uniti:l connected to it are out of
operation the maximum capacity of the remaining units
will be adequate for the total load in the area. A rough
cost comparison can be made on the basis of a preliminary
location of units to indicate the sizes of units that are
likely to be most economical. Detail design and final compari:sons then need be carried through for only a few combinations.
The actual location of network-unit substations depends
not only on the location of the corresponding load centers
but also on the location of available sites, available rightsof-way for subtransmission and primary~feeder circuits,
and the location of existing distribution facilities that
can be utilized. The choice of substation locations usually
takes into consideration the cost of real estate and the need
for landscaping or special construction to match the substation with the surrounding buildings and area.
Tie Feeders-The carrying capacity of the tie cir

700

Primary and Secondary Network Distribution Systems

cuits between network units is related to the capacity of a


network as well as to the load supplied from the circuit.
Generally there are from three to five tie feeders connected
to each intersection bus and for practical purposes the
average can be taken as four. The carrying capacity of the
four tie circuits should be enough to carry the maximum
load on the corresponding network unit. Also each tie
circuit must be able to carry all of its load from one end.
The reason for this is illustrated by considering that the
transformer of net".-ork unit E, Fig. 1, is out of service;
then feeders c-b, e-h and f-k are supplied only at the b, h
and k ends respectively. Under normal operating conditions, when all units in a network are operating, about half
the load on the tie circuits connected to a network unit
represent the normal load on that unit. Therefore, the
combined carrying capacity of the tie feeders connected to
a network unit must be at least twice the normal load on
that unit. Actually each tie feeder should have a carrying
capacity equal to about half the rated capacity, instead of
the normal load, of the network transformer. On the basis
of an average of four tie feeders connected to each primarynetwork unit, this ~arrying capacity usual1y gives enough
margin to take care of unequal division of load among the
tie feeders. The same size of tie-feeder conductors and
network units generally is used throughout the network
because of inter~.;haugeaLility aml simplification of design
and construction.
The tie feeders between primary-network units should
follow reasonably direct routes. This keeps the impedance
of the tie circuit to a minimum. Lmv tie-circuit impedance
facilitates uniform load distribution among the network
units and keeps voltage drop in the tie circuit to a minimum. These factors are particularly important under
emergency operating conditions \Vhen a subtransmission
circuit and its associated network transformers are out of
service and some of the tie circuits are being supplied from
only one end. Short tie feeders minimize the probability
of faults on these circuits. Each tie feeder should follow a
separate route as far as possible so that tree limbs, derrick
booms, or similar hazards do not involve more than one
tie feeder. Usually the installation of a primary network
involves the adaptation of existing primary feeders to the
tie circuiL~ of Lhe network system and the routes of the
existing main primary feeders arc major factors in routing
the tie lines.
Either overhead or underground construction can be
used for the tie feeders. The choice of the type of construction depends almost entirely on the class of neighborhood through which the feeders run anti on the economic
balance between the cost of underground construction and
freedom from lightning, sleet, and tree troubles. When an
existing system is adapted to primary-network operation
the type of construction already being used usually determines the construction of the primary-network tie feeders. In areas of medium load density, >vhere the primary
net>vork is generally applicable, overhead open-wire construction predominates.
Radial subfeeders and primary laterals can be supplied
from the tie feeders in the same way that they are served
by radial primary feeders. However, instantaneous deenergizing of the main tie feeder to clear temporary sub-

Chapter 21

feeder faults and subsequent time-delay tripping of the


feeder breakers to permit subfeeder sectionalizing fuses to
clear permanent subfeeder faults cannot be used in the
network system. Instantaneous tripping or delayed tripping of the tie-feeder breakers does not permit selective
operation of the tie-feeder breakers in the various tie circuits of the network. However, the subfeeders can he
fused so that faults on these circuits do not take the main
tie feeder out of service. It is important that these fuses
be carefully coordinated with the tic-feeder breakers so
that subfeeder faults are correctly isolated from the main
tie feeder. A radial primary feeder can be served directly
from the primary-network units through its own breaker
which usually is controlled by the same type of relaying
used for the network tie circuits. However, any form of
relaying can be used for a radial feeder brettker in a primary-network unit, if it coordinates properly with the
network tie-feeder breakers.
Subtransmission Supply Circuits-At least two
subtransmis8ion circuits are required Lo ::;upply a primary
network; a larger number of supply circuits reduces the
spare capa~ity mquired in the network units to provide for
an emergency condition when one supply circuit is out of
operation. It generally can be assumed that out of any
number of supply circuits, up to about five or six, only one
will be out of ~:;ervice aL any one time. Theoretically two
supply circuits require 100-percent spare transformer capacity so that when one of the two subtransmission circuits is out of service the transformers associated with the
operating feeder can carry the total load; actually the
maximum load capacity of all the network units has to be
somewhat more than twice the normal peak load because
the transformer ratings cannot be exactly fitted to the
actual loads and because under emergency conditions the
load probably does not divide uniformly among the transformers remaining in service. The corresponding theoretical reserve capacity for three supply circuits is 50 percent;
for four circuits 33~ percent; and for five circuits 25 percent. Practically, very little reduction of necessary reserve
capacity results from using more than five or six supply
circuits. When a larger number of circuits is used, some of
the transformers in the network area will be remote from
transformers that are out of operation and \Viii pick up
relatively little of the load normally supplied by the transformPrs associated with a supply circuit that iR out of
service. In other words, the reserve capacity in a network
supplied by more than five or six subtransmission lines
cannot be effectively utilized and the necessary percent
reserve capaeity in the network becomes praetieally constant as the number of supply circuits increases beyond
five or six.
For more than five or six circuits the probability of two
circuits being out of operation simultaneously may he
great enough that such an emergency must be considered.
More reserve capacity may be required in a net,York supplied by a larger number of supply circuits than in one
supplied by five or six circuits. The number of subtransmission circuits that can be expected to be operating at any
time must have enough capacity to carry the total primary-net,vork load.
Interlacing of the subtransmission circuits, to avoid

Chapter 21

Primary and Secondary Network Distribution Systems

701

adjacent transformers being connected to the same supply circuit, should be used to keep the spare capacity in
the network tu a minimum. The additional length of
supply circuit usually is more than out-weighed by the
saving in network unit capacity. See section 13.
The construction used for the subtransmission circuits
depends on available rights of way, subtransmission voltage, and the value of the protection from lightning,
storm, and tree hazards afforded by underground constnwtion. Prevailing subtmnsmi;.;sion circuits usually
establish the type of construction to be followed by primary-network supply circuits. Closely built up areas may
require underground or aerial cable lines while open areas
may permit using overhead open-wire construction.
One important advantage of the network system is that
the subtransmission circuits can be straight radial circuits
protected by simple ovcrcurrent relaying Rystcms because
service to all the loads in the network area is independent
of the continuity of operation of any subtransmissiou
circuit. The complicated relaying and duplication of supply circuits required by the subtransmission grid (See
Chapter 20) are not necessary for the operation of a primary network. However, it is important that the supply
circuits originate at bulk pmver stations that are closely
interconnected so that the voltages on the various subtransmission circuits are maintained practically equal and
in phase. This is necessary to insure uniform load distribution among the supply circuits.
Automatic reclosing of the breaker at the supply end
of an open-wire suULn:tnsmissiun circuit, supplying primarynetwork units is not as important as it is for primary
feeders or subtransmission lines in a simple radial system.
In the primary-network system a fault on a subtransmission circuit does not interrupt any load. Furthermore, it
is not necessary to restore the faulted eircuit to operation
to maintain service to any loads served from the network.
Reenergizing a suhtram;mission line connected to a faulted
network transformer almost invariably would reestablish
the fault and cause unnecessary damage to the transformer.
If considerable radial load in addition to network load is
served by an overhead subtransmission circuit, automatic
reclosing of the subtransmission-line breaker may be justified by the reduction of the duration of outages for the
radial load when temporary subtransmission-linc faults
occur. Rcclosing is not used on subtransmission cables
because a fault in a high-voltage cable usually does not
clear 'vhen the cable is decnergized. Reclosing on faulted
cable circuits usually causes unnecessary damage to the
cable.

the reclosing to reenergize the primary feeders after a temporary fault is done by the transformer breaker. In the
system using t\VO breakers per tie feeder, substituting
fuses for these breakers is not practical because the fuses
do not provide means for reestablishing service on the tie
feeders in the case of temporary faults. Reelosing fuses
might be used for this purpose if suitable, accurate, long
time delays could be incorporated in Lhe fuse to insure
properly coordinated operation of the fuses at opposite
ends of the line. If fuses are used in place of mid-tie
breakers they must be coordinated carefully so that the
fuses in the various tie circuits operate selectively. One
important disadvantage of these fuses is that the tie feeders
must be patrolled frequently so that fuses adjacent to a
substation near which a tic-feeder fault has occurred do not
remain open for long periods of time and result in dropping
load around that substation when it is taken out of service
at some later time because of a transformer or subtransmission-line fault or for mainttmance or testing.
Primary networks are usually applied in areas \vhere
there is an existing distribution system. For this reason
it is often desirable to adapt existing substations to network operation. When the existing substations are equal
or nearly equal to the network units that are to be used,
it is necessary only to provide existing stations with net~
work relaying and properly coordinated over-rnrmnt relay...
ing and to make sure that existing breakers are of adequate
interrupting capacity. In larger stations it may be necessary to divide the station into sections nearly equal in
capacity to the new network uuiL:s to be insLallccl. In some
cases it may be feasible to segregate a small section of the
bus in a large substation for operation in the network system and supply this section of bus from the main station
bus through a bus-sectionalizing breaker and currentlimiting reactor so that the normal load and the available
short-circuit kva on the small bus section are comparable
to that of the network units. In this latter case the sectionali zing breaker is relayed in the same way as the transformer breaker in a network unit, and the feeder breakers
on the small bus section are provided with the same type
of control as other tie-feeder breakers in the nehvork.
Other modifications may suggest themselves in particular cases. Any modification should be made only after it
has been determined that tie-feeder sectionalizing devices
and network-unit transformer breakers are properly coordinated and correct operation of the network is assured.

10. Modification of the Primary Network


The foregoing discussion has been confined to the two
hnsic forms of the primary nehvork both of which oper~
ate on the same fundamental network principle. :Modifications that have been used or suggested arc variations
of arrangement and generally do not affect the fundamental operation. The two mo:st important modifications
are the use of fuses in place of mid-tie breakers and the
adaptation of the network system to existing substations
and distribution facilities. Fuses can be used in place of
the mid-tie breakers in the system shown in Fig. 2 because

All the secondary networks now operating in 19(} cities,


with one exception,ss.ss work on the same basic principle.
Loads throughout a load area are supplied by taps from an
interconnected system of low-voltage circuits. The utilization voltage, 26 at which the secondary mains arc operated,
varies among installations from 115/119 to 125/216 volts.
The most prevalent voltage is 120/208 volts which provides a standard lamp voltage from line-to-neutral and a
three-phaRe line-to-line voltage that is genera11y F>atisfa~
tory for 220-volt motors." Power is supplied to this system of low-voltage circuits through several transformers

III. THE AUTOMATIC A-C SECONDARY


NETWORK SYSTEM

Primary and Secondary Network Distribution Systems

702

Chapter 21

SUBSTATION
which in turn are energized by two or more primary-feeder
56 57
I
circuits. Automatic network protectors and the natural
,., I
tendency of low-voltage faults to clear themselves31 22 are
...0' ..."'0' ..."'0'
utilized to protect service from the secondary network from NETWORK PROTECTOR "'
NETWORK
all faults in the system, except complete failure of the
..."' "' "'

..

power supply.

11. The Underground Secondary Network


The basic electrical arrangement of the secondary network is shown in Fig. 6. The grid of secondary mains is
the interconnected system of low-voltage circuits from
which loads arc served at utilization voltage. The network
transformers introduce power into the secondary mains at
the intersection of the mains through network protectors,
which arc automatic air circuit breakers controlled by network relaying. T\vo or more primary feeders are used so
that even when a primary feeder is out of service all of the
load can still be supplied over the remaining feeder or
feeders. The feeders to the network can come either from
a distribution substation) from a bulk pO\vcr substation, or
a generating station. In network systems the feeders frequently operate at subLntmitn.iti:siun voltage and are, in
fact, subtransmission circuits carried directly to the distribution or network transformers.
Secondary Mains-The load circuits or secondary
mains from which consumer services are tapped generally
follow the geographical pattern of the load area because
the mains arc located under the streets or alloys in the
area so that the servicf~S to the Nmsumers can he as short
as possible. This arrangement facilitates access to the
mains for repairs, maintenance, and service connections.
In underground systems the secondary mains as well as
other circuits arc generally carried in dud systems and
the service connections are made in manholes, vaults, or
shallow junction boxes. At the intersections of the secondary mains the corresponding phase conductors of the
intersecting mains are connerted together so that, in most
city areas where the lmv-voltage secondary network is
applicable, the system of secondary mains takes the form
of a grid. In an ideal case the grid forms a regular pattern
such as that shown in Fig. 6.
In underground systems the secondary mains generally
are made up of singlc-eonductor cables because the many
interconnections and service taps required in a secondary
network can be made more easily and less expensively on
single-conductor cables than on multi-conductor cables. In
the early otages of the network system lead-covered cables
were used almost exclusively. Within the last decade improved insulating malPrial~ have resulted in extensive use
of non-metallic sheathed eablcs59 because splices can be
made more easily. Although three-conductor cables generally are not used it is common practice to twist all the
conductors of a three-phase circuit together to keep to a
minimum the reactance of the circuit and thus improve
voltage regulation.
The size of the condnctors* in the secondary main
depends primarily on t.he required carrying capacity.
However, the voltage drop from a transformer to any load
along the mains under normal operating conditions (all
transformers in operation) should not exceed about two
S~>e

Chapter 6.

... ..."' ..."'

/TRANSFORMER

>'I

/1

;}_

k?C

/1-

!ft

1r

;I

(~

l'

SECONDARY MA IN'___..A'
S

Fi~.

6-Schematic diagram showing the basic arrangement of

primary feeders, network transformers. and secondary mains


in a low-voltage secondary network.

percent. The carrying capacity of a secondary-network


main should be one-half to two-thirds of the rated capacity
of the predominant size of network-transformer unit. This
is true because a part of the maximum load on a transformer is usually supplied from the junction where the
transformer is connected, and the remainder of the output
of the transformer usually is divided unequally among ~he
mains connected to the same junction as the transformer.
Also, \vhcn the normal power supply from a network transformer at one end of a secondary main is out, all the load
along the main and part of the load at the end where the
transformer is out is supplied from the other end of the
main.
The conductor sizes mor,:;t frequently used in underground low-voltage networks are 4/0 and 250-, 350-, and
500-MCM. However, because of relatively high voltage
drop, difheult.y of handling, and the difficulty of burning
clear fau!Ls on 500-MCM cable, two 4/0 or 250-:.VICM
cables in pil.rallel are frequently used in place of one 500-

Primary and Secondary Network Distribution Syste'm8

Chapter 21

MCM conductor. The improvement in voltage regulation" is shown by Fig. 7. Two 250-MCM conductors in
parallel have the same copper cross-section and essentially
the same resistance as one 500-YIC:M. The paralleled
250-MCM cables provide better regulation because the
reactance of that circuit is about half that of the 500-MCM
circuit. The smaller cables arc easier to handle in the
limited space in manholes and vaults. Where transformers
larger than 500-kva are used in a network multipleconductor circuits always should be used.
The operation of the secondary network depends on
faults on the secondary mains being burned off and clearing without deenergizing the system. This is feasible on
low-voltage circuits such as 120/208-volt secondary-network mains because arcs are not sustained at that voltage.
For circuits operating at higher voltages such as 460 volts
this method of clearing faults is not dependable. Tests"
1.8

--

~ IJS

...

"'..1
:>
"' 1.4
~
w
2:

/
I

~1. 2

"'

/
I.0

100

90

---- -80
70
60
50
PERCENT POWER FACTOR

r---..

40

30

Fig. 7-Relative regulation per unit length of three-phase circuit for a balanced three-phase current at various power factors. A: Fora circuit consisting of three500-MCM single-conductor cables in a duct. B: For a circuit consistin~t of two
parallel three-phase branches each made up of three 250-

703

TABLE 2-MINIMUM CURRENT IN AMPERES REQUIRED IN EACI!


CONDUCTOR ON BOTH SIDES OF A SOLID FAULT ON SINGLECONDUCTOR CABLES TO BURN OFF THE FAULT

Conductor Size
I

1/0
2/0
3/0
4/0
250 MCM
350 MCM
500MCM

Overhead Circuit

Underground Circuit

1000
1200
1400
1700
2100
2300

1600
1800
2!00
2500
2900
3200

3000

4000

4000

5000

ductor more quickly than a large conductor. Also with


the parallel arrangement of the secondary-main conductors a fault opens only one of the branches of the main and
leaves the other branch of the main in operation to help
maintain the maximum possible fault current available at
the fault point. Furthermore, the paralleled circuits of the
main can be tied together at short intervals so that only a
small section of the main is affected by a fault. Tying the
parallel circuits together increases the fault current at the
fault point in most cases .
The effects of paralleled mains and tie points are illustrated by Fig. 8. A fault near a junction is more difficult
to clear than a similar fault at any other location on the
main because the current to one side of the fault is limited
by the impedance of the entire main. Such a fault in a
well-designed network grid is quickly burned clear between
the fault and the nearest junction point as shown in Fig.
8(a). Occasionally the fault current over a long secondary
main is not enough to burn off a solid fault on a main con~
sisting of a single-conductor per phase. The currents shmvn
in Fig. S are calculated for the conditions shown. The
current to a fault at the end of a 500-foot, 500-MCM
secondary main, Fig. 8(a), will be 4250 amperes or only 85
percent of the 5000 amperes necessary to clear a solid fault

MCM single-conductor cables in a separate duct.

and calculations have shown that the minimum currents


shO\vn in Table 2 are required to burn dear the mo::;L
severe type of fault. Such a fault is one where the current

and thermal capacity of the fault is greater than those of


the conductor itself making it necessary to fuse the conductor on each side of the fault. In an actual installation
such a fault might occur 'l<vhen a power ;;hovel digs into a
duct line. The probability of such a fault is rather small.
Iviost faults on network secondaries dear with much
smal1er currents than those shown in the tabulation. The
values for underground circuits are for either lead-covered
or non-leaded cables. A 500-:VICM conductor is about the
largest conductor that can be expected to burn clear con~
sistently bec:u1se larger conductors require high minimum
fault currents, which are difficult to obtain in network
mains except where the transformer capacity is highly concentrated, and also because of the large amount of metallic
vapor generated 1-vhen a large cumlucLor fuses.
The ability of any nehvork to clear secondary faults is
improved by the use of paralleled-conductor circuits.
Available short-circuit currents will burn off a small con-

300 KVA
5% z
0.0072 OHM

300 KVA
5%
0.0072 OHM

500 M C M-0.021 OHM

fAULT/'1

I f - 425(a)MP. (85%)

~~----------------soo Fc------------------~-300 KVA


5% z
0,0072 OHM

300 KVA

5~

TWO 4t0's-0.0359 OHM EACH

0.0072 OHM

I f - 2870 AMP. {98.2 '4)

(b)

Fig. 8--Effect of paralleled conductors and tie points in


paralleled conductors on the ability of a low-voltage network
to clear secondary faults.

704

Primary and Secondary Network DU!tribution Systems

on that size conductor. If, as in (b), two paralleled 4/0


cables without tie points are substituted for the 500-MC:\1
conductor the fault clearing ability is improved. There is
still only 98.2 percent of the 2900 amperes required for the
worst fault; however, the probability of the fault not clearing is very remote. But if, as in (e), the two paralleled 4/0
conductors are tied together at the midpoint of the main,
the available fault current from the main to the fault is
increased to 149.2 percent of the 2900 amperes required.
This provides a wide margin, of safety. There are two
reasons for this result. Both transformers can supply
current to the fault even after it burns off on one sidej
and the effective impedance to the fault is less than that
in either case (a) or (b). In the ease of two 4/0 conductors
per phase and 300-kva transformers, 100- to 150- foot
intervals between tie points are short enough to burn clear
a fault such as shown in Fig. 8( c), even on mains as long as
1350 feeL 11ains of such length seldom occur in secondary
networks. The effectiveness of this method depends on
there being two branches of the main each in a separate
duct to prevent a fault in one branch from communicating
to the other. "Csually these tie points are provided automatically by service taps along the mains; on a parallelconductor main the branche;;; shoulrl he tied together at
service points because of the improved voltage regulation
and decreased losses in the main.
Limiters-Frequently there are a few mains in a secowlary-network gritl where fault current is insufficient to
insure clearing a solid fault. Also some severe faults result
in a considerable amount of damagPd r.a.hle hefon~ the
fault is cleared. To minimize the amount of cable damage
resulting from secondary faults and to avoid the infrequent
cases where a secondary fault fails to clear in a reasonable
time the limiter was developed and applied firJSL in New
York in 1936. 58 ,64 The limiter also provides means for
isolating secondary faults on secondary mains in fringe
areas of a nehvork where there is insufficient fault current
available to fuse the secondary mains in the case of a solid
fault. The limiter is a restricted copper section installed in
the secondary main at each junction point; the fusing
characteristics of the limiter are designed to clear a faulted
section of main before the cable insulation is damaged by
the heat generated by the fault current. The extent to
which limiters are applied in a network depends on economic considerations as well as on the necessity for providing means of clearing faults. In some networks, limiters
are installed in all ser.ondary mains on the basis that the
saving in damaged secondary cable justifies the application. It is cheaper to apply limiters on non-leaded cables
than on lead-covered ones, especially if the lead sheath
must be continueJ over the limiters by means of wipedsolder joints. Local costs and local secondary-fault experience must be considered in each cas~.
Network Units-A secondary-network unit consists
of the network transformer and its associated primary
disconnect switch and network protector. The network
transformer is the distribution transformer in the network
system. It combines the functions of both the distributionsubstation transformer and the distribution transformer
when subtransmission supply circuits are connected directly to the network transformers. The primary discon-

Chapter 21

nccting switch provides means for disf'onnPd ing a transformer from the primary feeder and it may also incorporate
means for short circuiting and grounding the primary
feeder for the safety of workmen \Vhen the feeder is being
repaireJ or extendeJ. The network proteetor56 is an clcctrica.lly-operated air circuit breaker controlled by network
relays57 so that it automatically disconnects the transformer from the scf~ondary grid \vhen power flo\vs from the
grid to the transformer and reconnects the transformer to
the grid when the transformer can supply power to the
grid. An installation of three network units in a vault is
shown in Fig. 9.
Transformer-Three-phase transformers generally are
used because the space required and weight of the transformer is less for three-phase units than for an equivalent
bank of single-phase units and the cost is less for the threephase unit. Single-phase transformers offer no advantage
from the standpoint of service continuity because the
interconnected secondary grid maintains the service at a
transformer point even though that transformer is out of
operation. However, when existing single-phase transformers have impedances and voltage such that they can
be paralleled with network units 1 they can be used in a
network systP-m. 'This often ocr.nrs when nn existing rlistribution system is converted to a low-voltage secondarynetwork s.ystem. Single-phase transformers sometimes are
necessary because of space and \veight limitations of elevators, hallwayH, doorways, manholes, aml other means by
which the transformers must be moved into position in
vaults. This is particularly true for building vaults.
Oil predominates as the cooling and insulating medium
for network transformers primarily because of its relatively
low cost and because other suitable mediums were not

Fig. 9-Three submersible secondary-network units tnstalled


in a vault. Each unit consists of a .?00-kva transformer with a
1600~ampere

network protector on the left end and a primary


switch and terminal chamber on the right end.

Chapter 21

Primary and Secondary Network Distribution Systems

705

connected and are properly insulated a high-voltage d-e

test potential can be used on the feeder cables. Starconnected primary windings make it impractical to use
this type of switch because it is then practically impossible
to test the feeder cables without disconnecting the transformer from the feeder cables. The two-position disconnecting switch facilitates testing the feeder cables but has

Fig. 10-A network protector in a Rllhway housing,. This is the

type of protector that is mounted on the left end of the transformers in Fi&. 9.

aYailabh' in early stages of the development of the nehvork


system. The chief disadvantages of oil-filled transformers
are the explosion and fire hazards. A non-inflammable
liquid, sui'h as I uerleen, eliminates the fire hazard and it is
used in many cases where a fire would hn diffi<'ult to control m wottld be likcly to cause extcn~ive damage. Both

oil-immlat<{l and non-inflammahlc-licptid-insulatcd transformers ea.n he used when' a submersible unit. is required.
Air-in~ulated transformers that use no liquid and eliminate
both the firo and explm:;ion hazardr.:; arc partieularly suitable for inpta1lations in buildings.
In add it ion to providing for a primary switch and means
for mounting a low-voltage protector, u network transformer i~ carefully constructed to reduce the probability
of internal faults. Suhmersihlc-tnm:sformcr tanks arc
rott"tnH'tPd to resist corrosion result in~ from submersion.
HC>si:->tan('e to corro:::,ion is obtained by heavier tank bottoms and cooling tubes, alloy hard,,ar<', and spc\'ial paint.
The size of a network tranf'fonrwr is made as small as
possible, con;-;istcnt wiLh proper electrical construction 1 to
save tran:::.f(,rnwr-\ault spaee.
Tlte High- Voltage Switch. with whit'h a network
tran:-:fornwr j:-; gNH'rally provided, mny hr a two-posit ion
fSl'!JUlU!ing ~\Yiteh, a two-po:-;ition disconnP!ting; 8\\'iteh, or
a thn'('-po~itiou dii'!connc<"ting and grounding S\\~tch. The
f\qJ-po;;ition grounding switc:h dot'S not diseonnP<'t- the
from its primn.ry fN~dPr; it ~hnrt circnits ::tnd
grouml." tht' nrimary-fce(h-r ('il'('llit at th( transforrner prinU\1',\' tlrminals. From tlw e;tandpoiut of :-;afety thi:-. type
of :-;,,itch i;.: adequat(' hnt it has 1bt> dis:vlYantage ihatdiZ'lcdrie tc~ts on the primary-feed!'!' tahl1s must lw mttde
\rith 1hr: primary ''indin~s of thn nd,,nrk transt'ornlel'B
connect('d to the eaGle cirt"uits. If ihc::;e \\'indings arc deltatran~formN

the disadvantage that the feeder cable must be grounded


separately to provide safe working conditions for re-pairing
the cable. The three-position disconnecting and grounding
t;\viteh provides both the Hafety of grounding the feeder
cable and the convenience of disconneeting the transformer
from the cable to facilitate testing the feeder cable. The
three positions of this S\Yitch are wfransformer,n "Open,"
and 1'Ground.n In the >~Transformern position the feeder
is eonnccted to the transform<'r. In the "Open'' position
the transformer ls disconnected from the feeder eircuit.
Tn the "C:ronnd" position the primary fpeder is disennnccicd from the transformer and grounded.
The primary switch is a manually operated device and
generally is not capable of opening transformer exciting
Current. For that reason the switch usually is interlocked
so that it cannot he operated unless the transformer is
deenergized. Therefore, the feeder circuit must be decncr~
gizcd ut its supply end to deenergize the tran~fonncrs before the disconnect switches can be opened. The sequence
of opera! ions of the three-poHition primary switch is arranged so that to ground the prhnary feeder the swit.ch can
be moved to tho "Ground" position only from the nTransformer" poNition. This seqnenee of operations prevents
gronnrling an energized feeder circuit because if the f ceder
is energized with the switeh in the "Open" position, the
interlock locks the R\Yitch when the switch is moved to the
wrransformcr 1 ' poslt.ion where it must be before being
movt~d to the "Cround" position. In some cases. such as
when radial loads are sr.rve-d from the same primary feeders
thal serve nct\\'ork transformers, it is desirable to be able
to di:scunnPct a nd.\York transformer from an energized
feedf'r. For that purpose the primary disconnecting switch
must he capable of opening exciting eurrcnt and m11st be so
intPr-lol'ked that it cannot. be opened unless the associated
protf-ctor on the lmY~voltage side of the transformer is opened
to remove load from the transformer. A thrcc-pof>ition
swit('h for interrupting exciting current must have an additional int.urlock to pwvent, grounding H.n c;ncrgi,.;cd fppJcr
circuit. ;\ thrPe-position primary ~m:itch is shown on the
right end of each network unit in Fig. 9. The high-voltage
swit.eh compartment usually is combined with a terminal
eharnher or potheads for terminating the primary~feeder
cahlPs.

The Network Protector" is an electrically-operated


air circuit breaker controlled by dircetional-tripping and
voll:tgc-rcclosing n'lays. The breakcr 1 the op<'rating mechani:-:>m, and the rda.v:; are a:o;:sembled together to form a :selfcontained unit that in many cu.sn:s is bolted to a throat,
enelo;.;ing the Reeonda.ry t-erminals, on the network transformer. Such a protector is RhO\\n in Fig. 10 and on the
lefl end of the net work unit in Fig. 0.
ThC' ba:..;ie din'.ct ional-tripping function and the overvohn!l,'(-r('dosing fund.ion of the network relaying are
comllirwd in one t.hrcr:-phn~e relay 57 cal!P.d the master

706

Primary and Secondary Network Distribution Systems

network relay. The master relay is mounted in the lower


left corner of the protector, Fig. 10. ThiR relay is a watttype induction relay. The master relay closes its closing
contacts when the protector breaker is open and the voltage of its associated transformer is slightly greater than
and essentially in phase with the corresponding network
voltage. The tripping contacts close when the protector is
closed and a current in excess of the minimum setting of
the relay flows through the protector from the network
secondary mains to the transformer.
The uvervulLage-clo:sing function of the master relay is
usually modified by a phasing relay57 so that the protector
does not close if the voltage of the transformer being
connected to the secondary grid appreciably lags the network voltage. This insures that the network protector
closes only if the relationship between the transformer
voltage and network voltages is such that power flows
toward the ne.twork when the. prote.ctor closes and rloeR not
immediately reopen because of the resulting current flow
being in effect a reversed current. The phasing relay is
mounted directly above the master relay in the protector,
Fig. 10.
It is desirable to have the network relays sensitive
enough that the network protectors open on the exciting
current of their associated transformers when the corresponding primary-feeder breaker is opened. This not only
provides a simple means of periodically checking the operation of the network protectors but also makes it unnecessary to go to all the protectors asso~iated with a particular
feeder in order to deenergize the feeder for repairs. Another advantage of sensitive tripping is that the protectors
can isolate single-line-to-ground faults on a circuit supplying the network, when the primaries of the network transformers are connected in delta. However 1 in infrequent
cases, such as when regenerative loads are supplied from
the network, sensitive tripping will result in too frequent
operation of protectors. In these cases the sensitivity is
decreased for normal conditions by means of a Ue:::~ensiLiz;
ing relay. 68 This relay permits the protector to trip on
small reversed currents only after a predetermined timedelay and on large reversed currents without intentional
time-delay.
Primary Feeders- The primary feeders supplying a
low-voltage net\vork generally are radial circuits because
thB intBrconnection of the secondary mains and the operation of the network protectors provide means of maintaining service to all loads on the network independent of the
loss of any one feeder. In underground systems the feeder
circuits are usually lead-sheathed cables. Both three-conductor and single-conductor cables are used. Three-conductor cables frequently are used for the main feeders because of the lower cost. Single-conductor cables frequently
are used for sub-feeders and laterals because single-conductor cables facilitate making the large number of splices and
joints required on these sections of feeders.
The primary feeders to a secondary network may originate at a distribution substation, at a bulk power sub~
station, or at a generating plant. The primary feeders
should originate at the same substation or at substations
that are closely tied togethcr62 because the feeders are
paralleled through the low-voltage secondary mains of the

Chapter 21

network grid and angular voltage differences between


primary feeders result in improper load division or cause a
large number of protectors to open. Furthermore, if the
feeders are supplied from more than one substation 1 it may
be necessary to plan the network on the basis of one of a
few substations instead of one of several feeders being out
of service. For example, a network system suppliecl over
four feeders from two single-transformer distribution substations (two feeders per substation) has to be designed to
carrv the total network load on half of the network transfon~ers Leca.use of the pruLa.biliLy of a.n outage of one
substation. If all four feeders are supplied by one substation so arranged that power is ahvays available at its
low~ voltage bus, it is reasonable to assume that the worst
emergency condition is the loss of one of the four primary
feeders. In this case three-fourths of the network transformers are always available to carry the total load. Much
more reserve network transformer capacity is requimd in
the former case than in the latter. If the feeders supplying
network transformers originate at a distribution substation
the subtransmission supply to that substation should be a
subtransmission loop or grid and the substation should
have duplicate transformers (See Chapter 20). The arrangement of the secondary network provides continuous
service regardless of faults in network transformers or pri~
marv feeders. In practical operation the reliability of
service from the secondary network is limited only by the
reliability of power supply to the primary feeders supplying the network transformers.
In many areas where the secondary network is applicable the total load frequently is sufficient for two or more
subtram;mission circuits. Network transformers usually
are three phase and range from 100 to GOO kva. The additional cost of using transformers rated for subtransmission
voltages instead of for the lower voltages generally used
for radial primary feeders is fairly small. These two factors
make it economical to supply a secondary-network system
over radial subtransmission circuits and thus eliminate
the distribution substation. In this case there is only one
voltage tran~.formation hetween suhtrn.nsmission voltage
and utilization voltage. In many cases these subtransmission circuits originate at a generator bus. This makes
a simple distribution system with a direct path from generators to consum.er services.
Automatic reclosing generally is not used on underground supply circuits in a network system for two reasons. The first is that faults in cable circuits operating at
more than 600 volts seldom clear when they are dcenergized. The second reason is that in the network system
it is not necessary to reenergize a supply circuit as quickly
as possible to minimize service interruption because a
supply circuit fault does not drop any network load.
Furthermore, the network system allows a faulted supply
circuit to be repaired deliberately, using as much time and
taking whatever precautions are necessary to insure a good
repair job, without interrupting load.
The secondary-network system is well adapted to busvoltage regulation because the network load is divided
almost equally among the feeders or subtransmission circuits supplying tlte network and consequently the ~ame
relationship between bus voltage and load voltage is satis-

Chapter 21

Primary and Secondary Network Distribution Systems

factory for all the network :supply circuiL:s. Feeder-voltage


regulation seldom is used because of voltage

differences~l2

that may be introduced between feeders by the individual


regulators. This is particularly true of three-phase induction regulators because they may introduce an angular
displacement as well as an in-phase voltage difference.
Furthermore, bus-voltage regulation is generally more economieal When network feeders ure supp1ied from a gen-

erator bus, generator-voltage regulation can be used if the


voltage variations required by the network loads are satisfactory for other loads served from the same generator bus.

12. The Overhead Network


The overhead secondary network" follows the same
general pattern as the underground network and differs
from the underground network primarily by having the
secondary mains, network units, and in many cases the
primary feeders overhead on poles. Extensions of the
fringe of an underground network frequently are carrierl
overhead in areas where underground construction is not
used. The secondary mains are supported by racks or
messenger cables. The network transformers and network protectors are mounted on poles or on platforms
depending on the size of the network unit. Jn areas where
overhead construction is used load densities are generally
lower than in underground areas and the network transformers are correspondingly smaller. Transformer ratings
most frequently used in overhead networks range from 50
to 150 kva. The network protcct.ors41 used in overhead
network systems are generally smaller than protectors for
underground systems but operate in the same way. Overhead secondary-network main conductors are smaller than
underground-network main conductors and faults are
burned clear as they are in the underground network. \Vhen
the secondary-main conductors are mounted in the open
on racks in the overhead network, a definite spacing is
maintained between the conductors and faults are more
easily cleared than in underground mains. The fault currents required to clear faults on overhead secondary mains
are shown in Table 2.

13. Operation of the Secondary Network


Normally all primary feeders of the network system are
in operation and carry a proportionate share of the total
network load according to the transformer capacity served
by each feeder. Each load on the network is supplied by
not less than two paths and the load inherently divides so
that the best possible voltage is maintained at all points
in the network grid. As loads change, the division of load
changes so that equal voltage drop is maintained from
adjacent transform~rs to every point on any interconnecting main. Thus, for any given load conditions the least
possible voltage drop to services is obtained. Since there
are at least two paths of supply to any load tap in the
secondary grid, abrupt changes of luad-such as starting
large motors35 48-cause less voltage disturbance in a network system than in a system having radial secondary
mains, even if the radial system were designed for the same
steady-load voltage drop as the network system.
Faults in Secondary Mains are burned clear as explained previously in the description of the network

707

secondary mains. Most of these faults either are arcs or


have less thermal capacity than the secondary-main conductor; this type of fault is cleared quickly without interrupting loads. A few faults have high thermal capacity
and must be cleared by fusing the conductor between the
fault and adjacent junction points in the grid. Such faults
may result in dropping all the load on one sedion of secondary main. However, such faults occur infrequently.
Primary-Feeder Faults are cleared by opening; the
breaker at the supply end of the faulted feeder and opening
all the network protectors in network units associated with
the faulted feeder. N une uf the luaU is dropped and the
total load divides among the remaining feeders. When the
faulted supply circuit is repaired it is returned to operation
by closing its breaker. When the feeder is reenergized with
the correct voltage, the protectors that opened because of
the fault reclose and the feeder again carries its share of the
load. A transformer fault is isolated in the same manner as
a primary-feeder fault. If the transformer is equipped with
a hi~>:h-voltage disconnecting switch the faulted transformer can be switched off the deenergized feeder and that
feeder can be returned to service. However, this is not
nece:s:sary, jf the t.ran:sforrner can be replaced in a rea:sonably short time, because the network system must be
capable of carrying the total network load with any one
feeder out of service.
Under emergency conditions with one feeder open the
load is distributed among the network units supplied by
the feeders remaining in operation. Under these conditions
the voltage regulation at some points in the network, par...
ticularly those where a network unit is disconnected from
the grid, will not be as good as under normal conditions.
The amount by which the voltage drop under emergency
conditions exceeds that for normal operation depends to a
considerable extent on the uniformity of the load distribution among the network units during an emergency.
Load Division- The uniformity of load division
among the network units for either emergency or normal
operation depends on the ratio of the impedance of a
section of secondary main to the impedance of a network
transformer. The load division between transformer banks
on a network generally is satisfactory if the ratio of mainto-transformer impedance is three or less and if the transformers are correctly selected as to size and properly
located with respect to the major loads on the network. In
general, load division under normal operating conditions
has not proved to be a serious problem on network systems
because, when enough transformer capacity is provided to
prevent overloading \vith a primary circuit out of service,
there is sufficient capacity to take care of the normal difference in loading of the banks. If in isolated cases a bank
of transformers is carrying much more than its share of the
load, this can be corrected by installing a larger bank, a
duplicate unit, or external reactors 23 in series with the
existing bank on the secondary side.
The choice of transformer impedance for the network
unit depPnd~ on itR effect not only on load division but
also on fault currents, circulating currents, and voltage
regulation. Other things being equal, the lower the impedance of the transformers the better the voltage regulation, the higher the fault currents, the higher the circulat-

Chapter 21

Primary and Secondary Network Distribution Systems

708

ing currenL~ between primary feeders, and the poorer the


load division between transformer banks. Improved volt-

age regulation and, in most cases, higher fault currents to


insure burning secondary faults clear favor the use of lowimpedance transformers. High transformer impedances,
such as seven to ten percent, have been used, particularly
in early installations of the secondary network, to improve
load division and to reduce eircmlating currents between

banks at times of light load and the resultant undesirable


network-protector operations. Circulating currents are
caused by voltage differences between primary feeders,
resulting from :::.uch factors as supplying the feeders from
different buses, differences in feeder-voltage regulators, or
tapping large radial loads off one or more of the network
primary feeders. Relatively high impedance in the secondary mains between low-impedance transformers reduces the circulating current but results in poorer di!Slribution of load between transformer banks, both under normal condition8 and when one primary feeder is out of
service, than would be the case if lower-impedance secondary mains were used. Generally a network-transformer

...J ISO:~-

..J

-----

;:c:..:~

"
~160~-+~~f~~+--+--+--+--+-~

ffil40~/'~--t--t~~-+JL"t--t~
ffi II vi--.. v
120o!:---'--.L--"_ _j2'---'--"-3-.L_j4
RATIO OF MAIN IMPEDANCE

TO TRANSFORMER IMPEDANCE
(c)

Fig. 11-Effect of interlacing primary feeders on load division


among, the network units remaining in service in a regularly
spaced uniformly loaded network when one feeder is out of
service. (a) Five feeders, A, B, C, D, and E, running parallel
through the network area. (b) Five feeders, A, B, C, D, and E,
interlaced in the network area. (c) Maximum load on any
network unit with any one feeder, out of a total of five supplying the network, out of service: Curve A for parallel feeders
and Curve B for interlaced feeders.

TABLE 3--RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRANSFORMER CAPACITY


AND PEAK LoAD IN A SECONDARY-NETWORK SYSTEM

Ratio of Peak Load To Transformer Cap<tcily

Number of Feeders
Ideal

Usually Attainable

2
3

0.50
0.67

0.75
0.80

0.40
0.54
0.58

0.83

--------

0.60

0.61

impedance of about five percent provides satisfactory operating conditions. The majority of network transformers
in operation have impedances ranging from four to six
percent.. 63 If an impedance outside this range appears desirable, the effect on voltage regulation and lamp flicker
should be carefully considered.
Interlacing Supply Circuits~The maximum load on
transformers in a network system when one feeder is out
depends not only on the ratio of secondary-main impedance to transformer impedance but alt::~o on the pattern of
the primary-feeder connections to the transformers in the
network. This latter effect is illustrated in Fig. 11 for a
uniformly loaded, regularly spaced network. Two extremes of primary feeder routing are shown in Figs. 11 (a)
and !!(b). One extreme is the parallel primary-feeder
arrangement in which all transformers along one line of
secondary mains are connected to one primary feeder as
shown in Fig. 11 (a). The other extreme is the interlaced
primary-feeder arrangement in which each transformer
connected to one feeder is surrounded by transformers, at
adjacent junetiun point~, that are connected to other feeders. The curves in Fig. ll(c) show that the maximum
transformer load when one feeder is out of service is considerably less, for all practical impedance ratios, with interlaced feeders than with parallel feeders.
Ratio of Load to Transformer Capacity-In order
to avoid overloading the transformers in a network it is
necessary to provide enough capacity in the network units
so that the maximum loading on any unit when one feeder
is out of serviGe does not exceed the capacity of the unit.
The necessary installed capacity depends on how well the
load divides among the units as determined by impedance
ratio and feeder interlacing and on the number of feeders
supplying the network. Under ideal conditions it is necessary to have twice as much transformer capacity as total
load in a network served by two primary feeders, so that
the network units served by one feeder can carry the total
load \vhen the other feeder is out of service. For networks
Ruppliecl hy Rix feeder::~ or less it is reasonable to assume
that not more than one feeder will be open at any time
during peak load. Table 3 gives the ideal ratio of peak
load to total transformer capacity in a network for two to
six interlaced feeders. Increasing the number of feeders
from two to three and from three to four improves the
ideal ratio rapidly; but, as the number of feeders is increased further, the saving in transformer capacity decreases so that there is little gain in using six feeders instead of five. This is especially true fur the ra.Lio that usually can be attained. The ideal ratio can be realized only

Chapter 21

Primary and Secondary Network Distribution Systems

if the transformers can be loaded exactly to their capacities


and if the load Llivide~ uniformly among Lhe units in
service at any time. These conditions do not occur in

practice and the ratio that actually is obtained is usually


about that shown in the right hand column of Table 3. The
ratio of total peak load to total transformer capacity of 121
networks in 1937 was 0.44. 63 This value is based on existing load and transformer capacity; the transformer capacity in the actual networks probably provides for some

load growth beyond the existing; loads. The factors in

709

two paths of supply to each service tap, the load currents


divide among the secondary mains in such a way that minimum losses are obtained for any given load condition.

Maintenance and repair work on the system can be done


under the most favorable conditions because any element

in the system, except secondary mains, can be isolated from


the system without interrupting any load. One operating
disadvantage is the large number of network protectors
that mw:;t. hP- maintained.

The interconnected secondary grid places the duplication of supply paths as close as possible to the loads being

Table 3 are based on loads for which a network is designed


and which include provision for load growth. lf allowance
iM made for this discrepancy, the raLio of 0.44 is compara-

served. For this reason the secondary-network provides


better continuity of service than any other distribution

ble to the average of the attainable ratios in Table 3.

system except the d-e network system. The high cost of

14. Economic Field of Application


The simplicity of the secondary-network system is an

the d-e network system eliminates it from consideration in

the selection of a distribution system especially since it


affords no greater reliability than the a-e secondary net-

economic advantage in many cases. In many distribution


systems subtransmission circuits can be carried directly
from bulk power stations to the distribution or network
transformers. This means that a considerable saving can

work. The grid arrangement of the tsecondary mains also


provides the best possible voltage conditions at the loads
~onsistent with economical system design. The voltage
regulation at the service taps on a secondary network sys-

be made by eliminating the distribution substation normally required by other systems. Another source of sav-

tem generally is better than that provided by other systems. This is particularly true from the standpoint of

ings results from eliminating the duplication of primary


feeders or subtransmission circuits and the accompanying

lamp flicker because abrupt load changes can divide between at least two paths of supply.

high-voltage switchgear required in radial systems to provide a high degree of reliability. Secondary copper can be

Generally if high quality of service is required in any


load area the secondary-network system is the most

saved in many cases because the interconnected grid eliminates the need for separate secondaries frequently required
in radial systems for light and power loads. Capacity can
be added in thP secom:lary-nPtwork system in even smaller

economical means of supplying power. Under certain conditions Lhe secondary-network system is the most economical system even when a high degree of reliability is
not necessary. This is generally true where the entire

increments than in the primary network. The economic


advantage of adding small increments, as explained in the

distribution system is underground because a radial sys-

discussion of the primary network system, is more pro~


nounced for the low-voltage network than for the primary
network.
The relatively large amount of secondary switchgear,

in the form of network protectors, tends to make the installed cost of the network system higher than that of a
radial system and counteraclti par~ of the gain from the
simplicity of the subtransmission and primary-feeder part

of the secondary-network system. Interlaced primary


feeders in the secondary-network system require more
feeder circuit than do parallel feeders. They may require
more feeder circuit than a radial system using duplicate
feeders or primary switching to provide for isolating a
faulted primary feeder or section of feerlBr. ThB additional
feeder circuit required by interlacing usually is compen~
sated for by the saving in network-transformer capacity.
The use of primary switches in the network units counter~
aets some of the savings resulting from the elimination of
many automatic hreakers in the subtransmission circuits
or primary feeders.
The low-voltage network generaily has an economic ad-

tem requires many switching and sectionalizing devices


and duplication of subtransmission circuits and primary
feeders to avoid long interruptions of service while cable
circuits are being repaired. FaultP-d overhead circuits
usually can be returned to service in a reasonably short

time, but a much longer time is required to locate and repair a fault in a cable circuit. The economic comparison13
of typical distribution systems shown in Fig. 4 shows that
if all distribution circuits are open-\vire the overhead net-

work is likely to be the least expensive system for uniform


load densities above about 3000 kva per square mile. A
similar comparison 40 of systems in a uniformly loaded area
where all subtransmissiun aml JJrimary circuits are underground, as shown in Fig. 12, indicates that in such load
areas the overhead network (Curve E), may be economical

for load densities above about 3600 kva per square-mile.


The comparisons shown in Figs. 4 and 12 are based on an
area of sixteen square miles in which the load is assumed to
be uniformly distributed and to grow uniformly at a constant rate of ten percent per yea.r. Although sur:h uniform
conditions do not occur in actual cases the comparisons
show trends that are likely to occur in actual cases. In

vantage from the standpoint of operating costs. System

actual cases the load generally is not uniformly distributed

losses are genera11y lower in the secondary network than in


other systems of comparable load capacity chiefly because

and the load growth usually varies from year to year and
from section to section. The fact that the secondary net-

of two factors. One of these is the simplicity of the sub-

work can be expanded in small increments is of greater


advantage under such conditions than under uniform load

transmission circuits and primary feeders and, in many


cases, the elimination of the distribution-substation transformer:;. The other factor is that, since there are at least

conditions, as explained in connection with the

primary~

network system (See sections 6 and 7). This factor is

Primary arui Secondary Network Distribution Systems

710
700

600

'

I
~ 500

~~
\
~ t'-- AI

"0

<(

>

400

"'
"'0."'

C'-

."'

"' 300

r:s: t-12... --....


~ I'-

-........

..J
.J

0 200

'"--

100

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

LOAD DENSITY -KVA PER SQUARE MILE


Fig. 12-Re1ative cost of several types of distribution systems,
for various load densities in a sixteen-square-mile area where
the uniformly distributed load grows ten percent per year, on
the basis of all subtransmission and 4-kv primary feeders
under~round and secondaries overhead. See Fi~. 4 for the
type of system represented by each curve.

even more important in the secondary network than it is


in the case of the primary network because the secondarynetwork units arc smaller than those in t.he primary network and system capa~lty can be changed in correspond-

ingly smaller increments.

15. Planning the Secondary Network


The planning of a network sy:sLem is not as straightforwarrl as that of a radial system but the procedure is
relatively simple.n The ideal method is to use a calculating board because it is practically impossible to calculate the characteristics of a network by other means. As
in any planning problem, it is necessary to have adequate
information (loads, available supply, existing facilities,
and available circuit locations) on which to base the
design of a network. With this information available the
procedure then is to lay out by estimation an apparently
feasible plan. This plan is then studied on a network
calculator or by inspection and revised until a good design
is obtained.
Preliminary Estimates-In a radial system primary
and secondary circuits can be laid out and regulation,
transformer capacity, and {~ircuit capacity can be calculated directly by arithmetical means. This is not true in
the case of the network because the loads divide among

Chapter 21

the various transformers and primary circuits in such a


way that calculations of the characteristics of the system
by ordinary methods become tedious. There arc two
general methods of planning a network system. One is to
usc a network calculator or a miniature systcm67 to determine the characteristics of an estimated system arrangement and then make such revisions as arc required. The
other method is to eRt.imate a plan and then by inspection
estimate the division of load for various conditions; the
plan is then revised until the estimated load division gives
satisfactory conditions. The first method is more satisfactory Lecause iL shows accurately the operating charac~
teristies of the plan being consider~d while the accuracy of
the estimation-by-inspection method can be determined
only after the system has been installed. The networkcalculator method is described briefly in the following
paragraphs.
The first step is to concentrate the loads, in the proper
units, at variom:: points throughout the network so that a
reasonable number of circuit elements can be considered.
In order to do this the secondary-main arrangement that
appears best should be drawn. This step is illustrated by
the mesh of solid lines in Fig. 13 for a section of a typical
network area. The numbers distributed inside the dotted
building areas in Fig. 13 are present loads at service points
and are in terms of diversified kilowatt demand at the
distribution transformers. After the secondary grid is
drawn the distributed loads along each section of main are
concentrated at the junction points. A good approximation is to divide each load between the adjacent junctions
in inverse proportion to the distances between the load and
the junctions. After these loads are concentrated at junction points they are converted to ultimatekva of diversified
demand, at the transformers, for \Vhich the network is to
be designed. In the typical example the present loads are
increased by a factor of 1.4, providing for 25-percent load
growth (or approximately seven percent annually for three
years) and converting from kilowatts to kva at 90-percent
power faetor. The loads are then of such size and so
located that they can be represented on a network calculator conveniently, and they accurately represent load
conditions in the network area for which the network must
be designed. Where a large individual load is served from
a point along a section of main it is preferable to consider
that load at that point and possibly locate a transformer
adjaf'ent to the loarl, even if there is no junction with other
secondaries. This condition is illustrated at point e in
Fig. 13. The load near some points, such as i, may be so
light that a concentrated load need not be considered but
secondary maintj shuulJ Le pruv ideJ to insure good load
division among the various parts of tho network for
emergency conditions.
The layout of the secondary grid is made on the basis
of the locations of the loads that must be served and the
routes of existing secondary mains. In most cases existing
secondaries almost completely cover the area and it is
only nncnssary to connect these secondaries into a continuous grid. In some places it may be desirable to add
sections of main to provide multiple paths to certain loads
for emergencies when adjacent transformers are out of
service.

711

Primary and Secondary Network Distribution Systems

Chapter 21

I
I

3.51

Ml

I
o.sl
1
15 1
I
I

sl

3.51

lo.l

1
I

le.3
I
l2.o
I

1
1
35

I
I

I
I
I

127

L ___ M_M__ JL_J.!.J

I
I

L!!-!...-~

~~5l_ _ _ _ _ c:lbf'.-~2l ____ =


i'3 L5 3 2 141 IQ.4 2.5 I I 221
I
I I
I

--.51

[g) _1__\L ~2.1

121I
--~J

__ _Jig]

---::1 0

1 115

1
s.s I1 I1

I
I

'-i

1
I
I

31

125

I I
I

l'l.(lll

I I

s.71

l,s

1
I
I

el

L __ --~ L _____ ~

"'-':'2'-----~-------,
I

I
I

I
I

j i'-.(51)

I"';...,-----------,-,
1 5 4.1 0.6
2. 2.3 3.6 I 1.5 1
I
I
I

I
I
I

k "'-!44)

ro.3o.2
I

Ilo3
.

Fill;. 13-Present distributed loads along. the secondary main. in terms of kw of diversified demand at the distribution trans
former, and the corresponding concentrated loads at the intersections of the mains, in terms of diversified kva demand includ
ing, estimated load growth, form the basis for designing a secondary network in a typical load area.

When the loads and secondary plan have been determined the approximate ~izes and locations of transformers
can be selected. The transformer size will depend on the
type of system, size of concentrated loads, number of
feeders available, the feeder interlacing obtainable, and
spacing of the transformers. In general, the larger the
transformer the lower the cost per kva and the wider the
spacing between transformers in the network. But as this
spacing is increased the secondaries mm;;t h~ larger to keep
secondary voltage drop within reasonable limits and to
provide adequate carrying capacity. As the number of
transformers is reduced less primary cable is required.
The ideal size of transformer then is that which not only
handles thP. loads but also gives a minimum total cost
including costs of primary feeders, transformers, and
secondary mains. In the initial trial plan for the network
the transformers should be located at the major loads and
at the various junctions where the concentrated loads are
large enough so that the distance between transformers is
not greater than about two blocks or 600 to 800 feet.
t; sually the spacing is less than this because of the locations
of loads. It is generally desirable to select not more than
two sizes of network transformers. This permits stocking
fewer spare transformers and protectors. Also, interchangeability of units and part~ is increased by using only
one or two sizes. At points where large concentrated loads
are served it is desirable to use multiple installations consi:sting of two or more transformers rather than one transformer much larger than the rest of the unit:;j. This avoids
a large number of Rizes and the use of a few units of a size
that is not interchangeable with any of the predominating

sizes. In addition, multiple unit installations improve load


distribution and voltage regulation at the large loads for
cmcrgcney conditions.
After tentatively selecting sizes and locations of trans
formers a size of secondary main is selected. This size depends on the required carrying capacity, estimated regulation, and size of existing secondary copper. The carrying
capacity should be adequate to carry one-half to twothirds of the rated capacity of the predominating size of
transformer. The voltage regulation for normal operation
can be estimated by calculating the voltage drop to the
distributed loads along some sections of main where inspection indicates the worst regulation is likely to prevail.
The primary-feeder connections to the various transformers must be carefully selected to avoid, if possible,
adjacent transformers being out of service when any one
feeder is open. This is accomplished by interlacing the
primary feeders. In a network plan where the transformers are spaced regularly and uniformly throughout
the area the interlacing of feeders, such as A,B,C,D, and
E, can be shown in Fig. Il(b). In actual interlacing
problems the network units are seldom regularly spaced.
However, the interlacing is simplified by using some basic
system, such as that illustrated in Fig. Il(b) and modifying the order of the feeder connections where necessary
because of the absence of a. transformer or the use of
multiple units. When the interlacing has been selected,
a map of primary feeder routings is made. It may be possible to change some of the feeder connections to save
feeder cn.blc and still retain good interlacing.
By means of the preliminary eRtimat.eA the location and

Primary and Secondary Network Distribution Systems

712

Chapter 21

ratings of transformers, feeder interlacing, secondary-grid


arrangement, and secondary-copper size are selected so
that a reasonable network plan is established. This plan
can then be simulated on the network calculator on the

basis of the impedances of the various circuit elements.


The impedance of the primary feeders is usually lmv enough
that its effect on the characteristics of the network is
negligible. The impedance of a primary feeder is usually
not larger than about 0.5 percent on the basis of the rating
of the largest network transformer or about one-tenth of
the impedance of the transformer. Every case should be
checked and if the primary-feeder impedance exceeds this
value it may be necessary to consider the impedance.
Whether or not the primary-feeder impedance is considered
also depends on the primary-voltage regulation. If the
drop in the primary can be compensated for so that approximalely constant primary voltage is maintained at
the primary terminals of the network transformers the
primary-feeder impedance should not be considered in
load studies.
Checking the Preliminary Plan-With the estimated plan set on the network-calculator 1 check studies can
be made to determine the accuracy of the preliminary
es;t.imateF~. Tt may be nece&'>ary to change transforme.r
capacities or locations, interlacing, or secondary copper to
avoid overloading or inadequate use of some elements of
the network. Then with a final plan determined, the
characteristics of the network can be completely and accurately determined by means of the network calculator.
All reasonable operating conditions should be investigated. For example, the load division among the network
units should be determined with each primary feeder out
of service. Typical load division results obtained from
the network calculator are shown in Fig. 14 for the typical
area for the case when feeder "A" is open. By means of the
network calculator the maximum load on any element of
the network, the voltage regulation under various conditions, and the available fault currents can be determined.
These data show whether any of the elements of the network are overloadeJ anJ whether secondary faults can be
cleared. Necessary revisions of the plan can then be made

f2 0

380

16

(c\

Fig. 15-Short-circuit currents ln regularly spaced network


for various ratios of the impedance of a section of secondary
main to the impedance of a network transformer. (a) An ex
tensive network having 45 network transformers all with the
same ratin~. (h) A small network having nine transformers
0

t
248

c
16- h

network shown in (b).

all with the same rating. (c) Ratio of total fault current from
the network to the short-circuit current of one oi the network
transformers for a solid three-phase fault at the secondary
terminals of the transformer at the center of the network.
Curve A is for the network shown in {a) and Curve B is for the

142

54

TRANSFORMERS- f-t50 KVA, :>---4100 KVA, LOADS-........_

Fig. 14-Loads in amperes in various elements of a typical sec-

tion of a secondary network in an emer~ency when feeder A is


out of operation.

and a workable design developed. The sum of the loads


on the transformers connected to any primary feeder
indicates the required capacity in that feeder.
The network calculator provides the best means of determining the fault currents in a network. 1lowever1 if

approxirnations are necessary, the curves in Fig. 15(c) show

Chapter 21

Primary and Secondary Network Distribution Systems

the current to a fault at the center of large and small networks having regularly-spaced equal-capacity network
units. The curves give the ratio of the total current from
the network to the short-circuit current of a network transformer. As indicated by the curves the ratio increases as
the ratio of secondary-main impedance to transformer
impedance decreases. Total current from the network
does not include the current from the transformer at the
fault point. The total fault current from the network
divides equally among the four secondary mains terminating at the faulted junction point. One or the other of the
arrangements shown in Fig. 15(a) or 15(b) usually approximates the actual network arrangement where fault currents are to be eAtlmated. To URe the curvf's it is first
necessary to determine the average impedance of the
network-main sections surrounding the fault point. The
ratio of this impedance to the impedance of a transformer
in the actual network is the entry point to the curve for
determining the C ratio of the network, Fig. 15 (a) or (b),
that. approximates the actual network. :Multiplying the
short-circuit current of the transformer, whose impedance
is the basis of the main-transformer impedance ratio, by
C ratio gives the total fault current supplied by the network. In a network having only one size of transformer
the impedance and short-circuit current of that size transformer is used for calculating fault currents. If there is
more than one size of transformer in the actual network
the predominating size is used. The fault currents determined in this way are correct only for a network arrangement like that in Fig. 15(a) or 15(b) for which the C
ratio is determined. The effect of minor deviations from
the regularity of the arrangement will depend on how
close the deviation is to the fault point. The effect of
deviations remote from the fault point is indicated by the
fact that each main a, Fig. 15(a), carries 3.5 percent of the
total fault current from the network when the impedance
ratio is 0.5 and a smaller percentage when impedance ratios
are higher. Each transformer T supplies less than three
percent of the fault current from the network for any
impedance ratio.

16. Special Applications


The high degree of reliability, the simplicity of operation, and the economy of the secondary-network system
are desirable in several special cases such as in large or
multi-story buildings, bulk loads where continuity of
service is important, in generating plants for supplying
auxiliary motors, and in industrial plants. The application
of the secondary network in some of these cases involves
modifications of the network system but the basic principles of operation remain nnchangf'A.
Building or Vertical Networks-Fire pumps, elevators, and similar services in tall buildings require a high
degree of reliability that can be provided most economically by a secondary-network :system. 30 84 3s Such buildings
are almost invariably located in an underground-network
area. JS'"etwork units are located at several levelR according to the location and size of the major loads in the building. The primary feeders or subtransmission circuits that
supply the street network surrounding the building are
extended up through the building to the various network

713

units. The network units in the building are interconnected hy secondary ties that usually are connected to the
secondary-network grid in the streets adjacent to the
building. In some cases the secondary tir,s between the
network units in the building do not serve any loads and
the loads on the various floors between network units are
supplied by short radial services from the network units.
In other cases the tie circuits are tapped to serve the
loads on the floors between network-unit locations. The
tapped secondaries may have to be somewhat larger than
untapped ones because the tapped ties have to supply
loadti as well as equalize the loads on the various network
units. However, tapping the secondary mains between the
network units eliminates the radial service circuits required
when the ties are not tapped.
The secondary network uses considerably less copper
than does a radial system because power is carried to the
various levels in the building over subtransmission or
primary-feeder circuits instead of over large low-voltage
services from se~ondary mains outsidP. the building. Furthermore, the network generally provides better voltage

\ -;,.
~

\--to

NETWORK UNITS

~TRANSFORMER
PROTECTOR

SPOT NETWORK BUS

TIE TO STREET
NETWORK

(a)

REACTORS
SPOT NETWORK BUS
TIE TO STREET
NETWORK

(b)

BALANCING
TRANSFORMERS
SPOT NETWORK BUS
TIE TO STREET
NETWORK

SERVICES
(C)

Fig. 16-Typical spot networks. (a) Two network units sup~


plying a spot network bus from which services are tapped. (b)
Two network units connected to spot-network bus throu~h
reactors. Services are supplied directly from terminals of net~
work units. (c) Two network units supplying a spot-network
bus through ha.lancin~ transformt:-rs. Any of these forms of
the spot network may or may not be connected to the sec~
ondary mains of a street network.

714

Chapter 21

Primary and Secondary Network Distribution Systems

conditions, particularly in the upper floors of the building,

of circulating current through the network units. The

and less loss because of the reduction in the length of low-

secondary winding of a balancing transformer must be

voltage, high-current circuits.

The secondary network

short circuited, when its associated network protector

utilizes all the diversity among the loads in the building to

opens, to prevent high voltage drops in other balancing

reduce the circuit and transformer capacity required to

transformers interconnected with the balancing transformer whose primary circuit is open.
The use of balancing transformers permits taking services from a common bus. It is not necessary to have equal

supply the building load.


The Spot Network is frequently used to supply a
concentrated load such as a theater, a hospital, or a small

industrial plant where a high degree of reliability of service is necessary.42 In its simplest form a spot network is a
bus to which power is supplied by two or more network
units, each of which is supplied by a separate primary
feeder or HnhtranRrniRsion cirt~tJit, Fig. 16(a). The opera-

tion of the spot network is the same as that of the ordinary network. Instead of an interconnected grid of
secondary mains the spot network uses a concentrated
bus from which the loads are l:5erveU.
Since a spot-network is a relatively low impedance path
between the associated supply circuitR large circulating

currents through the spot-network units, frequent protector operations, or extremely unequal load division
among the spot-network units may result from large
voltage differences between the supply circuits because of
other loads on those circuits. The most common methods

of reducing circulating currents and equalizing load division are shown in Figs. 16(b) and 16(c). Reactors" are
relatively inexpensive but their use depends on the prac-

ticability of dividing the load into parts approximately


proportional to the transformer capacities. Because the
network units usually are of equal rating the loads on the
services must be nearly equal. In the scheme shown in

Fig. lU(b) the voltages at the services arc not necessarily


equal and each service must be metered separately. Totalizing the loads, where that, is necessary, requires complicated equipment. Starting large motors on one of the services
is more likely to cause lamp flicker in the scheme in Fig.

loads on the services. The service loads can be totalized by


current transformers and simple metering equipment using
the common bus potential. Motor starting currents and
similar abrupt loads divide between the network units thus

reducing the likelihood of lamp flicker. Balancing transformers are generally used only when circulating currents
and consequent protector operations are likely to occur

frequently because of voltage differences between the circuits supplying the network unit:s. Inequalities of load
division among the network units usually do not justify
balancing transformers because sufficient network-unit

capacity must be installed so that the total load can be


carried with one unit out of service.
When a spot network is located in a secondary-network
area the spot network bus is frequently tied to the street
mains of the surrounding: secondary network ns shown in

Fig. 16. This may improve the reliability of the spot


network. It takes advantage of diversity between the
spot-network load and the loads on the surrounding network to reduce the capacity required in the spot network.
Power-Plant Networks-The continuous operation
of a steam generating plant depends not only on the

reliability of the generators and boilers but also on the


reliability of the auxiliaries such as draft fans, fuel handling equipment, boiler-feed pumps, and cooling-water

pumps. Therefore it is extremely important that the


power supply for the motors driving the auxiliaries be as
reliable as possible. :Many schemes are devised to improve

16(b) than in a scheme where the services are supplied

the reliability of the power supply to the auxiliaries. These

from a common bus.


To avoid the difficulties involved in the use of reactors,
balancing LraHtiformers37 frequently are used as shown in
Fig. 16(c) although they arc more expensive than reactors.
The balancing transformers operate like differentially
connected current transformers in the secondary leads of

schemes use duplicate buses, duplicate transformers,


throw-over switching, and various other devices. In many
cases a secondary network is ideal not only from the
GENERATOR BUS

the network units. Equal load currents in the leads of the


network units induce voltages in the differentially connected secondary windings of the balancing transformers.
These voltages add and cause a circulating current in the
balancing-transformer secondaries. Thls eireulatlng current is in such a direction in each transformer that it
essentially neutralizes the magnetomotive force due to the
load current flowing through the primary winding of each
balancing transformer, and there is practically no voltage
drop in the balancing-transformer primary windings to
oppose the flow of load current. If only a circulating current flows in the secondary leads of the network units,

i 1 i Ii
I
3

I STATIONEN:RATORS[
NETWORK
TRANSFORMERS

that is, toward the spot-network bus from one unit and
from the bus to the other network unit, the voltages in
the balancing-transformer secondary windings oppose each
other. Therdore 1 there is no current in the balancing-

transformer secondaries, and there is a large voltage drop


in the balancing-transformer primaries opposing the flow

Fill,. 17-Typical shematlc diagram of a secondary network for


supplying power-plant auxiliaries.

Chapter 21

715

Primary and Secondary Network Distribution Systems

Fig. 18--A low-voltage network unit consisting of an aircooled transformer, a high-voltage three-position selector
switch. and a network protector for use in industrial plants,

generating plants, and buildings.

standpoint of service reliability but also from the stand-

point of eeonomy. 60 70 A typical arrangeme11l of the network syst(~m for supplying po\\'cr-pbnt auxiliaries is shown
in Ji'ig;. 17. The network maim~ are carried through the

plant according to load locations and the loads are suppiled from these mains. The network unitH are distributed

Otherwise the protectors may close and attempt to


parallel a generator with other generators through the
network system.
The utilization voltage for power-plant auxiliaries
usually is nominally 440 volt~. Since faults on circuits
operating at that voltage frequently do not clear without being deenergized, limiters are connected in the
secondary mains of a secondary network operating at
thaL voltage. The auxiliary load in a generating plant
is highly concentrated and consequently the possible
short-circuit currents in a power-plant. secondary-network system are usually much higher than in the
ordinary street network.
Small Towns-In the commercial areas of small
residential towns it .is sometimes necessary to put the
distribution circuits underground. Under these conditions the secondary-network system has been applied in many places where the load involved is only a
few hundred kva." These installations generally use
light-duty network protectors and network transformers ranging in capacity from 50 to 150 kva.
These small networks are usually supplied by only
hvo primary feeders; in fact the supply circuits for
the network units usually are subfeeders from overhead primary feeders that supply adjacent residential
areas. In some eases the voltage level on one of the
feeders is maintained enough higher than the other
that the protectors associated with the other feeder
are open under normal-load conditions and close only
when the feeder with the higher voltage goes out of
service or when an unusually high load peak occurs
on the network.
Industrial Plant Networks-The secondary-network
Ryst<cm, Fig. 19, has been used to distribute pO\ver in industrial plants 00 70 72 where a high degree of reliability and
flexibility for load changes frequently are required. The
utilization voltage most frequently used in industrial
plaat:-; i8 a nominal voltage of 440 but it. may he 220 or 550.
For tho voltages ahovc 220 some means of isolating faulted
secondary tie eirC'nits is nr:f'Pssary because faults at those
PRIMARY FEEDER

POWER SUPPLY

BREAKER~

SECONDARY LOOP

alon~ lhc~e mains in accordance >dth the di6t ribution of

lottd, Two or more primary feeders arc Utied to energize

the network 1ransformers_


It is necessary to have two or more eireuits supplying
the network. To avoid using a breaker to connect each
of tho primary feeders of the net\York to the plant bus
where the intnrupling duty and the corr<'sponding breaker
cost are high. the primary feeder:-:; frcquen1ly are connected
to the generator terminal::-: as shmnt in Fig. 17. The hazard
of a fauli, in a ~hort prirnary f(cder and the assoeiatt,J
network unit or 1mib usually is small t>rwugh that it doPS

not jeopardize the operation of the g('-DfTatoL IlO\rcver,


there must. he at lt>ast one network suppty t'ir\'uit. eonnP-eted to the station bu}-: or an outside ..-;ourcc of po\YCr 1'0
that the plant auXiliaries can he ClH'rgiztd when all tho
generator;-; n.rc idl(. Tlw network pnJte<'i(H'S associa1cd
'Xith a fncder t:upplind from the terminal~ of a generator
must b(' interlocked with the gen('rator brt:aker so that
when the breaker is open Ute protuetor is lueked open.

PRIMIIRY FEEDER

SELECTOR SWITCH

CIRCUIT

Fig. 19-Typical schematic diagram of a secondary network for


distributing power in an industrial plant.

716

Primary ami Secondary Network Distribution Systems

Chapter 21

RURAL

AREA
DOWNTOWN
COMMERICAL

AREA
SERVED BY

SECONDARY
NETWORK

Fig. 20 A complete power system is a combination of generation. transmission. and several types of distribution systems.
The particular combination of distribution systems used in any power system depends on economics and the types of loads,
load densities, and quality of service required in local areas. ln this diagram A is a generating plant, B is a bulk power substation; Cis a plant where an industrial-plant network is applicable; D is an industrial plant served by a subtransmission

loop; Eisa plant served by a single subtransmission circuit; F is a plant served by duplicate subtransmission circuits; G is
a distribution substation supplying, radial primary feeders: H is a primary-network unit substation~ J is a single-circuit
distribution substation supplyina a primary feeder in a rural area.

voltages frequently do not burn clear. Furthermore, the

REFERENCES

arcing and noise accompanying a secondary fault that

General
1. Overhead Syslem8 Reference Book, National Electric light Asrociation, New York, 1927.
2. Electrical Distribution Engineering, Howard P. Seelye, McGrawHill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1930.
3. Underground System8 Reference Book, National Electric Light
Association, Xew York, 1931.
4. Electric Distribution Fundamentals, Frank Sanford, McGrawHill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1940.

burns clear are likely to disturb the personnel in a plant


where the ~cunda.ry ties wsually are overhead in conduit
or similar enclosures. Therefore, limiters or similar protective devices should be used in the secondary ties of an
industrial-plant network as shown in Fig. 19.

One modification of the secondary-network system for


industrial-plant applications is the use of a secondary loop
instead of a grid. The load density in.an industrial plant
is high compared to that in urban areas where networks

are applied. For that reason the transformer capacity and


the corresponding fault current available is much higher
in an industrial-plant network system than that in street
networks. Omitting cross ties in a plant network and
using a simple loop for the secondary ties reduce tho
available fault current. The liRe of parallel circuitR in the
loop sections facilitates selective operation of the limiters

for isolating secondary faults.


Another modification of the network system generally
used in the industrial-plant applications is a primary
selector switch by means of which each network unit can

be connected to either of two feeders. Frequently the total


load on a plant network is not enough to justify more than

two feeders. On the basis of street-network design this


requires about two units of transformer capacity for each
unit of load. By using the selector switch the transformer
normally supplied by a faulted feeder can be switched to a

good feeder, thus keeping all the transformer capacity in


operation. It is necessary to have only enough reserve
transformer capacity to permit any one transformer to be
out of service because of a fault or for maintenance. In an
industrial plant where the transformers are all in a small

area the switching can be done quickly enough that the


thermal capacity of the transformers permit them to carry
the overload that occurs while the deenergized transformers are being switched back into service.

Primary Networks
5. 4-KV Network Saves 20 Per Cent, A. H. Sweetnam, Electrical
lVorld, Vol. 97, March 14, 11)31, pages 500-503.
6. Fundamentals of the Medium-Voltage Network, D. K. Blake,
General Electric Review, VoL 34, April, 1931, pages 210-216.
7. The Primary Network, R. M. Stanley and C. L. Sinclair,
A.l.E.E. Transactiona, Vol. 50, No.3, September, 1931, pages
871-879, (discussion 879--884).
8. Protecting A Medium-Voltage Network, JohnS. Parsons, Electric Journal, Vol. 28, September, 1931, pages 520--525.
9. The Primary Network System, H. Richter, Electric Journal,
Vol. 28, December, 1931, pages 661-664.
10. Primary Network Stations~ Vault, Building, Outdoors, R. J.
Salsbury and H. S. Moore, Electrical World, Vol. 100, September
3, 1932, pages 304 307.
11. Year of Experience Solves Primary Network Problems, R. J.
Salsbury and H. S. Moore, Electrical World, Vol. 100, November
5, 1932, pages 624--626.
12. Short Circuit Tests Prove Primary Network, R. J. Salsbury and
H. S. Moore, Electrical World, Vol. 100, December 24, 1932.
pages 849-851.
13. Primary Network Economical For Medium-Load Densities,
John S. Parsons and Leonard M. Olmsted, Electrical World,
VoL 10 I. June 24, 1933, pal";es 835-838.
14. Primary Network Proves Advantageous in Boston, St. George
T. Arnold, Electrical World, Vol. 112, August 26, 1939, pages
500-5!)2 and 6-18.
15. Simplified Primary Network Saves $110,160 on Investment, F.
W. Floyd, Electric Light and Power, Vol. 18, November, 1940,
pages 47-4U.

Chapter 21

Primary and Secondary Network Distribution Systems

Secondary Networks
16. Underground Alternating Current Network Distribution for
Central Station Systems, A. H. Kehoe, A.l.E.E. Transactions,
VoL 43, June 1924, pages 811-853, (discussion pages 860""874).
17. Motor Performance on Combined Secondary Networks, A. P.
Fugill, Electric Journal, Vol. XXII, July, 1925, pages 316-320.
18. Evolution of the A.C. Network System, H. Richter, Electric
Jnnrnal, Vol. XXII, July, 1925, pages 320--336.

40.

41.

42.

19. Recent Development in Automatic Network Units, G. G.


Grissinger, Electric Journal, Vol. XXII, July, 1925, pages 336-

43.

338.
20. ThP. Automatic Network Relay, J. S. Parsons, Electric Journ<tl;
Vol. XXII, July, 1925, pages 339-344.

44.

21. Regulators For Network Distribution Systems, E. E. Lehrj


Electric Journal, Vol. XXII, July, 1925, pages 344-345.
22. Regulators on Network F~~dern, C. C. Hudspeth, Electric Jour~
nal, Vol. XXII, July, 1925, pages 346-347.
23. No-Winding Reactors For Paralleling Transformers and For
Secondary Networks, J. 8. Helorew, Electric Journal, Vol.
XXIII, June, 1926, pages 329-332.
24. Evolution of the Automatic Network Relay, John S. Parsons,
A.I.E.E. Transactions, Vol. 45, November, 1926, pages 11951202, (discussion pages 1220-1227).
25. Operating Requirements of the Automatic Network Relay, W.
R. Bullard, A .l.E.E. Transactions, Vol. 45, November, 1926,
pages 1203-1211, (discussion pages 122Q-1227).
26. Combined Light and Power Systems for A.C. Secondary Networks, H. Richter, A.l.E.E. Transactions, Vol. 46, February,
1927, pages 216-234, (discussion pages 234-239).
27. Low-Voltage AC Networks, D. K. Blake, General Electric Review, Vol. 31, February, March, April, May, August, September,
and November, 1928, pages 82-84, 140--143, 186-190, 245-248,
440--443,480-482, and 6Q0-604, and Vol. 32, March 1929, pages
17(}-173.
28. DP.vP.lopments in Network Systems and Equipment) T. J.
Brosnan and Ralph Kelly, A.I.E.E. Transactions, Vol. 48, No.3,
July, 1929, pages 967-975, (discussion pages 975-976).
29. Low-Voltage AC Networks of the Standard Gas and Electric
Company's Properties, R. M. Stanley and C. T. Sinclair,
A.l.E.E. Transactions, Vol. 49, No. I, January, 1930, pages 265279, {discussion pages 280-284).
30. Vertical Distribution In World's TallCst Structure, J. A.
Walsh, Electrical World, Vol. 97, February 14, 1931, pages 328334.
31. Burn-Off Characteristics of AC Low Voltage Network Cables,
G. Sutherland and D. S. MacCorkle, A.l.E.E. Tran~;actions,
Vol. 50, No. 3, September, 1931, pages 8.~1-R44, (diseus..-..ion
pages 845-846).
32. Ares in Low-Voltage AC Networks, J. Slepian and A. P. Strom,
A.I.E.E. Transactions, Vol. 50, September, 1931, pages 847-852,
(discussion pages 852-853).
33. The Philadelphia AC Network System, H. S. Davis and W. R.
Ross, A.l.E.E. Transactions, Vol. 50, No. 3, September, 1931,
pages 885-891, (discussion page 801).
34. Vertical Networks in Metropolitan Office Buildings, A. H.
Kehoe and Bassett Jones, A.I.E.E. Transactions, Vol. 50, No.3,
September, 1931, pages 1159-1164.
3.5. Starting Currents on Networks, L. C. Bell, Electric Journal, Vol.
28, 1931, pages 615-617.
36. Reducing Network Protector Operation, J. S. Parsons, Electrical World, Vol. 98, December 5, 1931, pages 101()-1013.
37. Network Balancing Transformers, R. E. Powers, Electric Journal, Vol. 29, February, 1932, pages 89-92.
38. Radio City Starts With 13,000 KVA Capacity, E. Clute, Ekcirical World, Vol. 99, April 9, 1932, pages 656-659.
39. Overhead Secondary Network Next Move In Distribution, W.

45.

46.

47.

48.

49.

50.

51.
52.

53.
54.

55.

56.
57.
58.

59.

60.

61.

62.

63.
64.

717

R. Bullard, Electrical World, Vol. 99, April23, 1932, pages 745746.


Overhead Secondary Network Offers Real Economy, J S
Parsons and L. M. Olmsted, Electrical World, Vol. 99, May 7,
1932, pages 808-813.
Protectors For Overhead Networks, J. A. Butts, Electrical Journal, Vol. 29, May, 1932, pages 245-247.
Spot Networks Installed In Chicago Region, C. E. Van Denburgh, Electrical World, Vol.100, September3,1932, pages381382.
Spot Networks Reduce Cost of Duplicate Service, John S.
Parsons and S. B. Griscom, Electric Journal, Vol. 29, November,
Hl32, pages 503-505 and 530.
New Reactors Limit Voltage Rise on Network Cables, C A,
Woodrow, Electrical World, Vol. 100, December 17, 1932, pages
822-824
Voltage Regulation of Cables Used For Low-Voltage AC Dig..
tribution, H. R. Searing and E. R. Thomas, A.l.E.E. Trans
adWns, Vol. 52, No, 1, March, 1933, pages 114-120.
Application of Phase Sequence Principles To Relaying of Low
Voltage Secondary Networks, H. R. Searing and R. E. PowPl'S,
A.l.E.E. Transactions, Vol. 52, No.2, June, 1933, pages 614620, (discussion pages 626-629).
Voltage Regulation and Load Control, H. C. Forbes, and H. R.
Searing, AJ.E.E. Tran:-wdions, Vol. 53, 1934, pages 003-909.
(discussion pages 1525-1528).
Motor-Starting-Current Steps Based on Connected Load,
Thomas J. Brosnan, Electrical World, Vol. 103, April 28, 1934,
pages 608-609.
Distribution System Within Rockefeller Center, Electric Journal, Vol. 31, May, 1934, pages 180-183.
Load Division in Networks, L. M. Olmsted, Electric Journal,
VoL 31, June, 1934, pages 226-227 and 232.
Improving the Division of Load In Networks, L. M. Olmsted,
Electric Journal, VoL 31, July, 1934, pages 268-271.
Limiting Voltage Rise on Cable Fed Networks, R. E. Powers,
Electric Journal, Vol. 32, July, 1935, pages 290-293.
Secondary Network Goes Overhead, R. 0. Sutherland, Electrical World, Vol. 106, April25,1936, pages 1170-1172 and 1249.
A New Thermal Fuse For Network Protectors, L. A. Nettleton,
A.l.E.E. Transactions, Vol. 55, October, 1936, pages 1096-1099,
(discussion VoL 56, pages 1031-1032).
Small Underground Networks, J. A. Pulsford, Electric Journal,
VoL 34, March, 1937, pages 111-114.
Heavy Duty Network Protector, G. G. Grissinger, Electric
Journal, VoL 34, June, 1937, pages 254-256.
New Network Relays, John S. Parsons and M. A. Bostwick,
Electric Journal, Vol. 34, July, 1937, pages 288--293.
Short-Circuit Protection of Distribution Networks By the Use
of Limiters, C. P. Xenis, A.l.E.E. Transacticns, Vol. 56,
September, 1937, pages 1191-1196.
PerformR.nce Tests on Non-Metallic Sheathed Cable For Underground Network Mains, C. W. Pickells, E.E.I. BuUetin, Vol. 5,
September, 1937, pages 391-396.
Distribution Sy~Stems For Power-House Auxiliaries, F. S. Dougla.-. and A. C. Monteith, Electric Journal, Vol. 34, October, 1937,
pages 399-404.
Planning A Distribution System, J. F. Fairman, Electric Journal, Vol. 35, June, 1938, pages 236-239.
Operation of AC Low Voltage Network From Two Voltage
Sources, W. B. Kenyon, E.E.l. Bulletin, Vol. 7, March, 1939,
pages 115-118.
AC Network Operation, 1936--1937, E.E.I. Publication No. Ct,
August, 1938, 48 pages.
Operating Record Proves Value of Limiters, C. P. Xenis and E.
Williams, Electrir~l World, Vol. 112, October 21, 1939, pages
1165-1166 and 1225.

718

Primary and Secondary Network Distribution Systems

65. Philadelphia AC Network Operating Results, Paul W. Crosby;


Electrical Engineering, Vol. 58, December, 1939, pages 517-521.
66. Vaults For AC Secondary Networks, JohnS. Parsons, Electrical
World, March 23, April 20, and May 18, 1940, pages 886-88l'S;
955, 1201-1203, 1277-1278, 1512-1513, and 1572-1573.
67. Simulated Network Checks Actual System, C. T. Nicholson,
Electrical World, VoL 114, September 7, 1940, pages 67()-671.
68. Network Protector Operations Reduced, W. W. Edson and M.
A. Bostwick, Electrical World, Vol. 113, Februa.ry 22, 1941 0
page 56.

Chapter 21

69. Secondary Networks to Serve Industrial Plants, C. A. Powel

and H. G. Barnett, A.l.E.E. Transactions, Vol. 60, 1941, pages


154-156, (discussion pages 698-700).
70. New Applications for Secondary Networks, John S. Parsons;
Westinghouse Engineer, Vol. 1, May 1941, pages 24~27.
71. Secondary Network Planning, H. G. Barnett, Electrical World;
Vol. 116, August 9, August 23, and September 6, 1941, pages
422-423, 425, 575-576, 579 and 718--719.
72. Secondary Network For Industrial Plants, John S. Parsons,
Westinghouse Engineer, Vol. 1, November 1941, pages 85-88.

CHAPTER 22

LAMP FLICKER ON POWER SYSTEMS


Revised by:

Original Author:

S. B. Griscom

S. B. Griscom

OLTAGE regulation has been one of the most important problems of the electric industry since its
inception. The sizes of many parts of a power
system are determined largely by this one consideration
alone. A large proportion of the selling price of electrical
power is the interest and other fixed charges on production
and distribution facilities, so that any improvement in regulation is ultimately reflected in higher rates. Similarly,
types of load imposing exceptionally severe regulation requirements will also increase the cost of supplying energy.
In the early days of the industry, a relatively wide range

change, duration of change, and frequency of occurrence of


the flicker. These and other factors greatly complicate the
problem of assigning limits to permissible flicker voltages.
Numerous investigators have studied the flicker problem. The most complete analysis is found in the report
"The Visual Perception and Tolerance of Flicker," prepared hy Utilit,ies Coordinated Research, Inc. and printed
in 1937, from which Figs. 1 to 4 of this chapter are reproduced.
Figure I shows the cyclic pulsation of voltage at which
flicker of 115 volt tungsten-filament lamp is just percep-

of voltage variation was permissible, because the public

was at that time unaccustomed to uniform lighting intensity. Today, there is a greater consciousness as to
whether the voltage level is about right, as indicated by

5.0

~4.0
...1

the "whiteness" of the ligltt and by lamp life. \Vhile, however, a narrower voltage band is required than formerly,
this is not always the limiting factor in voltage regulation.
Numerous new devices have been added to pmver lines
in the last few years, which impose rapid and frequent
changes of load, with correspondingly rapid voltage
changes. Repeated observations have shown that rapid
changes of voltage are much more annoying than slow
ones, so that "flicker" effects may limit the useful loadcarrying ability of individual circuits long before maximum
steady-state regulation or heating is reached.
Consequently, the voltage regulation problem must now
bP. considered from two angles: the normal drop in voltage
from light load to full load, and the superimposed flickers
due to motor-starting and to various pulsating and irregular loads. The differences in voltage between light
and full load affect, the performance, efficiency, and life of
electrical equipment, and are treated in Chap. 10. The
present chapter considers only the flicker component of
voltage regulation, and deals primarily with the reaction
of the human eye to variations in electric light intensity.

I. PERMISSIBLE FLICKER
The permissible amount of flicker voltage cannot be
stated concisely for several reasons. There is first the
human element; one individual may think objectionable
a flicker not perceptible to another. The lighting fixture
used is of ~onsiOerab]e importance. Smaller '.vattage incandescent lamps change illumination more quickly upon
a change of voltage than lamps with heavier filaments.
The character of the voJtage change is also important.
Cyclic or rapidly recurring voltage changes are generally
more objectionable than non-cyclic. On non-cyclic changes
the annoyance due to the flicker is affected by the rate of

o"'
o""

~3.0

!i

.
U>

52.0

"

~0

,o ...

...1

1.0

"
FREQUENCY OF VOLTAGE PULSATION (CYCLE$ PER SEC.}
Fi~.

1-Cyclic pulsation of voltage at whkh flicker of

115~volt

tungsten filament lamp is just perceptible-derived from 1104

observations by 95 persons in field tests of 25-watt, 40-watt.


and 60-watt lamps conducted by Commonwealth Edison
Company. Figures on curves denote percentages of observers

expected to perceive flicker when cyclic voltal1e pulsations of


indicated values and frequencies are impressed on lighting
circuits. PlotteU points denote medians of observation~ at
various frequencies. number of observations in each case
being indicated by adjacent figures.

tible. Flickers as low as :Ya volt were perceptible in 10


percent of the observations, when the rate of variation
was 8 cycles per second. In order for the variations to be
perceptible in 90 percent of the observations, however,
the voltage change had to be over one volt at the same
frequency. The range between 6 and 12 cycles per second
was the most critical.
Figure 2 shows the minimum abrupt voltage dip to cause
perceptible flicker in a 60-watt, 120-volt tungsten-filament
lamp, as a function of intensity of illumination. Curves
are shown for 5 and 15 cycles (60 cycles per second basis)
durations of voltage dip. It should be noted that abrupt
voltage dips of 1.5 to 2.0 volts were perceptible.

719

- - - - - FARAOV HOUSE TESTING LABORATORY


-----SKOWRON
------BAIT. ELEC. AND ALLIED MFAS.' ASSN.
- - - U N I O N GAS AND ELECTRIC CO.
(NO PULSATIONS BETWEEN 3 AND 12 CYCLES

"~

"""'

'
0

5 CYCLE DURATION OF' VOLTAGE DROP

15

"

"

"

100

10

..
~_,_,
.x

I --~=--~X WENNERBERG
BROWN, FISHER

L5t.-

1000

ILLUMINATION ON READING MATTER (fOOT-CANDLES)

Fig. 2-Minimum abrupt voltage drop for perception of


dicker of 60-watt, 120-volt coiled-coil tungsten-filament
lamps operated on 60-cyde alternatin~ current. Each point
represents the means of the observation of 44 persons.

0.5i-_:~-+~=~;;l:.....~:::=:=-.Jf0o

---

>~

.
0..

'-

w-'

<.> _, 4

o:,.
~~

~ ~3

TABLE !-MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE VOLTAGE FLUCTUATIONS

Volts on 115 Volt Basis

I
"'"'
~~
"'wo
"'"'
.. "' 0

:52

.....

>-'

v-

"

--- --- ----

\.

power lines.

....

B. *On a power line primary whose

x KEHOE,25 AND 100-WATT, 115-VOLT, LAMPS


A BROOKLYN EDISON CO., 50-W, 115-V, LAMP
D WERDENBERG, 40-WATT, 220-VOLT, LAMP
LINDBERG, 25 S 60-WATT, 115~VOLT, LAMPS
v ETL 25 TO 100-WATT 120-VOLT LAMPS

ExVery
Infre- Fre- Fre- tremely
quent quent quent Fre1 quent

A, *On a subststion bus feeding only

~--~--,

~l:5 ,J
~ 2 I(
II>W
W<.>

.... ....

--J'f:.'O'

15

voltage.

Class of Service

t:o

j::;o

10

Fig. 4-Recommended maximum allowable cyclic variation of

.._;;;
->>

C.

D.
6

DURATION OF TRANSITION OF VOLTAGE {SEC)

Fitl. 3-Eflect of duration of transition of voltage on average

threshold of perceptibility of flicker of


lamps.

__--j

FREQUENCY OF VOLTAGE PULSATION (CYCLES PER SEC.}

Figure 3 shows the effect of "duration of transition'' of


voltage on the average threshold of perceptibility of flicker
for tungsten-filament lamps, This curve shows quite
clearly that whereas an abrupt cbange of about 1)1 volts
0 ~6

AND HURD

~ I.O~--~.--+-----+----~t~~~~

"

"

1.0

iii

Chapter 22

Lamp Fricker on Power Systems

720

tungsten~filament

is perceptible) a change of 5 volts or more is necessary


before voltage variations requiring several seeonrls for
completion can he perceived.
Figures 1 to 3 arc of interest in showing the perccptibilities for various classes of flicker voltages. These are not
working limits 1 because a perceptible flicker is not necessarily an objectionable one. Fig. 4 shows the recommended
maximum allowable cyclic variation of voltages as set up
by various authorities for their own use. The variations in
these recommendations is an indication of the extent to
which individual judgment t~Itterl::\ the problem. The curves
are nevertheless an exceedingly valuable guide.
Cyclic fii<'ker, when perceptible, is likely to be objec-

tionahle, at least to some individuals. Isolated voltage


dips, however, even if plainly perceptible, are not objediuualJle Lo the majority of individuals unless rather
frequent. It can, therefore, be expected that larger vari-

E.

entire output is not taken by the


one customer and read at the
customer's premises.
On a power line whose entire output is taken by one customer and
rf'arl ftt the cust.nnwr's premise."
On a substation bus feeding distribution eireuit and on distribution circuit primaries ..
On a distribution circuit secondary:
(a) At the secondary customer
causing the fluctuation.
(b) At the secondary customer
not causing the fluctuation.

I
8

No definit e Limi 1t
6

3"

5 .. 1

3 ..

*Loop Power Linea or their equivalent automatic throwover lines shall be conas Distribution Circuits.
**On Farm Lines this limit has been increased to six volts because motor starting
is so largely confined to daylight hours. This !unit permits us to reasonably cope
with the long distances encountered
siden~d

DEFl).JlTIONS:
1. InfNHJHmt Flicker shttll include co.eN< occurring silt timea or le&a in twenty~four
hours lout not. more than ontJJ bctweJJn 6:00p.m. and 12:00 midnight. This provisiou
is intended to t'over apparatus such as motor generators, fans. pumps. etc .. which
normally run continuoudy throughout the working day.
2_ Fr<e'!'"'nt Fliek<er ~hnll inrludf' t'"-"''S cweurring not nff.<ener thrm t.hrf'e timf!~ per
hour, exGcpt tiHtt between G:OO p.m. and 1200 midnight they shall not occur more
than om:e per hour. This t>rovi~ion is inteuded to Gover apparatu~ sudt as machine
tool!>, e!ettric furnaees, etc., which are periodically started and stopped throughout
the working day.
3, Very Frequent shall include cases occurrin!?. not oftener than once a minute
on the iH'Cr;1ge liUd shall indude all except rapidly and n:gularly recurring flickers.
Tlus provbion is intended to eovvr such apparatus as elevator nwton. automatic
pump~. IN~ umchin(s. etc" whid1 arc sblrted fairly frequJJntly but, in genJJral, are
not rq;tJ!aJ!y ~ta>ted ""'"'"!lime" a >uiuuL<".
4. E~lrerne!y F'rtqucnt shull indude all rases occurrin~ more frequently than the
ubovc. Thi~ proYi:;iou i~> intcmlcd to cover such apvaratus as f\a:;hing :sif.:n:o;, welrlcn<,
p;r:wd pit hoists, and certain elJJetrie furnaces, which are frequently and repeakdly
stOJ>P<'d and start<'d or rapidly lon.dod and unloaded dunng normo.l us<'-

ations are permissible for non-cyclie than for cyclic variations1 hut that the amount of tolerable dip depends upon

Chapter 22

Lamp Flicker on Power Syst<mS

721

quency doubled to get it out of the objectionable range,

the frequency of occurrence and the class of service. Here


again, judgment is an important factor as well as technical
facts. The maximum alluwl;Lble Iluctuatioms practiced by
one operating company are shown in Table 1.
This is a very comprehensive set of standards and has
proved satisfactory in practice.

by synchronizing the generators so that the power strokes


of the two engines alternate rather than occur simultaneously. This can be done because there arc usually more
poles on the generators than cylinder.:! on the engine, par-

II. ORIGIN OF FLICKER VOLTAGES

jectionable range. A stroboscope or similar device used


with the regular synchroscope permits such synchronizing.
It has sometimes been thought that it should be possible
to correct flicker of this type by the use of special voltage

Flicker voltages may originate in the power system, but

most frequently in the equipment connected to it.

1. Generating Equipment
Prime Movers-Engine driven generators are probably responsible for most of the rare cases of flicker origi-

nating due to the power system itself. Curve (a) of Fig. 5


shows the variation in tangential force of a four cylinder

ticularly in those engines where the flicker is in the ob-

regulators of unusually fast response. In practically every


case this is completely out of the question because the
frequency of the flicker is too high for the time constant
of the generator field. For example, the field time constant
of a typical moderate-sized engine-type generator is between 0 ..1) and l.S secondR, wherea.-; the range of most

objectionable flicker is between nand,.. second per cycle.


Even electronic excitation systems are unable to regulate

""

"o
a:.
00

400

voltage at such a high rate.

Generators-A symmetrical generator with constant


load, excitation and angular velocity produces a constant
II
terminal voltage. If any of these quantities varies, how~ ~ 100
/
ever, the terminal voltage also varies.
~ ~
0
'\
~ IJ. -100
It is possible to have a sufficient degree of non-uniformz 0 -200
ity
in the generator air gap to cause pulsating terminal
:so
60
90
120
1!50
180
210
240
210
300
330
;!.0
ANGULAR POSITION OF FLYWHEEL
voltage. However, the commercial manufacturing toler(o)
ances are sufficiently close that no case of flicker due to
this cause is known to have occurred. To produce flicker
in this manner, both the rotor and stator must be eccentric.
Stator bores of all but the smallest size machines will inherently have a certain degree of eccentricity, because they
must he huilt up with segmental laminations. In spite of
this built-up construction, quite close tolerances are held
0 ~
0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330
by the use of accurate dies and assembly keys and dowels.
If ;,c
ANGULAR POSITION OF FLYWHEEL
(b)
Further attempts at improvement would be very difficult
Fig. 5--Curves from a four~cylinder 300 rpm Diesel engine at as it would require boring or grinding the inner bore of
full load driving a jlenerator. The variation in velocity caused the stator punchings. This is quite undesirable from the
a corresponding variation in the generated voltage.
standpoint of accumulation of iron chippings and filings
between laminations and into the slots, which might result
300 rpm Diesel engine at full load, and Curve (b) shows in a condition of insulation breakdown and localized heatthe corresponding percent change in angular velocity of ing of the stator The rotor eccentricity is, because of the
the rotating parts. With all other factors constant, this necessity of dynamic balancing, held normally to quite
non-uniform rate of rotation produces a fluctuation in clo.._~e toleranr.eR. Since no voltage fluctuations can he proamplitude of the generator voltage The total variation duced if the rotor is concentric with the shaft, no modifiin voltage is the same as the total variation in speed in cation of standard manufacturing procedures has ever been
this example 0.7 percent. The frequency of the variation necessary from the standpoint of flicker voltages.
is equal to the rpm times the number of power strokes
Abrupt changes of load on generators produce correper revolution; in this case 300X2=600 per minute or sponding changes in the terminal voltages. This voltage
10 per second.
fluctuation is the result of two factors: the change in speed,
Referring to Fig. 1, it is seen that 0.7 percent change in and the regulation of the machine. In central station
voltage is readily perceived by most individuals. Fig. 4 practice it is very unusual for change in speed to be a
indicates that most operators regard this as too much significant factor. Sudden load increments are usually too
flicker to be tolerable. About the only practicable remedies small as compared with the total generating capacity to
are increasing the flywheel effect, or changing the speed change the speed materially. Even if the speed changes,
to get within a less objectionable frequency range. In this however, the rate at which the voltage drops is ordinarily
actual case, the flicker of the original installation caused so slow, that the effect is imperceptible to the eye (see
many complaints and it was satisfactorily corrected by Fig. 3).
increasing the flywheel effect.
A typical vo1tagetime regulation curve of a large turWhen two or more engine-driven generators are in con- bine generator, following sudden application of load is
tinuous operation at the same station, the amplitude of shown in Fig. 6. Speed and excitation voltage are assumed
the fluctuation can frequently be lowered, and the fre- constant. Three points on this curve are of especial in11.. ..J

300

200

I! ~11 HII ttiiJIJ

722

Lamp Flicker on Power Systems


E9

Ur-, -

Similarly, point (b) is calculated from synchronous reactance using the relation:

0-b=E,-Ixd
b

> )( ..-v

...

1&1

The transition from (a) to (x) and from (x) to (b) may
be calculated by using the appropriate machine time constants. This procedure is more fully described in Chap. 6.
From the standpoint of flicker voltage, the following points

)(

... " ' I

3!:

Chapter 22

t3'

~u

1
4

TIME -SECONDS

Fig. 6--Voltagewtime regulation of a large

turbo~generator

following sudden application of load.

terest. Point (a) is the voltage immediately following the


application of load; point (b) is the voltage after the
voltage has settled; point (c) is an extrapolation of the
curve from (b) back to zero time. Each of these points
may be determined closely by the use of the appropriate
generator reactance. In fact, the standard definition of
the various reactances has been made for this particular
use. For a fuller discussion of machine characteristics
see Chap. 6.
Point (a) is determined by the use of the machine subtransient reactance xd" In the case of an initially unloaded machine, the voltage (0-a) is the vector difference
between tbe no-load voltage and the product of the load
current times the subtransient reactance. That is,

0-a=Es-lx/'
The voltage rapidly falls further to a point (x) and at
a much lower rate to point (b).
The reason may be described approximately as follows.
At the instant of load application, the magnetic flux in
the air gap remains ~ubstantially constant, and the initial
drop in voltage is principally that due to reactance of the
armature winding. However, the armature currents set
up a demagnetizing effect to buck the field flux. The
decreasing field flux generates voltages and currents in the
field structure, which resist or delay the ultimate change.
The induced currents in some parts of the field structure,
such as the eddy currents in the pole face, damper windings, or rivets, subside rapidly because of the high resistance of the path, and allow part of the flux to change
quickly. In the average machine, about 0.1 second is
required for this change. Most of the change of voltage
between points (a) and (x) is due to this cause. The
majority of the field flux is encircled by the field winding
which is of very low resistance, and, therefore, constitutes
an effective damper to rapid changes of voltage. The
change in voltage from (x) to (b), therefore, constitute.s
an effective damper to rapid changes of voltage. The
change in voltage from (x) to (b) is, therefore, comparatively slow, from 3 to 10 seconds being required for 90
percent of the change to take place in large machines.
Point (x) is not directly calculable by using standard
machine reactances alone. Point (c), however, can be
calculated in the same manner as point (a), except that
transient reactance is used. That is

0-c=E,-lxl

are of interest.

For single load applications more than 10 cycles in duration (on a 60-cycle system), the voltage regulation point
(c) of Fig. 6, calculated from the transient reactance, is
the determining quantity. Fig. 2 shows that there is little
difference in perception lasting from 5 to 15 cycles of voltage drop. In average machines, the subtransient drop is
usually about two-thirds of the transient drop. However,
after about the first 5 cycles, the voltage drops to the value
determined by transient reactance. A further drop in
voltage takes place due to the decrement of the field,
reaching point (b) on Fig. 6. Usually, this synchronous
reactance drop is not more than two or three times the
transient reactance drop. Automatic voltage regulators
may limit the drop to less than 1Yz times the transient
drop. Reference to Fig. 3 shows that for a transition time
of the order required (3 to 10 seconds), the additional
voltage drop due to field decrement is not perceptible
For load durations less than 5 cycles, it is likely that the
regulation as calculated from the subtransient reactance
determines the permissible flicker. While the voltage drop
at the end of 5 cycles is greater than initially, the tranliition
is gradual and it is doubtful if the eye can discern so
small a difference.
For load durations between 5 and 10 cycles, it is probable that an average between subtransient and transient
reactances should be u:::;ed to calculate flicker voltages for
comparison with perception data similar to those given in
Figs. 1 to 3.
The proper reactance to be used to calculate the effect
of cyclic variations depends upon the frequency of their
occurrence. The following range is suggested for generators 5000 kva and above.
Pulsation FreqUFmcy
Cycles per Second

Reactance

1-4
5-12
12 30

In smaller machines the field time constant may be so


short that pulsation frequencies below 2 cycles per second
may require the usc of synchronous reactance.
Excitation Systems-Excitation systems are rarely
the cause of flicker voltages in central station practice. In
larger generators, field time constants above 3 seconds
cause variation in armature voltage to be very gradual
no matter how fast the excitaLion may change. Occasionally, hunting of generator voltage regulators causes wide
voltage fluctuations, but this is not a true flicker. On small
generators, continuously vibrating regulators occasionally
cause a small pulsation of the armature voltage.

Chapter 22

Lamp Flicker on Power Systems

Since the alternator fielrl constant is usually too high to


permit exciter fluctuations to show up in the alternator
terminal voltage, correction of flicker by means of excitation control is not practicaL In other \Vords, the amount
of generator flicker depend~ upon its inherent reactance
characteristics and cannot be substantially improved by
excitation controL
Short Circuits and Switching Surges-Short circuit
currents, because of their magnitude, produce large voltage
drops and attendant flicker. Reduction in the amount of
voltage drop is not feasible without major changes in
system layout and large expenditures. The duration of
the voltage drop can, however, be markedly reduced in
a number of cases by the use of high-speed relays and
breakers. Flicker due to short circuits occurs so seldom
that no special consideration for this purpose alone is
necessary. The tendency is toward a gradual reduction
in flicker, as system improvements are made for other
purposes such as protection of lines against lightning 1
installation of high speed relays and breakers, etc. These
comments apply tu networked systems; in radial lines,
short circuits produce outages, a distinctly different
problem.
Line switching rarely produces flicker unless load is
picked up or dropped, or lines with large charging currents
are switched. Here again, special provisions to reduce
flicker are rarely necessary.

2. Utilization Equipment
Most of the flicker on central station systems is due to
the customers utilization equipment. The following are
some of the more common types of equipment knuwn tu
caw~e ftieker.
Motor Starting- Probably most of the flicker problems arc caused by the starting of motors. For reasons
of cost, efficiency, and reliability, commercial general purpose rnotor~ require a momentary starting current several
times their full load running current, in order to produce
sufficient starting torque.
Three general dasses of motor installations are of importance in the flicker problem.
( 1) Single phase fractional horsepower motors commonly used in homes and small stores.
(2) Integral-horsepower polyphase motors operated
from secondary distribution circuits, such as in
small shops, large stores and bui1dings, and recently in a small number of homes for air conditioning.
(3) Large integral-horsepower three-phase motors opw
crated from primary lines, mostly by industrial
concerns.
(I) Single phase fractional horsepower motors arc manufaetured in large quantities, and to maintain this extent
of usage, they must continue to be low in cost, economical,
rugged and reliable. These requirements huve led to several classes of motors depending upon the service, with
one class de~igned specifically for frequent starting with
low starting current. This motor is used in great quantities
in domestic refrigerators and oil burners, and the%' horsepower 110-volt elass usnally has a locked-rotor starting
current of 20 amperes or less. It is not unduly expensive

723

to design a distribution system to supply 20 amperes at


110 volts without objectionable lamp flicker. Where single
phase 110/220 systems are used, 40-ampere starting currents are permissible on the 220-volt connection, allowing
larger motor~ to be used.
(2) Integral-horsepower motors on secondary circuits
are potential sources of flicker. In most cases, sn('h motors
are used in areas of high load concentration and the power
circuits are correspondingly large. This usually permits
ordinary 3-phase squirrel cage motors to be started directly across the lines. In some cases, however, the size
of a motor is out of proportion with its supply line. The
practical solution is to use a starter that limits the initial
inrush of current and thereafter changes the current in
increments sufficiently sma11 to prevent objectionable
lamp flicker.
(3) Supplying large motors from primary power lines
is usually not troublesome because such motors are usually
located in an HJndustrial district" where power supply lines
are inherenUy heavy and where wider limits of voltage
drop are permissible (See Table 1). There are nevertheless
a number of cases particularly in rural communities, where
motor ratlngB arC' too high for the power facilities. A suitable motor starter may correct such cases, although in
some im;tallat.ions othP.r mensure::; may be required.
Starting currents for both induction and synchronous
motors at full voltage vary from 5 to 10 Limes full load,
depending upon the size, number of poles, and other application requirements, such as required starting, pull-in,
and pull-out torques. The power factor under lockedrotor conditions varies between 25 and 50 percent. For
approximate calculations, a starting current of 6 times
normal at 35 percent pmver factor may be used. \Vide
variations from this should be expected, and spe~ific data
should always be used when obtainable.
Motor-Driven Reciprocating Loads-This type of
load usually consiHts of air compressors, pumps and refrigerators. The motor load varies cyclically \Vith each
power stroke and produces a corresponding variation in
the line current. Thus, comparatively small variations of
voltage may be objectionable if the pulsation occurs G to
12 times per second. (See Fig. 1.) Difficulty from this
source has been caused in the pa~:>t Ly t..lome~tie refrigerators, but in modern designs both the frequency of pulsation and the amount of fluctuation have been improved,
so that complaints from this cause are now rare.
Figure 7 is an oscillogram showing the armature voltage,
current and three-phase power of an air compressor driven
by a 100-horsepower wound rotor induction motor. There
are several pointi-l of interest on this oscillogram. .First,
although the voltage variation can scarcely be detected
on the oscillogram, it actually was very objectionable to
lighting customers. This shows that oscillographs used in
the conventional manner may not ahvays be suHaUle
for flicker-voltage measurements. Second, the three-phase
pmver and current fluctuations occur simultaneously and
the peak is about 2Yz times ihe minimum. This is interesting because it shows that the slip of induction type motors
cannot preveul loaJ fluet.uations from showing up in the
supply lines, unless the inertia of the load is high or the
rate of power pulsation is high.

724

Lamp Flicker on Power Systems

Publication 0 50-1943 "American Standard Rolaling


Electrical -:\.1 achinery" of the American Standards Committee establishes the amount of pulsations for synchronous motors. Section 3-160 reads:
"Pulsating Armature Current: When the driven load such as
that uf reciprocating type pumps, compressors, etc., requires a
variable torque during each revolution, the combined installation
shall have sufficient inertia in its rotating parts to limit the

variations in motor armature current to a value not exceeding


66 percent of full load current,
"NoTE l-'T'he haRis of determining this variation shall be
by oscillograph measurement and not by ammeter readings. A
line shall be drawn on the oscillogram through the consecutive
peaks of the current wave. This line is the envelope of the cur~
rent wave. The variation is the clifferf'.nee het.ween the maximum
and minimum ordinates of this envelope. This variation shall
not exceed 66 per cent of the maximum value of the rated full
load current of the motor. (The maximum value of the motor
armature current to be assumed as 1.41 times the rated fulllon.d
current.) Adopted Standard 6-13-1923."

The above excerpt provides a basis for standardization


and gives a criterion for a design unlikely to cause flicker.
However, there are still po,$siUiliLies that this amount of
pulsation may at times result in flicker, particularly if the
rate is betvveen 6 and 12 cycles per second, and the supply
line impedance is high.
An analysis of Fig. 7 shows that with an induction motor
both the current and power factor pulsate when the motor
load varies, the power factor being highest when the load
is highest as shown in the tabulation below. Usually, the
armature time constant is high compared with the rate

Fig. 7-0scilloQ,ram of current I, voltage E, and three phase


power W of a 100-hp wound-rotor induction motor driving an
air compressor. The voltage change which cannot be measured from the osdlloflram caused objectionable flicker.

Chapter 22

of load fluctuation, and the steady-state performance of


moderately- sized induction motors as determined by test
or circle diagram may be nsed in r,alculatlng flicker due to
cyclic load variation of power factor with load, but specific
data should be used where obtainable.
Load, Pereent

Power Factor, Percent

25

72

50
75

85

---~

~~----~ -~~~.______._______

100
12S

78
87
go

The variation of power factor of a synchronous motor


during cyclic load fluctuations is a more complicated phenomenon. The average power factor is, of course, greatly
iniiuenced by the supply voltage and by the field excitation. The variations from this average pO\ver factor due
to load fluctuation is largely dependent upon the rate of
the fluctuations as compared with the time constant of the
field. For example, if the field time constant is 1 second
and the load fluctuates once every 2 seconds the synchronous reactance of the machine determines the extent of the
change in power factor. If, however, the power fluctuations are, say, 8 cycles per second, the transient reactance
largely determines the change in pov. -er factor because the
load swings are too rapid to demagnetize the field.
Since in flicker problems, the change in load is of greater
concern than the magm:tude of the load, the average power
factor is of no particular interest. The preferable proce-

Fig. 8-Vector diagrams 111ustratlng method of obtaining


magnitude and phase position of synchronous motor current
and magnitude of bus voltage with change of load. Xa is
system reactance and Xm is motor reat:tance.

Lamp Flicker

Chapter 22

<m

dureJ if complete motor data are available, is to calculate


the changes in the bus supply voltage to the motor dne to
changes in the load on the motor. The method is illustrated in the vector diagrams on Fig. 8. Vector diagram
(a) shows the vector relations for a synchronous motor
operating at full load and 80 percent power factor lead.
Eu, Ebu .. and Em are respectively the system voltage, bus
supply voltage to the motor and the internal voltage of the
motor. I R, and I X, are the voltage drops through the
system impedance. IXm is the drop through the motor
where X m may be the synchronous, transient or subtransient reactance depending upon the rate of load fluctuation compared to the time constant of the machine.
Using diagram (a) as the starting point where the motor
power factor angle 61 is known along with the average
load, Ebua and all of the reactances, the change in bus
voltage can be obtained as shown in vector diagram (b).
For all sudden changes ln load the system voltage, E,., and
the internal voltage of the motor, Ern, remain substantially
constant. To determine the sudden dip in bus voltage it
is necessary to calculate a curve of bus voltage against
motor load or motor load change. This requires for each
point on the curve that a. magnitude of current be assumed
and the voltage drop through the system and motor determined. This will locate the internal voltage E,. with
respect to the system voltage E, ( ln Fig. 8 Em and also
E. in the diagrams (a) and (b) have the same magnitude).
~ 90

...

...

200

&!;too
0:

~ 180

0:

"':::l 160

"~ 140
...::>~ 120

POWER FACTOR

~ 90

...

.."'6

~ 80

..

~GO

0:

..
g"

..;( 100

50

80

40

...::>..J

60

...z

40

...
w

.."'"
0:

20
0

.."'
0

1---

70

30

10

>
;:: 0

..""'
"'
....
~

10

v
--

1/

...

7 .........
-

_....-

./

REACTIVE KVA;

-- -- f-7 - _...

T20

"'w

VARMATURE
CURRENT

)>. /

"'KVA\
8

REACTIVE

1\

I
40

80

\
120

160

PERCENT OUTPUT

00

20

30
40

80 '4 POWER FACTOR MOTOR

eo
60
70

Fig. 9-Characteristics of a typical synchronous motor at


normal rated voltage. Curve A is for rapid changes in load
from initial value and curve R is for slow changes.

725

Power Systems

The position of the voltage drops will then determine the


position of the current vector as well as the bus voltage
vector Eb" Using the current, voltage (Eb"') and the
angle between them the power can be found. With the
curve of bus voltage against motor load change the voltage
for any desired change in motor load can be obtained.
The variation in reactive kva with real power is shown
in Fig. 9 for a typical synchronous motor. These data are
200

"'eiOo
"~

~ 160

"'
a

V.owER

1-

w 120

.."

!;(

~ 80

1-

"'~ 60
:r

"'~ 40
"

"'>
40

>=
~.
w

"'
...z
...~

o'/

1-

CURRENY

FACTOR

a:

..

80

li.'

"'a:

...z
"
:i

/!

v r-

a:

/.

./

/ /
/

~ VREACTIVE

KVA

40

80

120

160

200

PERCENT OUTPUT

Fig. 10-Charscteristics of a typical induction motor.

for a power factor of 80 percent at full load, but for ordinary purposes the variations in reactive factor may be
superimposed on the initial reactive factor. Curve A is
for a rapid rate of fluctuation starting from full load 80
percent power factor; Curves B are for a rate slow compared to the field time constant with fixed terminal voltage.
Motor Driven Intermittent Loads-In this cat&
gory fall motor drives where the nature of the work calls
for heavy overloads, and for cyclic loads of long and irregular period. Saw mills and coal cutters are typical
examples of applications where heavy overloads, sometimes to the stalling point, are common and difficult to
prevent. The motor currents in such installations vary
rapidly from light load, through pull-out at heavy current
and high power factor, to the high locked-rotor current at
low power factor. Punch presses and shears are examples of
applications where the load goes through wide variations,
but where flywheels and other design features limit both
the rate of application and magnitude of the load swings.
Motors used to drive intermittent loads are likely to
have been designed with special characteristics. If possible,
the fluctuation in current and power factor should be obtained by test or from the manufacturer. In the absence
of such specific data, Curve B of Fig. 9 may be used for
slow cycling intermittent loads, and the curve of Fig. 10
may be used for applications where pull-out and stalling
occur.
Electric Furnaces- There are three general types of
electric furnaces-resistance, induction, and arc. The re~istance furnace usually causes no more fiicker than any
other resistance load of comparable size. Most induction

726

Lamp Fl,icker on Power Systems

Chapter 22

ing the regulator settings or by a combination of several


of t.hPse procedures. Forcing the furnace in this manner
increases both the magnitude and the violence of the load

swings. The type of the scrap being melted also affects


the extent of the load swings, heavy scrap causing \Vider
fluctuations than light scrap.
The oscillogram of Fig. 12 represents a short part of a
melting-down period of a 10 000-kva arc furnace. At times,

Fi~.

11-Three-phase melting arc furnace of the 1-Ieroult type.

furnaces operate at high frequency, and therefore, are


connected to the power line through a frequency changer
and consequently represent a fairly steady load.
Three-phase steel melting arc furnaces of the Ileroult

type, illustrated in Fig. 11, are being used to a considerable


extent to make high grade alloy steel, and frequently cause
voltage flicker.
While the average load factor and power factor of electric arc furnaces are as good or better than many other
industrial devices, the problem of supplying them with
power is usually mu(:h more difficult. During the melting

down period, pieces of steel scrap will at times, more or


less, completely bridge the electrodes, approximating a
short circuit on the secondary side of the furnace transformer. Consequently, the melting down period is characterized by violent fluctuations of current at low power
factors, single-phase. When the refining period is reached,
the steel has been melted down to a pool and arc lengths
can be maintained uniform by automatic electrode regulators, so that stable arcs can be held on all three electrodes. The refining period is, therefore, characterized by
a steady three-phase load of high power factor.
The size of load fluctuations during the melting down
period is influenced by a number of factors, of which the
rate of melting is perhaps the most important. The furnace-supply transformers have winding taps for control of
the arc voltage and in the smaller sizes (about 6000 kva
and below) have separate built-in reactors to limit the
current and stabilize the arc. The rate of melting is subject
to further control by means of electrode regulators. Sometimes the production of the furnaces is stepped up Ly
raising the arc voltage, reducing the series reactance, rais-

Fig. ll~Oscitlogram at start of heat in a 10 000 kva Herault


type three~phase arc furnace. A single-phase arc struck and
restruck 10 times in the space of 15 seconds before all three
phases struck. After this initial period, all three phases struck
and restruck 10 times with currents in all three phases fairly
well balanced before the arcs became generally stable. A portion of this performance is shown on this fil;lure 10

the current variations occur at a periodicity approximating


the rate of the most objectionable flicker. A graphic chart
illustrating the variation of load over a longer period of
operation is shown in Fig. 13. These two figures are
reprints of figures from reference 10.
Calculated curves in Fig, 14 show the electrical characteristics of a 10 000-kva, three-phase arc furnace. These
curves were prepared on the assumption thaL Llte maximum
attainable current \vould be approximately twice normal
at 50 percent power factor. The effective impedance of
the arc (based on 11 500 volts in the primary) is plotted
as the abscissa. For convenience, zero ohms, as plotted,
represents the minimum arc resistance as determined by
the so-called short circuit condition. Actually, at this
point there is appreciable voltage drop at the Plectrode
tips, and considerable arc energy; the curves are plotted
in this manner only to show the working range. It is of
interest that the point of maximum power is not that of
maximum kva. The usual melt-down range is probably
between the points corresponding to 0 and 10 ohms, the
arcs fluctuating during this period so that the heating
effect is some sort of an average between these limits. The
refining range is probably above 10 ohms.
It is difficult to obtain definite figures on the values of
instantaneous swings in current and power factor for use

727

Lamp Flicker on Power Systems

Chapter 22

20,00
0\

'\

~10,00 0

15,000

KVA

-..;-

I<W

--

100

POW R FACT R

"

'

'""' ~

0,00 0

"

20

"

10

'

ARC RESISTANCE-OHMS

Fig. 14----Electrical characteristics of a 10 000 kva,


arc furnace.

'

three~ phase

These values will give approximately the same flicker as


the single-phase swings given in references 14 and Iii. The
curve values are not the maximum possible swings for a
given furnace size but are good values to usA in estimating
flicker. The frequency of occurrence of these s\vings corresponds to the Extremely Frequent classification as given

.4
0

I'-.

6
2

..
.4

I. 0

--r2

...... ........
'--

pOINER F

..:J

0.

I<VA SWING

,.

16
20 22
10 12
I
FURNACE TRANSFORMER RATING -MVA

0. 2

24

26

Fig. 15 Equivalent kva swings in an electric arc furnace.

Fi~. 13-Graphic charts at time of same heat shown on oscil


Iogram of Fig. 12. Furnace swinl!ts occur approxhnately once

a st".condlO_

in flicker determinations, because an oscillograph must be


used and the maximum swings cannot always be caught.
On smaJl furnaces, the current may reach a maximum of
3Yz times that at full load, but the process of reaching this
value is usually through a series of smaH inerPmEmts; and
as noted previously the annoyance to lighting customers
io largely a matter of the rate of change rather than the
total change.
The kva swings given in Figure 15 are equivalent swings.

in Table 1. Load swings can occur more rapidly, but their


magnitudes are less than those in Fig. 15. These curves
can be used in conjunction with the method suggested in
Sec. 5, to estimate the amount of flicker. The information
shown in Fig. 15, together with suitable system constaul8
should give a fair approximation of the flicker voltage to
be expected.
Electric Welders-This is a class of equipment of
great importance in povler system flicker. :l\t1ost welders
have a smaller Hon" time than "off" time, and consequently, the total energy consumed is small compared with
the instantaneous demand. Fortunately, most welders are
located in factories, \vhere other processes require a large
amount of power, and where the supply facilities are sufficiently heavy, so that no flicker trouble is experienced.
In isolated cases, but nonetheless important, the welder
may be the major load in the area, and serious flicker
may be imposed on distribution systems adequate for
ordinary loads.

Chapter 22

Lamp Flicker on Power Systems

728

The more common types of electric welders are:


(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

Flash welders
Pressure butt welders
Proje-ction \veld~rs

Resistance welders
(a) Spot
(b) Seam

In welders the source voltage, usually 230, 460 or 2300


volts is stepped down to a few volts to send high current
through the parts to be welded, Practically all welders
in service are single-phase, although experimental threephase welders show promise.

With flash welders, one piece is held rigidly, and the


other is held in quasi-contact with it, with voltage applied.
An arc is formed, heating the metal to incandescence, and
the movable piece i~ made to follow to main Lain the arc.
The heating of the metal is partly by the passage of current
and partly by burning with the arc. After a sufficient
temperature and heat penetration has been obtained, the
pieces are forced together under great pressure. In some
cases, the power is cut off before this" upset"; in others,
the power is left on. The current, drawn during the flashing periort, il'l irregular hee:uJHP- of the inst.n.hility of the arc,
so that the flicker effect is obnoxious more than if the
current were steady at its maximum value. The average
power factor during flashing may be as high as 60 percent.
At upset, it is about 40 percent, The flashing may last up
to 20 or 30 seconds, but 10 seconds is more common. Tho
duration of power during upset is usually short; of the
order of Y2 second. This type of welder may draw up
to 1000 kva during flashing and about twice this loading
at upset,
Pre~sure lmLt welders are similar to flwh welders, except
for the important difference that the parts being welded
are kept continuously in contact by a following pressure.
The heating is produced primarily by contact resistance.
From a power supply standpoint the butt welder is more
desirable than the flash welder because the welding current
once applied, is practically steady and the only flicker
produced is at the time power is applied and removed.
The range of currents and power factors is about that
for flash welders.
Projection 'ivelders are similar to pressure butt welders
except that the latter usually join pieces of about equal
size, and projection welders usualJy join small pieces to
large om~s. The current rlemand is usually smaller, but
the operations are likely to be more frequent.
In resistance welders current is applied through electrodes to the parts to be welded, usually thin sheets of
~:~teel or aluminum. The \veld i:s accurately timed to bring
the metal just to the welding temperature. The pieces are
fused together in a small spot. In the spot welder, one or
a few such spots completes the weld. In a seam welder,
a long succession of spots produces the equivalent of a
single continuous weld or seam. Resistance welders are
characterized by large short-time currents. In spot welders, the current may be applied for only a few cycles (on
a 60-cycle basis), with welds following one another in a
fraction of a second up to about a minute. Thus, from a
flicker standpoint there are a succession of individual volt-

(a)

(b)

Fig, 16-lgnitron timer for resistance welder.

age dips occurri:tig at objectionably frequent intervals.


Seam welders have an "on" duration of a few cycles followed by an "off" duration also of only a few cycles, The

Lamp Flicker on Power Syst&ms

Chapter 22

R.-:sistan~e

729

welders drawing energy from all thrf'P. phase~

greatly minimize flicker. Electronic devices are used to


convert from the GO-cycle, 3-phase source to a single-phase
output of lower frequency, say 10 cyelcs per seeond. On
small welders, the stored energy of capacitors or inductors

can often be used to minimiz~ the peak demand from the


souree.
Miscellaneous-lJ nder this category come special
equipment. as electric shovel;;;, heavy rolling mills 1 and
similar im;t.allations. ::tvlo~::~t of these mm;t be considered
individually as to spcciuJ features and power supply.

CourtesvofPederalMachtm&. WeiMrC().

(a)

(b)

Fig. 17-Typical resistance welders-(a) spot welder, (b) seam


welder.

process is a continuous one while a given piece is in t.he


maehine, and since the periodicity of the welds is uniform,

the flicker can be annoying even for relatlvcly small voltage


dips. The essence of good spot and seam welding is accurate control of the heat, consequently accurate magnitude and duration of current are uecessarv. Vacuum tubes
are being used to a large extent for weldor"eontrol functions
because there are no wearing parts, and dose and consistent regulation of the heat is possible. Fig. 16 shows a
photograph of an ignitron electric timer and Fig. 17 shows
a typical resistance welder.

Strip mining shovels frequently cause severe voltage


dips in power Hystcms, principally because of their large
size and wide variation of their loads. The fa!::lt rate of
load applicn.tion Js usually injurious to the power system
principally by ereating a w-ide band of voltage fluctuation,
rather than fiirkeT as it is commonly enemmten(L The
site of mining operation is often at out-of-the-way locations
where the power requirements for general purposes are
small and hence, the normal power facilities arc of low
CapacJty, and VCl'Y SUSCeptible to flicker due tO load
changes.
The large continuous rolling mills now used extensively
in producing wide metal strip have imposed a new problem
on the power industry. J~ike the electric shovel, these loads
do not neecsJSarily produce flicker in the cu:->tomary sense
of the word. The power supply is usually through motorgenerator sets without added flywheel effect. The loud
comes on and drops off in steps as the metal enters or
leaves the rolls. The individual incremt:nts are not in
themselves abrupt, a fraction of a seeond to over a second
being required for the metal to enter a roll completely.
A large hot, strip mill and a typical loarl chart are shown
in Figs. 18 and 19.
The power drawn by a large continuous mill may build
up to 30 000 kw in a period of 8 seconds, stay nearly con-

Fig. 18-Tandem cold mill for producing tinplate.

A heavy cycling load of this kind may produce vide


frequency variations on an lsolat12d power supply system
and \vide load swings on an interconnected system. A
power plant recording chart in Fig. 20 shows the power
flow betw('en the steel mill power plant and a large power
pool. Fig. 21 (<t) shows the hot strip mill load cycle and

25000 KW

ROLLING 36"X 4-!12"X75"

\20000

SLABS.

rQ- 0.104"x

36-1/8"

1\

\]\,

7
7

10000

(\

\11

Vl

L/L/) J

15000

--

ol.

I
90

(\_

15000

80

70

60

50

40

SECONDS

r''" ""'"'\\

FINISHING

~~~ ~~\g~.~:oFx ~-6-~-~-~. 2

\20000

\
I

10000

I I

.....

fl })

oi
60

50

120

140...1,.

59.9

TIME-SECONOS

40

30

20

Fig. 21 (b) the results of calculations on how power surges

r..

of this kind cat1se freqnPney disturbances which travel as

waves between the local po\.rer company to whieh the steel


plant is connected and a larger power pool.

.._...t

70

I IOOZ
~"""'_:T~J F_R~_o_~~N-~;:,_.,.,so
_o.~ _:~n:R~NECTEO SYSTE;"'-=F~- t --- ---r-r , i i I,
+- +-

Fig,. 21-(a) Hot strip milt load. (b) Effect on frequency of


lar~e interconnected system.

ROUGHING TRAIN

I
if

'~' ,,-

{bl

15000

TRAIN

~
~

+ -

"

10

20

30

60.

'- t;:;~- .L..J. ~....l._LL


+~~~CUENCY OF L~~~.:~r~f--:;:.:
(;o
~o
;:;
' 60.0

II)

u
>
u

25000 KW

eo

Chapter 22

Lamp Flicker on Power Systems

730

/
0

10

III. LOCATION OF FLICKER VOLTAGES

SECOND$
Fig. 19-Load chart for a hot strip rolling, mill.

stant for a minute, and then drop to almost zero in anothm


8-second period. There may then be an off period of a
minute followed by a repetition of the load cycle. The
power source is usually ample so that no flicker is perceptible to the eye, but there i:5 nevertheless a tendency for
the voltage to 11 weave" up and down. This is undesirable
because it widens the band of voltage regulation and may
cause excessive operation of feeder voltage regulators.
Automatic control of the excitation to the motor-generator
sets to conform to the load variations is effective in
minimizing these voltage swings.

Fig. 20----Power flow between a steel mill and a


nected power systetn.

lar~e

intercon-

Load equipment may create flicker conditions in one


or more of the following locations:
(1) Secondary distribution
(2) Primary lines
(3) Substation busses
( 4) Generating stationl::l

Any flicker in bus voltage of the generating station can


be expected to show up at practically all points ~erveU by
that station. Similarly if a substation bus flickers, all of
the radial loads from that substation are affected. Primary
line flicker aff~cts all customers remote from the source
of flicker, and to a lesser extent, some of those nearer the
source of supply. Secondary circuit flicker is usually confined to an area immediately adjacent to the source of
the disturbances.
The location of flicker voltage, or the extent of the afflicted ar('a 1 has a considerable influence on possible remedies. If the generating station busses are affected, there
are usually no commercially pracLical means of remedying
the situation on the power system, and the correction must
usually h0 made at the utilization point. If a substation
is affected, but the generation stations are not, then more
tie lines or transmission at higher voltage can be employed,
or a separate line run from the generating station to the
affected area. Sometimes the utilization equipment itself
can be corrected. If a primary line is affected, improve~
ments ean be made in either the power system or the
utilization equipment. If the distribution-system alone is
affeded the eorrection may be made either on the system
or the utilizatiuu device. If the utilization device is standard equipment, it is usually best to correct the distribution

Lamp Flicker on Power Systems

Chapter 22

system, and thus improve other loads as \Vell. If the


utilization device is special, it is probably more efficient to
correct the device.

IV. REMEDIAL MEASURES


A large variety of corrective equipment and procedures
can be used to minimize flicker. Those most commonly
considered are:
1. Motor generator sets
2. Phase converters

3.
4.
5.
6.

Synchronous condensers
Series capacitors
Shunt capacitors
Voltage regulators

7. Booster transformers
1\iJ otor starters

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Excitation control
Load control
Flywheels
System changes

3. Motor Generator Sets


A corrective scheme using m-g sets is illustrated in Fig.
22. In general, it is probably true that a motor-generator

Fig, 22-MotOI-generator set.

set between the utilization device and the pO\ver system


gives the maximum possible reduction in flicker, because
it is effective in minimizing three of the most undesirable
load characteristics: single phase, low power factor, and
sudden application. Since the only tie between the motor
and the generator is the shaft, the disturbances due to
single-phase load or to low power factor are not transferred
to the power system. The reactance of the driving motor,
in conjunction with the flywheel effect of the motor and
generator delay the transfer of a change in load to the
power system. The rale at which the voltage drops is
therefore lessened and the eye is less likely to perceive
this flicker.
The motor-generator set is probably the costliest arrangement, heaviest, least efficient, and occupies more
floor space than any of the various corrective devices that
can be used. But the m-g set has the ad vantage of consisting entirely of standard equipment, and is, thcrcforc 1
reliable and well understood apparatus. The motor enrl
may be synchronous, squirrel-cage induction, or wound
rotor induction, the latter usually being provided with a
flywheel and slip regulator. The generator end may be

731

suitable for the supply of either tiingle-phase or polyphase


loads.
"When a svnchronou8 motor rlra\vs additional power from
the line it ~drops back in phase position. This causes a
temporary drop in speed, but the flywheel effect of the
rotor tends to oppose this change and to give up temporarily part of its rotational energy. This results in a
11
cushionlng'' of the rate of application of load to the power
system, and a material reduction in peak demand can he
effected for loads of short durations as compared with onehalf of the natural period of electro-mechanical oscillation
(see Chapter 13). The natural period usually ranges between Y2 and 1 seeond, so that for loads lasting about }6
second and Jess, substantial reductions in peak demand
can be expected. Thus, synchronous-motor-driven rn-g
sets are quite suitable for spot and seam \Velders having
an "on" time of 1 to 10 cycles (GO-cycle basis). Similarly,
sudden increases or decreases of load are shielded from the
power system if the load factor is high, but the load is
subject to short violent irregularities. This is true of electric furnaces, for example, where the overall load factor is
good, but there is considerable "choppiness,)) sudden power
factor changes and short-circuiting of individual phases.
For this type of load, synchronous motor drives are nearly
as effective from the flieker standpoint as squirrel-cage
induction, and preferable for other reasons.
When an induction motor draws added power from the
line, it drops in speed. Its output, in the normal \Vorking
range, is closely proportional to the slip, that is, to the
difference bct\veen synchronous and actual speed. If load
is suddenly applied to a generator driven by a squirrel-cage
induetion-motor, the system does not feel the full effect
until the motor-generator set has slowed do\vn from nearly
synchronous speed to full-load speed. In the meanwhile,
the inertia of the rotating parts supplies the energy, and
thus the rate at which power is drawn from the system is
materially reduced. Furthermore, as in the case of synchrunuut:> driving mutons, if Lhe generator loaJ cunsit:>ls of
a series of short pulses, the load is off before its full effect
is transmitted to the power system, and the peak load on
the system is thereby decreased. Because an induction
motor must actually slow down, whereas a synchronous
motor merely shifts in phase, the rate of load application
to the power system is less for the induction than for the
synchronous motor. On an average, it takes an induction
motor-generator set about one second to transfer full load
to the source. In Fig. 3, it is shown that this delay alone
results in doubling the threshold of flicker perception, as
compared with the perception due to sudden voltage dip
of equal magnitude.
If the load pulses last several seconds, the power drawn
from the system levels off to the amount of generator load
plus losses for either a synchronous or squirrel-c~e motor
drive. The voltage drop in the power system during this
steady load period is usually about the same for either
the induction or synchronous motor drive, assuming that
the excitation of the synchronous motor is constant. By
inereaRing the synchronous-motor excitation with the load
the final regulation of the system can be made very small.
However, from the standpoint of flicker such excitation
changes are usually imperceptible because of the time

Chapter 22

Lamp Flicker on Power Systems

732

required for correction. Thus, from the flicker standpoint,


the principal superiority of the indu(';tion motor to the
synchronous motor is the doubling of the threshold of
perception, because of slower load application. This is
particularly so for short pulses of power, say Y2 second
and less, where the induction set draws considerably lower
peaks than the synchronous set.
A further material reduction in flicker can be effected by
the use of motor generator sets equipped with flywheels.
In such cases a wound-rotor-induction motor is used, and
additional rotor or secondary resistance is connected externally. By this means, the full-load slip of the motor can
be increased from 1 or 2 percent to 10 percent or more.
In order to transfer full load to the system, the set must
then slow down considerably and the fullest advantage is
thus taken of the inertia of the set and the additional flywheel. The extent to which improvement by this means
may be carried is limited by cost and each case must be
considered on its own merits. Limitation of peak demand
is probably not feasible for loads in excess of about 3
seconds, but the reduction of rate of load application
mav nevertheless be of benefit.
Figures 23 and 24 bring out in graphic form the points
discussed above. These curves were calculated using typical machine constants, and to facilitate computation, losses
were neglected except when used to calculate speed changes
on the induction sets.
The curves of Fig. 23 are for a load on !Yz seconds and
off 4y2 seconds. Curve (a) represents the load drawn by
the synchronous set, and shows that it takes approximately
0.2 seconds for the system load to equal the generator load,
and also that an ~>overswing" of about 35 percent makes
up for the deficiency between input and output during the
first 0.2 second. A similar swing occurs when the load is
dropped. Curve (b) shows the load drawn by a standard
squirrel cage induction motor subject to the same load

Tlt.IE-SECONOS

Fig. 23-Curves showing the relation between the power

sup~

plied by the g,enerator and the power taken from the system

for motor~generator sets using three types of motors. Gener~


ator load on for 1.5 seconds.

LOAO ON GENERATOR

:l(

40

(a} STANOARO SYNCHRONOUS

c-

:--t--

MOTOR

20

LOAD ON SYSTEM

60 0

f.-;;

'@

~60 0
~
;;
'400

It>) STANDARD lNPUCTION

g200

MOTOR

r>,

60 0
40 0

le) WOUNO-ROTOR INDUCTION


MOTOR WITH FLYWHEEL

200
0

I
LO

2.0

3.0

4.0

5D

6.0

TIME-SECONDS

Fig. 24-Curves showing the relation between the power sup


plied by the generator and the power taken from the system
for motor-generator sets using three types of motors. Generator load on for 0.1 second.

cycle. It can be seen that the system load builds up at


about half the rate as for the synchronous motor, and that
it does not become equal to the applied load until the end
of the load application. The system load never exceeds
the applied load disregarding, of course) m-g set losses,
and the difference between input and output during the
early part of the load cycle is compensated by a similar
exponential conLinuance of load on the system for some
time a.fter the applied load has ceased. Curve (c) is for a
wound rotor motor with a ~onstant se~ondary rf'_sistance
and a flywheel. The relation between slip, flywheel effect
and load cycle is such that although the generator load
goes on and off, the system load never drops to zero. The
rate of load application is very low, and the syslem peak
is only about a third of the load peak.
The curves of Fig. 24 are for a. load cycle of 0.1 second on
and 5.9 seconds off. Curve (a) is for a synchronous motor
and shows that the peak system load is about two-thirds
of the generator load. Curve (b) is for the squirrel cage set
and shows a system peak of less than % of the generator
peak, Curve (c) is for the flywheel set and shows a system
peak of about 3 percent of the load peak.
Figures 23 and 24 are of interest in illustrating the manner
in which motor-generator sets transfer power from load
to line, and suggest the conditions under \Vhich the various
motors are most suitable. As pointed out previously, the
phase balancing and power factor improvement qualities
are usually the most valuable factors in the correction
of flicker.
There are so many variables in load, power factor, duty
cycle) etc.) that general figures on the improvement that
can be expected may be open to criticism. For very approximate purposes, however, it can be expected that if the
load changes last one second or more, either synchronous
or squirrel cage induction sets without flywheels reduce
the voltage drop to )i for single-phase loads and to Ya for
polyphase loads. The perceptibility of the flicker is re-

Chapter 22

733

Lamp Flicker on Power Systems

duced still further by the slower rate at which the voltage


dips, particularly with the induction set. For loads of very
short duration such as Ji second and less the voltage drop
may be reduced to 1/10 or even 1/20.
:\1otor generator sets may be had with either single- or
three-phase generators. Even when the generator is single
phase, it is customary to use a three-phase star stator

winding using only two legs in series. The third phase is


wound for possible future use, or to increase synchronizing
power if paralleled with other units, or dummy coils may
be placed in the slots. If single-phase loads are to he
carried, the field must be built with low resistance damper

vices such as inductances and capacitors, or in rotating


equipment with mechanical inertia. Except for small sizes,
the static equipment has not yet been found commercially
practical.
A lack of appreciation of this fundamental energy requirement has led to frequent proposals of schemes attempting single-phase to polyphfl-se eonversion hy transformer conneetion. Fig. 25 is typical of these schemes. It

jO

windlngs to minimize rotor heating. In the larger sizes,

single-phase machines are mounted on springs to minimize


vibration due to the pulsating. torque caused by singlephase operation.
\Vhen more than one utilization device causing flieker is
involved the question of a single m-g set versus an m-g set
for each such load must be answered. In these cases it is
very important to consider the regulation of the generator
of the set and how constant a voltage is required by the
utilization devices. For example, it frequently happens
that a factory is using eeveral electric welders which produce 5 percent voltage dips of very objectionable frequency. This 5 percent drop usually does not affect the
performance of the welders, and they could be operated
at random on the power system. If a motor-generator set
is to be used, however, the transient reactance of the generator is apt to be as high as 35 percent based on its rated
cnrrent, a.nd, assuming that the welder reactive current
equals the generator rating, a 35 percent drop in voltage
would occur. If only one welder is operated at a time, this
is quite satisfactory, as the welder tap can be set on the
basis of "dosed circuit" voltage, that is, the regulation of
the generator can be taken into account. If, however,
another \velder is operated simultanemudy, ewm though
on another phase, the additional voltage drop, uncompensated by the welder tap, is enough to spoil the weld.
In order to operate several "choppy" loads simultaneoul:lly
from the same m-g set, it is therefore net;e~::~~::~ary to use an
oversize generator (from a thermal standpoint) to keep
the regulation \vithin required limits. Alternate solution:::
are to interlock utilization devices so that they cannot
opcraJe sJmultaneously or to provide separate m-g sets for
each device. Another alternative is to use one common
driving motor and several separate generators on the same
shaft. The separate m-g set plan has the advantage of
permitting operation at partial capacity in case of damage
to one set, but is costlier.

jl

II
1BAC1

4. Phase Balancers
In industrial plants a large percentage of the potential
causes of flicker are single-phase rlevices. A discussion of
phase balancers is, therefore, of interest, although there
have been few commercially im;talled.
In a single.phase circuit the flow of power pulsates at
a frequency twice that of the alternating supply, \Vhereas
in a balanced polyphase circuit the flow of posvcr is uniform. Therefore, in order to effect a conversion hP-twerm
a single--phase and a polyphase system, some energy storage is necessary. This storage may be made in static de-

SINGLE PHASE LOAD


Fig,. 2.5--Unsound attempt to supply balanced three-phase
power to a single-phase load.

is not only completely ineffective for its intended purpose,


but is also wasteful of transformer capacity. Although the
transformers are all loaded equally, the currents drawn
from the source as shown by the current arrows, are still
single-phase, and a single-phase transformer is, therefore,
preferable.
The most familiar type of phase converter is that shown
in Fig. 26. It has been extensively used in raihvay electrifications to convert single-phase power from the contact
system to three-phase power for the locomotive motors;
this is merely the converse of the phase-balance. As shown,
a rotating two-phase machine is connected to the three-

PHASE
CONVERTER
SINGLEPHASE
SOURCE

Fig. 26-Schematic diaeram for phase converter used extensively on railway electrifications to convert sing.le-phase
power from the trolley to three-phase power for the locomotive motors. A rotating two-phase machine is connected
through the equivalent of a Scott-connected transformer to
the three-phase power system.

734

Lamp Flicker on Power Systems

phase power system through the equivalent of a Scottconnected transformer, which also serves as the primary
for the single-phase load winding. The two-phase machine
may be of the induction type and act as a phase converter
only, or it may be synchronous and used for power factor
correction as well. Decause of the regulation of the machine, the source currents are not balanced during variable~

load conditions, unless the taps on the transformer winding


are varied. From this point of view1 it is not very suitable
for "choppy" loads. Where there are several separate
single-phase loads to be served, the capaeity of a eon verter
of this type must be equal to the sum of the individual
loarls.
The series type of phase converter is shown in Fig. 27.
This is probably most efficient for conversion from three-

SINGLE
PHASE
LOAO

THREE PHASE
SUPPLY

Fig. 27-8eries type of phase converter from three phase to


single phase.

phase to :single-phase, where the single~phase load is not


expected to grow, cannot be distributed between phases1
and where no power factor correction is required. It consists of a counter-rotational induction-type series machine,
connected through transformers in such a manner as to
offer a high impedance to negative-sequence current between the single-phase load and the three-phase supply.

Chapter 22

When a single-phase load is suddenly applied, a magnetizing transient results, so that part of the negative-sequence
component of load current is passed on the source. Although this transient subsides in about 0.1 second, it
detracts cont5iderably from the value of the scheme for
use with "choppy 11 loads.
The series impedance balancer shown in Fig. 28 consists
of an auxiliary induction-type machine in series with the
polyphase supply and with the main shunt machine.
The single-phase load is drawn from between the two.
The series machine rotates oppositely to normal direction
for positive-sequence applied voltage, and therefore, offers
high impedance to negative-sequence currents and low
impedance to positive-sequence currents. The shunt machine therefore takes the negative-sequence component of
load current. The positive-sequence component of load.
current is taken by the system if the shunt is an induction
type unit. Tf a synchronous typP unit is used for the shunt
machine, it can also take the wattless component of load
current with suitable control of excitation. As with the
series phase converter, the series machine does not immediately respond to load changes, and temporarily (for about
0.1 second) some unbalanced current is drawn from the
Ronr~P. The .s~heme, like the series phase balancer, is inherent in its action, no regulators being required unless
power factor correction is used. This method has one
important advantage over the previous two schemes in
that the size of the shunt machine need only be enough
to take care of the maximum unbalance of load. For example, if there are a number of individual single-phase
loads as illustrated in Fig. 29, they may be distributed
DISTRIBUTION BUS

SUPPLY BU$

HCl--t.IGHTING

.-[}-.. LOADS

t-[}----------[}-f

SYNCHRONOUS
CONDENSER

FLUCTUATING

I.OAD

BALANCED
LOAD
INDUCTION TYPE
AUXILIARY UNIT

t+-----UNBALANCED
LOAD

MAIN

UNIT

Fla. 28-Series impedance type of phase balancer.

Fig. 29-E:Ifective use of a synchronous condenser in connec..


tion with a fluctuating load.

between the phases, and the shunt machine need carry


only the unbalance component. The series machine must,
however, have enough capacity to carry the total positive
sequence current.
Phase balancers, as a class, are not particularly suitable
for flicker elimination except perhaps in borderline cases
where only a moderate improvement (perhaps a one-half
reduction in voltage dip) is required. In this case they
may be the cheapest and most efficient remedy.

5. Synchronous Condensers
The voltage dip on a power system resulting from a
suddenly applied load is equal to the vector prorluct of
the current and the system impedance giving proper consideration to vector positions. Consequently, one way of
reducing flicker is to reduce the system impedance. Lsu-

Chapter 22

Lamp Flicker on Power Systems

ally, the system impedance is predominantly inductive,


and flicker is caused by current of low power factor so that
most of the voltage drop is due to the reactive component
of the system impedance. For example, suppose that the
system impedance based on the load current is 1 percent
re~;;istance and 4 percent reactance and the load is at 50
percent power factor. A close approximation of voltage
drop may be obtained hy adning only those components
of impedance drop that are in phase with the voltage.
Thus, the resistance component of line drop is the 1 percent
resistance times the 0.5 unit of current or Yz percent, and
the reactive component of line drop is the 4 percent reactance times the 0_866 unit of current (for 50 percent
power factor) or 3.5 percent. The total voltage drop is
therefore 4 percent, of which 3.5 percent is due to system
reactance. This predominance of reactive component has
led to frequcnL proposals to use synchronous condensers
in parallel with the system as a means of reducing system
reactance and thus improving flicker conditions. This
method, while feasible in principle, is not usually economical in practice, as a brief consideration shows. The
system reactance to a customer's service point may range
from a fraction of a percent to 10 or more, but on an
average is probably around 5 percent, based on the customer's kva demand. The subtransient reactance of a
standard synchronous condenser is around 25 percent of
its rating. Therefore, if a synchronous condenser of the
same kva rating as the load is installed, Lhe re~:~ultant
. 30
SX 25 = 4 .2 percent and t h e fl'w k er voItage IS
.
reactance IS

4.2
.
.
r educed to onIy _ ~ 84 percent of Jts value w1thout the
50
condenser.
The effectiveness of a synchronous condenser can be
much improved by the use of reactorR hetween the power
system and the load and operating the condenser from
the load bus, as shown by Fig. 29. This scheme permits
greater voltage fluctuations on the condenser and, therefore, causes it to bear a greater proportion of the fluctuating component of current. The customer's bus voltage, of course, undergoes the same voltage fluctuation, and
this fact plus the fact that only a limited amount of series
reactance can be used without unstable condenser operation, limits the extent of improvement. In most instances,
it is likely that a reduction of flicker to one-half its uncompensated value is the economic limit of correetion hy
this means. '\\'here only this amount of correction is sufficient, the synchronous condenser and series reactor scheme
may be Lhe best economic solution, considering the power
factor correction and control of voltage level afforded by
the machine.
The suggestion has been made of using a driving motor
for the synchronous condenser to permit higher values of
series reactance without instability. This arrangement is
the equivalent of a motor-generator set wiLh a reactor
paralleling the motor and generator ends. This scheme
has never been used in practice, but calculations of performance and cost estimates indicate that there is little
advantage compared with the straight m-g set or condenser-reactor schemes.
The benefits from the use of synchronous condensers

735

for flicker reduction depends in a large measure upon how


low the subtransicnt and transient reactances can be made.
The modern standard low-speed ~alient-pole synchronous
condenser has been developed primarily for power factor
correction and voltage control, and low-cost and low-loss
condensers have relatively high reactance. A typical machine has su btransient and negative sequence reacLauces
of about 25 percent and a transient reactance of 35 percent.
A reduction in these reactances usually results in both
higher costs and losses. The high-speed (3600 rpm) cylindrical-rotor type of machine inherently has lower reactances, perhaps one-half or less, but the cost and losses
are both greater. In larger sizes and where other circumstances are favorable, the overall economy may justify the
use of outdoor highspeed hydrogen-cooled synchronous
condensers of low reactance.
Another way to decrease the reactance of the synchronous condenser is to use capacitors in series with the
machine leads. The capacitive reactance partially nullifies
the machine's inductive reactance giving a lower net reactance. This scheme theoretically should be quite effective and economicaL However, the series capacitors may
cause the synchronous condenser to hunt. The boundaries
of satisfactory operation have not been fully explored, and
predetermination is difficult. H is expeded that after an
experimental installation of this form of compensation is
made that practical information will be available.

6. Series Capacitors
A general treatment of the use of capacitors in power
systems is given in Chapter 8. The followin~>: discussion
is concerned primarily with those aspects of capacitor
application that are related to the problem of lamp flicker.
There are two main uses of serie:s capacilors, depending
whether they correet for the inductance of the supply or
for that of the load. Their most familiar use is for line drop
compensation; the application to equipment correction is
more recent and shows much promise, as it improves con~
ditions in the entire system, whereas the line capacitors
benefit only those customers beyond the point of capacitor
installation.
Being in series with the entire power circuit, series capacitors are instantaneous in their corrective effect. This
is perhaps their most valuil.ble advantage because any
change in line current causes an immediate change in
compensating voltage. Another advantage is that they
generate lagging reactive kva proportional to the square
of the current, thereby improving the power factor.
Series Capacitors Connected in Line-Fig. 30 shows
in (a) a layout ordinarily favorable to the application of
series capacitors. The transmission substation is assumed
to have bus voltage regulation so that the voltage is fairly
constant. The step-down transformer bank and the lowvoltage line feed a distribution substation serving the
fluctuating load and lighting loans; no loads are served
at intermediate points between the substations. The series
capacitor may be installed near the transmission substation, as shown in (b), or near the distribution substation.
Another alternative is to install the capacitors between
the transmission substation bus and the step-down transformer (depending upun which voltage is more suitable

736

Lamp Flicker on Power Systems

Chapter 22

for standard capacitors). The voltage along the line is


shown by the diagram at (c), Curve A showing the uncompensated voltage and B the compensated voltage. The
point of interest emphasized by (c) is that the compensating voltage is introduced in one step while the voltage
drop along the line is uniform. For this simple case with

I~

(a)

SERIES

r~APACITOR

H"J--.. LIGHTING
LOAD

Ll E IX

1--'D-*-- FLUCTUATING
(b)

LOAD

OISTANCE ALONG LINE


(c)
Fi~.

~,..

-+J 1ft
'

~-?-0v"

.'

\,.

~u_t

-
lJ

+
~

(a) Layout ordinarily favorable to application of series capacitors


(b) Location of series capacitor
(c) (A) Without capacitors; (B) with capacitors.

'::
v

.,o
<-'
';'~I++-

+-

30---Typical application of series capacitors.

II!
0

.'f

~~~---~

IR

Ll

'LJ.J:"c,.\'(0

I'

c.."'?"'

. . .'tl,~

i-

.:;,~\1-l.
,~v
-~
s~"o '~
,
+.

"'
,.,,i+:-~

<
u

<

.,

,l~~~

'..J

'

'

(b)
no intermediate line loads, the voltage gradient along the
line is unimportant, and, 15ubject to limitations outlined
later, complete voltage-drop compensation at the distribu-

tion substation may be secured.


The vector diagrams for series capacitors at various

power factors are shown in Fig. 31. These diagrams show


that only the inductive component of line impedance is
compensated by the capacitor. However, if the power
factor of the load increment is low and constant, it is

SENDING lZ.
WITHOUT CAPACITOR

possible to over-compensate for the system reactance, and


thus partly or completely nullify the resistance component
of line drop. With variable loads and power factors this

.(

must be considered on its own merits.


Where there are distributed loads along a line, it is necessary to consider the location of the capacitors. The ca-

'

-1

"

<

'3

pacitor gives its full voltage boost at the point of iLs installation, and therefore loads immediately ahead and

behind the capacitor differ in voltage by the amount of


boost in the capacitor. In general, the best capacitor loca-

SENDING

WLTH
l~

sendina voltage will be the same ns the load center voltage


when the load power factor is (a) 90 percent; (b) 75 percent;
(c) 60 percent.

'

'

'

procedure can cause undesirable voltage-regulation characteristics and therefore each case of over-compensation

Fig. 31-The vector dia&rams show the voltatle drop across the
series capacitor required if a capacitor is added so that the

'

...

IZ

CAPACITOR

=:::r

'

d_,

f
--i+ +1

1 ~t16''.k

-1 ' K:):
. . . . . . -1

(c)

.~

,-

Lamp Flicker on Power Systems

Chapter 22

tion is one-third the electrical distance between the source


and the flicker-producing load, as shown by Fig. 32.
In principle series capacitors are effective in reducing
flicker caused by practically all types of fluctuating loads.
However, their effect is only beyond their point of instal-

737

GEN. STA.

LIGHTING
LOAD

HJ--::!,t-1 ~
SERIES
CAPACITOR

WELDING
TRANSFORMER

SERIES CAPACITOR

Fig. 34-Series capacitor installed with a welding load to


reduce kilovolt ampere demand and improve power factor.

MO~OR

"'
li
!:J
$'
....
z

Ed

3'1 r--

STARTING'---

~d

-- 11\Et
'Ed

<.>

"'w
0.

DISTANCE

Fig. 32-Percent volta~e regulation-in general, by placin~t


the series capacitor about lfa of the electrical distance between
the source and the load, the voltage on both sides of it ace
kept within plus or minus limits in which flicker is not
objectionable.

1ation; hence they do not correct the system as a whole.


For example, a :series capacitor installed just ahead of
substation B in Fig. 33 may remove most of the voltage
fluctuation on that bus. However, at Station A, there
may still be considerable voltage fluctuation, as the series
capaeitors do not correct the supply circuits. Another
point to be noted from Fig. 33 is that the series capacitor
must be large enough to carry all loads beyond its point
of installation. Consequently, if the flicker-producing load

GEN. STA.

SUBSTATION
A

SUBSTATION
B
LIGHTING

SER~ES
LOAD

CAPACITOR

t-D---D-HJ---1

Capacitors in Series with the Equipment-This application is limited to utilization equipment with a constant
inductive reactance, for which it is possible to compensate
with a series capacitor, so that the load drawn from the
supply circuit is practically at unity power factor at all
times. Thus, although the power drawn from the line is
still fluctuating, the resultant flicker voltage is greatly
reduced. Figure 34 shows such compensation applied to a
welding transformer. Inasmuch as the load itself is corrected, the benefits are felt all over the supply system.
Several such applications have been successfully made to
spot and seam welders (see reference 3).
7. Shunt Capacitors
Contrary to frequent misconceptions, permanently connected shunt capacitors are of no benefit whatever in
minimizing Hicker; in fact, they may make it slightly
wor::;e. An example shows the reason readily. A ::;ystem
with 10 percent inductive reactance in the supply leads,
serving an intermittent load having an inductive reactance
of 100 percent is shown in Fig. 35 (a). Resistance in both
line and load will be neglected to simplify the example,
but the same general effect will be observed if resistance
+jiO~

+jiO%

..
0

:;
(b)

fliCKER
PRODUCING LOAD
Fi~.

33------.Series capacitor must be large enough to carry total


substation load.

is :small as compared with normal load, the cost of the


series capacitor is too high for the correction obtained.
Series capacitors are therefore economical primarily where
the flicker load is a large portion of the total, where the
circuit resistance is equal or lower than the reactance,
where the flicker-producing load is of low power factor,
and \vhere the supply circuits are fairly long.
1; nrlPr certain circumstances series capacitors will produce, in conjunction with other apparatus, voltage or current surges in the line. The magnetizing inrush current of
transformer banks, and the self-excitation of synchronous
or induction motors are t:>ume of the factors causing this
phenomenon, which is too involved for treatment here, but
is discussed in items 4 and 5 of the table of references.

Fig. 35-Shunt capacitors are not effective in reducing voltage


dips.

were present. When the switch is open EL~E 8 When the


switch is closed, the voltage at EL= +j;g:~

00 Es=91

percent Es. Fig. 35 (b) shows a similar circuit except a


capacitor having a reactance equal and opposite to that of
the load is permanently connected in the circuit. \Vhen
E
-jlOO E
. h .
h
l
t h e sw1tc IS open, t e votage L= -tjlO-jlOO s=lll
percent E 8 When the S\vitch is closed, the net load im. ( -j!OO)( +jlOO)
.
pedance IS
_ j!OO+ jlOO = oo. Tins means that the
combination of the capacitor and reactor draws no current
from the source, and EL = Es. Thus, comparing the two
cases, without the capacitor the voltage drops from 100
percr:nt to 91 percent, a change of 9 percent. With ca-

Lamp Flicker on Power Systems

738

pacitors, the voltage drops from 111 percent to 100 percent,


a change of 11 percent.
Shunt capacitor::; connected to utilization equipment so
that they are switched in accordance with load, reduce
voltage drop. To be effective, the utilization device must
draw a current that is substantially constant in magnitude
and power factor during the "on" period, as, for example,
some forms of resistance welders on which long runs are
made without change of set-up. 11otor starting is one
example of an app1iration to which shunt capacitors cannot be used effectively in this manner for flicker reduction.
Motor inrush current approximates six times ful11oad. If
this is neutralized by a shunt capacitor, the initial voltage
dip is greatly reduced. However, \Vhen the motor comes
up to speed, the voltage rises above the initial voltage.

8. Voltage Regulators
Voltage regulators are also totally unsuited to correcting
flicker. This statement applies both to generator voltage
regulators, or to step- or induction-type feeder regulators.
These devices operate only when the voltage changes;
furthermore there is a time lag before voltage is restored
to normal. As shown in Fig. 3, abrupt changes in voltage,
the ones that voltage regulators cannot eliminate, arc the
very ones to whit:h the human eye is must sensitive. Consequently, the flicker is perceived before the regulator can
even start. It is ,:;;ometimes thought that an electronie
regulator and exciter can eliminate this difficulty and prevent voltage dips. However, the field time constant of the
generator which in large units is as high as 10 seconds and
even in very small machines may be one second, makes
correction by this means impossible.

9. Compensating Transformers
As illustrated in Fig. 36, a compensating transformer is
similar in effect to a line drop compensator used in voltage
regulator control except that the size of the elements is
that of a power device rather than that of an instrument.
The current drawn by the flicker-producing load passes
through a resistance and reactance branch, and the voltage
LIGHTING
LOAD

REACTOR

RESISTOR

SERIES
TRANSFORMER

FLUCTUATING LOAD

Fig. 36-Compensatlng transformer can be used in very


cial cases to reduce voltage dips.

spe-

drop thus created is added to the lighting-load voltage by


means of a series transformer. By proper selection of the
resistance, reactance, and series-transformer ratio, the
flicker in the lighting circuit may be eliminated almost

Chapter 22

completely. Satisfactory results can often be obtained by


omitting the resistor, and in such cases, the apparatus
becomes simply a transformer with an air gap in its
magnetic circuit.
Despite the technical simplicity of this scheme, it has
practical and economic limitations. It is apparent that
the improvement in the lighting circuit is obtained at the
expense of the flicker-producing load. This limits the application to cases where the lighting load is only a small
proportion of the total. In general, the equipment must
be individually designed for a specific set of conditions,
since the proportions and size are affected by the line voltage, line drop, total current, and ratio of loads. Should
system changes necessitate its removal, there is small likelihood of being able to use the compensating transformer
elsmvhere. The cost of the apparatus is rather high because
it is not standard.

10. Motor Starters


As pointed out under HUtilization Equipment," most
motors can be started directly across the line because even
the larger sizes arc usually supplied from heavy feeders
compared to the size of the motor. Where this is not the
case, a starter may be required if the starting is frequent.
It is difficult tu generalize u11 the question of motor tltarting, because individual cases vary with the motor size,
type 1 and the starting torque of both motor and load.
Starting "compensators" are now being used much less
than formerly. This is due largely to the acceptance of
across-the-line starting, but also to the realization that
the two voltage dips cawsL'tl by the compensator may be
as objectionable as one larger dip when starting across the
line. Jn this rPspcct reactor starting is superior, because
the cireuit is not opened at transition, and the reactor
short-circuiting operation may not result in a noticeable
voltage dip if the motor is substantially up to speed. A
reactor starter cau~es a greater initial voltage drop than
a compensator, because the starting kva is decreased only
directly as the starting voltage and not as the square of
the voltage.
When the continuous-load rating of the feeder is the
same as of the motor, the use of wound-rotor motors with
.stepped-resistance starters in the rotor circuits usually
avoids annoying flicker. The cost of the motor and control is greater, but where the motor is near the end of a
long line and is started frequently, this may be the most
economical choice.
Where motors are started infrequently, but where the
resultant voltage dip is still objectionable, some form of
increment starter may be 'Warranted. In a starter of this
type, the stator current is increased in steps until the motor
rotates, and the remaining impedance is cut out of the
circuit alter the motor has reached full speed. There are
no standard starters of this type on the markel, aud the
few that have been built have been specially designed
for the partieular service. ln general, they represent a
combination of auto-transformer and reactor starting, the
switching being done without opening the circuit during
the entire sequence.
Resistauce starters in the stator circuits have been employed. On small integral horsepower motors the simplest

739

Lamp Flicker on Power Systems

Chapter 22

and cheapest of these is a single-step resistor which is cut


out after the motor comes up to speed. As with reactor

GEN. STA.

starting used on larger motors, the short-circuiting of the


resistor does not usually cause a noticeable voltage dip,
and the initial dip of course is considerably reduced. Resistance starters should be adjustable for individual re-

(a)

quirements; in extreme conditions a variable resistor may


be desirable. These starters are in general more expensive

H:J--~GENERAL

and more difficult to maintain hy unskilled attendants.

LOADS

11. Excitation Control


This involves single-step increments of the field excitaH : J - - - - - - - n - { J - . H : J - -... rLucTuATING
LOADS

tion of synchronous motors by switches actuated by the


equipment causing the flicker. This method is generally

ineffective in eliminating flicker caused by abrupt voltage


dips as explained under "Voltage Regulators." However,
it can reduce considerably the widtb of the band of voltage
regulation, which annoys power-supply companies by caus-

(b)

Fig. 37-System layout.

ing too frequent operation of feeder-voltage regulators as


thtW attempt to compensate for the voltage swings. Such

(a) Fluctuating load on substation bus affected all loads fed from
bus.
(b) Fluctuating load feeders separated from rest of the load.

swings are caused by continuous strip rolling mills, large


electric shovels, etc., where the variations of load are large,
but where the rates of application and removal are moder-

at a time when the lighting load is low. Control of load


is not a very general solution to reduction of flicker, and

ate, say 10 to 30 pcn;cnt per aecoud.

it is employed in but few cases.

12. Load Control

13. Flywheels

In some cases it is possible to minimize lamp flicker by


controlling manufacturing processes. For example, in a
plant operating two or three resistance welders, it may be
possible to provide interlocks so that not more than one

A general discussion of the effect of flywheels is given


under uMotor-Generator Sets," but the same principles
apply to direct-driven apparatus. This method has con-

is operated at the same instant. A remedy of this kind is

siderable value for mechanical loads having short durations


with long ''off" periods, such as shears, punch presses, etc.

only possible if the "on" time is short compared to the


Hoff" time, otherwise the production rate would be slowed
up considerably. Similarly in arc-furnace work the vio-lence of the current swings during melting can be reduced
by lowering production rate during this phase of the cycle.
It is also po..ssible to perform flicker-producing operations

14. System Changes


In practically all cases of flicker cansed by utilization
equipment, there is a direct relationship between the
amount of the flicker and the size of the power supply
system. For example, assume that a welder causes a three-

TABLE 2
Remedial Measures

Source of Flicker

3
~

y~

~"'

~~

()

.. . """ .
0
:1

g&
0 =
"
.a ""'

"

.~ -~
"
,)lJ;r

00

"
.....

~.s

_7_)_s_

"
oo;J()

00

~1

>~

--- --- --- ---

~~
......
":l s

i'l-"' ~j
00

"0

E ~

8E'<

~"'

.
d

.,o-2
~

"5

&lu

10

II

.,

1l

.s u

.$

..

B
B
B

Utilization Equipment

Motor Starting.
Motor Driven Reciprocating Loads ..
Motor Driven Intermittent Loads.
Eledric Furnaces.
...

Electric Welders ..
A Teehmcally Su1ted
.8-Technically Unsuited
X -Frequently Economical

.... . ..

. ..

AZ
AZ
AZ
AY
AX

B
B

B
B
B

AZ
AZ
AZ
AX
AY

AX
AY
AY
AZ
AX

B
B

B
B
B

B
B

"'

.?;>

B
B

AZ
AZ

B
B
B
B

B
B

Y-PoSSibly EconomimU

Z-Rarely Economical

AZ
AZ
AZ
AZ
AY

tf.>

B
B
B

B
B

AX

AX

AX

B
B

AZ

AY
AY
AY
AX
AY

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --- - - B

q,

u.
,.,.
_..,
:u
-" -

Generating Equipment
Prime Movers ..
. ...........
Excitation Systems ... .. . , .
. ..
Short Circuits and Switching Surges.

12

-3

--- --

AZ

AX
AX

AY
AY

B
B

740

Lamp Flicker on Power Systems

percent voltage flicker on a residential substation, where


only one percent is acceptable. Tripling the size of the
supply to the substation would reduce the flicker to the
required level, and this would constitute one way of eliminating the flicker. If this were done by multiplying the
number of incoming lines and transformer banks by three
it would probably be tho most costly of all possible corrcctivf\ mPasures. lJsually more economical system changes

can be made.
A common form of substation supply with two or more
feeders from the generating station paralleled to a single
Uus is shown in Fig. 37(a). "\Vith this arrangement, all loads
fed from thesubstationaresubjected to any flicker produced
on the outgoing feeders. Figure 37 (b) shows a low voltage
bus divided into two sections, one for residential and commercial loads, the other for industrial loads. This luyout
is based on the fact that voltage fluctuations objectionable
to residential customers are acceptable to industrial users.
There is probably a greater flicker tolerance in shop work
than in residence lighting, and industrial plants are usually willing to accept flicker when it is caused by their
own operation.
Other methods of stiffening the power system involve
changing the voltage of the supply line, tapping nearby
high-voltage, high-capacity lines, adding more transformer
capacity, or running a separate line to the flicker-producing
load. Local conditions determine what remedial measures
are most suitable in a particular case. Occasionally system
increases are justified if the additional capacity may be
needed later anyway.

15. Comparison Chart


A reference chart showing at a glance the remedial measures available and those most promising for a particular
type of flicker is shown in Table 2. Inasmuch as the best
technical solution may not be the most economical, tho
remedies are compared from both points of view.

Chapter 22

REFERENCES
1. The Visual Perception and Tolerance of Flicker, prepared by
Utilities Coordinated Research, Inc.--New York, 1937.
2. Lamp Flicker Awaits Ideal Motor Starter, by L. W. Clark,
Electrical World, April9, 1938.
3. Power-Factor Correction of Resistance-Welding Machines by
Series Capacitors, by L. G. Levoy, Jr., A.l.E.E. TranBactions,
1940.

4. Analysis of Series Capacitor Application Problems, by Concordia and Butler, A.l.E.E. Transactions, 1937. Vol. 56.
5. Self-Exciiatiou of Iuduction Motors with Series Capacitors, by
C. F. Wagner, A.I.E.E. Paper No. 41-139. Presented at Summer Convention, Yellowstone Park.
6. A Lamp Flicker Slide-Rule, by C. P. Xenis and W. Perine,
Presented at E.E.L Transmission and Distribution Committee
MeRting, Chicago, May 5, 1937.

7. Power Supply for Resistance-Welding Machines, Committee


on Electric Welding, A.I.E.E. Transaction~, 1940. VoL 59.
8. Power Supply for Resistance-Welding Machines-Factory
Wiring for RP.RistJtn~e Welders, Committee on Electric Welding,
A.LE.E. paper 41-82-Contains a Number of Examples.
9. Power Supply for Welding, by A. S. Douglass and L. W. Clark1
The Arnerican Welding Sucicty Journal, Octuber 1937.
10. 1 ,argP F:ledric Arc Furnace>'.-Performance anrl Power Supply,
by B. M. Jones and C. M. Stearns, A.I.E.E. Transactions, 1941.

VoL 60.
11. Arc Furnace Loads on Long Transmkssiun Lines, by T. G.
LeClair, A .!.E. E. Transu.rtions, 1940. Vol. fifl.

12. 10 000 kva Series Capacitor Improves Voltage in 66 Kv. line


Supplying Large Electric Furnace Load, B. M. Jones, J. M.
Arthur, C. M. Stearllil, A. A. Johnson, A.I.E.E. Tran~SUClions.
Vol. 67, 1948.

13. Voltage Translator Scheme Cuts Light Flicker due to Welders,


R. 0. Askey, Electrical World, January 6, 1945, page 63.
14. Electric Arc Furnaces and Equipment Producing Heavy FluctuationR, Part TI-the solution>;, by R. M. Jones. PrPsentPrl
before E. E. I. Electrical Equipment Committee, Old Point Comfort, Va., October 10, 1950.
15. Power Company Service to Arc Furnaces, by L. W. Clark,

A.I.E.E. Transactions 1935.

CHAPTER 23

COORDINATION OF POWER AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS


Revised by:

Original Author:

R. L. Witzke

R. D. Evans

HIS chapter deals with the coordination of power


and audio-frequency communication systems, including telephone, telegraph, supervisory-control,
and pilot-\vire relaying circuits. The presentation is from
the standpoint of the power engineer with particular at-

by telephone circuits required to give electrical communication for the same places. The coordination problem hecomes cumulatively more severe as the power systems
supply increasing amounts of load and the communication
systems become increasingly sensitive. There is also the
complica.tion caused by the introduction of newer uses for
elcctrieal energy and for electrical communication.
The effcds of extraneous voltages and currents on
communication systrms are varied in character, and include hazard to persons, damage to apparatus, and in~
terference with service. The damage to the physical plant
includes the effects resulting from overheating, from breakdown of insulation in lines and apparatus, and from electrolysis. The interference with service includes such effcets
as noise and acoustic shock in the telephone circuits,
false signalling in telephone, telegraph, and supervisorycontrol circuits, as well as diBruption of service. Communication circuits arc usually equipped with devices that,
when subjected to excessive voltages, provide protection,
but in so doing may render the circuit inoperative for
communication purposes not only for the duration of the
abnormal voltage condition but also until maintenance
work can be done.
The coordination problem is extremely widespread;
practically every type of electrical circuit has interfered
with some other type of electrical circuit. For example,
power-supply circuits have interfered with audio- and
carrier-frequency telephone and telegraph circuits, machine--switching and supervisory-control circuits. Similarly, d-e and a-c railway circuits have interfered with
practically every type of communication circuit. It is an
interesting and significant fact that communication circuits interfere \Vith one another, not only in the form of
"cross fire" bet,veen telegraph circuits but also in the form
of '~crosstalk" between telephone circuits on the same pole
line. Power circuits can interfere with each other. For
example, a ground fault on a transmission circuit can impress high induced voltages on a neighboring low-voltage
distribution circuit and produce apparatus failure or circuit
outage,

tention to the characteristics of power apparatus. Part I,


Basic Principles, gives a general background of the coordination problem in order to provide proper perspective
to the subjects treated. Detail discussion of the problem
is given in Part II, Low-Frequency Coordination, and
Part III, Noise-Frequency Coordination.

I. BASIC PRINCIPLES
'When a power and a communication circuit are operated
in proximity, the power circuit may produce certain conduetive or inductive effects, 'vhich ma.y interfere with the
normal operation of the communication circuit. These
electrieal interference effects, which appear as a result of
extraneous voltages and eurrents in the communication
circuit, muy be minimized by measures that are applicable
to either circuit alone, or to both. Such measures provide
the basis for the coordinat-ion of power and communieation
circuits to avoid interference, as discussed in this chapter.

1. Interference and Coordination


Definitions of interference and coordination as adopted by
the National Electric Light Association and Bell Telephone System t(al, with slight rephrasing, are:
Interference is an effect arising from the characteristics and
interrelation of power and communicr1tion systems of such char-

acter and magnitude as would prevent the communication system from rendering service satisfactorily and economically if
methods of coordination \vere not applied.
Coordination is the location, design, construction, operation,
and maintenance of power and communication systems in conformity with harmoniously adjusted methods \Yhich will prevent
interference.

2. Nature and Importance of the Problem


The eleetricn.l-coordination problem arises principally
because bvo distinct types of circuits or systems are employed, namely, (I) power systems for generation, transmis.sion, and distribution of electrical energy, and (2) communication 8]JStems in which electrical energy is used
incidentally for the transmission of signals. Another important considP-ration arises from the fact that the user
of electrieal energy is generally also a user of electrical
communication. For example, power lines for delivering
electricity to homes and factories are roughly paralleled

3. The Origin of Extraneous Voltages


Extraneous voltages in communication circuits arising
from power circuits are caused by:

741

Conduction
(a) Metallic cross
(b) Ground potential
Induction
(a) :Magnetic induction, a current effect
(b) Electric induction, a voltage effect.

Coordination of Power and Communication Systems

742

Conduction is an important !actor where circuits of


the two types are located close together as, for example,
where the circuits cross each other or are located on the
same pole line, or where one pole line is overbuilt by

STATION
GROUNO

(a)
POWER STATION

r-----

1
I

STATION GROUND BUS

I
I

1TE

ACCIDENTAL
GROUND

I
I

L------ -'
SG

G
(b)

Fig. 1-Schematic diagrams illustrating the production of extraneous voltages in a communication circuit by conduction
fron1 a power circuit.
(a) By metallic cross.
(b) Dy rise in gJound vvLeutial through wse of grouud connect..iona
common to hoth types of circuits.
TE Telephone terminal equipment.

P Protectors on communication circuit.


SG

St.at.ion-ground

re~;;istanco.

another. Lnder these conditions a conductor failure or


an extraneous wire may produce a metallic cross between
the different types of circuits as illustrated in Fig. 1 (a).
A second and somewhat less obvious method of impressing extraneous voltages and currents on a communication
system results by conduction from a common use of earth
connections. Power circuits, except railway traction cir~
cuits and multi-grounded neutral circuits, do not make
intentional use of the earth under normal conditions except
as a means for stabilizing the power-system neutral, and
under fault conditions to limit the voltages and to provide
adequate currents for relaying purposes. For this reason
large ground-potential effects arc almost invariably associated with fault currents through ground connections.

Chapter 23

On a power system a fault to ground causes a rise of potential of the po\ver-station neutral or ground bus as shown
in Fig. 1 (b). This potential rise can be estimated from the
magnitude of the ground current and of the station-ground
resistance SG which is of finite but low value. This rise of
ground potential may be impressed on a communication
circuit in the follov.ring manner. If a telephone circuit
conn~cts the power station and a remote central office,
telephone protectors are connected to the power-station
ground bus to avoid hazard to the user of the telephone
circuit at the power station. Similarly, telephone protector~ are used at the central office for protection against
lightning and other extraneous voltages. Consequently,
upon the occurrence of a ground fault, the rise in potential
at the power station produces a voltage that is impressed
upon the telephone eireuit and the two sets of protectors
as shown in Fig. 1 (b). This type of problem occurs frequently in connection with power-company communication systems, and in supervisory-control and pilot-wire
relaying systems.
A fault causing ground currents in a power circuit also
impre.sses upon a paralleling telephone circuit a component of voltage in phase with the ground current of the
power circuit. These conductive or ground-potential effef'J,~ n.m closely rPlated to inductive effects and in many
cases are difficult to separate. As a matter of convenience,
both effects are considered under inductive effects in the
subsequent discussions.
Magnetic induction, or electromagnetic induction,
as used. in this chapter, applies to the voltages induced in a
communir,ation circuit as a result of currents flowing in a
power circuit. Consider a single-phase metallic* power
circuit carrying a current of I amperes, and a metallic
communication circuit located in proximity, as shown in
Fig. 2. Magnetic fields around the power conductors are as
shown for an elementary section in Fig. 2 (b). The communication conductors C1 and C21ie in positions of different
field strengths so that unequal voltages are induced in
these conduetors.
When ground forms a part of the return eireuit for the
flow of power current, as when a line-to-ground fault
occurs, the problem is quite similar and cll.n be calculated
on the basis of a concentrated return current in the earth
located at some relatively great distance directly below
the line conductor. The determination of the coefficient
of induction or the coupling-factor under these condition~
constitutes one of the more important problems in the
analysis of fundamental-frequency effects.
Electric Induction-An important source of extraneous voltage on communication circuits, under normal
operating conditions, may be electric induction from a
neighboring power circuit. 13y this is meant the voltage
impressed on a communication circuit because of its position in the electric field, or electrostatic field, produced by
the circuit voltages of the power system. A section of line
with power conductor P energized from a single-phase
grounded source and with communication conductors C1
and C2 is shown in Fig. 3. It is to be recognized that there
*By metallic cireuit is meant one in which wires constitute the
two sides of the circuit; that is, earth docs not constitute one side of
the circuit.

Coordination of Power and Communication Systems

Chapter 23

743
IP

'
'''
':c.
'

L---------~~!~c~--------l<>TE

rE L----I::::::;:l.:.!.--___J

(a)'
160
160
140
120
100

80

c,

;!;

"z

20

5,

~'X,.

I..INES OF

CONSTANT POTENTIAL

~ M~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~N

(b)
Fig. 2-Schematic diagram illustrating magnetic induction
from a metallic power circuit on a metallic communication

~ 20
~

circuit.
(a) Elementary section.
(b) Equi-potential fields.

are capacitances between conductors, and between conductors and ground. In Fig. 3 ('J) is shown a cros,;-sectional view of the line together with equi-potertiallines in the
electric field produced by the conductor having a potential
with respect to ground. Tf the commnnieation circuit con..
sists of two wires separated even a short .distance, different
potentials are induced on them for most locations. A
typical power circuit involves three phase-wires, and the
electric induction produced by the three phases determine
the resulting potentials impressed on adjacent communication conductors.
Power-system voltages or currents which produce in..
ductive effects in communication circuits can be classified
as (!) positive- and negative-sequence components that
are normally confined to the line conductors 1 and (2) the
ze.ro-sequence component for which the line conductors
constitute one side of the circuit and the neutral ur ground
wires, or earth the return. Obviously the coefficients of
induction from power-system currents are different for
these two cases. Telephone engineers are accustomed to
use the term "balanced components" for the positive- and
negative-sequence components and the term "residual
component" for the quantity equal to the sum of the zerosequence components in the three phases. Under normalcircuit conditions the negative-sequence component of
fundamental frequency is usually negligible w it.,h the result
that the balanced components are normally related to the
positive-sequence component only. "Gnder ground-fault

eo
100

120
140
160

180

(b)
Fig. 3-Schematic diagram illustrating electric induction

from a sing,Ie-phase ground-return power circuit on a communication-circuit conductor.


(a) Elementary section.
(b) Equi-potential fields.

conditions the zero-sequence component of fundamental


frequency is predominately important because greater coefficients of induction apply for the component that flows
through the earth. Harmonic components may be of any
of t,he three sequences as shown later.
Voltages induced in metallic communication circuits can
conveniently be resolved into components in a manner
analogous to that for symmetrical components of polyphase circuits. In the case of the metallic telephone circuit
the resolution is made into (1) a longitudinal component,
and (2) a meLa.llic-circuiL component. The longitudinal
components of voltage in the two sides of the circuit are

identical and the corresponding components of voltages to

744

Chapter 23

Coordination of Power and Communication Systems

ground are identical. The metaBic-circuit components of


voltage and current associated with each line conductor are
equal in magnitude but opposite in phase so that they
tend to circulate current around the metallic circuit.
An equivalent circuit for analyzing the effects of electrically induced voltages on a metallic-telephone circuit is
shown schematically in Fig. 4 (a). In this diagram, the

z'
~a) TE

TE

z'

two electrically induced voltages E 1 and E 2 may be resolved


into longitudinal-circuit componentR, as shown in Fig. 4
(b), and into the metallic-circuit components, as shown in
Fig. 4 (c). The equations relating the longitudinal- and
metallic-circuit components and the total induced voltages
for each conductor are also included. The imJ!edances of
the various circuit elements can be different for the longitudinal and metallic eircnits.
The corresponding equivalent circuit for analyzing the
effect of magnetically induced voltages is shown in Fig. 5
(a). This diagram corresponds closely with Fig. 4 (a),
except that the vultaget> are shown as being impressed in
series with the line in the elementary section. Voltages
magnetically induced in the two conductors can be resolved into longitudinal- and metallic-circuit components
as illustrated in Figs. 5 (b) and (c), respectively. The
equations relating longitudinal- and metallic-circuit components and the total induced voltages in each conductor
are also included.

z'

z
TE

(b) TE

z'

z'

z'
T

(G) TE

z'

z
z

z'

Et

z'

EL

z'
(o)

TE

{b) TE

Z'

z'

z
Ew=E 1-E 2
EriEt

EL

z.

1/2 E

z'

z'

z'

EL-2-

Fig. 4~Equivalent circuit for simulating electric induction


and method of resolving induced voltages into longitudinaland metallic-circuit components.
(a) Equivalent circuit with total induced voltages.
(b) Same circuit but with longitudinal-circuit components of in..
duced voltages.
{c) Same circuit but with metallic-circuit components of induced
voltages.
TE Telephone terminal Pquipment.
~ Series-impedance circuit element.
Z' Shunt-impedance circuit element.

{) T

z'

1/2

Z'
M

EEt-Et
E 1+E 1
EL-2-

Fig. 5-Equlvatent circuit for simulating magnetic induction


and method of resolving induced voltages into longitudinal-

and

induction is assumed to occur in the elementary section at


the middle of the line with unequal voltages, E 1 and E 2,
induced on the conductors. The communication circuit
is reprel::lented a~ having seriei:l impeUaHce element:s Z and
shunt impedance element Z', .as shown in the diagram,
together with terminal equipment TE. The equivalent
circuit for electric induction requires the addition of sources
of voltage E 1 and E 2 acting through capacitances C. The

metallic~circuit

components.

(a) Equivalent circuit with total induced voltages.

(b) Same circuit but with longitudinal-circuit components of induced voltages.


(c) Same circuit but with metallic-circuit components of induced
voltages.
TE

Telephone terminal equipment.

Z Series-impedance circuit element.


Z' Shunt-impedance circuit element.

Chapter 23

Coordination of Power and Communication System8

4. Basic Factors-Influence, Coupling, and Sus-

ceptiveness

The coordination problem can be considered from the


standpoint of the three basic factors, influence, coupling,
and susceptiveness. Definitions of these factors, slightly
rephrased from the form given in Reference 1 (a), are;
Influence factors are those characteristics of a power circuit
with its associated apparatus that determine the character and
intensity of the inductive and conductive fields which they
produce.
Coupling factors express the interrelation of neighboring power
and communication circuits from the standpoint of induction
or conduction.
Susceptiveness factors are those characteristics of a communi~
cation circuit with its associated apparatus which determine the
extent to which it is capable of being adversely affected in giving
service by inductive or conductive fields from power systems.

745

receiver when subjected to excessive currents, normally


associated with fundamental-frequency induction of sufficient magnitude to break down telephone-circuit protectors.

5. Procedure for Solution of Coordination Problems


In the United States the solution of coordination problems has been promoted effectively by the pioneering cooperative work of the most vitally interested utilities, the
National Electric Light Association (and its successor, the
Edison Electric Institute) and the Bell Telephone System.
The basic features of the resulting procedure are (1)

recognition of the duty of coordination and (2) effective


measures for cooperation. These features are covered in
the following excerpts from "Principles and Practices for
the Coordination of Supply and Signal Systems."*"'

This segregation of the essential factors constitutes an


important step in the solution of the coordination prohlem
since it makes possible the analysis of the contributions
from the power system, from the interrelation of the two
systems, and from the communication system. This segregation also allows the setting up of standard practices for

Duty of Coordination
{a) ln order to meet the reasonable service needs of the pub-lic, all supply and signal circuits with their associated apparatus
should be located, constructed, operated and maintained in conformity with general coordinated methods which maintain due
regard to the prevention of interference with the rendering of

power and communication systPms.

either service. These methods should include limiting the in-

The power-system influence factors include the fundamental-frequency voltages and currents during normal
operation i their values under fault conditions including
duration and frequency of occurrence and divisions among
earth-return paths. They include also the magnitude and
phase relation of harmonic voltages that may be produced
by rotating machines, transformers, and rectifiers and
other apparatus and the frequency-impedance characteristic of the system, particularly in respect to resonance for
certain harmonics. The symmetry of the system or the
balance of phases with respect to ground represents another type of influence factor. Coupling factors include the
coefficients of magnetic and electric induction at varying
separations and the conductive or mutual-resistance factors as \Veil. They comprise those factors which are quantitatively determined by geographical and geometrical
relationships, relative conductor positions and earth resistivity. Shield \Vires, which are not lm~ated as a part of
either system, and transpositions are also-considered under
this heading. The susceptiveness factors of communication
systems include (1) for normal operation the characteristics
of sensitivity, power level, frequency re~punse, awl balance
of the circuit with respect to ground; and (2) for abnormal
conditions those characteristics that can be adversely affected by the presence of high extraneous voltages, including the features that may result in ha,zard, damage to plant,
and interference \Vith service. These characteristics are

ductive influence of the supply circuits or the inductive susceptiveness of the signal circuits or the inductive coupling between
circuits or a combination of these, in the most convenient and

important not only during the presence of abnormal voltage but also because of their reaction on the ability of the
circuit to return to the normal condition after the ex-

traneous voltage has been removed. Damage to the physical plant includes overheating of conductors, the breakdown of insulation in lines and apparatus~ and the operation of protective equipment. Interference with service
includes telephone noise, acou~tic shock, false signalling,
as well as actual disruption of service. By acoustic shock
is meant the adverse reaction on a listener to a telephone

economical manner.

(b) Where general coordinated methods will be insufficient,


such specific coordinated methods suited to the situation should
be applied to the systems of either or both kinds as will most
conveniently and economically prevent interference, the meth~

ods to be based on the knowledge of the art.


Cooperation
In order that full benefit may be derived from these principles
and in order to facilitate their proper application, all utilities
between whose facilities inductive coordination may now or
later be necessary, should adequately cooperate along the fol~
lowing lines:
(a) Each utility should ~ive to other utilities in the sallie
general territory advance notice of any construction or change
in construction or in operating conditions of its facilities con~
cerned, or likely to be concerned, in situations of proximity.
(b) If it appears to any utility concerned that further consideration is necessary, the utilities should confer and cooperate
to secure inductive coordination in accordance with the principles set forth herein.
(c) To assist in promoting conformity with these principles,
an arrangement should be set up between all utilities whose
facilities occupy the same general territory, providing for the
interchange of pertinent data and information including that
relative to propoRCd and existing construction and changes in
operating conditions concerned or likely to be concerned in
situations of proximity.

The solution of coordination problems is based on:


1. The establishment of standard coordination practices for both power and communication circuits.
2. The joint determination of appropriate methods for
specific situations.
The general coordinated practices of power and communication systems are outlined in the publications of the
*The term ''signal system" is frequently used in coordination
work as a general term to denote e.ny type of communication circuit.

746

Coordination of Power and Communication Systems

N.E.L.A. and Bell Telephone System""' All construction


is expected to meet these standards unless, in the absence
of an interference problem, they are postponed on the
basis of deferred coordination. Where general coordinated
measures are insufficient, the "beet engineering solution"
utilizing specific coordinated mea:mres should be applied
as outlined in the following excerpt 1 <s):
Choice Between Specific Methods
When specific coordinated methods are necessary and there is
a choice between specific methods, those which provide the best
engineering solution should be adopted.
(a) The specific methods selected should be such as to meet
the service requirements of both systems in the most convenient

and economical manner without regard to whether they apply


to supply systems or signal systems or both.
(b) In determining what specific methods are most convenient
and economical in any situation for preventing interference, all
factors for aU facilities concerned should be taken into consideration including present factors and those which can be reasonably foreseen.
(c) In determining whether specific methods, where necessary,
shall he wholly by separation or partly by methods based on
less separation 1 the choice should be such as to secure the greatest
present and future economy and convenience in the rendering
of both services.

The cooperative work initiated by the N a tiona! Electric Light Association and the Bell Telephone System, subsequently followed by other utility groups, has provided
a practical solution of the coordination problems that have
been encountered. In addition, these organizations have
carried out an extensive research and development program which has developed basic theoretical and statistical
information bearing on the coordination problem. Theresults of this work carried on by the Joint Subcommittee on
Development and Research have provided the most authoritative information available on many phases of the coordination prohlP.m. ThP.ir Reports 4 contain in arldition
much information of value in the po,wer and communication field outside of coordination work, a circumstance
that unfortunately has not been recognized as widely as
the suLject matter deserves.

6. Types of Coordination Problems


Discussion of the coordination problem between power
and communication systems can be classified into four
groups*:
I.
2.
3.
4.

Electrolysis
Structural
Low frequency
Noise frequency

Electrolysis Coordination is concerned with the layout and operation of power circuits, power and communication cables, and underground structures, located close
together, from the standpoint of accelerated corrosion resulting from leakage currents. This problem is of considerable importance with d-e circuits but not with a-c. Corrosion occurs in areas where the d-e leakage current leaves
the underground structures through the earth. Discussion
*Coordination between power-line and other carrier-frequency

systems is not considered; these problems are usually solved by


frequency separation.

Chapter 23

of this subject is beyond the scope of this chapter, but an


excellent general reference is given in Reference 2. Mention should, however, be made of the development in
cathodic protection 3 extensively used for preventing corrosion of pipe lines, cables, and other underground metallic
circuits. In this method rectifiers of the copper-oxide or
alternative forms are used to maintain the metallic circuit.
to be protected at a negative but low potential with respect
to ground.
Structural Coordination-This problem is concerned
with the layout and physical construction of power and
communication circuits when located in proximity, particularly with respect to their characteristics in crossings
or in constructions involving joint use of poles or overbuilt lines"hl". The problem is also quite beyond the
scope of this chapter.
The Law-Frequency Coordination and the NoiseFrequency Coordination problems are quite distinct.
The low-frequency problem arises principally from magnetically-induced fundamental-frequency voltages at times
of system faults, while the noise-frequency problem arises
from induced voltages and currents of harmonic frequencies, principally for the normal operating condition. Similarly, the effects of induction are also quite different. The
low-frequency problem concerns the inductive effects from
the standpoint of hazard, damage to apparatus, interference with signalling, acoustic shock, etc., whereas the
noise-frequency problem deals with ~'telephone noise" as
it affects telephonic transmission and reception. For these
reasons the subsequent discussion is divided into Part II,
Low-Frequency Coordination, and Part III, Noise-Frequency Coordination.

II. LOW-FREQUENCY COORDINATION


In low-frequency coordination 1 the important induced
voltages usually result from ground-return currents, although in a few cases induction from balanced currents or
from voltages must be considered. In the study of lowfrequency problems2 ~'\ it is customary to calculate first the
maximum Hopen-circuit 11 longitudinal component of induced voltage for the given exposure. To obtain this opencircuit voltage, the zero-sequence or residual current and
the corresponding coupling factors must be determined.
This voltage normally includes the effects of conduction
through common ground connections or through mutual
resistance as well as the inductive effects through mutual
reaetances, since, as pointed out previously, it is not convenient to separate these components. The open-circuit
voltage thus calculated is next reduced to allow for shielding effects exerted hy normally-grounded paralleling conductors, such as ground wires and cable sheaths or other
grounded structures. In addition, for estimating some
effects of induction, allowances can be made for additional
shielding resulting from longitudinal currents in communication conductors, which are normally free from connection to ground but which become grounded through protector operation as a result of induction. Distribution of
the induced voltage among the various protectors con~
nected to the communication circuit is also to he determined. The final step is, of course, the estimation of the

Chapter 23

747

Coordination of Power and Communication Systems

adverse effects of the resultant voltages upon the operation


and maintenance of the communication circuits and the
determination, where necessary, of measures required in
either or hoth systems to minimize the resultant effects.

7. Low-Frequency Influence Factors


In low-frequency coordination the principal problem
concerning influence factors is determination of zero-sequence or ground-fault currents and their distribution
among the various hranches of the network for the condition that produces maximum induced voltage in the communication circuit. For a grounded-neutral power system
the circuit condition giving the maximum induction in any
specific parallel is usually easy to determine as it normally
occurs for a fault located at the far end of the parallel from
the principal power source so that the maximum ground
current flows through the parallel. Consideration must
also be given to the various system connections produced
in the process of isolating a faulted line-section. For
f.<olidly-grounrled systems it is customary to assume a
single line-to-ground fault. Where the power system is ungrounded or grounded through a ground-fault neutralizer
or Petersen coil, it is customary to assume a double line-toground fault with the faults located at opposite ends of the
exposure. This condition is generally more severe from

the induction standpoint than thosP sPlP-cted for stwly on


a solidly-grounded system. However, faults at separate

locations are more likely to occur with an ungrounded system or a ground-fault neutralizer system than with a
grounded system. The method of determining ground
fault-current and division of current between line conduc-

tors and the earth is best accomplished by the method of


symmetrical components discussed in Chap. 2 and more
fully clsewhereu*.
Neutral Impedances~Control of the influence factors, which for low-frequency induction means control of
the ground current, is possible principally by choice of the
location of grounding points and by the use of neutral impedanee devices. The grounding point can sometimes be
located so as to substantially reduce the fault currents
lhruugh the exposures to magnitudes below those \Vhieh
would exist for other grounding locations; also, the number
of faults affecting the expmmre may likewise be reduced.
1\eutral-impcdance devices provide an important and
effective method for controlling low-frequency induction,
particularly where the exposures are in relatively close
proximity to a grounding point. The u:-;e of neutral-impedance has many effects on power-system operation as
discussed in Chap. 19. Introduction of neutral-impedance
devices may increase the difficulty of prompt relaying of
faults, and may require relay changes. In the low-frequency coordination, the factor of greatest importance is
postive fault disconnection. Next in importance are the
magnitude of current and the speed of fault clearing. When
neutral-impedance devices are used to limit ground currents, the several conditions arising in the various steps of
fault cJearing must be considered. Frequently the intro~
duction of neulral impedance at one point results under
fault conditions in lower drop in the voltages at remote
*Engineering Reports Nos. 41 26 and 37 of Reference 4.

points with the result that increased ground currents are


caused to flow through a parallel, either initially or during
f'lOme stage of the fault-isolating operation. For such cases
the resultant induction may not be reduced materially.
Thus, effective current limitation may require treatment
of many or all grounding points on the system.
For sing,le line-to-ground faults, the ground-fault neutralizer limits the ground currents to negligible magnitudes
ncar the fault, hut ncar the neutralizer the currents nearly
equal the neutralizer eurrcnt. At present it is not practical
to relay promptly a system with a ground-fault neutralizer
becn.use with such a system there is no suitable quantity
related definitely to the location of the fault. If the fault
persists, it is generally considered necessary to convert the
ground-fault neutralizer system to a solidly-grounded system. Consequently, from the standpoint of maximum
magnitude of induced voltages, such a system is substantially like a solidly-grounded system and the possibility of
higher induced voltages resulting from double faults, as
discussed previously, should also be considered. However,
with the ground-fault neutralizer, the frequency of occurrence of large induced voltages is much less than with the
system solidly-grounded. In considering such systems,
the expectancy of faults should be estimated taking into
account tho amount of "lightning~proof" construction,
particularly \vith grounded systems. A ground fault on a
ground-fault neutralizer system eauses high residual voltages which, if prolonged, can produce severe noise on a
closely-paralleling telephone circuit. See Sees. 8 and 14.
In calculating ground faults, it is frequently necessary
to consider the effect of.the fault resistance, which includes
the arc resistance and the tower-footing resistance_ The
effect of fault resistance depends on the location of the
fault. Near a large power source at a major neutralgrounding point, it has a large influence in low-voltage
systems, and may be important even in higher-voltage
systems. On faults distant from a power source, its effect
is less pronounced. Where towers are not interconnected
by ground wires, tower footing resistance (grounding resistance of vertical ground 1vire in the case of wood poles)
may be an important factor, as it varies through a wide
range depending upon the nature of the earth where the
fault oecurs and the means used for grounding. Ground
wires and counterpoises, which are used particularly in
connection with lightning protection) reduec the effective
footing resistance. The most probable value of fault resistance including tmver-footing is about 20 ohms22

8. Low-Frequency CouplinJ! Factors


Coupling Factors for Magnetic Induction~Lowfrequency (60-cyclc) coupling depends upon the physical
configuration of the circuits and their separation, and for
earth-return eireuits, also upon the resistivity of the earth.
For a single-phase metallic-return circuit, illustrated iu
Fig. G (a), voltage induced in a communication conductor
x by magnetic induction can be expressed by the following
equation:

v.~ +;0.2794

(!)
D.,
ilo I.log'"lJ
..

(1)

where V. is the voltage induced in conductor x per mile

748

Chapter 23

Coordination of Power and Communication Systems

~
.

v,

a
o,

'

c'

tudinal voltages in metallic circuits. Transpositions in a


communication cirenit rf'duee the metallie voltage induced
by power-circuit currents irrespective of whether the re-

turn for the latter is in a metallic conductor or in the earth.

'

Transpositions in a power circuit, however, affect the


longitudinal voltage induced in the communication circuit

as follows: (1) they reduce the induced voltages for all


positive- or negative-sequence currents, (2) they do not

o,.

(al

(b)

Fig. 6-DiaJirams for the calculation of magnetic induction,


induced voltag,e V1 in conductor x.

lems. In any location the distribution of current in the


earth depends upon the resistivity of the earth, upon the
proximity of grounding points and faults, and upon the

(a) Induction from metallic-circuit current----see Eq. (1).


(b) Induction from earth-return circuit current-sue Eq. (4).

f is the frequency in cycles per second,

I. is
the current in rms amperes flowing in conductor a and
returning in conductor a', D:u. and Da-,.. are the distances
from the conductors a and a' to x; the distances must be
expres~d in the same nnitR, preferably in feet. Similar

of parallel,

affect the induced voltage for those components of zerosequence current that return in the earth. Calculations
can be made by considering separately the induced volt~
ages, for each conductor for each section of the transposi~
tion system, and then combining them.
Earth-return circuits are the most common sources of
magnetic induction in low-frequency coordination prob-

equations can readily be written for the voltages induced


in the other communication-circuit conductors.

location of the adjacent grounded conductors. The coupling factors can be estimated by assuming the return current to be concentrated in the earth at a considerable distance below the outgoing current. The voltage induced in
conductor x caused by current I a. flowing in a single-phase
earth-return circuit, illustrated in Fig. 6 (b). can be determined from the following approximate formulat:

V.=I.(~) [0.0954+j0.2794 Iog ~:]

The voltages induced in a communication conductor hy


magnetic induction from the currents confined to the line
conductors of a three-phase power circuit can be written
in an analogous manner by resolving the conductor currents into three sets of components, viz.: I, flmving out in
conductor a and back in conductor b; lm, out in band back
inc; In, out in c and back in a. The solution*, expressed
in terms of phase currents, gives:
V,~

-j0.2794[I. log10 D=+h logw D

+ lo log10 Do,] for 60 cycles

(2)

where Vx is the voltage induced in conductor x per mile of


parallel, I a, I b, and I c arc the 60-cyclc currents in rms
amperes flowing in the conductors, a, b and c. D=, Db,"
and D= are the distances from conductors a, b, and c to
the conductor x; all the distances must be expressed in

10

(4)

where V,. is the voltage induced in conductor x per mile

of parallel, f is the frequency of the power system in cycles


per second, I, is the rms value of current flowing in the
aerial conductor a and returning in the earth, Da is the
equivalent depth of the reLurn current in the earth below
the outgoing conductor, D= is the separation between the
power conductor a and the communication conductor x
D,. is the distance between conductor x and the equivalent
return for current in conductor a; Dex and D= must be
expressed in the same dimensions, preferably in feet. The
value of D, is given approximately by Eq. (5).

D,=2160~ in feet

(5)

the same units, preferably in feet. Frequently the cur-

where f is the power-system frequency in cycles per second

rents of a three-phase power circuit can be assumed to be


all of positive-sequence. For this condition Eq. (2) can

and p is the resistivity of the earth in meter-ohms. Earth


resistivity is expressed in terms of the ohmic resistance

be simplified to the following form:

between opposite faces of a cubic meter of material. The


value of the earth resistivity varies through a wide range
from 10 to 1000 or more meter-ohms with 100 meter-ohms
perhaps most frequently encountered.

v'3

D=

V,~ +0.2794I. [ 2log" Dhx +J log10

v'~J
Du

for 60 cycles
(3)
where the notation is the same as for Eq. (2). The first
term in the bracketed expression is positive for phase ro-tation a, b, c; negative, if a, c, b.
Usually communication-circuit conductors and sometimes the power-circuit conductors or both are transposed

in the exposure section to reduce the resultant induced


voltages at noise frequencies, as discussed in Sec. 12.
Transpositions are not applicable to ground-return communication circuits and are not of value for reducing longi*Equation (2) assumes no current in the earth and is applicable
only for close exposures.

The voltage in conductor x caused by magnetic induc-

tion from the currents of a three-phase circuit for the


general case of partial return in the earth, can be written

in a manner corresponding to Eq. (4), with the following


result:

V,=0.286({0)I,+j0.2794([0)[I.Iogu, ~=
D~

D.,]

+f.. log" Dbx + Io log" D~

tThis formula is applicable for close exposures up to about


half mile.

(6)
one~

Coordination of Power and Communication Systems

Chapter 23

where the notation is the same as for Eqs. (2) and (4) and
] 0

is the zero-sequence current per phase in rms amperes

or! (I,+h+I,).
Frequently only the induction from zero-sequence currents need be considered. For this case, Eq. (6) reduces to

the following form:

749

son Electric Institute and Bell Telephone System. The


curves are dra\vn for three resistivities of 10, 100 and 1000
meter-ohms. :For close separations the effect of earth
resistivity is not very important, Fig. 7, but at separations

of about a mile the difference is of considerable magnitude


since the ratio of the induced voltages is about 40 to l for

0.286(~)+j0.8382(~) log10V"D~;b,DJ

variation in the resistivity from 10 to 1000 meter-ohms.

The denominator of the fraction within the logarithmic

Preferably the resistivity should be based on tests in the


particular area. Lacking this information, use may be
made of the experimental data and correlation with geo-

V,=lo [

(7}

term is the geometric mean distance from the phase con-

logical conditions as given by R. H. Card'. For most pre-

ductors a, b, c to the conductor x.


J. H. Carson's klethod* is the accurate one for determining the self-impedance of earth-return circuits and the
mutual impedance between parallel circuits with earthreturn taking into account the mutual-resistance and re
actance terms which vary with the resistivity of the earth.

liminary work, however, the value of 100 meter-ohms


usually is taken. For extensive calculation of mutual impedance of earth-return circuits, use ean be made of the
more extensive discussions of Reference 5, and particularly
Engineering Report No. 14 of Reference 4. For irregular
exposures, the mutual impedance can be approximated by

This method assumes uniform resistivity and the distribu-

summation of the voltages for component sections of

tion of earth current that occurs in the middle of a long


section. His solution provided the basis for the approximate formnlaR of EqR. (4) and (:3) and for more accurate

several uniform separations. Reference 4 also describes


additional methods for dealing with irregular exposures.

values given in Fig. 7 for the coefficients of mutual-resistance, reactance and impedance for various uniform separations1 which are taken from the work 4 of the Joint
Subcommittee on Development and Re::5earch of the Edi-

Coupling Factors for Rlectric lnduction-ThP relation between potentials and charges on each conductor
of a system of n parallel conductors using absolute or cgs
electrostatic units is ~iven in the familiar form7 :

V. =A Q.+Ab.Qb--A Q.~
Vb = A.bQ.+ AbbQ, ____ A.bQ.

*In America this method is usually associated with Carson's name.


However, two European investigators, Pollaczek and Jlaberlandj

obtained substantially the same results at about the same time.


See Appendix I of Engineering Report No. 14 of Reference 4.

-----------------

V. = A=Q + A Qb .. -.A Q,

10

0
~

0. I

"

.07

Q.,

.05

...

"',.

"'0I

.04

.o.

...
"z

.02

.o I

...
~

'

"\

'

.007

))0

~ :6~:
\IJ
0

.003

:!

.00 2f-

....
Q

a::

f= f::

MUTUAL IMPEDANCE
MUTUAL RESISTA NCE

r-

c- I.00 I f =
f=
7c- I-

MUTUAL REACTAN CE

HEIGHT OF POWER LINE- h1 50 FT. L....__


HEIGHT OF TELEPHONE LINE-ht25 FT.

1-1,~
\-'-0

EARTH RESISTIVITY-P-AS INDICATED

~ .000
....~ .000 ~.~-!!! .000

~-- t,-'o

ON CURVES-IN METER-OHMS

:3.ooo 3

a:
...J.OOO 2

.i:!

::>

2 .000 I0

..
0

"'

10

t-

..g

"'

g g g

It)

....

"' "'

HORIZONAL SEPARATION IN FEET

Fig. 7-Couplintt coefficient& at 60 cycles-variation with separation and earth resistivity-Carson's formula.

(8)

Chapter 23

Coordination of Power and Communication

751

System~~

Ce

Cb=Kbb-Kob-Kbc
CeKcc-Kae-Kbc

(a)

(b)
FiQ. 9-Electric couplin~ between three parallel conductors.
(a) Equivalent eA.ps.citance diagram.
(b) Equivalent circuit for determining zero-sequence voltage of
ungrounded three-phase system.

The capacitance coefficients for the usual three-phase


transmission line are considerably simplified from those of
Eq. (13) because the conductors are normally the same
size and the geometric mean spacing usually can be used)
particularly if transpositions are employed. The equivalent circuit for the three-conductor case is given in Fig. 9 1

the capacitances for which should include the conversion


constant 0.1786 as discussed in connection with the twoconductor case.
The zero-sequence or residual voltage of an ungrounded
three-phase line when subjected to balanced voltages can

readily be determined with the aid of Eq. (13) and Fig. 9


(b). The admittances between conductors a~ b, c and
ground per mile of line are given by the following:

Y.=0.1786w(K.,-K,b-KM)

Yb=0.1786w(Kbb-Kb,-Kb..)
Y,=0.1786w(K~-K .. - K,b)

(14)

For a single line-to-ground fault, the voltages from the


three conductors to ground consist of a positive-sequence
component and a zero-sequence component in each phase.
Thus, the currents flowing through the admittances Y a,
Yb and Yc can be expressed as follows:
I,~(Eo+E,)Y,

lb=(E,+a'E,)Yb
I,~ (Eo+aE1 ) Y,

(15)

Since the three-phase system is assumed to be ungrounded,

the sum of the three phase-currents is zero. This permits


the determination of the ratio of zero- to positive-sequence
voltages with result as follows:
(16)
E,
Y.+aYb+a'Y.

E,=- Y.+Yb+Y,
The ratio of the residual voltage to tho line-to-neutral or
positive-sequence voltage is three timP-s that given by Eq.
(16).

Voltages caused by electric induction from a single


power conductor with a potential to ground can be ob~
tained from the equivalent network of Fig. 8 (b) with
result as follows:
hab'

Vh K "h log"-d
a.b
------;=
V.. Kbb
ha.a.
1ogw-

(17)

r.

The capacitance coefficients for the four-conductor case


can be obtained in a similar manner with the aid of the
equivalent network shown in Fig. 10. This solution can be
used to obtain the voltage electrically induced on conductor x by a three-phase circuit. If the power system is
grounded, the potentials of conductors a, b and c with
respect to ground are known and the potential of conductor x to ground is calculated by considering only the capacitances K~, Kb., K~ and (Kxx - Ku - Kbx - K,.). If the
power circuit is ungrounded, then it is necessary to determine the zero-sequence voltage of the system to ground.
If the conductor x is ungrounded or if it is sufficiently re-

Chapter 23

Coordination of Power and Communication Systems

752

~rr
;~

r '"I

/?77~////?)7777777

percent of the zero-sequence current will return in the


ground wires. The shiP-lrling at 60 cydes of a fnllsized lead~
sheath telephone cable is about 50 percent and if the
sheath is wrapped with magnetic tape armor (two 40-mil
tapes on the larger sizes) the shielding is increased to 80 or
90 percent depending upon the magnitude of induction,
assuming that there is good contact with the earth. The
shie1ding given by povter cables depends upon construction
and varies from 40 to 70 percent. Shielding conductors on
either the power cireuit or on the eommunication circuit
can provide a remedial measure of value.

9. Low-Frequency Susceptiveness Factors


77

Co=Kao-Kob-Kac -Kox
Cib=Kbb-Kob-Kbc -Kbx

Cc =Kcc-Koc-Kbc -Kcx

The effects of low-frequency induction on a communication circuit depend upon its magnitude and duration, and
upon the frequency of occurrence of the abnormal condition. Some of these effects can occur at voltages below

Cx=Ku-Kolt-Kbx -Kcx

Fig. tO-Electric coupling between four pam1tel conductorsequivalent capacitance diagram.

mote, then the potential of the system of power conductors


with respect to ground is determined by neglecting the
conductor x. This makes possible the use of the method
outlined in connection with Fig. 9. When the potentials
of the conductors a, b, and c with respect to ground have
been determined, then the potential of conductor x can be
obtained in the usual way.
Shielding Conductors-Special grounded conductors,
which are used for reducing the voltages from electric or
magnetic induction on communication circuits, are called
shielding conductors. Shielding action may abo result
from grounded conductors that are a normal part of either
power or communication circuits.
Shielding against electric induction is provided by a conductor grounded at one point. The method just described
for determining the coupling factors for electric inductiop.
can also be used for determining the effectiveness of shielding conductors. A grounded cable sheath provides practically complete protection against electric induction.
Shielding against magnetic induction is provided by grounding the shielding conductor at the ends alone or at intermediate points in addition. The ground connections should
be of low resistance so as to faf~ilitate the flow of current
through the shielding-conductor earth-circuit. The current
flowing in the shielding conductor can readily be calculated
by the method previously described or as discussed more
fully in Chap. 2, in Reference 5 or in Engineering RepurL
No. 48 of Reference 4. The reduction in the voltage induced in the circuit to be protected can then be calculated
by considering the voltages that result from the currents
flowing through the shielding conductors, using the method
discussed in connecUou with Eq. (4) and Figs. 6 and 7.
The effectiveness of shielding action varies widely, depending upon the physical dimensions of the shielding conductor, the resistance of the conductor and earth connections, and the coupling to the circuit to be protected. A
stt..--el ground wire may carry about ten percent of the zerosequence current in the power circuit. Two 4/0 copper
ground wires may increase the shielding aetion so that 40

(a)
100

"'z

!;;

..

ffiBO

"'"'0
,_ 60
..."

....."'

l>

...
0

"'

".."'~

~-

--

'"

../
400

450

500

550

60Q

PEAK VOLTS

(b)

Fig. 11-Features of standard Bell System telephone protector.


(a) General appearance of subscriber protector, the No. OSA protector, with two fuses and two sets of protective gaps. The
protector blocks (~os. 26 and 30) within the cap are shown
by phantom view.
(b) Typical breakdown characteristics (Nos. 26 and 30 blocks).

Chapter 23

Coordination of Power and Communication Systems

those producing operation of protective equipment. Such


effects include false signalling and relay chattering on telephone circuits, distortion of telegraph signals, and false
relaying on supervisory control circuits. The more serious
effects from low-frequency induction are, however, usually
associated with voltages of sufficient magnitude to operate
protectors.
Standard Telephone-Circuit Protection-Telephone
circuits subjected to the possibilities of extraneous voltages above about 250 volts are equipped with protectors.
At subscriber premises these protectors usually consist of
seven-ampere fuses and carbon-block discharge gaps with
a spacing of three mils. The general appearance of this
station protector is shown in Fig. 11, together with a
breakdown characteristic of the discharge gap. This curve,
obtained under certain conditions in laboratory tests on
new blocks, should not be taken as generally representative
of behavior under field conditions. Similar protector
blocks assembled in a group mounting, with facilities for
terminating a large number of cable pairs, are used in central offices. Protectors located at the junction of openwire and cable are usually provided with similar carbon
blocks with six-mil spacing. Where open-wire telephone
lines are located in joint-use construction with higher-voltage di::striLutiun lines, special protectorR cR.pahle of withstanding a high discharge current are sometimes placed on
the telephone circuits, generally at or near points from
which customers are served.
The operation of telephone protector blocks produces
Aeveral important effects. In the first place the protector
blocks do not break down in an identical manner, with the
result that unsymmetrical voltages are produced, which
cause equalizing currents to flow through the telephone
receivers. The high currents flowing through the receiver
under such conditions can produce acoustic shock. In considering this type of interference it is necessary to include
the adverse psychological reactions to the threat of such
action. If the current through the protector blocks is large
or prolonged, they may become grounded, rendering the
circuit inoperative. The standard Bell System telephone
protector hloeks consist of two carbon electrodes, one of
which is mounted as an insert in a porcelain block so that
if the insert is heated as by passage of current, it is released
and makes a permanent ground. After protector blocks
are grounded, service cannot Le restored until they have
been replaced by maintenance forces.
The longitudinal-component of voltage impressed on a
communicabon circuit is distributed around the circuit in
accordance with the circuit constants; ordinarily the voltages divide across the two ends of a telephone circuit substantially in proportion to the impedances in the two
directions from the center of the exposure. Frequently the
exposure is not symmetrical with the circuit so that the
large part of the total induced voltage appears across one
of the protectors. For this reason the total voltage required to produce protector breakdown varies through
quite a range and normally is taken only slightly above
the breakdown voltage of a single protector.
Cables-The use of cables instead of open-wire construction is an important coordination measure because of
the shielding action provided by sheaths, as discussed pre-

753

viously. The greater cost of cable construction, however,


limits the usefulness of this measure to situations where
many circuits are involved or where severe expORures are
encountered for circuits of fixed location. Reduction of
induced voltages by putting circuits inside a cable sheath
is generally practicable only where a new communication
line is to be built or an old line replaced. The extensive
use of cables for both communication and distribution circuits in urban and suburban areas has, however, greatly
simplified the coordination problem in these areas of close
exposure. Special cables are made with steel-tape armor,
and with grounded shielding conductors located imside of
tho cable sheath. Such cables greatly increase the effectivenesR of shielding action, and reduction factors as great
as 95 percent are obtainable. In addition, special cables
have been built with higher than normal insulation, particularly for use in locations along the right-of-way of a-c
railways. Such cables are normally tested at 1000 volts
rms between conductors and 3500 volts rms to ground for
20 seconds. When highly-insulated cables are used, it may
be necessary to install insulating transformers between the
line and terminal equipment.

Special Types of Protective Measures*-Three


classes of special measures of value against low-frequency
inrluction are:
1. Special measures to avoid adverse effects of induction
without changing insulation or reducing induced voltages.
2. Reduction of induced voltages.
3. Increased circuit insulation with proportionate increase in protector breakdown voltage.
Relay Protector-A relay protector for a pair of wires
consists of a set of protectors, usually of the carbon-block
type, connected to ground or across the telephone circuit,
together with a coil connected in series with the discharge
path, and with relay contacts for short-circuiting the protectors, capable of carrying heavy currents for short periods, e.g., 100 amperes for 2)1 seconds. The relay operates
in one cycle or less to shunt the normal protectors, which
are by this means prevented from becoming grounded.
After the abnormal voltage condition has disappeared, the
relay returns to its normal position and the circuit again
becomes operative. This device is used for avoiding maintenance trouble and, except during the fault, interruption
of service on telephone and supervisory circuits. The relay
protector also is available in a form suitable for application
to all the wires of a line. The device is of value for supervisory control if the transmission of signals during the
abnormal condition is not essential. The relay protector
has the advantage over the vacuum or low-pressure gasfilled protector of having a lower breakdown characteristic
for the majority of applications, and for this reason is the
more commonly used.
Acoustic-Shock Reducer-The acoustic-shock reducer is
a device applied to telephone circuits to minimize the
acoustic shuck resulting from unsymmetrical discharge of
protectors that cause high currents in the telephone re*Protection of ground-return signal circuits, particularly telegraph
circuits against fundamental-frequency induction from power circuits or a-c railway circuits is discussed at considerable length in
Reference 23.

754

Coordination of Power and Communication Systems

ceiver. The most widely usetl acoustic-shock reducer

con~

sists of two oppositely-poled groups of copper-oxide recti-

fiers, the combination having high resistance to the low


voltages which are used in ordinary communication and
having low resistance to the relatively high metallic-circuit
voltages produced when telephone protectors are operated,
thus by-passing the telephone receiver. The acoustic
shock reducer does not, of course, avoid the other disadvantages of protector operation.
Special Protectors--Special vacuum tube, or preferably,
low-pressure gas-filled protectors, are sometimes used for
protecting circuiL:s subjected to induction that would operPOWER LINE
EXPOSURE

TE ~sc

BCEI

9TE

(a)

R'

R'

II

TE

R'

R'
(b)

TE

TE

TE
(d)

Flit. 12-Draina~e schemes for reducin~t potential on terminal


equipment (TE) as a result of induction or ground potential.
(a) Simple drainage scheme with balance coil, BC, for use with a
telephone or audio-frequency sigualiug l:iyoLem.
(b) Resistance-drainage scheme for use with rl-c signaling in supervisory control.
R Drainage resistor.
R 1 Line resistor.
(c) Resonant..drainage scheme for use with d-e signaling in supervisory control.
L Inductance coil.
C Capacitor.
(d) Drainage scheme with longitudinal choke coils for use with
d-e signaling in supervisory control.
LC Longitudinal choke coil
C Capacitor.

Chapter 23

ate ordinary protectors. The advantage of the tube-type


protector is that wider spacing can be obtained, \Vhich
minimizes the tendency for protectors to ground. The discharge voltage of the tube protector usually is somewhat
higher than that of the standard telephone gap and for
that reason is preferably used with somewhat higher than
normal insulation.
Dra-nage Schemes-By providing a drainage path to
ground, the resultant voltage on a communication circuit
can be reduced sufficiently to avoid the necessity of relief
by protector operation. Fig. 12 (a) shows a simple drainage scheme with a balance coil for a telephone or audiofrequency signaling system. Fig. 12 (b) shows a resistance
drainage scheme for a d-e signaling system. In this arrangement the voltage impressed on the terminal equipment is
reduced by the drop consumed in the line resistances R'
caused by the drainage currents flowing through resistors
R. This scheme is used in supervisory-control circuits of
limiLPd length or limited inductanee. Fig. 12 (e) shows a
resonant-drainage scheme with elements L and C tuned
for the fundamental frequency of the power system, so as
to provide low-impedance paths for the induced voltages.
The resonanL drainage is relatively more efTedive for
steady-state or slow transients than for the abrupt transients. Probably the most successful scheme for protection
of supervisory control, shown in Fig. 12 (d), utilizes longitudinal choke coils. Each coil is wound to have negligible
inductance in the metallic circuit but high inductance in
the longitudinal circuit which is completed through capacitance:-; C. Tn a typical installation the coils have longitudinal-circuit impedances of 40,000 ohms and the shunt
capacitors are 0.25 microfarad. With this scheme, the induced voltageislargelyrcmovedfrom the terminals although
left on the line. Hence, this scheme is applicable only when
the line insulation can withstand the maximum induced
voltage or where other means are used in combination to
prenmt the adverse effects from induction in the lines.
The scheme is sometimes described as a self-neutralizing
tram;former scheme because the resultant voltage distribution is close to that of the neutralizing-transformer scheme
discussed in the next paragraph and the function of the
neut-ralizing wire is provided by the circuit itself.
Ncutralizing-Transformer~One of the oldest and most
successful schemes for protecting communication circuits
against induction is the neutralizing-transformer scheme.
Tn this scheme, shown schematically in Fig. 13, a neutralizing-wire is placed close to the wires of the circuit to be
protected so as to be subjected to the same induced voltagct:. Transformers are connected in the neutralizing-wire
circuit awl in the circuit to be protected, with the windings
so arranged that the voltage produced in the communication circuit by the transformer action opposes and effectively ((neutralizes" the voltage directly induced in the
communication circuit. The voltage induced in the communication circuit is divided among the several neutralizing transformers. This scheme requires an additional wire
and ground ~onnection, the total resistance of which must
be low in eomparison \vith the impedance of the groundreturn circuit. The neutralizing-transformer scheme was
initially used for the protection of telegraph circuits exposed to induction from a-c railway circuits untler normal

Chapter 23

Coordination of Power and Communication System$

755

side of the influence of the station ground. Ordinarily this


means a relatively short length of neutralizing-wire. The

principal features of this arrangement are shown in Fig. 14.


The suitability of a remote ground can be checked by circulating fault current through the station ground and
determining the rise of potential of that ground with
NW
(o)

respect to an unquestionably remote ground, such as the


central office. The neutralizing transformer is exposed to

lightning voltages that may come from the aerial communication circuit or as a result of heavy discharge through the
power-station ground. The insulation of neutralizing transformers is, of course, not high enough to avoid the possi-

bility of breakdown against these lightning voltages. If a


plain protective gap were connected across it, there would
be the possibility of dynamic-current flow across the gap
and into the remote ground and across the protectors P'
into the central-office ground which would result in grounded
Fig. 13-Neutrallzlng transformer scheme..
(a) Schematic diagram.
TE Telephone terminal equipment.
NT Neutralizing transformer.
NW Neutralizing wire, subject to aa.me induction as the telephone wires.
G Grounds of low resist.ance.
(b) Voltage distribution along telephone line.

With neutralizing transformer.


Without neutralizing transformer.
ENT Voltage induced by neutralizing transformer.
EuN Unneutralized voltage on terminal equipment.
A
B

operation. In recent years it has been used on telephone


circuits, particularly to provide protection against rise in
ground potential that would otherwise appear in leased
circuits msed fur power-company communication23 , 24 or for
pilot-wire relay protection. If only rise in ground potential
is important, that is, if ordinary magnetic induction is

protectors. This can be avoided by the use of a valve-type


arrester, such as the available distribution-type power

arresters. The voltage class of the lightning arrester should


be selected so that its cutoff voltage will be above the maximum expected difference in 60-cycle voltage between the
station ground and the remote ground. The neutralizing
transformer permits d-e signaling and routine circuit testing in accordance with Bell System practice.
Insulating Transformers-The effects of low-frequency

induction can be avoided by increasing the insulation of


the conununicatiuu circuit and by using insulating transformers between lines and terminal apparatus. Such an

arrangement is shown in Fig. 15 and is normally used for


power-line telephone systems or for exposed lines that are

HORN GAPS
DISCONNECTING SWITCH
HIGH-CURRENT FUSES

negligible, it is necessary merely to connect the neutralizing-wire winding of the neutralizing transformer between
the station ground and a remote ground, i.e., a ground out-

KNURLED PROTECTIVE GAPS

LOW-VOLTAGE PROTECTOR
RELAY PROTECTOR
(OR GAS-FILLED TUBE)

.,.
I

INSULATING TRANSFORMER
LOW- CURRENT FUSE

Fig. 14-Schematic diagram of neutralizing-transformer


scheme for the protection against rise in station ground

LOW- VOLTAGE PROTECTOR

potential in leased circuits used for pilot-wire relayinal.

LA Lightning arreJ:>Ler-diiStribution type.


P Telephone protector (No. 26 and No. 27 blocks).
P' Telephone protector (No. 26 and No. 30 blocks).
SG Station ground.
RC Remote ground, located beyond influence of station ground.

TELEPHONE SET

Fig, 15-Protective scheme for exposed or power-line tele ..


phone systems.

756

Coordination of Power and Communication Systems

connected to commercial telephone systems. The arrange~


ment shows the insulating transformer between the line
and the local apparatus, together with low-voltage knurledtype protective gaps and with disconnecting switch and
high-current fuses. The combination of the horn gap anrl
the high-voltage fuse has been found by experience to pro~

vide the best protection. To avoid a burnout of the insulating transformer in case gaps operate on one side of the
line only, a low-voltage protector is connected diredly
across the metallic circuit. To minimize the possibility of
bridging this protector a rehty-type protector is connected
in parallel with it as shown in Fig. 15, or a low-pressure
gas-filled protect.or tube can be used. On some circuits it
is necessary to minimize the effect of electric induction
under normal operating conditions 1 by draining the line so
that the necessary charging ClliTPnts can flow. It is possible to use the midpoint of some of these insulating transformers for a drainage connection. For protection against
magnetic induction, it is sometimes feasible to insert. several insulating transformers distributed along the circuit
to be protected.
Pilot-wire relaying channels can be protected against
the effect of ground potential as shown in Fig. 16, which

Chapter 23

design, since it is not required to meet the balance requirements for use on telephone circuits, hut merely provides
the turn ratio and requisite insulation strength between
primary and secondary windings. When a superposed d-e
signaling channel is to be used over a circuit equipped \Vith
insulating transformers, the line winding is arranged in two
sections, the mid-points of which are connected to ground
through suitable capacitors as shown in Fig. 16. These
mid-points can be used as line connection for the d-e signaling circuit 1 the source for which can conveniently he provided by copper-oxide rectifiers and suitable insulating
transformC"rs. To provide protection against higher induction or ground potential, special longitudinal choke eoils
LC are added to the circuit as shown in Fig. 16. These
coils arc arranged to be non-inductive in the metallic circuit but to have high inductance for the longitudinal
circuit, and to have considerable dielectric strength for
that path. This general arrangement provides E'upervision
features for checking the integrity of a pilot-wire channel
against open circuits, short circuits, or grounds. If supervision features are not required, the mirl.-point ~onnP-ctionA
of the insulating transformer are omitted and the line-side
winding arranged in n. single section. This results in simple
connections for the pilot-wire relaying circuit.

III. NOISE-FREQUENCY COORDINATION


PILOT WIRES

LA

'I
I'
I
1
1

L_____

L __ ..J

D. C. SUPERVISON
EQUIPMENT

Fig. 16-Schematic diagram illustrating use of insulating


transformers for protecting, pilot-wire relaying, circuit with
superposed d-e channel for supervision.
IT

Insulating transformers.

LC
C
LA

Specht~ coils.
\ See Fig. 12 (d)
Capacitors for grounding. J
Lightning arrcsters-dtstnbution type.

Protectors, preferably gas-filled type.

SG Station ground.

includes provision for d-e supervision. In this arrangement


if the longitudinal choke coils are not used, the insulating
transformers absorb the difference of potential between
the station ground and the remote ground. It also has the
particular advantage in connection with pilot-wire relaying
channels of providing a ((turn ratio" device needed to avoid
producing high line drop where standard five-ampere secondary current transformers are used for relaying purposes. The eonditions in regard to the need for the lightning arrester across the transformer arc the same as for the
drcuit of Fig. 14. The transformer in this case is of simple

A telephone circuit traversing electric and magnetic


fields will, in general, produce extraneous currents in all
connected telephone receivers. These extraneous currents
interfere with telephonic transmission if they arc in the
audio- or noise-frequency range and of appreciable magni...
tude compared with normal voice currents.
Noise-frequency coordination problems involve the same
basic factors as the low-frequency problems, namely, influence characteristics of the power circuit, susceptiveness
of the communication circuit, and coupling between the
circuits. These factors are, however, limited to the characteristics in the audio- or noise-frequency range and are,
therefore, different from those encountered in low-frequency coordination. In general, the important frequencies
in the noise-frequency problem arc the incidental or harrnonie frequencies of powP.r-syRtem operation. These harmonics are produced by reluctance changes due to poles
and slots in rotating machines, by saturation in magnetic
circuits, and by cyclic circuit changes in rectifiers and commutating machines. In the present state of the art these
characteristics of electrical apparatus cannot be avoideti,
and any large improvement would require radical changes
in apparatus design that \Yould greatly increase the cost
and decrease serviceability. It is, however, to the interest
of both power and communication companies tu control
the ha.rmonics to the greatest practical extent.
The investigation of a noise-frequency coordination probM
lem requires the determination of (1) the noise-frequency
or harmonic voltages and currents in the power system for
each section involved in an inductive exposure, (2) the
coupling factors bet\veen the power and communication
circuits, and (3) the harmonic currents produced in the
telephone receiver, or the telephone noise. The final step
involves determination of whether the noise conditions are

satisfactory, and if unsatisfactory the selection of the


appropriate remedial measures. The various factors in
this problem are first ~onsidered 1 after which a method is
given for estimating the resultant noise in the telephone
circuit.

10. Frequency-Weighting Curves


The severity of an exposure in noise-frequency coordina-

tion is difficult to define because of the many harmonic


frequencies that may be present. It becomes desirable,
therefore, to find a single factor, representing the effects of
all the frequencies present, by means of which the severity
of an exposure may be nppraiscd. This is accomplished by
the use of frequency-weighting curveR as shown in Flg. 17.

,. +

16000+
~

+- '

T1eooo
0
t" 10000
<!'J

eooo

6000

":r::

4000

2000

~}-t-

t;:l4000

757

Coordination of Power and Communication Systems

Chapter 23

'

+--

.I

''

00

Telephone Interference Factor, Telephone Influence Factor, and T.I.F. Curves-The original or 1919

1935

'
I"

'

1919
I

1000

2000

3000

FREOUENCY-CYCLES PER SECOND

4000

5000

Fig. 17-T.I.F. weighting curves.


A~Telephone

interference factor-based on 1919 frequency~weight

ing <:urve.
B-Tt~lephonP. influP.ncP. fador-hased on l 935

for methods of estimating or measuring the total telephone-circuit noise 1 discussed in Sec. 14. Thus, starting
with the harmonlr:s ln the voltages and currents of a power
system and using coupling factors and the frequencyweighting curve applicable to the telephone circuit, it is
possible to estimate the overall effect from the coordination standpoint. However, for many purposes it is more
convnient to obtain a single factor applicable to the harmonics on a power system. To do this it is necessary to
modify the frequency-weighting curves applicable to the
telephone circuit by factors which take into account the
coupling behveen power and telephone circuits. Experience shmvs that a factor directly proportional to frequency
gives satisfactory resultR for both current and voltage harmonies. This leads to frequency-weighting curves applicable to harmonics on power systems. These are called T.
I. F. curves where T. I. F. means telephone interference
factor or telephone influence factor. Improvements in the
telephone receivers over a period of years require different
frequency-weighting curves as discussed in the following
paragraph.

frequency~weighting

frequency-weighting curve applicable to power-system


harmonics is given in Curve A of Fig. 17, and the term was
called Telephone Interference Factor. In 1935 a new frequency-weighting curve, as shown in Curve B of Fig, 17,
was adopted and the term was changed to Telephone Influence Factor as being more descriptive of the actual
quantity. The ne\v type of hand set put into production
by the Bell System in 1938 makes imminent further
changes in the frequency-weighting curves. Originally it

curve.
TABLE 1-T.l.F. WEIGHTING$ OF VARIOUS SINGLE FREQUENCIES

In the determination of such curves consideration is given


to the following factors:
1. Coupling between power and telephone circuits.
2. Freqm~ncy-reRponse characteristic of the telephone
circuit, particularly the telephone receiver.
3. Law of combination for effects of several frequencies.
4. Characteristics of the human ear in regard to its perception of sounds.
5. The effect of telephonic noise in adversely affecting
reception because of unintelligibility or annoyance.
To obtain the frf~quency-weighting curves 891 extensive
ujudgment" and llarticulation" tests were made on telephone circuits subjected to single-frequency voltages of
variable magnitudes. Judgment tests involve comparisons
in the presence of speech of the relative interfering effects
of the disturbing frequency to that produced by a reference
noise in the receiver. Articulation tests involve the comparison of the accuracy in receiving meaningless monosyllables in the presence of variable amounts of the disturbing frequency. When currents of several frequencies are
present in the telephone receiver, the overall effect corresponds to a complicated combination of the components.
However, experience shows that satisfactory results can
be obtained by combining the weighted components for
the several frequencies according to the square root of the
sum of the squares. These considerations provide the basis

Frequency

GO
100
300
360
420
540
660
720
780
900
I 020
I 080
1 140

1 260

I 300
I 440
I 500
I 620
I 740
I 800
I 860
I 9SO
2 IOO
2 500
3000
5000

1919 T.l.F.

8.8
112
440
770
1100
I 770
2 540
3 100
3 870
6 260
11700
16 000
16 100
9 350
6 IOO
5 250
4 530
3600
3020
2 750
2 600
2 280
2000

1935 T.l.F.
I
15
205
370
590
I 250
2250
2 990
4080
7 270
11600
11980
11100
7 920
5 470
4 740
4400
3900
3660
3580
3 570
3500
3500
3680
3 940
480

758

Coordination of Power and Communication Systems,

was intended that the 1935 T.I.F. curve and the term
Telephone Influence Factor should replace the earlier
forms. However, the transition requires time and has not
been made throughout Lhe industry aud it appears that
this change will not be made until after new curves are

adopted. As a consequence, both the 1919 and 1935 T.I.F.


curves and the corresponding terms are in use at present
and their definitions are as follows:
The telephone interference factor of a wave is the ratio of the
square root of the sum of the squares of the weighted rms

Chapter 23

line-to-line voltage or line currents with zero-sequence


components removed are used. For the measurement of
residual-component voltage T.I.F. of a machine, the machine may be connected in uopen delta." a.ud a potential
transformer placed between the meter and the machine.

An alternative method applicable to both a machine or


system is to connect the primary windings of three potential transformers from line-to-neutral terminals of the
machine or system and to connect the secondary windings
in opened delta across the T.I.F. meter. '\Vhen potential

values of certain groups or of all sine-wave components, includ~


ing in alternating waves both the fundamental and the har-

transformers are used, they will introduce a small error

monics to the rms value of wave. The weightings to be applied


to the individual components of different frequencies are as

formers themselves. This error is, however, unimportant,

given in Curve A of Fig. 17 and Table 1.


The term telephone influence factor has the same definition as

telephone interference factor except that the frequency weightings are obtained from Curve B of Fig. 17 and Table 1.

These T.I.F. factors for apparatus are of two kinds,


balanced and residual component. The definitions of
these factors for a synchronous machine are as follows:
The balanced telephone interference factor (or balanced telephone influence factor) of a three-phase synchronous machine
is the- ratio of the square root of the sum of the squares of
weighted rms values of the fundamental and the non-triple
series of harmonics to the rms value of the normal no-load
voltage wave.
The residual-component telephone interference factor (or residual component telephone influence factor) of a three-phase
synchronous machine is the ratio of the square root of the sum
of the squares of the weighted values of one-third of the rms
fundamental and harmonic residual voltages to the rms value

of the normal voltage from line to neutral*.

Ba1anced T.I.F. is obtained from the positive- and nega-

tive-sequence voltages and currents, including both fundamental and harmonics, while the residual component t
T.I.F. is obtained from the zero-sequence voltages and
currents, including fundamental and harmonics, which,
from a practical standpoint, are limited to those of Ute
triple-harmonic series. Balanced and residual T.I.F. terms
are also used in connection with systems under load
conditions.

Meters are available for measuring the telephone interference factor and the telephone influence factor of
both voltage and current waves. In the case of voltage
T.I.F. measurements, the reading is the ratio of the current in the metering element in micro-amperes to the rms
value of voltage being measured. In the case of current

T .I.J<'. measurements, the drop across a one millihenry


inductance in a series relation with the current being
measured, is impressed on the meter, and the reading is the
ratio of the current in the metering element in micro-

amperes to the rms value of the current wave. Usually


current and potential transformers are necessary to reduce
the voltages and currents to magnitudes suitable for T.I.F.
meters. In measurement uf Lalanced T.I.F. for voltage
on a machine or for voltage or current on a system, the
*See also Sec. 11, Ini1uence Factors.

tResidual-component quantities are equal to the zero-sequence


components, while residual quantities are three times the zerosequence components.

resulting from the triple harmonics produced by the transexcept where very low values of residual-component T.I.F.
are being measured. Residual-current T.I.F. of a system
may be obtained by using the sum of the three phase
currents to energize the one millihenry coil across which

the T.I.F. meter is connected. The terms KV T and I T


are frequently used in connection with system quantities

and give the total weighted factors for .,oltages and currents respectively, both balanced and residual. In these
terms T represents voltage or current T.I.F., KV the rms
line-to-line, or residual voltage in kilovolts, and I the rms
line current (wtth zero-sequence component removed), or
the residual current in amperes.

11. Noise-Frequency Influence Factors


On commercial power systems of either the three-phase
or the single-phase midpoint-grounded types, two kinds
of circuits require consideration, namely, (1) the circuits

whose paths are limited to the line conductors and (2) the
circuits whose paths involve ground. Telephone engineers
are accustomed to use the terms balanced voltages or currents for those which are confined to the line conductors
and the term residual voltages or current.'{ to those which

are associated with ground. Power engineers generally


11se symmetrical components and thus will recognize that
the balanced voltages or currents are those of positive- or
negative-sequence and that the residual voltages or currents correspond to the sum of three phase quantities or to
three timeR the zero-sequence quantities~ Consideration

must be given separately to these two types of circuits


because the coupling factors between the power circuits
as a whole and the communication circuit are much greater
for residual or zero-sequence than for the balanced or
positive- and negative-sequence; the ratio of these coup-

ling factors, which may be as high as 50, depends upon


power-circuit configuration and the separation between
power and telephone circuits.

Sequence of Harmonics-Harmonics of symmetrical


three-phase systems analyzed by symmetrical components5, are of definite sequence. In a symmetrical system
the even harmonics are absent and the remaining har-

monics are divided between the sequences as shown in the


accompanying Table 2.
Thus, positive-sequence harmonics are all of the order
(6n+ 1) where n is any integer; the negative sequence,
(6n:-l) and the zero sequence, (6n -3). Triple harmonics
require separate consideration from the positive- or negative-sequence harmonics because the former are of zero
sequence and flow in a different path. In a symmetrical

Coordination of Power and Communication Systems

Chapter 23
TABLE 2

SEQUENCE OF HARMONICS IN THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

Harmonie

Sequence

Harmonic

Sequence

Positive
Zero

19
21

Positive
Zero

3
6
7
9
11

13

Negative

23

Negative

Positive

25

rositive

Zero
Negative
Positive

27

Zero
Negative
Positive

15

Zero

17

Negative

29
31
etc.

system the line-to-neutral voltages contain all the harmonics present in the line-to-line voltage and in addition
contain the zero-sequence harmonics.
Balance of a Power System-If, under normal operating conditions, a power system is symmetrical and if
voltages of positive-sequence only are generated, then only
currents of positive-sequence can flow. However, if the
circuit is unbalanced, the flow of positive-sequence current,
for example, through unbalanced series impedances, produces unbalanced voltages that include a zero-sequence
component and produce zero-sequence currents, the importance of which from the induction standpoint may be

many times that of the original balanced currents. This


difference results from the greater coupling inherent in the
residual or zero-sequence paths. Frequently, it is desirable
to transpose the system in order to balance it.

Wave-Shape Characteristics of Power Apparatus


-Power syRtP.ms normally operate at a fundamental frequency of 60 eycles, but it is necessary at times to consider 25 and 50-cycle a-e circuits and d-e circuits. The
wave-shape characteristics of power systems are influenced
principally by Lhe harmonics generated in synchronous
machines and converting apparatus and by exciting currents in transformers. In a few cases it has been necessary
to consider other types of apparatus that produce harmonics.
Synchronous M acMnes-The important sources of harmonics in most power systems are synchronous machines,
particularly generators. These, including condensers, frequency-changer sets, converters, and motors for industrial
drive, have similar \Vave-shape characteristics. Except in
a few applications, the smaller synchronous machines and
the synchronous motors for industrial plants are usually
unimportant unless larger than say 1000 kva.
The prineipal sources of harmonics in a synchronous
machine are:
1. The field form, particularly with salient-pole construction.
2. The variation in reluctance caused by slots.
3. Saturation in main circuits and leakage paths.
4. Damper windings, which frequently are unsymmetrieaJly sp:wed.
The most important of the possible methods of controlling the harmonics are:
1. I-'arge air gap.
2. Shaping of pole pieces.
3. Partially-closed slots.

4.
5.
6.
7.

759

Skewing of poles or slots.


Number of slots per phase per pole.
Chording of the windings.
Fractional-slot windings.

Often many of these controls are impractical since they


would greatly increase costs. Ordinary closed slots are
generally impractical because form-wound coils cannot be
used. Skewing of poles or slots is an effective measure but
frequently increases losses and introduces mechanical
problems in construction and interferes with the rigidity
of the support, which is usually not uniform throughout
the length of the pole or slot. The more commonly useful
factors include:
I. Suitable ratios of slot opening to air-gap length.
2. The avoidance of certain numbers of slots per pole
per phase giving slot frequencies in the vicinity of
1100 cycles.
3. Chorded and fractional-slot windings.
By varying the pitch of chorded windings it is possible to
eliminate particular harmonics, but this is usually accompanied by an increase in some other harmonic. Consequently, chording is a factor of limited usefulness. One of
the most practical controls for slot harmonics is fractionalslot windings. \Vhile many combinations are possible, a
frequent arrangement is an odd number of slots per pair of
poles. This has the effect of keeping the reluctance constant since a change under one pole is compensated by an
equal and opvusite ehange under the adjacent pole. However, such windings do interfere with the use of standard
parts and generally require greater development for a line
of machines than normal.
The most important harmonics of a synchronous machine result from the slot frequencies, and their values are
given by:

F,=S(rps) J

(18)

(19)
=(2N l)f
where F,-slot frequencies
S--tatal number of armature slots
rps-machine speed in revolutions per second
!-fundamental frequency
N -number of sJots per pole

The frequency given by the first terms corresponds to


the pulsation of reluctance in the magnetic circuit. Because of the effect of rotation of the rotor, the harmonics
appearing in the armature circuit are increased and decreased by the fundamental. Thus, if the slot frequency
corresponds to the 18th harmonic the frequencies appearing in the output eircuit of a synchronous generator are
the 17th and 19th harmonics of the fundamental. The slot
frequencies always occur in pairs but their magnitudes are
frequently quite different, the cause for which has not
been fully investigated. Double-frequency pulsations are
produced (I) by saturation in the magnetic circuit, particularly in the teeth, and (2) by reflection from currents
induced in rotor bars by the slot ripple. Additional frequencies may be produced by damper windings, which
usually are not uniformly distributed within the pole or
interpolar space. With non-uniform arrangements it is

760

Chapter 23

Coordination of Power and Communication Systems

difficult to estimate the magnitude and equivalent frequency of these harmonics. Consequently, these effects are
estimated principally from tests on similar machines.
The foregoing discussion applies to positive- and negative-sequence harmonics and to zero-sequence harmonics
as well. However, the zero-sequence or triple harmonics
require special attention because, as pointed out previous-ly, they are the only ones acting on the zero-sequence path
in a symmetrical system. Triple harmonics in a synchronous machine can be controlled by altering the field form
and particularly by using a two-thirds pitch winding.
Theoretically, these measures should be sufficient to
eliminate the triple harmoni~s anrl ln practice this is substantially accomplished if a two-thirds pitch winding is
used. The windings of two-pole machines are generally designed with a throw less than two-thirds pitch because of
the difficulty of getting coils with longer throw through
the small bores. 1\fachincs with four or more poles are
generaUy designeO with coil throws as near full pitch as

possible in order to work the material in the most eco~


nomical manner. To obtain the advantage of keeping the
triple harmonics low, a two-thirds pitch winding is required because small departure in pitch would greatly increase the magnitude of these harmonics. A two-thirds
pitch winding is, however, not desirable from the stand-

point of the balanced harmonics because other windings


are more advantageous for controlling the nontriple harmonics, for example, a winding of 0.833 pitch reduces the
5th, 7th, 17th and 19th harmonics by 75 percent of the full
pitch value. A two-thirds pitch winding has low impedance to triple harmonics and thus may constitute a contributing factor in the coordination problem for triple
harmonics produced in other parts of the system. The
two-thirds pitch windings will, in general, increase the cost
of machines, but this may be justified in particular cases
where severe exposures involving zero-sequence coupling
are anticipated.
The wave-shape requirement of synchronous machines
are defined in the A.LKE. standardg in two ways, namely,
Deviation Factor and Telephone Interference Factor. The
deviation factor is obtained from the magnitude-time eurv(~
of the machine no-load normal voltage wave and a sinusoidal wave of the same rms value 1 the two curves being
adjusted so as to give the minimum maximum deviation.
The A.S.A. Standards C-50 call for a maximum permissible
deviation of 10 percent. However, wave-shape deviation
is relatively unimportant in induetive coordination because
deviation is usually controlled by the lower harmonics
whereas the telephone interference factor is controlled by
higher harmonics of much smallf~r magnitnde.
The \vave-shape requirements of a generator from the
coordination standpoint are normally defined in terms of
the no-load voltage telephone interference factor discussed
previously. The st.antlard values of voltage T.I.F. for
synchronous machines adopted by 1'\. E.M .A. arc as given
in Table 3. The rangP. above 1000 kva was previously
adopted by N.E.L.A."
The foregoing levels, it is to be understood, wi11 not
avoid the possibility of interference in all cases, nevertheless, they represent tl1e most reasonable limits at the time
of their original adoption in 1032 and have given good re-

TABLE 3-TELEPHONE INTERFERENCE FACTORS (T.I.F.)


STANDARD VALUES FOR SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES

Machine K va Range
60 Cycles

Balanced T.I.F.
Line-to-Line TerminaJB

62.5- 299
300 - 699
700 - 999
1000 -2 499
2 500 -9 999
lO 000 up

300
200

5000 kva up
*There is uo eu..ndG.rd for machines of

150
125
60

50
Residual-Component T.I.F.
30
lei~!o~

than 2000 volts.

suits since. Where trouble exists or can be anticipated


from difficult exposure conditions, and where a groundedneutral machine is to be used, it is recommended HI that the
purchaser obtain from the manufacturer a quotation on a
machine with the foregoing Jimit, and in addition an alternate quotation on a machine with a residual-component
T.I.F. not to exceed 2.5 This figure of 2.5 for T.I.F. is
intended to cover a machine having a t\vo-thirds pitch
winding or an equivalent wave shape obtained in some
other manner. Special filters or resonant shunts for the
few cases of trouble may provide a more economical solution than having all machines with low T.I.F. levels.
Specifications for residual-component T.I.F. are not
applicable to machines without neutral leads brought out
for grounding; they should not be applied to grounded
machines unless the system connections are such that zerosequence harmonics in the machines can be impressed on
aerial power circuits that may now or in the future parallel
communication circuits. Thus, residual-component T.I.F.
is not applicable to the frequently-occurring case of a machine with neutral grounded but which is separated from
distribution cireuils by a two-winding tran::>former with at
least one set of its windings connected in delta.
When a syn('hronons mach infO is connPcted to a system,
paths are provided for currents produced by the harmonic
voltages generated in the machine or in the external circuit. These harmonic voltages and currents can be calculated on the basis of internal or generated harmonic voltages and the harmonic impedances of the system (discussed
snh.seqw:ontly) and the harmonic reactances of the machine.
The internal harmonic voltages of a loaded machine can be
greater or less than the no-load normal-voltage value of
the harmonics, but are generally taken the same for ealculating purposes. The internal reactances at harmonic
frequencies are commonly expressed in terms of an equivalent fundamental-frequency value multiplied by the order
of the harmonic. This equivalent fundamental-frequency
rcadance is based on (1) the negative-sequence reactance
for positive- or negative-sequence harmonics and (2) the
zero-sequence reactance for the zero-sequence harmonics.
The equivalent fundamental-frequency reactance for
positive- or negative-sequence harmonics is reduced at the
higher frequencies because of the smaller amount of flux
penetrat-ing the rotor. The amount of reduction is not
known aeeurately but normally is taken as unity for 60
cycles and about 0.8 at 1000 cycles and in proportion for
other frequencies.

Coordination of Power and Communication Systems

Chapter 23

Synchronous Converters--In the a-c circuits, synchroR


nous converters produce harmonics that arc characteristic
of synchronous machines as previously Oiscussed. ThP.re
are also relatively large 5th and 7th harmonics, which are
produced by the successive connection and disconnection
of winding sections to the d-e output circuit by the commutator and collector rings.

In addition, synchronous

converters produce in the d-e circuits harmonics due to


slots and commutation that are characteristic of d-e
machines.
Induction Motors-- The harmonics produced by induction motors are rarely important in noise-frequency coordination. The most important harmonics produced by
an induction motor are caused by reluctance changes introduced by stator and rotor slots and their harmonic
frequencies are:
F.~

(S,)(rps)+f

(20)

F,~

(S,)(rps) J

(21)

where F,, Fr-slot frequencies due to stator and rotor


slots, respectively
S,., Sr-total number of stator and rotor slots,
respectively
rps-speed of rotor in revolutions per second
!-generated frequency, normally 60 cycles.
The slot harmonics occur in pairs for both stator and rotor
slots. These frequencies are related to the actual speed of
the induction motor and vary with the slip. Certain slot
combinations are undesirable, as for example one that
would cause one of the harmonics from stator slots to be
the same as one caused hy the rotor slots. In addition,

25

other harmonics, principally the 2nd harmonic, can be


produced by saturation, mainly in the teeth. The magnitudes of the harmonics vary with the character of the slot,
being relatively small for closed slots and large for open
slots.
The harmonic voltages produced by an induction motor
can be measured only when connected t.o a source of excitation. Thus, induction motors do not have a characteri::;tie wave shape in the same sense as synchronous machines and no standard method of determining their wave
shape has been propo,:;;ed. Tn Rpite of the enormous quantity of induction motors that have been built, only a very
few have been involved in noise-frequency coordination
problems. In cases of trouble other contributing factors
are frequently present, such as resonance in the supply
system to the particular slot frequencies generated in the
induction motor. In the few cases of trouble, solnt.ions
have been obtained by shunt filters or even shunt capacitors, or by changing the motor to another design giving
different slot frequencies, thus avoiding resonance with
the supply circuit.
T>-r ;l:fachines--Harmonics in d-e machines are due
principally to the slots and commutators and their values
are:
F,=S(rps)
(22)
F,~C(rps)

where F., F Q'-slot and commutator frequencies 7


respectively

(23)

761

S, C--number of slots and commutator bars7


respectively
rps-machine Rpeed, revolutions per second

In addition, harmonics of double the slot and commutator


frequencies may be present because of saturation in the
magnetic eircuit:s which occurs principally in the armature
teeth. The harmonic current can be estimated from the
harmonic generated voltage, the harmonic impedance of
the external circuit and the harmonic inductance of the
machine. The approximate internal inductance of d-e
machines is given by the following equation:

15U(Vd)' m1.111.hennes
.

Lint= kw

where

600
kw-rating of machine in kilowatts
V do-machine d-e voltage

(24)

In particular cases, it may be found desirable to employ


machines having especially good wave shape or to use
filtering NJllipment.
Transformers-Saturation of iron in the magnetic circuit
of a transformer is its only inherent characteristic that
tends to distort the wave shape of a power system. The
term "saturation" as used in this chapter may be defined
as a deviation from a linear relation of the magnetic flnx
in the iron B.nd thf! magnetizing force. If saturation exists,
the application of sinusoidal voltage to a transformer will
produce non-sinusoidal exciting current and conversely
the flmv of sinusoidal current will be accompanied by nonsluusuidal voltages across the primary and secondary
windings of the transformer. Both the distortion in voltage
and exciting current may be important in inductive coordination. It is impractical, however, to build transformers v:ithout saturation, and as a consequence, this
source of wave-shape distortion is unavoidable.
The phenomena accompanying saturation in a transformer ean be analyzed with the aid of equivalent circuits
using leakage and magnetizing reactances of the transformer. In the equivalcnt-T network, shown in Fig. 18,

WLp

I
Fig. 18-Equivalent circuit for analyzing harmonic voltages
and currents due to saturation in a transformer.
Eg~Sinusoidal

fundamental-frequency source (impedanceless

in itfldf).
Zg~Impedauce

of source, different values for different harmonic


frequcneies.
Ep, E 8 -Primary and secondary voltages.
L.,, L.~Leakago inductances 1>.ssociated with primary and secondary
\Vindings.
M-Mutual inductance of transformer windings.
Eh-Ficlitious impcdanceless sources of harmonic voltages of
different magnitudes at different frequencies.

lax-Exciting current due to sources E, and Eh.

762

Chapter 23

Coordination of Power and Communication Systems

the leakage reactance is divided into two parts, which are


associated with the primary and secondary windings. The
divbion of leakage reactance between the two \Vindings
can be estimated from the amount of each \Yinding that
is closest to the core. In Fig. 18 the source is represented
by an impcdanceless generator of sinusoidal fundamental
frequency and a (/source impedance" that can vary through
wide ranges of vn.Jues 1 particularly at the harmonic fre~
qucncies. It is convenient to think of the harmonic frequencies as being produced by impedanccless harmonicvoltage source Eh connected in series with branch wlVf of
the equivalent network. These harmonic sources include
for a single-phase unit all the odd harmonics with magnitudes decreasing as the order of the harmonic increases.
Thus, all the harmonic-frequency loss and reactive kva
arc supplied to the transformer at fundamental frequency
and there converted by the nonlinearity in the magnetic
cireuit to harmonic sources, \vhieh cause harmonic currents
to How back through the actual source. This conception
of the equivalent circuit for representing harmonics produced by saturation should be considered as an approximation but it is useful for analyzing transformer operation
from the standpoint of the coordination of pO\ver and
communication systems.
The equivalent circuit of Fig. 18 will now be used to
examine the distortion in voltage or exciting current of
transformers for various circuit conditions. Consider first
an impeda.nceless source of sinusoidal wave .shape, a con-.
dition frequently approached in actual operation. Under
this condition the primary voltage is sinusoidal hut the
ex('iting current contains harmonic components produced
by the harmonic sources Eh which cause currents to flow
through the impedanceless fundamental-frequency source.
The secondary voltage contains some distortion because
of the leakage between primary and secondary windings.
The secondary harmonic voltage can be estimated if the
harmonic components of exciting current and the equivalent primary leakage reactance are known. Consider next
the case of a sinusoidal source of low impedance at fundamental frequency but of infinite impedances at. harmonic
frequencies. Under this condition the exciting current is
of fundamental frequency only, but the primary and
secondary voltages contain large harmonic components.
Oceasionally such a condition is approximated under actual
operation as when a small transformer carries rated cur~
rent. composed :;olely of the exciting currents of other
transformers. This results in a secondary voltage of badly
distorted wave shape. On many systPms the snpply c:ircuit is of relatively high impedance for particular harmonics so that the corresponding harmonic components of
exciting current are suppressed and the corresponding
harmonie voltageti are increu:seU. This particular condition is frequently encountered with banks of transformers with connections that do not provide a path for the
flow of triple-harmonic exciting currents. If a load is connected to the secondary of the equivalent circuit of Fig. 18,
jt is evident that the harmonic currents will divide between
primary and secondary windings. If one of these circuits
is resonant at a particular harmonic frequency, then all
that harmonie component of exciting eurrent will flow
through that transformer winding. If a power system is

maintained constant except for variation in the source


impedance at one harmonic frequency, there will be
changes in the voltages and currents of other harmonic
frequencies. Because of this, there is Jittlc reason to undertake aecurate calculation of harmonic volta.geR and currents except for the lower frequencies. Harmonic voltages
in the power sources may increase or decrease the harmonic
exciting currents, particularly the components flowing in
one of the transformer windings. Theoretically, a supply
voltagt' containing harmonics of the proper frequencies,
magnitudes, anO pha.se relations ean produce sinusoidal
exciting current. Sometimes a harmonic in the source and
resonance of the transformer with the source impedance at
the same frequency produce unexpectedly large distortion
of the eurrent or voltage waves.
It is the harmonie components rather than the fundamental-frequency component of exciting current that are
important in noise-frequency coordination. However, the
harmonic currents can usually be correlated with the total
exciting current. The magnitudes of exciting current for
typical transformer classes and kva sizes are given in Chap.
100

90

---

:-.....

fUNDAMENTAL'

r--

80

.. 70

i.

~"

--

"

z
iii
,_ 60

._,
z

:>50

3rd. HARMONIC

/
r--~

f.-'

/
~-

20

to

--

!--

v
:;'ll ...--

f.-' v

~~" s

..."!!!

95

100

105

110

VOLTAGE-PERCENT NORMAL
Fig. 19-Fundamental and harmonic components of exciting
current for different applied voltages-based on silicon iron
used in transformers. For variat:ion of exciting current with

voltage see Fig. 40 of Chap. 5.

Chapter 23

763

Coordination of Power and Communication Systems

5. Exciting currents vary importantly with voltage, increasing somewhat more than two to one for each ten per-

well, and the higher harmonics will likely show wide


divergence.
\Vith single-phase transformers supplied from singlephase systems, there is normally a low-impedance path
for the flow of all odd-harmonic frequencies produced by
transformer saturation. When single-phase transformers
are connected in three-phase banks and supplied from
three-phase systems, the odd non-triple harmonic exciting
currents ean flow because they are of positive- or negative-

cent increase in voltage. Chapter 5 also gives typical

curves of exciting-current variation with applied voltage.


Examination of such curves emphasizes the importance of
avoiding over-excitation of transformers.
Typical harmonic composition of exciting current for
silicon iron used at commercial densities in transformers
is given in Fig. 19. This curve is based on the free flow

TABLE 4-TRIPLE-HARMONIC VOLTAGE AND CURRENT CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMON TRANSFORMER CONNECTIONS.

PRIMARY

16

SECONDARY

~~
~d
~~

:1 6
~:1 6
~6

CIRCUIT TRIPLE HARMONICS


TRIPLE-HARMONIC
VOLTAGE TO GNO
CURRENTS
VOLTAGES
AT STAR POINT
PRIMARY SECONDARY PRIMARY SECONDARY

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
FOR TRIPLE HARMONICS
{SEE FIG, 18)

CONNECTIONS

CA

~~-:1--

~
(

_,..

---

NONE

NONE

NONE

NON

SMALL

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

---

NONE

a}SMAll
(b) NEGLIGIBI.,

NONE

SMALl.

I--

....
---

l
(

(a) LARGE
{b) SMALL

(a) LARGE (a) SMALL


{b) SMALL {b) LARGE

Ia) SMALL
(b) LARGE

'
1--

{o) SUALL

(b) LARGE

rn

l,.ARGE

lo) LARGE
ib)SUALL

NONE
NONE

(o)SUALL
{b) LARGE

(o)SUALL
(b) LARGE

"""E

NONE

LARGE

LARGE

(o} FOR LOW IMPEDANCE TO TRIPLES OF THE SECONDARY OF CASE l. PRIMARY OR SECONDARY OR BOTH OF CASE 4, & PRIMARY OF CASES.
(b) FOR HIGH IMPEDANCE TO TRIPLES OF THE SECONDARY Of' CASE 3, BOTH PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OF CASE 4, AND PRIMARY OF CASE 5,

of all the harmonic exciting currents required. The curve


can be applied to single-phase transformers with low~
impedance sources and to three-phase banks that also
include a low-impedance path for triple harmonics. The
harmonic components of exciting currents increase rapidly
with overvoltage, more rapidly than the total exciting current as indicated in Fig. 19. If a transformer is shifted
from one location to another or from one svstem to another
and the exciting currents are compared,~ it will be found
that the total exciting currents will usually correspond,
the third~ and fifth-harmonic components will check approximately, the 7th- awl 9th-harmonics will check less

sequence as pointed out previously. However, the flow of


triple-harmonic exciting currents, which are of zero-sequence, depends upon whether the transformer, the supply-system connections or load circuit provides such a
path. That the triple harmonics are zero-sequence becomes evident from plots of the fundamental and the
triple harmonics for each phase in corresponding phase
position to the fundamental which is symmetrically displaeed. The actual triple-harmonic voltage and current
distribution for the six common forms of two-winding
transformers arranged in three~phase banks is illustrated
in Table 4. For each of these connections the equivalent

764

Coordination of Power and Communication Systems

circuit of Fig. 18 has been modified for the representation


of zero-sequence harmonics. Thus, the harmonic sources
Eh are of triple~harmonic frequency only. The connection
of the transformers in the equiYalent circuit of Table 4
provide: (1) for delta windings, a path for the flow of
triple-harmonic exciting currents within the transformer,
(2) for gruunded-8tar connection, a path for the tripleharmonic exciting currents through the external circuit
if it is complete, and (3) for ungrounded-star connection,
no path is provided for triples either in the transformer
or through the external circuit. The distribution of harmonic voltages can be estimated from the triple-harmonic
currents flowing through the transformer connection
in a rnannf'!r analogous to that previously described in
connection with single-phase transformers on a singlephase system. The results of such analyses are summarized for easy reference in Table 4. Triple-harmonic
voltages appear between line and neutral but distribution
of voltage between neutral point and ground and line
terminals and ground depends on the impedance between
these terminals and ground. Thus, for the extreme conditions (1) if the neutral is grounded the triple-harmonic
voltage::> appear bet,veen line terminals and ground and
are impressed on the external circuit and (2) if the
neutral is ungrounded Lhe triple-harmonic voltages appear
between neutral and ground and are not impressed on the
external circuit.
Three-winding transformers made up of single-phase
units can be treated like bvo-winding transformers. These
equivalent circuit~ may be of either the equivalent-T form
with one magnetizing branch and three branches of equivalent leakage reactance or of the equivalent-1r form with
three magnetizing branches and three leakage reactance
branches. Frequently one of the wiuding:s does nut permit
the flow of triple-harmonic currents. This results in a
corresponding simplification of the equivalent circuit for
determining harmonic-current flow. The interconnectedstar can be considered as a special case of the three-winding l.,ramsformer. Triple-harmonic voltages can appear
between the tvw halves of an interconnected-star winding
of symmetrical design but not b~twP-en line and ground
terminals on the interconnected-star side.
Three-phase shell-type transformers have characteristics
that correspond to three-phase banks of single-phase
transformers of the same electrical connection. In the case
of three-phase three-legged core transformers the tripleharmonic fluxes are in the same direction in the same cores
at the same time. Consequently, the triple-harmonic
exciting currents are suppressed because the resultant
leakage path includes a large air path. However, the
reluctances of these magnetic circuits are unequal in the
three phases, consequently, the exciting currents are not
balanced and some exciting current does flow through the
neutral.
Plm,;e-shifting transformers may have at the neutral end
auxiliary-circuit units that may require consideration in
inductive coordination. Ordinarily, however, they are
unimportant because of the small exciting kva required.
The problem can, however, be analyzed as described for
other transformers.
Coordination problems are rarely caused by transform-

Chapter 23

ers with delta-connected windings. Occasionally system


connections require star-star connections in order to
ground the system on both sides or to permit use of autotransformers. Sometimes transformers originally designed
for delta grounded-star connection are reconnected in
star-star because of a V3 increase in voltage on the deltawimling side. Fur these it is common practice to use
tertiary-delta windings of low reactance having a capacity
at least 35 percent of that of the transformer rating. It
may be desirable here to limit the triple-harmonic voltages
by providing suitable low-impedance paths through other
equipment. This can be done by a grounded star-connected generator or by grounded star-delta or grounded
interconnected-star transformers. It is important to avoid
the creation of a coordination problem because of the
triple-harmonic currents that flow through the connecting
circuit. In addition, it is also necessary to consider the
possible effect of triple-harmonic voltages produced by the
generator and impressed on the external circuit through
the grounded star-star connections. The use of a generator
to provide a path for triple harmonics is usually impracticable if there is an exposure on the intervening circuit,
unless the generator has low triple-harmonic voltages as
with a two-thirds pitch winding. The triple-harmonic
voltages appearing in the external circuit can be estimated
from the triple-harmonic exciting currents and the reactances of the external circuit.
If transformers are the cause of harmonic distortion,
this fact can usually be established by varying the fundamental-frequency voltage of various system elements. A
10 percent increase in system voltage will be accompanied
by an approximately 10 percent increase in harmonics if
contributed by a particular rotating machine or rectifier
and by a roughly 2 to 1 increase in harmonics if contributed by a particular transformer. This provides a practical
basis for studying the effects produced by individual
transformers.
If transformers draw large magnetizing currents and if
the supply reactances are relatively high, the combination
can produce relatively high harmonic voltages, particularly for the 5th harmonic. These harmonic voltages can be
reduced by providing nearby a low-impedance path for the
particular harmonic. Such a path can be obtained by shunt
capacitors or preferably shunt capacitors in combination
\Vith reacLort5 Luned to the selected frequency. The harmonic distribution of voltages and currents in a system
can be calculated by setting up the equivalent circuit for
the system separately for each harmonic frequency. For
each transformer, the equivalent circuit should be made
as shown in Fig. 18 with the internal harmonic voltages
and exciting reactances adjusted to give harmonic currents
in the external circuits that c<orrespond to the particular
transformer designs. The internal harmonic voltages for
each transformer can be taken at an assumed phase relation with the fundamental-frequency voltage at the transformer location and these phase positions related to each
other in accordance with the differences in phase relations
of the fundamental-frequency voltages at these locations.
The a-c network calculator may be used advantageously
in solving such harmonic-distribution problems. Further
di:scutj!t>iun uf Lhis methuJ ami the results of field tests,

Coordination of Power and Communication Systems

Chapter 23

both with and without capacitors are given by Feaster


and Harder11
Sh-unt Capaciiors*-Unlike rotating machines or transformers, capacitors are not, in themselves, sources of har-

monics. However, the addition of a capacitor to a circuit


will have important effects on the circuit impedances. If
harmonics exist in the circuit, then the change in circuit
impedance caused by the addition of the capacitor may
substantially increase or decrease the harmonic current
flowing in the various parts of the circuit. This depends

upon the impedances of the capacitor and the remainder


of the circuit and upon their relation to the particular
harmonic frequencies present.
The elements of the coordination problem with capacitors can be illustrated by a simple series circuit as shown
in Fig. 20. The P.alculated impedances of this drcnlt over

765

noise in paralleling telephone circuits for exposures beyond


the capacitor location.
The importance of these resonance conditions from the
standpoint of inductive coordination depends upon the
following power-system characteristics:
J\.Iagnitudes and frequencies of the harmonic voltages
impressed on the distribution cireuit.
Type of distribution system-delta, or wye grounded
at substation only, or with neutral-wire grounded at
substation and other pointst.
Type of capacitor installations-single-phase, or threepha.<;;e delta or wyc.
Some possible measures applicable to a power system
for limiting infllH~nce fadors incrcn.sed by a capacitor will
now be discussed.

50

40

"':J:

"'

I 30

"'<>z

'

i\..I

I \

1\ p;45 KVA
\

\
I

10

I
\

\I 1\

~20

90

1l
w

- - RESIDUAL IMPEDANCE
---LINE-TO-NEUTRAL
1
IMPEDANCE
45 KVA

180
/
/

\
\

1\\

xv v
/

400

600

/
I

::...-.: l:?
./

v L0

- ,--

1\ J'\, ;v\~ r/' .>t,./


200

180
I

""'

'/

800

!000

1200

FREQUENCY-CYCLES PER SECOND


Fig. 20-Effect of capacitors on circuit impedance-calculations based on a two~mile 4~kv circuit.

the frequency range for both the balanced or positivesequence currents and for the residual currents (three
times zero~scqucncc currents) are plotted in this figure.
These curves show how resonanee to particular harmonics
can be avoided by suitable choice of capacitor size.
\Vhen the generated harmonic in the souree is of or near
the resonant frequency of the circuit with the capacitor
connected, there will be an increase in the harmonic voltage drop across the capacitor. "''hen the generated harmonic voltages are well above the resonant frequency of
the circuit, there will be some increase in harmonic current
resulting from the addition of the capacitor, but the harmonic voltage at the location of the capacitor will be
materially reduced. In certain t:iituations, this reduction
in harmonic voltage may result in substantial decrease of
'*'This section is abridged from reference 12.

(a) When capacitors are cuuneeteU in outlyjng sections


to single-phase extensions consisting of a phase wire and
multi-grounded ncutral 1 the likelihood of noise induction
is greater than if the capacitors are connected in threephase banks on the three-phase portion of the feeder.
This is because of the possibility of long exposures and
open-wire telephone circuit:; in the outlying areas. The
connection of capacitors as three-phase banks, rather than
individual units on single-phase extensions, usually results
in lower power-circuit influence. (b) Where the induction
from ground-return currents would otherwise tend to predominate as, for example, in distribution systems with
multi-grounded neutral wire, the connection of the capacitors from pha~e wire to phase \Vire in the three--phase section minimizes the ground-return currents. (c) A lowvoltage gap (instead of a direct connection) between the
neutral of a wye-connected capacitor bank and the multigrounded neutral conductor also is effective in minimizing
the ground-return current. Such a gap, if properly set,
sparks over when a fault occurs in a capacitor unit in one
phase, thus preventing sustained overvoltage (line-to-line
voltage) on the remaining capacitor phases. On 4000-volt
wye circuits, the gap is so small that it is difficult to maintain. (d) A change in the size of the capacitor on a feeder
or in the number of capacitors on a feeder changes the
rc~Ronant frequeney. Knowing the wave shape of the impressed voltage and the constants of the supply system
and distribution circuit, a capacitor size or location with
decreased inductive influence can be chosen. (e) Another
meLhoU io tu eomted an auxiliary reactor in ~eries wiLh the
capacitor on each phase. Such a reactor should have a GOcycle impedance of about five percent of the line-to-neutral
impedance of the capacitor and the combination, in effect,
appears as a resonant shunt at a frequency of about 270
cycles. On a multi-grounded system this arrangement,
theoretically, i:s particularly effective in minimizing the
ground-return currents at frequencies of 300 cycles and
above. Some increase in the 180-cycle component may
occur in the case of capacitors connected from phase \Vires
to neutral. This arrangement is probably effective in all
cases except where the noise induction is controlled by the
tThese two forms of grounding are frequently termed unigrounding and multi-grounding.

Coordination of Power and Communication Systems

766

180-cycle ground-return currents. An auxiliary reactor of


this type increases the 60-cycle impressed voltage across
the capacitor by about five percent, and increases the
capacitor kva by 10 percent, but the net kva of the installation by only five per~ent. (f) A similar reactor in the
neutral of a wye-connected capacitor can be used to reduce
the noise induction caused by residual components. Such
a reactor should have a 50-cycle impedance of about four
percent of the line-to-neutral impedance of the capacitor,

Fi~.

Chapter 23

may be provided with a reactor as shown in Fig. 21 (a).


This combination constitutes a blocking filter and acts as
an open circuit to the selected frequency insofar as external circuits are concerned. However, harmonic currents
flmv in the capacitor as determined by the harmonic voltages impressed upon it. Further discussion of resonant
A-<: SUPPLY

21-Schematic diagram illustrating use of reactors in a


capacitor installation to ~ive in the external circuit:
(a)-Open circuit to the hth harmonic.

(b)-Short circuit to the hth harmonic.


All mA.ctl'l.nCef'l in the figure are 60-cycle values on capacitor-bank

rating.

the combination constituting a resonant shunt at 180


cycles in the residual circuit. It destroys any resonant
condition, in the residual circuit, between the capacitor
and the line, and reduces all harmonic residual currents.
The installation of a ::;hunt capacitor may increase harmonic currents or voltages on a system. By adding an appropriate amount of reactance in the shunt capacitor the
effects of resonance to a particular harmonic can be minimized and the harmonic current drawn over a particular
paC\1 can be controlled. Fig. 21 has been prepared to illus
trate the range of effects that can be obtained. Sometimes
it is desirable to provide a resonant shunt at the capacitor
location, as illustrated in Fig. 21 (b), in order to minimize
the harmonic voltages impressed on the circuit beyond the
capacitor. At other times it is undesirable, as a result of a
capacitor installation, to draw additional harmonic currents over a particular circuit. To avoid this, the capacitor

p
L

'

Eo

t"

,.,, '\I
I "\

I'

''

f'
\
t\!t\/\
I

\II I

"4 ....
I
I

i.

''

} / ' ' ) / X/

/\

/ d

'r x ~

i,

i.

'

i,

XX

~
Eo

Fig. 22-Schematic wiring diagram of a diametrical six-phase


rectifier with grid control by a-c voltage of variable phase
position.

shunts and blocking filters are given in the latter part of


this section.
Rectifiers and Inverters--\Vith rectifiers and inverters of
the ignitron, multi-anode tank or glass-tube types, the
alternate periods of conduction and non-conduction for
fractional parts of a cycle produce harmonics in both the
a-c and d-e circuits. The schematic diagram of a six-phase
star rectifier with control grids is shown in Fig. 22 and the
conventional voltage- and current-wave shapes for different conditions of rectifier and inverter operation are as
shmvn in Fig. 23. The d~c voltage wave is shown by the
2

EX

i.

X~ X

,r...
L

(o}
(b)
(c)
Fig. 23-Instantaneous voltage and current diaarams of diametrical six-phase rectifier for operation as:~
(a)-Rectifier without grid control.,
u-Angle of overlap----electrical degrees.
(b)-Grid-controlled rectifier.
a-Angle of grid delay----electrical degrees.
(c)-Inverter.
(u+a')-Angle of advanr_e (firing)~leetrical degrees.
Load circuit assumed to be of infinite inductance.
For other quantities see text.

Coordination of Power and Communication Systems

Chapter 23

solid line and the individual anode-to-neutral voltages by


broken lines. The direct current wave is assumed constant,
which corresponds to a load circuit of infinite inductance.
The currents taken by individual anodes are shown by
heavy lines.
In the operation of a rectifier without grid control at the
instant c, Fig. 23 (a), anode 1 has a. potential equal to Lhat
of the incoming anode 2. Consequently, current begins to
flow in anode 2 and to decrease in anode L The transfer
of current from one anode to the next is called commutation and its duration is given by the angle of overlap, u.
During commutation the d-e output voltage is the average
of the voltages for anodes 1 and 2 for the period considered.
At the end of this com mutating period, anode 1 stopR carrying current and the d-e circuit voltage rises to the value
corresponding to anode 2. The anode currents change in
value during commutation, but the sum is at all times
equal to the assumed constant d-e out-put. Angle u depends upon the load and the regulation of the circuit and
is determined in amount bY:
IX
cos u=I---.- - (25)
E, sm (1r/p)
where I---d-e circuit current per secondary phase-group
E 0-c:rest value of see1ondary voltage from line to
neutral
X -commutating reactance
p--number of secondary phases
The commutating reactance is defined as half of the reactance between the two anodes, the drcuit for which includes that of anode reactors, rectifier transformer, and
the supply circuit using subtransient reactances of generat<JfS. All these reactances must be reduced in terms of
line-to-neutral voltage on rectifier side of its transformer.
The number of rectifier secondary phases is:
p

360
--;---:-c---;--c-.:
;---;---;c----;--:
(conducting period)- (angle of overlap)

(26)

For most commercial power rectifiers, p is three as this


corresponds to the connection that gives greater "apparatus efficiency" than those that allow current to flow
through each secondary winding for a shorter period. The
60

."' .
...
~40

0:

iS

"0

"'20

5z

"

v/

v
r

r
/

/
/

~
,......

---

,.........

v f.-"' --~ 1--

...-...-

--

0.04

0.08

0.12

0.16

0.20

0.24

IX/ Eo

Fig.

24~Antlle

of overlap plotted as a function of the ratio

IX/E. for rectifiers not

usin~~t

relation between the commutating angle and the factor


IX/Eo is given by Fig. 24, which corresponds to Eq. (25).
lgnitrons and grid-control rectifiers operate simllarly
to the plain rectifier except that the application of potential to the igniter or to the grid delays the start of conduction of the incoming anode. This is shown in Fig. 23(b) by
the delay from the point c as given by the angle a, which
is known as the angle of grid delay. At point c, current
begins to flow in the incoming anode and to decrease in
the outgoing anode. Current flow continues for the angle
u. After the transfer is completed the voltage of the output circuit corresponds to the anode voltage. The relation
between u, a and the other factors is given by:

control g,rids. Most rectifiers

use connections corresponding to p = 3.

IX
. ( I )

cos (u+a) =cos a-E


0

(27)

Slll7rp

The operation of the inverter is indicated in Fig. 23 (c).


By the application of potential to the grids, current flow
TABLE 5-HARMONICS OF RECTIFIERS AND INVERTERS

Number of Rectifier Phases


A~C

Harmonics
6
5

12 18 24

~~~ 42

X
X

13
17
19

23

25
29

31
35
37
41

43
47
49

61

73
etc.

X
X

X
X

X
X

xi

X
X

_:_!_:_

D-C Harmonics
6

71

53
55
59
65
67

48 54! 60 66 72

II

12
18
24
30

/;_

767

J_

-iX

X
X

36

42
48
54

60

66

72
etc.

X
X

X
X

Coordination of Power and Communication

768
FT

"",;
ii!
e

ALE

AL
I

...
0

~
0.20

I
I

:\

'

I
I

:
I

0.1 6

t;,

I~\

0.1 2

1X/Eo0.04
Ul7,5
\[''\
'' ~
\ ' 'I
'' ~ ~~0.85

\I

~ :0.98

1\

1.01

~'

'

0.901::':::-t-

','

0.2 4

I
I

0.1 6

~~

0.1 2

0 .01
'

f''o

l\
~~~

IX/E00.08

\\

0.90

'' ~ ~~
'
'

\\

1.0

1.0

- -- 0.05

I
I

0.9~

!"--

',~98

.... ..

I
-r-
I

~ '

" -0.06

\\

.1 -

i\\

{0.70 '
0.85
0.90

0.08

1.0 I

:
:
:

0.04

\' ,\

0.04

''
1\' ,...\ ,-0.85
'

'

'
IS'-

' -'

0.98

13

0.05

1X/E 0 0.12
U31*

' \'\.
''
o.96-.,
~ o.ob \'
\

\~

1\

~\

r--. 0.01

',

- I - --

0.1 6

'

f', "l CRO:TO O.02

0.

"' "' ~'

'\

'
'\

--0.04

0.85

1\ >("

u2s

''

0.06

~.

0.85

0.0 4

\\ 0.98: \ '

0.0 8

,~98

1.0 '

0.2 0

0.1 2

0.02

!"--

0.2Of-

o.03

'~~CRO:TO

""" ['..

0.04

"t~

''
-----

0.0 4

0.

""

f.70
0.85
0.90

0.0 8

- -

17

003

'

~
MCR0.70
'
'
,- -b-.
'::'

""'

21

002

0.01

-- 25

29

HARMONIC

Fig. 25-Harmonic currents in the a-c supply of rectifier& and

inverters with control t:lrids. Curves plotted in three sets for


three ratios of IX/Eo, each set plotted for five values of voltaae
reduction by

~Vid

control for rectifiers. Same curves may be

Systerrn~

Chapter 23

is started in anode 1 at the instant c, and transfer takes


place at the end of the commutating period corresponding
to the angle u. The end uf the conducting period must be
sufficiently in advance of the point e, otherwise, transfer
cannot be made and proper inverter operation cannot be
secured. The angle a' corresponds to the time available
for deionization.
The voltage and current-wave shapes of Fig. 23 can be
used in a Fourier analysis to obtain the a-c and d-e harmonics of rectifiers with and without grid control and of
inverters13 , 14 In this method as applied to the six-phase
rectifier, the a-c currents are obtained by using, for example, a positive wave for one-half of a cycle and a negative wave from another phase for the other half of the
cycle. The instantaneous anode current during commutation is defined by:
.
a-cos (O+a))
(28)
1
t=

(coscos a-cos (u+a)

where I, u, a-meaning previously described


8-represents time in electrical degrees
Harmonic currents in the a-c supply circuits are affected
by the amount of grid control present, that is, by the
magnitude of the angle of retardation a and the angle of
advance (u+a'), and also by Lhe factor IX/E0 Commercial power rectifiers rarely have less than six phases,
consequently, the a-c harmonies given in Fig. 25 are in
terms of a six-phase rectifier, which may be of any of the
conventional types so long as the direct current per phase
group remains the same*. The harmonic frequencies of
currents in Lhe primary of a rectifier traut:~former are as
shown in Table 5. With more than six rectifier phases,
certain groups of harmonics produced by a six-phase rectifier are theoretically eliminated, and practically are
greatly reduced. Tests conducted by the Edison Electric
Institute and the Bell Telephone System t indicate that
the suppressed harmonics for rectifiers of more than six
phases are approximately one-fifth the s"ix-phase values.
Thus, a 12-phase rectifier would be expected to have 5th
and 7th, 17th and 19th harmonics, etc., of approximately
one-fifth those found in six-phase rectifiers, but the lith,
13th, 23rd harmonics, etc., would correspond to the sum
of the harmonics of the two six-phase units comprising the
12-phase arrangement.
The foregoing discussion of a-c harmonics has been
based on an inductive supply circuit of linear frequencyimpedance characteristic. When this condition is satisfied
the theoretical method of estimating the harmonics in the
a-c supply circuit gives very good results. In case the
*The phase relation of the harmonics with respect to the funda~
mental change for the different rectifier connections of the same number of secondary phases.
tEngineering Report No. 22 or Reference 4.

used for inverters with an~les of advance firin~ corresponding


to angle of llid delay with rectifiers. Baaed on Evans and
Muller-1 3
1 1".,-Primary current of the mth harmonic.
/-Direct current for each rectifier phase group.

R-Ratio of primary to secondary voltages-both line-to-neutral.


For connections with interphase units use curve directly for 6-phase
double-wye, multiply ordinate by 1.932 for 12-phal!le quadruple-wye.

0 .0

to

1X/E 0 fOR P S
01 2
016

008

Ro.Bo'

16

12

-- "'

Ia.

e
~---

1........-

--

~-

,....,_

1.00

"' t\,

--

--

t--

12th.
HARMONIC

-- f--

--

from the harmonic currents and the impedances of the


supply circuit at harmonic frequencies. The impedance of
machines at harmonic frequencies can be considered equal
to the negative-sequence impedance of the machines mul-

tiplied by the order of the harmonic and by a factor less


than one. This factor varies from one at 60 cycles to perhaps 0.8 at 1000 cycles.
The order of the harmonics in the d-e circuit is shown

in Table 5. The harmonics in the d-e output voltage wave


are similarly obtained by the Fourier method from the
d-e voltage waves of Fig. 23. Results of this analysis"
are given in Fig. 2() which gives the 6th, 12th, 18th, and

f-.. ~0.80

-- -- "'

supply-circuit frequency-impedance curve is not linear,


the approximation may be used of computing the magnitude of the harmonics on the basis of fictitious reactances

equal to the actual reactance at the harmonic frequency


divided by the order of the harmonic.
The harmonic voltages in the supply can be computed

6th.
HARMONIC

-- ---- ,.._ -

0,:!.

024

0.20

""-..

- -- ~'!' - -

1--

769

Coordination of Power and Communication Syst&rnS

Chapter 23

-- k>o
'

--

--

'\
/~ ~~

1---. ln_94 '


~

1'-,

., /

f-- ~-

~-

':~9 v

-~

r/
v
v I.X ,'/
I

. f 'J

rt

v,; !1

he estimated from the magnitude of the harmonic voltages


obtained from Fig. 26, taking into account the harmonic
impedance of the load circuit and the internal inductance
of the rectifier transformer, estimated from

j
m1 1 enr1es
(95)(60)(Edo)'

-;

Lint= kw

'jj'h

600

(29)

The distortion of the current wave shape in the a-c circuit is greater (1) with low-reactance supply systems than

II

with high-reactance systems, (2) with grid control than


with non-grid control, and (3) with few rectifier phases
than with a largP- number. HarmonicR in the d-e output

-- !"-=

24th harmonics as percent of the d-e output voltages under


load. The harmonic current flov.ing in the d-e circuit can

increase with load and generally with the reactance of the


0

h
18th.
HARMONIC

;_o.ao

-- ~--

!'.._

-, Je.90
!"--.. hs1'-,
~ ', J....-_;
~ !'<-

0
~CRO.BO
4

""
~ ',
~:!0

""
""
-'

k'

V'

0.04

rP ~-- 1'.

/;
1'/ '

' '!'-.,

I><

--

I/ i

24th.

HARMONIC

17

[\

~"-,;: !<::(

supply system and decrease as the number of rectifier


phases increases. The overall influence characteristic or
T.I.F. values decrease approximately one-half when using
a 12-phase rectifier in place of a six-phase.
\Vith a large number of anodes it is possible to use a

1.#

~ L.0.08

v-

'-

:;:::

~
1.!:29 [;;'I
~

OJ2

'

'-

0.16

-"'

,_

-k

large number of rectifier phases, the maximum being equal


to the number of anodes. Ordinarily rectifiers are arranged in double three-phase groups giving the equivalent
of a six-phase rectifier. Two such sets with anode voltagesto-neutral displaced 30 electrical degrees give the equiva-

lent of a 12-phase rectifier. Similarly, a 24-phase rectifier


can be obtained by using four six-phase groups displaced
15 degrees. In some large rectifier installations for electrochemical purposes a large number of anodes are required.
Thus, 30, 60, and even as high as 72 phases are readily
possible anrl have heen hnilt. With all rectifiers in opera-

~-

tion good current and voltage wave shapes are obtained.


jl

"

0.20

0.24

However, consideration must be given to operation with a


single six-phase unit or a string of six-phase units out of
service. Under such cumlitiuns the harmonics in the supply system for all rectifiers will correspond to the vector

sum of those for the total balanced load and the negative
of those for the six-phase unit taken out of service. Thus,

if five units are in operation to form a 30-phase rectifier,

lX/Eo FOR P3

Fig. 26-D-c internal harmonic voltages of a rectifier with grid


control supplying a load circuit of infinite inductance. Curves
are plotted for each harmonic frequency as a function of the

ratio of IX/Eo with a family of curves for five different ratios


of voltage reduction by grid control~based on Stebbins and
FrickH.

770

Coordination of Power and Communication Systems

the disconnection of one six-phase unit will produce harmonics which correspond approximately to one-fifth uf Lhe
total load supplied by a six-phase rectifier and in addition
those that correspond to the total load supplied by a 30phase rectifier. The resultant harmonic conditions are
approximately the same as those produced by somewhat
more than one-fifth of the total load supplied by a sixphase rectifier.
When a rectifier or inverter is installed anrl connected
to a-c or d-e circuits, which now or in the future may be
involved in an inductive exposure, the coordination aspects of the problem should receive consideration. The
influence characteristics of a rectifier or inverter are definite for a particular power-supply system if the rectifier
load, number of rectifier phases, and amount of voltage
control are specified. The foregoing indicates the benefits
obtainable from a larger number of rectifier phases or by
limiting the amount of grid control. A combination of
voltage control with tap changers will produce lower influence factors than one that uses voltage reduction by
grid control. Substantial reduction in the harmonics
caused by rectifiers of a definite number of phases can be
accomplished only with auxiliary equipment, which entails additional cost. Other methods of coordination applicable to the power or communication system may afford
a more economical solution. The procedure to be followed
when an inductive exposure is possible is outlined in the
following excerpt from the recommendations of the Electrical Equipment Committee of the Edison Electric Institute15.
"In any particular situation consideration should be given
by the prospective purchaser to the coordinative measures that
may be applied in both power and telephone systems, in accordance with the 1Principles and Practices for the Inductive Coordination of Supply and Signal Systems' l(~), taking into account
possible future, as well aR initial, conditions.
"It will generally be found advisable to install a rectifier
without specific coordinative measures and then observe con..
ditions, particularly where it il3 impracticable to make sufficienUy
accurate estimates of the effect of the rectifier in advance of
installation. Experience to date indicates that specific coordina..
tive measures will not be necessary in the majority of cases,
particularly if care is given to advance planning of the method
of feeding the rectifier. In special cases where there are indications that paralleling communication circuits may be seriously
affected, some provisions should be made beforehand for tern~
porary arrangements to take care of the period during which final
coordinative measures are being determined and installed.
11
.\Vhen preliminary review indicates that consideration of
selective devices in the power system may be necessary after
the rectifier has been installed, preliminary cost estimates of
these devices* should be obtained from the manufacturer before
the purchase of the rectifier equipment so that they may be avail~
able in studies relating to the cost of the complete installation.
"It is to be understood that these suggested values may not
eliminate the possibility of interference in every case but on the
basis of past experience they are believed to be adequate for
roost of the cases likely to occur.
11
If the rectifier gives rise to a noise-interference problem after
installation, a joint cooperative study should be made in the
*Characteristics of selective devices that may be assumed for the
purpose of this preliminary estimate when the supply frequency is
60 cycles are given in the paragraphs on filtering equipment.

Chapter 23

field by the parties affected to determine the best engineering


solution. If this solution necessitates the installation of a selective device, its design characteristics should be based upon the
actual requirements rather than upon the values of reduction
factors employed in the preliminary estimate previously men~
tioned."

Lighting Circuits-Ordinarily lighting circuits of the


constant-potential type are not a factor in coord.inalion
problems. However, they may arise with series circuits of

the non-adjacent return type or with lamps of arc-discharge


type or with auxiliary transformers that become saturated.
Current transformers supplying incandescent or other
lamps on series-lighting circuits saturate if the secondary
becomes open circuited, as in the event of filament failure.
ThP- current wave of the primary circuit remains sinusoidal but the voltage wave becomes distorted on the load
side of a constant-current regulator, but usually not on
the supply side of the circuit. The inductive effects in adjacent communication circuits may become important if
the lighting-circuit return is across the street or in the next
block. If only part of the lighting circuit is involved in au
inductive exposure, isolating transformers between the
parts can be used to minimize the magnitude of induction
in the exposure. The most practical solution, however, is
to provide a film cutout for connection across the currenttransformer secondary. The most successful form of cutout is the disc with a powder which, upon application of
high potential, fuses to form a metallic bead that effectively short circuits the current transformer and lamp, thus
avoiding the conditions which produce saturation in the

transformer.
On series circuits, lamps of the arc-discharge type, including the a-c arc and the sodium-vapor forms, are sources
of voltage distortion. Ordinarily these circuits are supplied through constant-current regulators which, because
of their high reactance, greatly minimize the distortion of

the current wave and of the voltage wave on the supply


side of the regulator. The inductive influence of the
lighting circuit increases with the number of lamps connected in the circuit. The KV T factor for a 30-volt, 6.6ampere lamp is approximately 16 per lamp. There is a
slight decrease in the KV T factor per lamp when a large
number of lamps are connected in series which apparently
results from partial cancellation of the harmonics as a
result of the difference in phase at the individual lamps.
Since current distortion is negligible, only electric induction need be considered in coordination work. No problem

will exist if either circuit is located in cable with sheath


grounded.
The influence characteristics of a series circuit depend
upon the balanced and the ret~idual components of harmonic voltages at various points along the circuit. The

metallic-circuit KV T factor increases with the number of


lamps in the circuit irrespective of whether they are connected in one side of the circuit or in both. The wire-toground and residual KV T factors are affected by the
manner of connecting the lamps in the circuit, that is,
whether in one side of the circuit or alternately in both
sides as shown in Fig. 27 for an ungrounded circuit. In
this figure the wire-to-ground and residual KV T factors
are shown on the basis of equal capacitances to ground

Coordination of Power and Communication Systems

Chapter 23

WIA-TO-GROUNO
LAMP

+'75~

KVT

"~'-J' 'l....-----"~

ct

WJ~!-_2

;-20'l. WIRE 2

RESIOVAL
KVT

\:+50~
----: r--: :

-z~:

'
-------.''
''

-50'l

771

are usecl with fluorescent lamps they may tend to amplify


harmonics appearing in the supply circuit, and under some
conditions the effect of capacitors at the lamp will be of
greater importance than the arc-discharge characteristic
of the lamp itself. The use of shunt capacitors at the lamp
location presents essentially the same problem as that
which oceurs wlth other capacitors on dlstrihution circuits.

Wave-Shape Characteristics of Systems-The har-

Fig. 27-Distribution of KVT factors


circuits.

(a)
(b)

alon~~t

series lighting

All lamps on same side of circuit.


Adjacent lamps on opposite sides of the circuit.

and equal leakages from the t\vo wires of the circuit, and
the lamps being uniformly distributed throughout the
length of the circuit. If adjacent lamps are alternately
connected in the two sides of the eircuit, the residual
KV T factor is zero. If the lighting circuit is accidentally
grounded, the maximum residual KV T factor will occur
when the lamps are located in one side only.
The influence of a series-lighting circuit (assumed ungrounded) is a minimum when the two wires of the circuit
are kept close together and when adjacent lamps are connected in opposite sides of the circuit. These conditions
insure that transpositions in telephone circuits can be
made relatively effective. For reasonably uniform exposures at highway separation betReen open-wire telephone toll circuits and a series lighting circuit on the
highway, the noise-induction conditions will not be important" if (a) the telephone lead is transposed according
to the exposed-line transposition system, or other systems
having equal or greater frequency of transposition, and
(b) the lighting circuit is not grounded (or is grounded at a
balanced point only), the two wires of the circuit occupy
adjacent pin positions, and adjacent lamps are connected
in opposite sides of the circuit. Noise-induction problems
are negligible in situations where only a small number of
sodium-vapor lamps are used, for example, at highway intersections.
Fluorescent lamps have wave-shape characterh:itics tsimilar to those of sodium-vapor or other arc-discharge lamps.
However, fluorescent lamps are used on constant-potential
circuits and are, therefore, less likely than lamps on series
circuits to be involved in coordination problems. In large
installations, fluorescent lamps are distributed among the
different phases. The phase position at the lamps will
vary, with the result that important reductions in harmonics are obtained. Another favorable factor in the
application of fluorescent lamps is that they are rarely
used in large numbers, except where power-supply or telephone circuits are located in cables, which can provide
considerable shielding action against magnetic induction.
The current T.I.F.'s of typical fluorescent lamps vary
from 30 to 60. Fluorescent lamps arc freqnently installed
with individual shunt capacitors for power-factor correction. Frequently also fluorescent lamps are installed in
pairs with reactor-capacitor phase-splitting arrangements
to avoid a zero illumination point. When shunt capacitors

monic voltages and currents of a particular system can be


calculated from \Vavc-shape characteristics of the rotating
machines, transformers and rectifiers, and the harmonicfrequency impedances of the connected circuit. The characteristics of the harmonic sources in a-c apparatus and in
the d-e circuits of rectifiers have been given in the preceding sections in terms of internal harmonic voltages and internal inductances. For the a-c circuits of rectifiers a
method of estimating the harmonic currents and voltages
has also been described. In calculating the harmonicfrequency impedance characteristics of a system, the
principal problem is the representation of circuit elements

z,

z;
Fig. 28-Equivalent n- network for ton~ line with distributed
constants. See Eqs. (30) and (31).

with distributed constants. This representation can be


made in an approximate \vay with the equivalent 1r network of Fig. 2K In this equivalent network resistances are
neglected and the series- ami shunt-impedance branches
arc:
,
sin 0
(30)
Z 1=+JhlX, ohms

z' =
f

. x,e

h
-J - - - oms
hl tan

(31)

where 1-length in miles


X,.-series inductive reactance in ohms per mile at 60
cyeles
Xe-shunt capacitive reactance in ohms per mile at
60 cycles
h-order of harmonic frequency using 60 cycles as
base
B-angle of the line calculated from

8=hz.ix.
radians
'I X,

(32)

With the equivalent 1r networks for Hue!:! and with the


inductance and capacitance characteristics of apparatus,
an equivalent circuit of thP system for each harmonic
frequency can be made. This equivalent circuit can be
solved by the aid of network-transformation and reduction
methods described in Chap. 4 in connection with the solution of fundamental-frequency problems.

For many purposes it is convenient to have tables o


typical power-syRtPm harmonir, voltage~, harmonic currents, I T factors (product of rms current and current
T.I.F.), KV T factors (product of rms voltage in kv and
voltage T.I.F.) and in addition tables of machine no-load
voltage T.I.F., both balanced and residual. Such Tables,

TABLE 9-SUMMARY OF POWER-CIRCUIT TNFLUF.:NCF. FACTOR..<;

lT

I Voltage
Circuit

IT Product

2.3

,.

5
6

(Amperes X

KV T Product
(Kilovolts line-to-

Circuit
Voltage
Range
(Kilovolts)

Current TIE')
1-Iagnetic

lincXVoltage TIF)
Electric

Induction

Induction

Average Maximum Average Maximum

300 420 660 780 1020 1140 1380 1500 1740 1860 Test
--

Ave,

1.33 .33 13
5.90 1.7 12

.07 .04
.97 .33

0.3
19 .67

Ave.

.98 .25 .10

.00 .05
.30 .50

04
81

.29 .12
.71 .69

.on

0;)

04 .06

"

.14
""

11-13.8 Ave. 1.0


Max. 2.7

.95

Ave. 1.2
,09
);Jax. 4.1 1.10 42

19-44

Ave. 1.1
Mar. 3.2

60-60

08

M~.

Max_ 4.6 1.4

.35 .13
97 65

88-132* Ave. 2.07 31 .076


Max. 3.8 .73 .18

*Harrooni~s

No.

Power

of

Kv

-1
3

In Percent at Various Fr<'quenci<'"s

.60 .26

.05
.00

'

.08 .05 .03


.59 .38 .26

231

.03

383

.07 .05
7 .28
.07
.25

56

47

.04
. 29

03
.20

06
.22

.06

.17 04

03

. 03

.03 .

<8

15

'0210

23

.43 .

27

---Balanced
Components

67

..

35

005 005 .013 018 .


.05 008 .006 .06 060 ....

of phase-to-neutral voltap:e.

**Grounded 4-wire distribution supplied by delta/star-grounded transforrner5.

2.3- 4
II - 14
19 - 44
60 - 69
88 -132
2.3-

28

....

KVT PRODUCTS

AND

BASED ON 1919 FREQUENCY WEIGHTING

TABLE 6-NON-TRIPLE HARMONIC PHASE-TO-PHASE VOLTAGES

Item

Chapter 23

Coordination of Power and Communication Systems

772

ReRidual
Componcnts

'

1,500
2,100
1,600

23,000

1,400

6,000
2,300

60
300
700
1,200
1,700

1,100*

No Data

12,000
16,000

I 1,400
I 0-500

400
1,400
2,000
3,500
2,300

11 - 14 ii0-2700** 400~4800** No Data

19 - 44 !
GO - 69 160-800

15-30
10Q-1000

88 -132

100
50-400

++
Nu DaLa

*Largest average vahe-absolute maximum not determined.


**Upper values wP-m ohtaini'rl on sy~tem"' fer! by rlireet-eonneeted generators with
grounded neutrals; hut note that these conditions alone do not .always give high
valut\~-

++ Not enough cases to average.

TABLE 7 -NON-TRIPLE HARMONIC PHASE CURRENTS


In Percent at Various Frerpmndes

Circuit

Item

Voltage
Kv

2.3

Taken from Eng. Report. No. 16 of reference 4.

No.

of

--

MIOs 04~~~~ru

Ave. 1. 05 47 .11
Max. 32 4 7 1.3 2.:-1

96 l 6

14

13

3.9 5.3

11-13,8 Ave. 1.8

.51 .24 .16


09
7 1 0.8 8.4 2.1

.05 .09 .08 .

157

.52 4.8 2.5

19---44.

4.1 1.2
35
Max. 16 5.8 ,2.4

.18 10 .07 22 .17 .


.80 .53 . .S7 3.1 1.6

17

6D--69

Ave. 3.9 1.3 1 .3s .20 09 . 07 09 .09 .


Max. 45 9' 5 5.1 17 . 94 .49 . 79 .82 .

81

88-132

Ave. 3.5
.20
Max. 15 16.1 9.0 I .5

A~

lui''

. 03
.<3

.03

.05

.lO

42

.04 . . . .
.24

22

TABLE 8-RESIDUAL HARMONIC CURRENTS

Amperes at Various Frequencies

Circuit
Kv
180

300

No.
of

2'

4.0

Ave.
Max.

11-13.8 Ave.
Max.

11-13.8 Ava.
Max.

19-4.4

60-<;9

R0-132

540

900

1260

1620

.06

.10
1.3

.01
.61

.005
.89

.008
.89

.05
26

.04
.17

.03
.39

.06

48

.02

.02
.09

.10

15

.15

22
1.17

.03

.0<11

.008

13

.24

.08
.83

.07

.01

.66

.06
.65

.03
.22

.04
. 12

.004
.0<

.001
.014

.003

43

.89
3.0

.I!

.08
.51

.04

.006
.032

.00<
.006

003
.016

18

4.78
20

.54

.60

.05
. 71

.02

6.96
25

.08
.45

.06

.48

.06

2.1

Ave.
Max.

2.2

Max.

2.0

4.7

Ave.
Max.

Ave.

Tests

420

- - - - - - - - - I~ - - - - - - - 1

OF MACHINES

243

Balanced TIF

Residual Component

(L-L)

TIF*

Ave. 1.18 32 .09 .05 .04 03 .04 .05 .02 01 396


Max. 8.2 7.5 1.2 13
65 I 4 1.1 16
.20 .16
Max. 20

Item

TABLE 10-NO-LOAD VOLTAGE TIF CHARACTERISTICS

300 420 060 780 11020 ll40i1380 1500 174011860 Tests

.41

.09

.IS

.07

.47

.85

.fYT

.05

-266

Max. No. of Ave.

Max. No. of

Tests

Tests

- - - - - - --- - - - ---

Synchronous
Generators
Steam.-Kva
1 00!} 2 500
2 501-15 000
15 001-Up
Hydro.-Kva
0-

39
18
15

105
98
110

169
158
163

72
58
57
17

100
323
590
59

116
110
120
25

109

480

26

25

103

33

9D9

1 000- 2 500
2 501-15 000
15 001-Up

----
D~C

..

..

..

15
15

99
66

21
36

..
..

..

..

7
17

13
20

..
6
4

--- -- --- --- ---

Generators

M.G. Sets
Synchronous
Converters

*Except 2/3 pitch machines.

*Systems ungrounded or mult1-grounded through transformers only


**Multi-grounded w~th at leru~t one ground through a machine neut~aL

6, 7, 8, 9 and 10, have been condensed from the report,


"System Wave-Shape Survey," the tesL:s for which were
conducted from 1927 to 1929 by the National Electric
Light Association and Bell Telephone System*. The waveEngineering Report No. 15 of reference 4.

Ave.

shape conditions on a particular coordination problem


should be compared with the maximum as well as average
values from Tables 6 to 10.
Filters for Power Systems- \Vhen harmonics on a
power system require reduction, eonsideration may be
given to filtering equipment. Filters have important
effects on particu)ar harmonic-frequency voltage and current distributions but have little effect on 60-eycle voltages
and currents. Filters consist of reactors, capacitors, or a
combination of these in units which may or may not be

\\~ \'l\> \~\0


\

I \
I I
I I
I I
I I

\
\

\
\

I I
I I

I I
I I
\ I I
\ I I

\ \1

CAPACITIVE\\\

\ II
\ II

MINIMUM
TUNED-CIRCUIT
IMPEDANCE

700

\II

\1
900

1000

1100

FREQUENCY

(a)

"'z
0

TUNED-CIRCUIT

c.

IMPEDANCE

"'

the filter constant Q. The constant Q is the ratio of the


effective harmonic-frequency reactance of the reactor or
capacitor element to the effective harmonic-frequency
resistance of the combination, both quantities being at
the tnnerl frPquency. ThP valuP of Q is normally about 30
but lower values are usually obtained unless special precautions are taken to minimize high-frequency losses. For
filters of given tuned-frequency impedance the one with
the higher value of Q will require smaller harmonic reactance and frequently smaller volt-ampere capacity. However, a filter of higher Q requires more accurate tuning and
is less effective for adjacent harmonic frequencies or for
variation in the fundamental frequency of the supply.
Thus, for two filters of the same tuned-frequency impedance and the same costs, the one with lower value of Q is
usually more desirable.
Tuning of a filter is normally obtained with taps on
either the reactor or capacitor element so as to get within
Yz percent of the desired natural frequency of the combination. Filters with many capacitors are tuned by selecting the appropriate combination of capacitor units and
taps; filters with few capacitors are tuned by adjusting
the reactors, using coarse taps and in addition, either fine
taps or taps on a suitable auxiliary unit. Filters built in
the field are usually tuned by unwinding turns on the
reactor until the desired reactance is obtained. Tuning is
most conveniently checked by means of a harmonic analyzer, whieh measures the ratio of the voltage and current
at the desired harmonic frequency.
The more common applications for filters, resonant
shunts, and wave traps arc:
1. Machine-neutral wave trap, or blocking filter.
2. Machine resonant shunt, or by-passing shunt filter.
3. Line shunt filters for modifying resonant characteristic.
4. Rectifier filters which include
a. A-c filters
b. D-e filters

MAXIMUM

773

Coordination of Power and Communication Systems

Chapter 23

900
FREQUENCY

!000

1100

Machine-neutral wave traps are used when it is desired to


reduce the triple-harmonic currents or voltages impressed
on a distribution circuit by a synchronous machine con-

(b)
TO DISTRIBUTION
SYSTEM

Fig. 29-Frequency-impedance characteristics of filters for


several different values of the filter-constant Q.
(a)

Resonant shunt.

(b)

Wave trap.

tuned. Tuned filters are of two types, as illustrated in


Fig. 29, namely;

NEUTRAL WAVE TRAP


FOR FREQUENCY

l. Resonant shunts--reactor and capacitor connected


in :series, the combination being in shunt with the
circuit.

NEUTRAL WAVE TRAP


FOR FREQUENCY f 1

2. Wave traps-reactor and capacitor connected in


parallel, the combination being in series with the
circuit.
The principal characteristics of a resonant shunt or wave
trap are the tuned frequency, the tuned impedance, and

f1

Fig. 30~Synchronous-machine neutral wave trap for sup


pressint triple-frequency currents f 1 and fl'-schematic dia ..

gram.

Coordination of Power and Communication Systems

774

nected directly or through star-star transformers. Neutral


wave traps consist of one or more units in series between
the machine neutral and ground as shown schematically
in Fig. 30. In applying a neutral filter, consideration
should be given to the following;
1. Suitable tuned-frequency impedance and accurate
tuning for each wave trap.

2. Wave trap should withstand fundamental-frequency


voltages and currents resulting from single and
double line-to-ground faults.
3. The filter should not amplify unduly the currents
and voltages for other harmonic frequencies.
The tuned-frequency impedance of each wave trap should
be selected to give in combination \vith the impedance of
the machine and external circuit the required reduction
in that particular triple-harmonic frcquen~y voltage and
current. Neutral resistors are sometimes inserted in the
circuit between machine neutral and wave trap to reduce
fundamental-frequency voltages and currents impressed
on the wave trap. In particular cases, blocking filters in
the three phases may be preferred to a neutral filter of
high fundamental-frequency inductance for the reasons
brought out in the discussion on system transients and
grounding in Chaps. 14 and 19. To insure that a filter
will not unduly amplify currents and voltages fur oLlter
harmonic frequencies, it is necessary to know (a) the
frequency-impedance characteristic of the distribution circuit as viewed from the machine location, (b) the machine
impedance to zero sequence, and (c) the triple-harmonic
voltages generated in the machine or on the system. By
plotting for the system and the filter a frequency-impedance curve for each harmonic it is possible to estimate
whether the magnitude of a particular frequency will be
increased. If such a result is obtained, a change in the
constants of the network elements may be necessary to
give a different impedance at frequencies other than those
to be suppressed by the filter.
Machine shunt filters have been employed to by-pass from
external circuits the slot-frequency harmonics of machines.
Since slot frequencies occur in pairs, the shunt filters are
usually built to take care of two frequencies for the lower
slot frequencies and a single frequency for the higher slot
frequencies. 1\tlachine shunt filters are similar to rectifier
shunt filters shown schematically in Fig. 32. The design
of a filter is usually determined from the internal harmonic
voltages of the machine and its harmonic reactance because
the filter usually provides substantially a short circuit for
these harmonics generated in the machine. The effective
tuned-frequency resistance is then chosen so that the harmonic current flowing through it produces a voltage drop
that corresponds to the desired reduction in the harmonic
volLage applied to the connected cin:uit.. The filLer reactor
and capacitor constants become definite as soon as the
filter-constant Q, the ratio of reactance to resistance at the
tuned frequency, has been selected. The required value
of Q is usually increased slightly to allow for the imperfectness of tuning by taps. In applying shunt filters, it is
necessary to consider whether the installation provides a
low-impedance path for harmonies origin:::t.tlng elsewhere
in the system at the same or even different frequencies.

Chapter 23

If such a path is provided, harmonic currents may be


drawn through the intervening circuit and prevent the
desired improvement in the noise-frequency coordination
problem. Shunt filters can be located remote from the
machine if harmonic currents flowing through the intervening path are not disadvantageous from the coordination
standpoint. Such a location, if permissible, will result in
smaller volt-ampere capacity in filter parts.
Line resonant shunts have been used in a few instances
to prevent amplification of harmonics because of the resonance of a particular feeder at a frequency appearing in
the source, The more usual combination is that in which
the line capacitance resonates with the inductance of the
source. The installation of a line shunt filter may change
the resonant point and greatly simplify the coordination
problem. Line shunts are sometimes provided with a resistor in parallel with the reactor. This combination is
equivalent to a reactor and capacitance in series with a
resistance, the value of which is low for low frequencies
and high for high frequencies. Thus, the combination not
only provides a low~impPdancc path for the selected frequency but because of the high resistance prevents amplification of the harmonics at the higher frequencies.
Rectifier a-c Bhunt filters are sometimes used to prevent
the operation of the rectifier from increasing the harmonics
in the a-c supply system. A-c filters are of two types, the
non-tuned filter shown schematically in Fig. 31 and the
tuned-frequency filter shown schematically in Fig. 32. The
non-tuned filter consists of a reactor in series with the
supply, and a shunt capacitor for each phase. u~ually the
addition of the reactor is objectionable from the regulation
Ls
TO A.C.

RECTIFIER

SUPPLY

AND

TRANSFORMER~--4---4---~--~~mfC---~-,
SERIES

REACTORS

SHUNT

CAPACITORS
Fig. 31-Non-tuned a-c filter for use with small rectifiersschematic diagram.

!O SUPPLY
RECTIFIER

AND
TRANSFORMER

RESONANT SHUNTS

FIJ1. 32-Four-frequency tuned a-c shunt filter for use with

larae power rectifiers-schematic diaQram.

Coordination of Power and Communication Systems

Chapter 23

775

standpoint for all but small rectifiers or installations such


as certain types of broadcasting stations where induction
regulators are commonly used. The combination of series
reactor and shunt capacitor is usually proportioned so that

the natural frequency is less than the lowest frequency


produced by the rectifier, that is, lower than 300 cycles.
In determining the effectiveness of the non-tuned filter, it
is necessary to estimate the harmonic voltage impressed
on the supply circuit for all of the important rectifier
harmonics using the methods previously discussed in

connection with rectifiers.


For most power applications the only permissible type
of a-c filter consists of tuned shunts as illustrated in Fig. 32
for four frequencies. Shunt filters usually consist of four
to seven elemeuL~, proportioned Lo accomplish different
reductions in the harmonic voltages impressed on the
supply rireuit by the operation of the rectifier. In general,
a filter design should be worked out only after full information is available as to the harmonics and frequencyimpedance characteristics of the power source as viewed
from the filter location. Usually t,his information i:::; obLainable only after a rectifier is installed. If preliminary study
of a rcrtificr installation indicates that a coordination

problem is likely to be encountered and that an a-c filter


in the power circuit is likely to be a remedial measure that
should receive consideration, an estimate of the filter cost
should he obtained from the manufacturer before the purchase of the rectifier equipment so that it will be available in
studies relating to the cost of the complete installation.
The Electrical Equipment Committee of the Edison Electric Institute in its "Report on Rectifier Wave Shape" 16
recommends for the purpose of such a preliminary estimate, when the supply frequency is 60 cycles, that the
characteristics of the filtering equipment be taken as
follows:

'VOt..TACE

(\(\(\('

euRRENT

V\TV

A A ~r
rv
v v

/>.C. RESONANT

VOCTACC

SHUNTS

DISCONNECTED

vvv \.,

CURRENT \

(\

[\

(\

[\

[\

[\

VVV\

AC. RESONANT SHUNTS

CONNECTED

Fig. 33-The a~c line~current and voltaJle wave shapes of a si:s:-

phase rectifier without and with an

a~c

shunt filter.

Fig. 34-Six~element a-c shunt filter for power rectifier. The


shunts for each phase are arranged in horizontal rows and for
each frequency in vertical rows.

"A-c Side. For either a 6-phase or 12-phase rectifier a device


to limit the total contribution to the voltage T.I.F. to 20 for
the combined effects of the frequencies corresponding to the

11th, 13th, 17th and 19th harmonics."

Rectifier filters can accomplish a very marked improvement in the voltage and current wave shapes of the supply
circuit as illustrated in Fig. 33 by the redrawn oscillogram
of the actual test results obtained on the first tuned-shunt
filter ever built13 The general appearance of a shunt filLer
is illustrated in Fig. 34 for a six-freqll(Omcy 1000-volt unit.
Shunt filters are inherently relatively expensive and should
not be considered as a normal part of a rectifier. In any
particular case, consideration should also be given to
alternative methods, such as:

1. The use of the largest number of phases consistent


with the number of anodes required.
2. Rearrangement of power supply or location of feeders
so as to avoid exposure.

3. A combination of other methods in the power or


communication circuit in the same manner as used
for other coordination problems.
D-e fillers for rectifiers are much less expensive and
complicated than a-e filters. The application of d-e filters
is usually restricted to rectifiers which supply propulsion
circuits with one side grounded. Normally d-e filters consist of a series reactor and three tuned-shunt elements as
illustrated in Fig. 35. This combination operates to reduce
the d-e harmonic voltages impressed on the external circuit
by consuming them in voltage drop in the rectifier and

776

Coordination of Power and Communication Systems

Chapter 23

and by cooperative advance planning, it is possible to


avoid coordination problems that otherwise would arise.
Close irregular parallels, as in overbuilt construction, are
L

TO D.C.
LOAD

particularly to be avoided as this greatly decreases the


effectiveness of transpositions. "Where parallels have been
created without consideration from the standpoint of

advance planning, relocation often provides the best


36QN 72QN 108QN

RESONANT SHUNTS
Fig. 35-Schem.aticdlagram of a typical d-e filter fora rectifier.

remedial measure.

Transpositionsf-Probably the most important method for reducing noise-frequency inductive effects is obtained by transpositions, particularly transpositions in

telephone circuits. A telephone circuit is said to be transtransformer*, and in the series reactor. The reactor in the
d-e circuit usually is of the iron-core type with air gap,

mountd in a tank and frequently arranged for outdoor


installation. The shunt elements should be so located and
installed as to have very short leads, the length of which

must be measured between the points through which all


the direct current flows. If the filter leads are of considerable length they will reduce its effectiveness and upset
tuning. The characteristics of d-e filtering equipment have
been pretty well standardized and the recommendations
in the R.E.I. Report on Rectifier Wave ShapeHi for preliminary estimating purposes1 when the supply frequency
is 60 cycles, are as follows:
"D-e Side. For a 6-phase rectifier a device to give a 10 to 1
reduction of the 6th1 12th and 18th harmonic voltages. For
a 12-.phase rectifier a device to give a 5 to 1 reduction of the
6th and 18th harmonics and a 10 to 1 reduction of the 12th
harmonic voltage."

The foregoing reductions are based on calculated values


assuming a load circuit of infinite inductance. These
recommendations give considerable attention to the 360cycle component on the basis of the presence of lower-

impedance party line ringing equipment on telephone cir-

posed when the two sides of the circuit reverse their re-

spective positions at suitable intervals throughout its


length. Transpositions are applicable principally to uniform exposures, and their effectiveness is greatly reduced
when the Reparation is not uniform and when tranRpositions are not located at theoretically correct points.
Transpositions are required in telephone circuits to avoid

crosstalk and they are also effective in reducing noisefrequency induction from power circuits. The different
functions of transpositions within an exposure section are
shown in Table I I. This table shows that there are eight
TABLE ll~FUNCTIONS OF TRANSPOSITIONS WITHIN EXPOSURES

Source of Induction

In Power Circuit
Balanced Voltagos

Balaneed Currents
Residual Voltages
Residual Currents

Direct

Indirect

Metallic Induction

Metallic Induction

T
T

T
T

transpositions reduce thooe components of induction.


P-Power-cireuit traru;positions reduce these components of induction.
*-No ef!'t"ct on these componeutB of iaducti<Ju ex.oop~ U~~ ~hey educe thJ:! residuals theiill:!eives.
1'~-Telephone-eirelllt

cuits. Where this type of ringing equipment is not used,

it may be permissible to apply a simpler filter consisting


of a large series reactor and a single shunt tuned for a
frequency of approximately 1000 cycles. For higher d-e

voltage systems and close exposures it may be desirable to


provide an element for the 24th harmonic frequency.

12. Coupling Factors for Noise-Frequency


Induction
The coupling factors for electric and magnetic induction
at noise frequencies may be computed with a slight modification of the methods given in the section on low-frequency coupling. The electric coupling factors can be used
directly both for metallic circuits and for those involving
ground return. The magnetic coupling factors are pro-

portional to frequency but for ground-return circuits it is


necessary to introduce a different equivalent depth of
return current, which can be calculated with the aid of

Eq. (5). In telephone-noise calculations the coupling factors are based on a 400-foot equivalent depth of earth-

possible sources of noise-frequency induction from a power


circuit; four of these result from the direct metallic-circuit
induetion caused by the balanced and residual components

of voltage and of current, and four result from the indirect


effect of longitudinal-circuit induction acting on the unbalances of the telephone circuit. Figures 2 and 3 show
thal unequal vollages may be induced in the two sides of a
telephone circuit as a result of induction from both balanced and residual components of voltage and current.

These unequal voltages can be resolved into metallic- and


longitudinal-circuit components as illustrated in Figs. 4
and 5. It follows, therefore, that transpositions in the
telephone circuit will reduce the resultant voltage in the
m~tallic circuit. In a Rlmllar manner it can be shown that
transpositions in a power circuit reduce the resultant
metallic-circuit induction in an untransposed telephone
circuit. However, in the practical case the telephone circuits are transposed frequently and the power-circuits
infrequently, and the transposition points for the latter are

return current. Some approximate coupling factors are

usually located at neutral points on the telephone-circuit

given in Sec. 14, Calculation of NoiS on Telephone

transposition system. Under these conditions power...


circuit transpositions reduce only the indirect metallic~
cireuit induction resulting from longitudinal voltages acting on circuit unbalances. Transpositions in the power
tReference 16 and Engineering Report No. 36 of Reference 4.

Circuits.

Relative Location of Circuits-Frequently, by exchange of notice of intention to construct new facilities


*See Eq. (29).

group consisting of two metallic-side circuits and a phantom circuit superposed on the other two. The middle
conductors constitute a metallic circuit consisting of the
pole pair. In Fig. 36 (a) the transpositions are of two
types, first, those that involve the change in position of
the two wires in the metallic circuit, and second. the phantom transpositions that involve change in all the positions
for the four wires as illustrated in Fig. 36 (c). Newer
transposition systems have been developed by the Bell
System to solve special problems created by carrier-frequency telephone systems. These tram;position systems
are, of course, also effective for audio-frequency circuits.
Transpositions have been highly developed in the communication industry because of crosstalk as well as noise-

circuit will not reduce the metallic-circuit component of


induction in the telephone circuit resulting from residual or
zero-sequence currents in the power circuit, except as they
reduce the residual quantities themselves. Thi8, of counse,
results from tho fact that, by definition, the residual or
zer()-,.c:;equence components in the several conductors are of
identical magnitude and phase and, therefore, their resultant electric and magnetic fields are not affected by powercircuit transpositions. Power-circuit transpositions are,
therefore, used principally in coordination problems with
ground-return telegraph circuits to reduce residual voltages and currents of fundamental frequency. For this purpose it is usually sufficient to use only one "barrel" for
each section between major discontinuities*. By the term

NOMINAL FULL LENGTH- 8 MILES


EXPOSED LINE SYSTEM -SECTION

PAIR

1-2

(a)

777

Coordination of Power and Communication Systems

Chapt.er 23

3-4

5~6

7-8
4

9-10

LETTERING

46 8 iO

..
12

14

iSii

20 22

24

26 28 30 32

34

36 38 40 42 44 46

~NON-PHANTOMEO
CIRCUIT

PHANTOM

LETTERING

CIRCUIT

4850

52 54

4
E

56

58 60 62

TYPES OF PHANTOM TRANSPOSITIONS

TYPICAL WHOLE-LINE TRANSPOSITION UNITS


HALF-MILE UNIT
32-POLE TYPE UNIT
FOR STANDARD SYSTEM
FOR EXPOSED-LINE SYSTEM

(b)

TYPE I

TYPE 2

TYPE 3

TYPE 4

~~:l~t.lllllt ;~ ;~
E

i6

i6

20

2i

W (ALONE) INDICATES A WHOLE LINE


TRANSPOSITION POLE, W UNDER OTHER LETTERING INDICATE$
CHANGES REQUIRED IN PREVIOUSLY EXISTING TRANSPOSITIONS.
INDICATES REGULAR TRANSPOSITION POLES, WHICH RETAIN
EXISTING LETTERING.
~ INDICATES A TYPE I P...ANTOM TRANSPOSITION TO BE CUT IN.
INDICATES A 2-WIRE TRANSPOSITION TO BE CUT IN.
0 INDICATES AN EXISTING 2-WIRE TRANSPOSITION TO BE CUT OUT.

24

~~ ~~
(c)

Fig. 36-Typical Bell System transposition dial!lram. From Engineering Report No. 36 of Reference 4.
(a) Wire positions for ~<Exposed Line" system forE section-upper cross-arm only.
(b) Schematic diagram for "Whole-Line" transpositions,
(c) Types of phantom-circuit transpositions.

"barrel" is meant a section of a three-phase power circuit,


of uniform configuration, so arranged by transpositions
that each conductor occupies equal sections in the three
positions. On a long transmission line without intermediate loads or generating points, or without circuit or
configuration changes, a barrel may be 50 to 100 miles
in length. Transpositions are of no value on distribution
circuits with single-phase branches.
The Bell Telephone System has developed several effective transposition systems and a typical one is shown in
Fig. 36. In this figure the wire arrangements for the upper
cross-arm are shown in (a). The upper cross-arm is arranged with four wires on each side constituting a phantom
*Discontinuities are points where an important change takes place
in the physical or electrical conditions of the circuit, such as load;:
branch circuits, series impedances, configuration, and separation.

frequency characteristics. A general discussion of transpositions is, of course, beyond the scope of treatment here
possible. Mention should, however, be made of a few
coordination problems which involve transpositions. To
secure full effectiveness of a transposition system in reducing induction from a particular exposure, it is necessary
to coordinate the transposition locations with the exposure
section. This frequently requires rearrangement of the
transpositions on the communication circuit by installing
a transposition system that constitutes a balanced section
for the entire exposure. The normal balanced lengths are
eight miles for an E section, six and four~tenths miles for
an N section, and one-half mile for an R section. Neutral
points of the Exposed-Line System illustrated in Fig. 36
oceur at S poles, one-quarter and one-eighth points. Because of the frequent necessity for coordinating existing

778

Coordination of Power and Communication Systems

construction with newly-created parallels, a scheme known


as "whole-line transpositions" has been developed, as
illustrated in Fig. 36 (b). The whole-line transposition
permits the accurate or approximate balance of the transposition system for the exposure section, but, of course,
requires additional transpositions.
In connection with transposition systems, the question
naturally arises as to the number that should be used.
While some gain is possible by adding transpositions to
those normally employed in transposition systems, it is
important to reeognize that the effectiveness of transposition depends on the uniformity of exposure, the ac-

curacy of location of the transposition points, and the


coordination of the transposition system with respect to
the power-circuit exposure. These considerations make a
definite limit to the number of transpositions that can be
used effectively. The amount of reduction in metalliccircuit noisP ~ausP.d hy the adOit.lon of transpositions is
shown in Table 12 taken from the work of the E.E.I. and
TABLE 12-EFFECTIVENESS OF TELEPHONE TRANSPOSITION
IN RMVUCING METALI,IC-CJRCUIT NOISE

Side

Transpositions

Coordinated.
U ncoordinatcd.

None.

.... 1

.....I

Hclativc Noise In
Circuits of Phantom Group

Min.

Ave.

Max.

1.2
8.8

6.
25 .

12.
50.

50.0

100.

190.

Bell System*. \Vhere a small number of circuits are involved, as for example in the casP. of a single powercompany telephone line, it is possible to obtain a higher
degree of effectiveness of transposition than indicated in
the table. However, for transpositions applied to many
circuits under the usual condit.ions of installation with
some variation in separation, it is necessary to assume
much lower effectiveness. Certain recommendations in
this connection are given in Sec. 14, Calculation of Noise
in TeJephone Circuits.

13. Noise-Frequency Susceptiveness Factors


The principal noise-frequency susceptiveness factors on
a telephone circuit are power-level and sensitivity, balance,
and frequency-response characteristics. These vary with
the Lype of communication circuit.
Pm.ver Level and Sensitivity---Noise-frequency coordination problems are ahvays simplified if the ratio of
induced or noise currents to speech currents are decreased.
This may be done by decreasing the induced currents by
eontrol of influence or coupling factors, as discussed in
previous sections, or by increasing the speech curreut8 by
increa:slng transmitter output or by using amplifiers. The
simplest example of this method of control is the familiar
practice of raising the speech level into the transmitter so
as to override the noise on a telephone circuit. Unfortunately, this simple mea8ure encounters limitations because of voice distortion and fatigue that result if an effort
*Engineering Report No. 16 of Reference 4.

Chapter 23

is made to maintain too high an energy level. However,


the same result can be accomplished by improved transmitters, which in effect provide amplifying action in the
device itself. Amplifiers can also be used to increase the
speech level as is done on long-distance toll circuits. However, in some cases, amplifiers will increase induced currents as well as speech currents. Thus the amplifiers, in
themselves, are not a remedial measure of value unless
they provide a lower ratio of noise to speech levels.
Another factor to be considered is crosstalk since amplifiers may increase the crosstalk level from adjacent circuits.
An increase in the energy level to overcome noise on one
circuit may require corrective measures in many circuits
because of crosstalk from circuits located on the same pole
line. From the foregoing discussion it becomes apparent
that for commercial communication systems, increasing
the pmver levels rarely provides a feasible solution for a
particular exposure. Instead 1 the most economical transmitters with the highest practical energy output are employed and the applications are made on tbe basis of the
overall communication problem including crosstalk and
no1se.
For power-line communication systems and other isolated circuits, increased power levels may provide a coordination measure of value. Thus, audio-frequency amplifiers can be used to increase the voice-current output of
the transmitter in combination with receivers of decreased
sensitivity giving the same resultant receiver output. The
amplifier is a relatively inexpensive remedial measure but
requires maintenance and a source of energy. Thus, this
type of remedial measure is more suitable for communication systems connecting two principal stations than for
those that supply circuits with many intermediate taps as,
for example 1 a patrol line. In general, more extensive use
of amplifiers on power-line communication systems for
redueing noise than is now general practice would be
advantageous.
Balance of a Telephone Circuit-The balance of a
telephone circuit or the symmetry of the two wires of a
metallic circuit or of the four wires of a phantom circuit
with respect to each other and to all other wires and to
ground is a factor of great importance from the standpoint
of noise when the circuits are located in powerful electric
or magnetic fields. If the circuits are unbalanced, induced
~urrent::; are produced which cause unequal drops in the
different wires and thus impress a differential voltage on
the metallic circuit; the result is noise in connected telephone receivers. Unequal conductor resistance, particularly high-resistance joints, may contribute importantly
to the noise problem. Similarly, unsymmetrical capacitance coupling with other circuits may also be a factor of
importance. Ordinarily telephone-circuit transpositions
insure adequate conductor symmetry so that no special
attention to this point is required other than maintenance
to avoid high resistance joints or leaks to ground.
Another source of unbalance may exist in telephoneoffice or subscriber equipment. Some of these unbalances
are inherent in standard equipment, particularly of the
older types. One of the principal sources of unbalance is
produced on party-line systems. One type of set uSes a
ringer of about 20,000 obms impedance at 1000 cycles at

Chapter 23

Coordination of Power and Communication Systems

subscriber premises connected between one conductor and


ground. These ringers offer a relatively low impedance to
ground, particularly at the frequencies below 300 cycles
and since the ringers are not located s:r:mmetrically on the
circuit they are sometimes a source of important un-

balances. Several remedies have been used, one of which


consists in replacing the lower-impedance ringer by a
higher-impedance device (about 165,000 ohms at 1000
cycles). Another measure uses ringing equipment at subscriber premises that is connected to the circuit by a tube
only when the circuit is being used for ringing purposes.
By this means the party-line circuit is not unbalanced
under talking conditions. In the newer types of sets these
unbalances are minimized.
Quil.e frequently an exposure will involve only a short
parallel, although the telephone circuit itself is long. Unbalances in the telephone circuit outside of the exposure

section may contribute importantly to the total telephone


noise. This source of trouble can frequently be avoided by
installing a repeat coil in the ends of the exposure section,
thus effectively isolating the t\VO sections of the circuit.
The addition of the repeat coil, of course, introduces some
transmission loss and interferes with telegraph use and
with telephone-circuit testing, and therefore, can be justified only in special cases.
Frequency Response-In modern high-quality voicefrequency communication systems it is necessary to provide reasonahly good response over the frequency range of
from about 200 to 3500 cycles, the range that also covers
the principal harmonic frequencies of power systems. The
older types of receivers produce the effect of resonance in
the viciniLy of 1100 cycles. For thi:s reason the use of
filters in telephone circuits to block the flow of induced
current of a particular power-system frequency has often
been proposed. However, experimental studies by power
and communication companies have shown that such a
method of solution is only rarely practical. In the future
this method should be of still less value because the trend
in communication circuit equipment is toward more
uniform response and a wider frequency band.
On rural telephone lines there are frequently high magnitudes of low-frequency induction. These situations can
often be improved by reducing the low-frequency response25. For example, with the commonly-used connection for a local hattPry telephone set, the receiver can be
shunted by a 60-millihenry coil and a 0.75 mf capacitor
placed in series with the receiver. Another arrangement
is to reconnect the set placing the receiver with a 1-mf
capacitor in series across the transmiLter side of the induction coil. Such measures, while impairing the quality
of voice reproduction, may provide an overaB improvement in the order of 2:1 where the noise is confined to
low frequencies.
Carrier-frequency communication systems are rarely
affected by power-system harmonics because the harmonif's in the carrier-frequency range are of small magnitude and the effects of the lower harmonics are minimized
because of frequency separation.
Type of Circuit-The telephone circuit of maximum
susceptivene:s:s to induction from a power circuit is the
ground-return or rural telephone circuit. Practically all

779

such circuits are noisy when operated close to power circuits. The metallicizing of such ground-return circuits
provides the most important measure for minimizing noisefrequency problems in such cases. Sometimes it is practical to metallicize only the exposure section by installing
repeat coils between the exposure section and the remainder of the circuit. Separation of the two wires of a metallic
circuit is, of course, an important factor in the problem.
Conductors on open-wire telephone circuits are usually
located 12 inches apart. The reduced spacing of eight
inches has been found advantageous for carrier-frequency
circuits. Table 13 shows the relative noise in subscriber
TABLE 13-RELATIVE NOISE IN SUBSCRIBER CIRCUIT
EXPOSED TO SINGLE-PHASE COMMON-NEUTRAL POWER CIRCUIT

Relative Noise*

Item

Type of Service

Grounded Rural Grounded Rural

Line,38DRinger HD0-1800 1400-1800


Individual Line Individual Line,

Party Line

BARinger ...
Single-Condenser,

1-10

40--00

Party Line

SA Ringer, ,
Single-Condenser,

45-55

12-25

Party Line

8J Ringer. ...
Split-Condenser,

12-25

4-12

Part.y Line

SA Ringer. '. ,.
Split-Condenser,

12-25

1-10

1-10

One Set
on Line

8J Ringer.
*&sed on Engineering

Report No.

6 of

...

Reference

Two Sets
on Line

4.

sets for rural telephone lines, individual lines, and party


lines with various types of ringing equipment.
Duplex conductors or telephone-drop leads have been
found advantageous from the nOise standpoint in particular situations. The close spacing and twisting of the
conductors minimize the possibility of unequal voltages
being induced in the two wires. However, these insulated
conductors increase transmission loss and are likely to
develop leakage unbalances as the insulation deteriorates.
Consequently, duplex or similar conductors arc impractical
as a. remerlial measure, except for short lengths or for conductors that are intended for short:-time service.
Cables provide an important factor in the simplification
of noise-frequency coordination problems, particularly in
the urban areas where exposures are severe. Cables provide the economical form of construction in many denselypopulated districts. With grounded cable sheaths the
inductive effects from voltages are negligible. If the cable
sheath is grounded at both ends through low-impedance
connections, the noise problem from currents is reduced.
In cable circuits the principal factor is the indirect metalliccircuit noise resulting from cable unbalances and the in~
duced longitudinal voltages produced by residual currents.
Usually, however, cables are relatively well transposed
and balanced so that the important unbalances are those
caused by central-office cord circuits and by subscriber
ringing equipment.

780

Coordination of Power and Communication

Chapter 23

Syst<m~s

TABLE 14-DB RATIOS~ RELATION TO GAIN RATIOS


AND NOISE UNITS

14. Calculation of Telephone-Circuit Noise


The estimation of telephone-circuit noise resulting from
power-circuit induction is an involved procedure. It is

possible here only to indicate the general philosophy of

Db

Voltage or Current
Gain Ratio*

telephone-noise calculations and to provide simple formu-

las useful primarily for indicating order of magnitude of

the noise problem in a typical situation.

2
3. 16
5.62

The general procedure in calculating telephone-circuit

10

noise is to obtain power-circuit harmonic voltages and


currents and to resolve these into balanced and residual
components. Then the harmonic voltages impressed on

20

the telephone-circuit conductors are calculated with the


aid of coupling factors based on the geometry of the circuits, and for residual circuits the equivalent depth of
earth-return current for harmonic frequencies. The voltages impressed on the telephone-circuit conductorR are

then resolved into metallic- and longitudinal-circuit components. For a balanced but untransposed circuit, the
noisefrequency currents in the telepho~e receiver resulting
from the metallic-circuit components of induced voltages
are readily calculated. Longitudinal voltages impressed on
a perfectly balanced circuit cause no current in connected
telephone receivers. However, when either series or shunt
unbalances are present, longitudinal induced voltages acting upon them produce additional noise-frequency currents
in the telephone receivers.
The noise-frequency currents in the telephone receiver,

15
25

10.00
17.80

30
35

31.6
56.2

40
45
50

100.
178.

60

316.
1,000.

80
100

10 000.
100 000.

Approximate
Noise Units
(Based on Line Noise)

7
14
22

40
70
125
220

400
700
1250
2200
7000

*Attenuation RatiOB are reciprocal of Gain Ratios.

are present, the resultant noise is estimated by combining

the individual noises according to the sum of the squ&res


of the individual components. However, as a practical

matter, the harmonics in the power system are replaced by


an equivalent harmonic that can then be used with suitable
coupling factors and with telephone-circuit impedances to
give the equivalent noise-frequency current in the tele-

which are obtained by the preceding calculations, are then

phone receiver. This is essentially the inverse of the proc-

converted to noise units with the aid of suitable conversion


factors. Reference noise has been standardized at 10 12
watts at 1000 cycles, which corresponds to 0.0408 microamperes on 600ohm ~ircuits, and to approximately seven
noise units for noise measured on the linet.
Telephone circuit noise is frequently expressed in deci-

ess discussed in Sec. 10 for the determination of power-

circuit voltage and current T.I.F.'s. In fact, the T.I.F.


weighting curve can be used with a coupling factor varying

directly with frequency and equal to unity at 1000 cycles


to obtain the telephone-receiver weighting curve. When
transpositions are present, as is usually the case, their

bels (db). In the decibel scale the ratio of two voltage- or

effect can be estimated by a suitable factor. When there

two current-quantities is expressed,

are unbalances outside of the exposure section, this circumstance must also be taken into account.
Th~ preceding diRcm:;sion shows that accurate noise calculations are complex. Fortunately, an important simpli-

Ratio in

db~ 20

log" Ratio

(33)

Thus, telephone noise when expressed in db is the ratio


to reference noise taking reference noise as seven noise
units. Thus, telephone line noise is
. .
Noise m

db~20

log,

Noise Units

(34)

A convenient figure to remember is that a change of six


decibels corresponds to a change of 2:1 in voltage or current ratios. Table 14 gives a list of decibel and current- or
voltage-gain ratios and corresponding relation to noise
units.

The foregoing discussion applies directly for induced


currents of a single frequency. \Vhere several harmonics
*Extensive discussions of telephone-noise calculations are giVfm
in the Engineering Reports 4 of the Joint Development and Research
Subcommittee, .l:ldison .Electric Instituu~ and Bell Telephone System,
particularly No. 16 for open-wire toll circuits, No. 17 for open-wire
subscriber circuits at roadway separation, 'I'Jo. 13 for open-wire
subscriber cireuits in joint-usc situations, No. 9 for subscriber circuits in cable, and No. 40 for ground-return or rural telephone
circuits.
tReference noise based on receiver currents is 14 noise units.

fication can be obtained by calculating (a) the longitudinal


noise-frequency voltages and (b) the direct metallic-circuit
noise. The longitudinal voltages are then used in connection with the circuit unbalances to obtain the metalliccircuit noise caused by unbalances. Empirical factors,

known as the metallic-longitudinal ratios (M-L ratios) are


applied to the longitudinal noise-frequency voltages to
obtain the metallic-circuit noi:se. Further 1'3implification
is obtained by considering only the direct metallic-circuit
induction component, taking into account at the same
time the reduction resulting from transpositions. Formulas

for calculating the direct metallic-circuit noise are given


below. This is illustrative of other methods and is more
accurate when the effect of unbalances are relatively unimportant. This method also gives the hest phyRical pic-

ture of the problem and is useful in indicating the severity


of a noise problem.

The basic formulas for the calculation of metallic-circuit


noiset are;
tThcse formulas and the K factors of Fig. 37 are baaed on Engineering Reports Nos. 16 and 17 of Reference 4.

Chapter 23

781

Coordination of Power and Communication Systems

NME n=KE-nK,(KVTn)
}
NM,_a=K._aK,(KV Ta)
(35)
NMr-n=Kr-nK,(l Tn)
NMr-a=Kr-nK,(I Tn)
where NM E-B, N M E--a~metallic-circuit noise caused by
electric induction from balanced
or residual voltages-noise units.
'NMr-n, NMx-R-metallic-circuit l10ise caused by
magnetic induction from balanced or residual curreutsnoise units.
KE-B, KE-R-factors* giving ratio of metalliccircuit noise on telephone circuit
to balanced or residual voltage
on power-circuit in kv. See Fig.
37.
Kr-B, Kx-a~factorst giving ratio of metalliccircuit noise on telephone circuit
caused by balanced or residual
current to power-circuit amperes. See Fig. 37.
K r-length of exposure in kilo-feet.
KV -power-circuit voltage in kilovolts-fundamental frequency.

I -power-circuit current in amperes


-fundamental frequency.

KV TB, KV Tn.-power-circuit voltage in kv from


line to line multiplied by balanced voltage T.I.F.; corresponding KV T factor for residual.
I Tn, I TR power-circuit current in amperes
multiplied by balanced or residual current T.I.F.
The K factors of Fig. 37 are based on horizontal distances
in feet measured between nearest power a.nd telephone
conductors. In Fig. 37 the K factors for balanced voltages
are plotted for symmetrical horizontal configuration; correction-factor multipliers for several other configurations
and for different heights of power conductors are given in
the tabulation included in the figure.
The noise resulting from several components of induction can be comLinetl according to the following formula:
NN! ~ ~(NME-n)'+(NME-n) 2 +(NMr-B)'+(NMr-R)'
(36)
ThjiS i:s an empirical law of combination but represents the

only practical method for combining the effects, which may


range from the arithmetic difference to the arithmetic sum
of the quantities. The effect of reduction in noise resulting
from transpositions may be estimated from Table 15.
The formulas of Eq. (3.1) do not take into account the
beneficial action from mutual shielding of tclephone~circuit
conductor~ against electric induction. For this reason the
values given will be somewhat high for a large number of
telephone-circuit conductors insofar as the noise from induced residual voltage is. concerned. These formulas do

*KE-B and

KE-R are coefficients of electric induction in volts per


kilovolt, multiplied Ly a constant of 0.077.
tKx-B and KI-R are eoeffieientR of magneUc induction in micro-

henries per kilofoot, multiplied by a constant of 0.08.

TABLE 16~TRANSPOSITION REDUCTION FACToRS

Toll Circuit Average

Subscriber Circuit
-----

Coordination

Joint Use

NonSepara- Side Phantom


Phantom
No;-PoleiPole P;r tion
a.r

0.1
to
0.2
0.2
to
0.4

Optimum

Nominal

IRo~way

0 05
to
0.1
0.10
to
0.2

0.05
to
0.1
0.2

*From Engineering Reports Noa. 16 and 17 o

0.06

0.3

0.025

0.25

0.25

....

Refere~

4.

not take the effects of unbalance into account. These


effects, which may be estimated from a knowledge of the
unbalances, may be more important from the noise standpoint than the effects of direct metallic-circuit induction.
For joint-usc situations, the constants KE-B, KE-R, etc.,
as given in Table 16 should be used. The effect of reduction
in noise resulting from transpositions may again be
estimated from Table 15.
Noise Evaluation~The impairment of telephonic
transmission produced by a given line noise can be expressed in terms of an increase in the transmi&.o;;ion loss of
the circuit, which would cause an impairment of telephone
service equal to that caused by the noise. With a knowledge of the costs which are involved in providing circuits
to meeL diiTerenL ::;tandards of transmission, a judgment
can be made as to the importance of noise in a given
instance. This method of noise evaluation is used by Bell
System Engineers26 On toll circuits, line noise of 200 noise
units (29 db above reference noise) produces negligible
impairment. Many power-company telephone lines are
operating under conditions producing more than 800 noise
units and some considerably in excess of that figure. The
permissible noise of a particular circuit cannot be stated
definitely as it depends upon the margin of telephonictransmission loss, the room noise conditions at the terminals, the nature of the telephone business transacted,
i.e., whether individual message or written reports, the
quality of the service to be given and the characteristics
of the user.
TABLE 16~VALUES OF Kt-B. Kt-R. KE-B AND KE-R FOR
OPEN-WIRE JOINT-USE EXPOSURESf

Out::;ide
Conductor
Distancesinches

Components

Kt-B

and

Kt-R

K E-B and K E-R

Non-Pole
Pair

Pole
Pair

Non-Pole
Pair

Pole
Pair

0.077
0.10
0.22
0 20

0.15
0.62
1.40
0.75

0.16
0 22
0 32
0.42

0.36
0.83

---~

Balanced

15
30

Residual

60-100
Any

180
1.4

Above values apply to four- foot separation between power crossarm

and nearest telephone crossarm. For six- and eight-foot separation,


multiply Kr-B and KI-Rby 0.6 and 0.45 and KE---B and KE-R by
0.55 and 0.40, respectively.
lBaaed on Engineering Report No. 13 of Reference 4.

782

Chapter 23

Coordination of Power and Communication Systems


1.00
0., 0

0
o
o0
0

H2S:

.,oOs

M '0

/~

K,_R ANO K 1-R

RESI[HIAL-VOL TAGE
CURRENT FACTORS

0
oo 0 H50''j
0.05
0.03

...'"'
.

.O.I'<Y CONFIGURATION

-~~5'

~ 0.02 0

~SIOU

0.0

0.00

'

'
"'o.oo
'
,; 0.00
'

"' 0.00
~ 0.00

MO

0.000
O.QOO

0.000

0..000

'

4/2 0 d/2

0
)1-

,. "'""

ro

>00 "0 200

0.030
0.020

..

, o

300 400

SEPARATION, X,IN FEET

ftrwe
~LANC(OwCURRENT

(1.040

~ol/ll 0~){

25''

d/2

Cx

35'~

'

Q
T

HSO'

'
'

t'l--

'

FACTOR

GORREOTION f'AOTOR$

(HORIZONTAL &. TRIANGULAR


CONFIGURATIONS)

,,

"'
L,
() VERTICAl.

(ol SYMIIIETAICAL HORIZONTAL.

04130 2dt3

'

0.100
0.070
0.050

ANO TELEPHONE CONDUCTORS

~'
~T~'-

VOLTAG

'

0.000

CONFIGURATION SKETCHES OF POWER

RESIDUAL

'0

0.000

SEPARATION,)(, IN FEET

""'

CURR

'0

:.

N'

osr

4.0'

0>0

0.38
0.55

u:.o'

'"0
1,3!!

16.0'

1.60

2.00

e.o'

0
Afl0..4d

2d-eo' eo'wsoo'

2.5'

J.OO

1,55

'L,

(IJ LOW-TRIANGULAR

o.OOIO~~~~~~!I!IIIIIIII

(II') 6 (0) IJNSVNMETRICAL. HOAtZONTt.

0.0007F H-3!!1' 025'

(),OOosC

0.0004~

o.ooo3

0.0002

()
(f)

M!.,S'

30'

tTT

1r/

:s'

---VERT
CONF'!GURATIO
HOR. t;l. TRIAUGULAR

..

I II
'
M0012'~0.-J.,,&ol.J~o~oo!ni-,,.Jnl-LJ~~o~~o4tkoo,-L,,..
!l;l.,.,~off.~oo

IUGM-TRIA!olGULAR

SEPARATION, X, IN FEET

I%

KE-:s-CONFIGURATION CORRECTION-FACTOR MULTIPLIERS. See Configuration Sketches (a) to (g).

(b) Honzontal

(c) Honzontal

5'

5'

8'

2.5'

5'

8'

12'

16'

12'

16'

o.74
0.68
0.74
.. .

0.77
0.76
0.75
0.65

0.69
0.72
LOS
!.53

0.95
!.01
1.44
1.96

o.94
1.10
1.81
2.57

0.92
1.15
2.23
3.02

1.01 0.45 o.35 o 28


1.21 0.70 0.58 0.53
2.34 11.68 1.1}1 2.20
4.05 2.25 3.0! 3.62

o.3o
0.55
2.33
4.28

8'

(d) Equi-triangular

(e) Verhca.l

5'

8'

(f) Low-tnangula.r

2.5 1

5'

I 8'

12' i 16 1

~l.UIon~~~ -.--.--.---.---.---.-~,~~~.. - ..- .


so 1.35 1.24
100' 1.38 1.34
1
300 L43 1.40
600' !.50 1.46

KE--a-CONFIGURATION C.F.M.

)\
20'
60'
100'
300'
600'

(Cont'd)

(g) High-triangular

2 ..5'

5'

8'

12' . 16 1

1.40
0.84
0.\10
1.66
2.21

1.34
0.99
1.18

...

... .

. ..

1.00

1.11
1.25
2.85
4.06

!.36
1.24

---------------

2.18

3.D7

1.23

2.60
3.85

....
...

0.85 11.09
0.68 ' 0.92
0.38 II 0.66
... 0.49

I 0.96
!.04
.1

0.93
0.82

KE--n-HEIGHT CORRECTION-FACTOR MULTIPLIERS. See

~ -----20'
60'
100'
300'
600'

(a) (b) (c)


(d) EquiHorizontal
triangular
25'
50'
25'
50'
-----!.55 0.21
1.20 0.67
1.00 0.85
1.14 0.87
1.06 1.15 0.93
0.90
1.34
0.85
1.00 1.00
0.83
1.34 1.00 !.02

(e) Vertical

0.99
0.97
1.23
1.32

1.20
1.14
1.75
2.09

Configuration Sketch.

(f) Lowtriangular
50'
25'

(g) Hightriangular

I--25'
50'
25'
50'
--- ------ -----0.80
1.25
!.50
1.00
1.00

0.75
1.25
0.72
0.95
1.05

1.48
0.92
0.88
0.95
1.00

60'
100'
300'
600'

0.21
1.00
1.20
1.10
1.03

1.20
1.14
1.15
1.00
1.00

0.67
0.87
Jl.93
1.00
1.02

%
20'
60'
100'
300'
600'

Fig. 37-Charts for the determination of KE -B, K 1 -<B KE--n and KI--n factors for U8e with noi8e formulas, Equations (35).
In all cases telephone wires are assumed to be 1 foot apart and 25 feet above &round.

Chapter 23

Coordination of Power and Communication Syste'ITUI

783

REFERENCES
1. Reports of Joint General Committee of National Electric Light
As.sociation and Bell Telephone System on Physical Relations

between Supply and Signal System.


(a) "Principles and Practices for the Inductive Coordination of
Supply and Signal Systems", December 9, 1922.
(b) "Principles and Practices for the Joint Use of Wood Poles

by Supply and Communication Companies", February 15,


1926.
(c) "Inductive Coordination-Allocation of Costs between

12. Inductive Coordination Aspecte of Shunt Capacitor Installation;


Edi:wn Rledric lnslilule Bulletin, pp. 382-3, 1938.
13. Harmonics in A-C Circuit of Grid-Controlled Rectifiers and
Inverters, R. D. Evans and H. N. Muller, Jr., Transactiom
A.l.E.E., pp. 861-8, 1939.
14. Output Wave Rhape of Controlled Rectifiers, F. 0. Stebbins and
C. W. Frick, Transactions A.I.E.E., pp. 1259-65, 1934.
15. Rectifier Wave Shape Report, Report of the Electrical EquiP"'
rncnt Commitl-ee of the Edison Electric lru;titute, Publication
No. R-1, April I937.

Supply and Communication Companies", Oct.ober 15,

1926.
2. Report of the American Committee on Electrolysis, B. J. Arnold,
Chairman (Publi~;hed in book form in 1921).

16. Inductive Coordination with Sodium Lighting Circuits, H. E.


Kent and P. W. Blye, Transactions A.l.E.E., pp. 325-333, 1939.

4. Enqiueeriny &ports uf Juint Subcummillee on Development and


Research, National Ele"tri" I ,ight As..<~ociat.ion (F,dison Electrin

17. The Design of Transpositions for Parallel Power and Telephone


Circuits, H. S. Osborne, Transactions A.l.E.E., p. 897, 1918.
18. Symposium on Coordination of Power and Telephone Plant,
Transactions A.l.E.E., pp. 437-477, 1931.
Trends in Telephone and Power Practices as Affecting Coordination, W. H. Harrison and A. E. Silver.

Institute), and Bell Telephone System.


Engineering Reports Nos. 1 to 8, vol. I, published March 1930.
Eugin~~dug HeyorL~ Nos. 9 to 15, vol. II, publi~hed April 1932.
Engineering Report!'! Nos. 16 to 25, vol. TIT, published January
1937.
.Engineering Reports Nos. 26 to 38, vol. IV, published January
1937.
Subsequent reportR published individually_
Symmetrical Components, C. F. Wagner and R. D. Evans,
McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1933.
Earth Resistivity and Geological Strudure, R. II. Carll,
Transactions A.l.E.E., p. 10~1, I93!'i.
Calculation of Capacity Coefficients for Parallel Suspended
Wires, F. F. Fowle, Electrical World, v. 58, pp. 386, 443, 493,
August 12, 19 and 20, 1911.
Review of Work of Subcommittee on Wave Shape Standard of
the Standards Committee, H. S. Osborne, Transactions A.l.E.E.
Feb. 1919, p. 261.
Measurement of Telephone Noise aud Pow~;:r Wave Shap~,
J. M. Barstow, P. W. Bly~, anrl H. R Ktmt, TranRn.r:lirms,
A.I.E.E., pp. 1307-15, December 1935.
Generator Wave Shape, Joint Report of Electrical Apparatus
Committee and Foreign System Coordinathm Committee of
the National Electric Light ASEociat.ion, NELA Publication
No. 239, 1932.
System Lower Harmonic Voltages-Methods of Calculation and
Control by Capacitors, W. C. Feaster and E. L. Harder,
Transactions A.l.E.E., pp. 1060-6, 1941.

Status of Joint Development and Research on Noise-Frequency


Induction, H. L. Wills and 0. B. Blackwell.
StaLus of Joint Develovmeut and Research on Low-Frequency
Jnduct.ion, R.N. Conwell and H. S. Warren.
Status of Cooperative Work on Joint Use of Poles, J. C. Martin
and H. L. Huber.
Inductive Coordination, L. J. Corbett (a book), The Neblett
Pressroom Ltd., San Francisco, Calif., 1936.
Inductive Coordination of Common-Neutral Power-Distribution Systems and Telephone Systems, J. O'R. Coleman and R. F.
Davis, Tmn:sactions A.l.E.E., pp. 17-26, 1937.
Protective Features for the Joint Use of Wood Poles Carrying
Telephone Circuits and Power-Distribution Circuits Above
5000 Volts, J. O'R. Coleman and A. H. Schirmer, Transaciicns
A.l.E.B., pp. 131-40, 1938.
Coordination of Power and Communication Circuits for LowFrequency Induction, J. O'R. Coleman and H. M. Trueblood,
Transactions A.l.E.E., pp. 403-12, 1940.
Control vf Inductive Interference to Telegraph Systems, J. W.
Milnor, 1'ranMdions A.l.E.E., pp. 469-75, 1940.
Neutralizing Transformers to Protect Power-Station Communication, R. K. Honaman, L. L. Lockrow, E. L. Schwartz and
E. E. George, Transaclion6 A.l.E.E., pp. 524-9, 1936.
Noisn Coordinat,ion of Rural Power and Telephone Systems,
H. _W. Wahlquist and T. A. Taylor, Transactions A.I.E.E., pp.
613-21, 1938.
Evalu~tting Effects of Line Noise on Telephone Transmission.
N.E.L.A. Bulletin, p. 779, December 1930.

3. Cathorli('. Prote!'-tion of Underground

Pi~

Lines from Soil Cor-

rosion, R. J. Kuhn, American Petroleum Institute Proceedings,


pp. 153-165, October 1933.

5.
6.

7.
8.

9.

10.

11.

19.
20.

21.

22.

23.
24.

2!l.

20.

CHAPTER24

CHARACTERISTICS OF DISTRIBUTION LOADS


Author:
H. L. Willis
A T &D system exists to deliver power to electric
consumers in response to their demand for electric energy.
This demand for electricity, in the form of appliances. lighting
devices, and equipment that use electric power, creates electric
load, the electrical burden that the T&D system must satisfy.
In a de-regulated power industry, quality of service - basically
quality in meeting the custom.ers' needs
is paramount.
Quality begins with a detailed understanding of the customer's
demand requirement'\, and includes the design of a system to
meet those needs. This chapter discusses electric load and
presents several important elements of its behavior that bear on
T &D system engineering aimed at satisfying those
requirements as economically as possible.

I. ELECTRICAL LOADS
I. Consumers Purchase Electricity for End Use Application

Electricity is always purchased by the consumer as an

intermediate step towards some final, non-electrical product.


No one wants electric energy itself, they want the products it
can provide: a cool home in summer, a warm one in winter, hot
water on demand, cold beverages in the refrigerator, and 48
inches of dazzling color with stereo commentary during
Monday-night footbalL Different types of consumers purchase
electricity for different reasons, and have different
requirements for the amount and quality of the power they buy,
but all purchase electricity as a way to provide the endproducts they want. These various products are called enduses, and they span a wide range, as shown in Table 1.

2. Power Systems Exist to Satisfy Customers, Not Loads

The traditional manner of representing customer


requirements for power system engineering has been as
aggregate electric loads assigned to nodes for electrical design.
For example, customer needs in an area of a city may be
estimated as having a maximum of 45 MW. That value is
then assigned to a particular bus in engineering studies aimed
at assuring that the required level of power delivery can be
provided by the system.
Traditionally, the engineering methods used in those design
studies have been system-based: performance and criteria are
evaluated against the power system itself, not against the
customers' needs. Equipment loading limits, singlecontingency backup criteria. and voltage drop/power factor
guidelines defined on the distribution system and even at the
customer meter point, all view electrical performam;e from the
system perspective, and do not directly address customer
needs.
Such engineering methods, while necessary to tailor many
aspects of T&D design, are not sufficient to completely
address the maximization of customer value. Power systems
exist to satisfy customers, not loads. Understanding the
specific needs of the customers - how much quality they
require in power delivery as well as the quantity of power they
need - can improve the value provided by the power system.
The "two Qs" - quantity and quality
both need to be
considered in designing and operating a power system to
provide maximum customer value.
A: System Peak 3,492 :WW

TABLE I-CUSTOMER CLASSES AND END USE CATEGORIES

Agricultural
Lighting
Water heating
Space heating
Air conditioning
Computer
Air circulation
Cooking
Water well pump
lirain dryers

Residential

Commercial

Industrial

Lighting
Water heating
Space heating
Air conditioning
Computer
Air circulation
Cooking
Water well
Clothes dryers

Lighting
Water heating
Space heating
Air conditioning
Computer
Air circulation
Cooking
Elevators
Inventory System

Lighting
Water heating
Space heating
Air conditioning
Computer
Air circulation
Filtration
Fluid pumps
Finishing dryers

8: Residential -4.2 kW/customer

Water heating
Cooking
Refrlg ./Freezer
Washer/Dryer

Fig. 1-Left: peak electric demand for a power system in the


southern United States, broken out by customer class. Right:
within the residential class, which accounts for 58% of the system

Some end-uses are satisfied only by electric power peak, per capita usage at peak conditions falls into the end-use
categories as shown.
(televisions, computers). In others, electricity dominates in
usage over other alternatives (there are gasoline-powered
End-use analysis of electric load - the study of the basic
refrigerators, and natural gas can be used for lighting). But for
many end-uses, such as water heating, home heating, cooking, causes and behavior of electric demand by customer type and
and clothes drying in the residential sector, and pulp heating end-use category - is generally regarded as the most effective
and tank pressurization in the industrial sector, electricity is but way to study consumer requirements from the standpoints of
quantity, quality. and schedule.
In any one household.
one of several possible, competing energy sources.
784

Chapter 24

785

Characteristics of Distribution Loads

business, or factory, the various individual end-use loads


operate simultaneously, forming the composite load, as
depicted in Fig. I B. The T &D system sees this composite load
through the meter as a single load. In aggregate, the loads of
all customers produce the system load (Fig. I A), with each
type or class of customer contributing a portion to the overall
system demand.
The amount of electric load created on a power system
within any end-use category, for example residential lighting,
depends on a number of factors, beginning with the basic need
for lighting. People or businesses who need more lighting will
tend to buy more electricity for that purpose. Also important
are the types of appliances used to convert electricity to the
end-use. Consumers using incandescent lighting rather than
fluorescent lighting will use appreciably more electric power
for otherwise similar end-uses.
The schedule of demand for most end-uses varies as a
function of time. In most households, demand for lighting is
lowest during mid-day and highest in mid-evening, after dusk
but before most of the residents have gone to bed. The daily
schedule of lighting demand usually varies slightly throughout
the year, too, due to seasonal changes in the daily cycle of
sunrise and sunset. Some end-uses are only seasonaL Demand
for space heating occurs only during cold weather. Peak
demand for heating occurs during particularly cold periods,
usually in early morning, or early evening, when household
activity is at its peak.
The quality of the electric power supplied is more critical to
some end-uses than to others. A power system that can
provide the quantity of power required may still not satisfy the
consumers, either because it does not provide sufficient
availability of power (reliability), or because it does not
provide sufficient voltage regulation or transient voltage
performance (surges, sags). Reliability and voltage regulation
needs vary from one end-use to another, as will be discussed
later in this chapter, and depends mostly on the value of the
end-use to the customer.
The value that consumers place on any particular end-use is
a function of its importance to their quality of life, or to the
productivity of their factory or commercial business. An
important (but for many power engineers, counter-intuitive)
concept is that end-use value is not of a function of the cost of
the electric power. For example, most personal computers and
workstations use only 2-3 worth of power per hour, yet users
typically report that an hour's interruption due to lack of power
has a cost of a dollar or more.
Cost is a major factor in T&D design. In fact, cost is often a
consumer's primary concern, for which they are willing to
accept major compromises in quality, and quantity, or service.
The challenge facing T&D engineers is to meet consumer
needs for both "Qs" - quantity and quality - at the lowest
possible cost. Building a system that delivers higher reliability
levels than customers need is exactly the same as building one
that can deliver much more power than they need.
Knowledge of the customer needs for quantity and schedule
of power delivery, and of the value they place on reliability,
voltage regulation, surge and sag protection, and other factors,
are important factors in modern power factor design, as is an

understanding of how customer loads interact with the power


system. Most critical, however, is simply the act of keeping in
mind that the "electric loads" used in T &D engineering studies
represent the energy needs of people using electricity. The
best power system is one that satisfies their needs as
economically as possible.

II, CUSTOMER ELECTRIC LOAD BEHAVIOR


3, Connected Load
The connected load is the sum of the full load (nameplate)
continuous ratings of all electrical devices in the composite
load system. A typical household in a developed country
might have a 4,000-watt water heater, a 1,000-watt water-well
motor, a 5,000-watt central air conditioner, a 6,500-watt space
heater, thirty lighting fixtures or lamps with an average load of
100 watts each, a 4,000 watt cooking range, a 3,500 watt
clothes washer/dryer, a 500 watt refrigerator, and 2,500 watts
of miscellaneous home entertainment, personal grooming, and
other small appliances, for a total of 30,000 connected watts of
load. Whether all or any of these are operating at any one time
depends on a number of factors, including the demand for their
various end-use products. lt is r<~re that all the connected load
in a system or at any one customer's location would be
operational at one time (for example, air conditioning and
heating would not be running simultaneously).
4, Electric Load Curves
Use of the products created by electric power- light, heat,
hot water, images on the TV, and so forth, varies as a function
of time of day, day of week, and season of year. As a result,
the electtic load varies. A load curve plots electric
consumption as a function of time. Fig. 2 shows seasonal peak
day load curves for residential loads from two electric systems
in the United States. In one system, demand is highest in
summer, during early evening, when a combination of air
conditioning demand and residential activity is at a peak. In
the other, peak demand occurs on winter mornings, when a
electric heating demand is highest.
8

s:

"-g4

j
.12

6
12
6
Hour of the Day

12

......

2 .............../

12
Hour of the Day

12

Fig. 2-Typical summer (solid line) and winter (shaded line) peak
day load curves for a metropolitan power system in the southern

US (left) and a rural system in New England (right),


Load curve shape when peak load occurs and how load
varies as a function of time - depends both on the connected
load (appliances) and the activity and lifestyles of the

786

Characteristics of Distribution Loads

Chapter 24

consumers in an area.
Differences between the electric "non-productive work" required for their function, such as
demand patterns of otherwise similar types of customer (as in produce the magnetic field inside a transformer or motor,
Fig. 2) occur because of differences in climate, demographics, without which they can not function.
appliance preferences, and local economy.
V AR flow on a power system consumes capacity in
conductors, transformers, and other equipment, but provides no
5. Demand
useful "real" work. It is mitigated by the use of capacitors and
other devices, or by changes in the end-use device so that it
Demand is the average value of load over a period of time
consumes fewer V ARS (see Chapter 8).
known as the demand interval. Often, demand is measured on
250
an hourly or quarter-hour basis, but it can be measured on any
interval - seven seconds, one minute, 30 minutes, daily,
r\
.....
monthly, annually. The average value of power, p(t) during
200
:;;
"'!'-..
the demand interval is found by dividing the kilowatt-hours
accumulated during the interval by the number of hours in the
rl',.,
intervaL
Demand is the average of the load during the interval. The
peak and minimum usage rates during the interval may have
been quite different from this average (Fig. 3). Demand
0
intervals vary among applications, but commonly used interval
12
12
12
6
6
Hour of the Day
lengths are 5, 15, 30, and 60 minutes.
Peak demand, the value often called "peak load," in design Fig. 3-Demand on an hourly basis (blocks) over a 24 hour period.
studies, is the maximum demand measured over a billing or Continuous line indicates demand measured on a one-minute
measurement period. For example. a period of 365 days interval basis. Maximum one~minute demand (at 5:52 PM) is
contains 35,040 fifteen-minute demand intervals. The about 4% higher than maximum one-hour demand (5-6 PM).
maximum among these 35,040 readings is the peak fifteenminute demand. This value is often used as the basis for an
9. Voltage Sensitivity of Loads
annual demand charge if the readings measure a single
1
customer s usage, and as a capacity target in engineering
The various electrical appliances connected to the power
studies: the maximum amount the system must deliver.
system exhihit a range of different load vs. voltage
sensitivities. Important characteristics include their response
6. Demand Factor
to transient voltage changes and their steady state load vs.
voltage behavior.
The demand factor of a system is expressed as the ratio of
Transient voltage response is difficult to characterize and if
maximum demand to the connected load. Normally the
important, should be modeled with detailed, and specific, study
demand factor is considerably less than 1.0.
of the transient response of the particular loads involved.
Classification of transient load response into categories is
7. Load Factor
useful in some cases, but no simple generalization works in all
Load factor is the ratio of the average demand to the peak cases.
demand during a particular period. Load factor is usually
For "steady state" representation, individual electric loads
determined by dividing the total energy (kilowatt hours) are generally designated as falling into one of three categories
accumulated during the period by the peak demand and the depending on how they vary as a function of voltage
number of demand intervals in the period, as
Constant impedance loads, for example an incandescent
(I)
LF "" Total usage during period
light or the heating element in an electric water heater,
arc a constant impedance, whose resulting load varies
(Peak Demand) x m
as the square of the voltage.
where m =number of demand intervals in period
Constant current loads, including some types of power
Average Demand
(2)
LF
supplies, many electroplating systems, and other
Peak Demand
industrial processes, are basically constant current
loads. Energy drawn from the system is proportional to
Load factor gives an indication of the degree to which peak
voltage.
demand levels were maintained during the period under study.
Load factor is typically calculated on a daily, monthly.
Constant power loads, such as some types of electronic
seasonal, or an annual basis.
power supplies. and to an approximate degree,
induction motors, vary their load only slightly in
8. Power Factor
response to changes in voltage.

:=

,...-

I\

ml

All loads require real power - kilowatts - to perform useful In each category, reference to a load as "1 kW" refers to its
work such as mechanical rotation or illumination. Reactive value at 1.0 PU voltage. Table 2 shows the value of a I kW
loads also require reactive volt-amperes (V AR) to do a type of load in each category. as a function of voltage.

TABLE 2- ACTUAL

LOAD OF A "l

KW LOAD" OF VARIOUS

CATEGORIES

AS A FUNCTION OF THE PER UNIT SUPPLY VOLTAGE -WATTS

PU Line
Voltage

0.88
0.90
0.92
0.94
0.96
0.98
1.00
1.02
1.04
1.06
1.08
1.10
1.12

787

Characteristics of Distributwn Loads

Chapter 24

Power

1000
1000
1000
1000

1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000

Constant
Current

Imped.

Ratio

880
900
920
940
960
980
1000
1020
1040
1060
1080
1100
1120

774
810
846
884
922
960
1000
1040
1082
1124
1166
1210
1254

886
904
923
941
961
980
1000
1020
1041
1062
1084
1106
1128

Error
0.73~/l)

0.48%
0.29%
0.15%
0.05%
0.01%
0.00%
0.03%
0.11%
0.21%
0.35%
0.52%
0.72%

Correct representation of voltage sensitiVIty can be an


important factor in analysis of power system performance,
particularly on systems that are near permissible limits.
Usually, engineering studies of transmission system are carried
out using representations of the load as constant power. This
works well, because the customer loads are usually
downstream of load-tap changing transformers and voltage
regulators and so are insensitive (in the steady state case) to
changes in the voltages being modeled.
On the distribution system, however, correct representation
of voltage sensitivity is critical for accurate analysis of voltage
drop and equipment loads. As can be determined from study of
Table 2, tht.:: diiTen:nce between constant power and constant
impedance "I kW" loads, at 8% voltage drop (typical of the
maximum primary feeder voltage drop permitted on many
systems), is 15%. Thus, the incorrect categorization of load
voltage sensitivity could lead to a significant over or under
estimation of voltage drop and loading on a feeder.
Tests to determine voltage sensitivity on a feeder circuit or
low-side bus basis, by varying LTC or voltage regulator tap
position at the substation, are recommended to determine exact
behavior.
In the absence of specific information,
representation as a constant current (load is proportional to
voltage) is recommended. Within the United States, the
following rule-of-thumb works somewhat better
Summer peaking residential and commercial feeders as a
split of 67% constant power and 33% constant
impedance.
Winter peaking residential and commercial feeders as a
split of 40% constant power and 60% constant
impedance.

converge, changing input data tO represent all loads as constant


power will promote convergence to an approximate solution.
Analytical studies and digital programs can be simplified
hy deleting the constant current category and using only
constant power and constant impedance type loads. Constant
current load behavior (the rarest of the three types) can be
represented over the range .88 to 1.12 PU voltage, with less
than .75% error, if modeled as a mixture of 49.64% constant
power, and 50.35% constant impedance load. The column
labeled "Ratio" in Table 2 shows this mix of load types, with
the right-most column giving the percentage error in
representation of an actual constant current load.
10. Characterizing Customers by Class

Usually, electric consumers are grouped into classes of


broadly similar demand behavior. A class is any subset of

customers whose distinction as a separate group helps identify


or track load behavior in a way that improves the effectiveness
of the analysis being performed Electric utilities most often
distinguish customers by rate class (pricing category).
Customer studies (load research) often make additional
distinctions based on demographics, income, or SIC (standard
industrial classification) code.
Regardless, usually all customers in a class have similar
daily load curve shapes and per-customer peak demands,
because they employ similar types of appliances, have similar
needs and schedules, and respond in a similar fashion to
weather and changes in season. Table 3 and Fig. 4 illustrate
how customer class values vary in one power system.
TABLE 3-PEAK HOURLY DEMAND VALUES FOR CUSTOMERS IN A

UTI! ITY SYSTEM IN NEW ENGLAND 1992

Class
Fann - residential
Rural residential
Suburban residential
I lrhan residentiill
Small retail commercial
Small non-retail comm.
Medium retail commercial
Medium non-retail comm.
School
Large commercial
Small industrial
Medium general service

Peak kW

kWh

Time of Peak

6.2

26,200
15,600
12,000
11,800
23,000
19,600
110,000
177,000
1,500.000
109,000
513,000
1,350,000

9 PM Summer

4.4

3.2
33

7.0
5.6
33
51
610
28
88
220

8 AM Winter
6 PM Summer
6 PM Summer

4 PM Summer
9 AM Winter
4 PM Summer
9 AM Winter
8 AM Winter
2 PM Summer
2 PM Summer
3 PM Summer

II. Customer Class Peaks Occur at Different Times

Often, the various classes do not demand their peak energy


at the same time, as shown in Fig. 4. As a result, the system
ln developing countries, rural loads are best represented as peak load may be substantially less than the sum of the
25% constant power and 75% constant impedance and those in individual customer class loads (Fig.5). This is called interurban areas as an even split of constant power and impedance.
class diversity, or inter-das:s cuinciden<.-e, of load. A class's
Load flow and similar iterative engineering computations or customer's load at time of system peak is its contribution to
are faster and more stable in convergence if loads are system peak, and the ratio of its peak contribution to its own
represented as constant power than as constant impedance or peak load is its peak responsibility factor. Table 4 shows the
current (fewer factors change value from iteration to iteration). peak load and responsibility factors of various classes in a
In some cases, when a load flow computation will not utility system in the central United States.
Industrial feeders as constant power feeders

788

Characteristics of Distribution Loads


Residential

III. CONVERSION OF ELECTRICITY TO END USE

Offlco

if

12. Appliances Convert Electricity to End Uses

"

"'

Each end-use, such as lighting, is satisfied through the


application of appliances or devices that convert electricity into
the desired end product. For lighting, a wide range of
illumination devices can be used, from incandescent bulbs to

.!;

012

12

012

12

Hour of the Day

12

12

Hour of the Day

Retail

.."

ir
.,;

12

Hour of the Day

12

'12

12

12

Hour of the Day

Fig. 4-Customer classes typically display different daily load


curves. Shown here are the class summer peak-day loads from a

metropolitan utility system in the southern United States.

1'~2--,::---:1:::,---=.--'"'12
Hour of the Day

Total System

11;;,---:.--:1;;;2c---;.:---,;12
Hour of the Day

Fig. S-Peak system load in this metropolitan system in Europe


occurs when a combination of both residential and commercialindustrial load is at a maximum.

TABLE 4-SYSTEM PEAK RESPONSIBILITY BY CUSTOMER CLASS FOR A


UTILITY SYSTEM IN THE CENTRAL UNITED STATES 1992

Customer
Class

Agricultural

Class
Peak- GW
.81
.22
155

Peak
Contr. - GW

Responsibility
Factor

Other

.83
.23
.06
.16
.10

.45
.22
1.32
.39
.21
.79
.57
.25
.80
.18
.06
.16
.6

.96
.85
1.00
100
.6

Total

6.07

5.66

.93

Rural residential
Residential, houses
Residential, apartments
Small retai1/office
Retail commercial
Offices comm.
Small & medium indus.
Large industrial
Municipal
Military/Fed. Govern.

Schools

.44

.25
.88
.66

.27

fluorescent tubes, to sodium vapor and high-pressure monochromatic gas-discharge tubes and lasers. Each uses electric
power to produce visible light. Each has advantages with
respect to the other illuminating devices that gives it an appeal
in some situations. But regardless of type or advantages, all of
these devices require electric power to function, and create an

electric load when activated .

012

Chapter 24

.56
1.00
.85
.89
.84
.89
.78

.93

The term load, in this context, refers to the electric power


requirement of a device that is connected to and draws energy
from the T&D system to accomplish some purpose (opening a
garage door) or to convert that power to some other fonn of
energy (light, heat). Loads are usually rated by the level of
power they require, measured in units of volt-amperes, or
watts. Large loads are measured in kilowatts (thousands of
watts) or megawatts (millions of watts). Power ratings ofloads
and T &D equipment refer to the device at a specific nominal
voltage. For example, an incandescent light bulb might be
rated 100 watts at I 15 volts. If provided more or less voltage,
its load would be different from I 00 watts. Loads can be
single-phase or multi-phase, and they can have real (resistive
only) or complex impedance (reactance), too.
The electric load in any one end~use category depends not
only on the number of customers and their aggregate demand
for the end-use, but also on the types of devices they are using
to convert electricity to that end-use. For example, lighting
load will be higher if most customers are using incandescent
lighting to meet their needs, than if they are using only
fluorescent lighting. Similarly, if a large percentage of
customers use only resistive space heating instead of more
efficient heat pumps, electric demand will be greater, even if
the end-use demand is the same. Power quality needs also are
function of appliance type. For example, variable-speed
chillers are more sensitive to voltage sags than traditional
constant-speed building cooling systems.
Therefore, detailed analysis of electric load in a utility
system generally proceeds into subcategories within each
customer class's end-use categories, with the subcategories
characterized by appliance type. as shown in Fig. 6. The boxes
indicate load curve models, the ellipses are multipliers
corresponding to the number of customers or the percentage of
customers in a class that have a certain appliance (e.g., thennal
storage heating). Only part of the model is shown. Dotted
lines indicate links to portions not iJlustrated.
In detailed load studies, behavior ofload in each category is
analyzed by use of temporal curves, plotting demand for the
end-use (e.g., gallons of hot water, BTU of heating required) or
the electrical load, or cost of service interruption, as a function
of time.
lnfonnation on the percentage of customers
employing each type of appliance, their end-use demand
schedules, and the electrical and efficiency characteristics of
the appliances, comprises the end use model.

Chapter 24

For example, most storage water heaters function in a


simple manner to keep the water they provide at a constant

~ 2 LrorALSYSTEM

a,

~,

Tnneotoay

:::::::::"'' . I

--.:::::.._=:::..................

(x 98,20V

"'--(x111,50V

~17,103

~ ~SiogloFomHyHomo

~ 'bDSmoiiRolmiComm.

8'

i
0

~,

~.

Tlrm1 of Day

::::::.::==:rt.:~::~~:::;::::

i'l

TlmeofO.y

.............."'l:

.. ..;::-''(:::-:::~'::,

... :::::::::::::.::...:... ......:: ....


.......

uo""" ~
nmeotDay

--X5%

temperature, regardless of demand, as illustrated in Fig. 7. A


thermostat is set at the desired temperature, for example
172.5'F. The thermostat has a "deadband," a narrow range of
temperatures on each side of the setting, within which the
thermostat does nothing. A typical deadband might be 5'1' for example from 170'F to 175'F when the thermostat is set to
172.5'F.
Whenever the temperature drops below the
dcadband' s lower limit, the thermostat activates a relay (or
electric circuit) that turns on the heating element. The element
is left in operation until it raises the water temperature above

the upper limit of the thermostat's deadband (175'F), at which


point the thermostat activates the relay to shut off the heater .
The water temperature rises and falls slightly as the unit cycles
on and off, as shown, but the electric load cycles completely
from '"all on" to ""all off," as the device tries to maintain a
constant temperature.

~.~
;

789

Churucteristics of Distribution Loads

] ......... .:::::! . . ..
( x27%)

x~~

..........

The 4.000-watt water heater, as illustrated in Fig. 7, creates


a load of 4,000 watts whenever it is energized by its
thermostat. Otherwise it creates no load at all. Over a period
of 24 hours, it will vary its duty cycle in response to demand
for hot waler. When water heating demand is lightest, the
water heater may operate only a few minutes in each hour. But
when demand is highest, for example in the evening when

dishwashing, clothes washing, bathing, and other activities are


at a peak, it may operate continuously for an hour or more, as

Fig. 6-Structure of an 11 end-use analysis" based on customer, end- shown in Fig. 8.


use, and appliance subcategory load curves.

'
13. Appliance Output Is Controlled by Varying Duty Cycle
Only a minority of electrical devices vary their load as a
function of the end-use demand placed upon them. For
example, the motor drive in a variable speed heat pump will
control its RPM (and hence electric load) to correspond to the
pumping requirements of the system, on a moment to moment

basis. However, such appliances are a rarity. The majority of


loads connected to a power system vary their output as a

Mid.

Noon

Mid.

Time of Day

Fig. 8-The water heater's load profile over a typical day.

function of time by changing their duty cycle. Duty cycle is


the portion of time the device spends operating during any

period.

A large portion of the electric appliances in most electric


systems, often a majority of the electric demand, operates in
this manner. The consumer does not directly control the
appliance's on-off operation. Instead, the consumers sets a
desired end-use measure (temperature, air pressure) on a

controlling device (a thermostat, a pressure switch), and this


device varies the appliance's duty cycle in response to end-use
demand. In the residential class, air conditioners, space
heaters, refrigerators, freezers, water heaters, irons, and ovens
fan into this category. In the industrial class, process heaters,
air and water pressurization systems, and many fluid handling

systems use this method of control. Fig. 8 shows the resulting


daily load curve for a water heater. It cycles on and off,
operating for longer times during periods of high demand, and
Fig 7-Eiectric load (bottom) and internal water temperature (top)
of a 4,000 watt, 50-gallon storage electric water heater as a
function of time.

only briefly when there is no demand and it must only make


up for thennallosses. In all cases, however, when the water
heater is operating its load is the same 4 kW.

790

Chapter 24

Characteristics of Distribution Loads

Fig. 9-Daily cycle of THI (temperature-humidity-illumination


index) and air conditioner operation. The air conditioner's
connected load varies slightly as a function of THI.

Fig. 9 shows a slightly more complicated appliance


behavior, in which duty cycle and device characteristics both
vary. Here, an air conditioner cycles between on and off under
thermostatic control. As temperature rises throughout the day,
demand for cooling Increases, and the air conditioner spends a
greater portion of its time in the "on" state, until in late
afternoon it is operating all but a few minutes in every hour.
The diagram illustrates a common secondary effect due to AC
unit compressor design. When ambient temperature
(temperature of the air around the AC radiator) rises, back
pressure in the compressor increases, forcing the unit's
inductive motor to work harder and creating a slightly higher
electrical load.
Thus, its connected load varies with
temperature, as shown.
14. Appliance Duty Cycles and Coincidence of Load
Fig. 10 shows the type of load curve widely used
throughout the power industry as representative of a residential
water heater's daily load curve. This particular load curve was
taken from a comprehensive water heater load survey done in
the 1980s by a utility in the northern United States, prior to
design and implementation of a water-heater load control
program. This curve shown has a maximum value of I, I 00
watts during a brief early morning household activity peak, and
a lower, but broader early evening peak.

The daily water heater load curve in Fig. 10 looks nothing


like the daily water heater load curve in Fig. 8. In Fig. 10, load
varies smoothly from moment to moment, between a minimum
of .53 kW and a maximum of 1.1 kW, displaying none of the
blocky, on-off cycling shown in Fig. 8. Neither Fig. 10 nor
Fig. 8 is incorrect. Each is accurate, but only within its own
context.
Their difference is attributable to intra-class
coincidence of load.
Fig, II illustrates the relationship between the two water
heater load curves. On the top row, load curves A, and B show
the load curves for two electric water heaters in neighboring
homes on the same day. Curve C shows the curve for the
water heater in 8, on another day. All three represent the same
appliance under nearly identical conditions. Timing of the load
blocks varies, but in all cases the load is "all or nothing."
Load curve D shows the combined loads of both
neighboring water heaters (the sum of curves A and B) on
February 6, 1994. Even during the peak hour, the average
water heater operates only a fraction of the time (in the system
whose average water heater is shown in Fig. 10, exactly
I, I 00/4,000 of the time, assuming all water heaters are 4,000
watts connected load). For this reason, instances when the two
water heaters operate simultaneously are rare, but this does
happen several times each day, for brief periods.
Curve F shows the curve for five water heaters (the units in
five neighboring homes, including A and 8). With five units,
the likelihood of two or more units operating at any one time is
increased considerably. However, the likelihood of all five are
operating at the same time is quite remote (roughly 1100/4000
raised to the fifth power, or less than .J percent). Curve F
shows the combined load curve of 50 water heaters (aU those
served by one primary-voltage lateral).
A

Cusi R1-37747QW

Cust R1 675448BU
Feb.6, 1994
Feb 7, 1994

Feb 6. 1994

Trmeof Day

D
Gust. R1..J7747QWand

1.1

Cusl

F
50 \/Vater Heaters

Five W&.er Heaters

R1~75448BU

w;~b6.1994 ";~,oo~wla.

1.0

Trme of Day

'

Time of Day

Trme of Day

~2

12

12

Hour of the Day

Fig. 10-A average residential water heater's coincident demand


curve - l/100,000 of the load resulting from 100,000 water
heaters. Any single water heater has a load curve similar to that

shown in Fig. 8, but its contribution to system load is depicted as


shown here. This curve is also the expectation of any one water
heater's load by time of day.

~
TrmeofDay

Fig. 1 1-Daily load curves for different sized groups of residential


water heaters.

As an increasingly large number of water heaters is


considered as a group, the erratic, back-and-forth behavior of
the individual water heater load curve gradually disappears.
The load curve representing a group's load becomes smoother
as the size of the group is increased, the peak load per water
heater drops, and the duration at lengthens. By the time I ,000
water heaters are reached (Fig. II G) the curve shape is quite
smooth, and peak load is at its coincident value of I, 100
watts/unit.
Thus, Fig. 10 (same as Fig. IIG), while unlike any
individual water heater's actual load curve, is an accurate
representation of water heater behavior from either of two

perspectives. First, it is a diagram of average contribution to


system load, or coincident load, on a per water heater bash III 00,000 of the load of the l 00,000 water heaters in the
system. Second, it is the expectation of a water heater's load
as a function of time. To a certain extent, the exact timing of
the "on" load blocks in Fig. 7- 9, and Fig. ll is random from
day to day. Fig. l 0 is a representation of the expected load of
one water heater, as a function of time; the best estimate, a day
ahead, of load as a function of time.
Note that energy per water heater (area under the load
curve) is not a function of group size. The energy used per
water heater is constant in any of the load curves in Fig. 1 I.

15. Coincident Load Behavior in General


Most of the major loads in any home or business behave in
a manner similar to the on-off, coincident behavior shown in

Fig. 7 - 9 and Fig. ll.

791

Characteristics of Distribution Loads

Chapter 24

While no single customer within the group depicted in Fig. 12


would have an individual load curve that looked anything like

Fig. l2B (every customer's load curve looks something like


Fig. l2A), the smooth coincident load curve for the group has
two legitimate interpretations.

1. The curve is an individual customer's contribution to


system load. On the average, each customer of this
class adds this load to the system. Add ten thousand
new customers of this type, and the system load curve
will increase by ten thousand times this curve.

2. The curve is the expectation of an individual


customer's load. Every customer has a load that looks
something like the on-off behavior shown in Fig. 12A,
but each has slightly different on-off times that vary in
an unpredictable manner from day to day.
Fig. 12B

gives the expectation, the probability-weighed value of


daily load that one could expect from a customer of
this class. selected at random. The fact that the
expectation is smooth, while actual behavior is erratic,
is a result of the unpredictability of timing in when
appliances switch on and off.
Commercial and industrlal customers exhibit intra-class
coincident behavior qualitatively similar to that discussed here,
but the shape of their coincidence curves may be (usually is)
By contrast, inter-class
different than for residential.
coincidence is the difference in timing of peak periods among

classes (Fig. 4).

Refrigerators and freezers. air

conditioners, space heaters, water heaters, and electric ovens in


homes; and pressurizers, water heaters, process and other

A
Non-Coim;ident Load Behavior
One Household

B
Col!lciden\ Load Behavior
111000th of 1000 Households

finish heaters, and other equipment in industry; all tum on and


off in a performance-regulated duty cycle manner. As a result,
individual household load curves, and many commercial and

industrial site load curves, display the blocky, on-off load


behavior shown in Fig. l2A. As with the water heaters. when
a group of similar loads (homes in this case) is considered as a
single load, the load curve becomes smoother, the peak load
drops, and the minimum load rises. Note that the vertical scale
of all six load profiles shown in Fig. 12 is in "load per

Time of Day

2 Households

5 Households

customer" for each group.


The 22 k W non-coincident needle peak demand shown in

Fig. l2A for a single household is high. but not extraordinary


for homes in the southern United States. Load curve A
represents a 2100 square foot residence with 36 kW connected
load (sum of all possible heat pump, water heater, garage door
opener, washer-dryer, other appliance and lighting loads).
While customer characteristics vary from one system to
another, the qualitative curve shape behavior shown in Fig. 12,

Time of Day

20 Households

100 Households

as well as the tendancy of load curves to become smoother,


and peak loads lower, as group size is increased, apply to all

power systems.
16. Coincident Curve: Expectation of Non-Coincident Load
The interpretation of coincident load behavior as the
expectation of non~coincident load behavior, as explained in
sub-section 14 (water heater example) is generally applicable.

T1meotDay

Time of Day

Fig. 12-Non-coincident (A) and coincident (B) winter peak day

load curves for home in a suburban area of Florida. Curves 8


through F show the gradual transformation from non-coincident
to coincident behavior as group size increases. Feeders see load
curves similar to B. Every service drop sees a load curve like A.

Chapter 24

Characteristics of Distribution Loads

792

17. Importance of Coincidence Assessment in T&D Design

18. Coincidence Factors and Curves

Coincidence behavior of load, as depicted in Fig. 12, is


important to T&D planning and engineering. Equipment such
as service drops, service lines (LV), and service transformers,
which serve small numbers of customers, must be designed to
handle load behavior, including customer needle peaks, of the
type depicted in Fig. 12A. Nonnal service does not require
this equipment to handle these load levels for more than a few
minutes at a time, a factor that can be considered in
determining the load rating of this equipment. By contrast,
equipment serving large groups of customers sees fully
coincident load curve behavior (Fig. 128). Peak load per
customer is lower, but peak duration is much longer.
Usually, in spite of the high needle peak values, the thermal
capacity of service drops, service (LV) circuits, and service
transformers can be determined based on coincident peak load
values. The thermal time constants for most conductor, cable,
and transformers are much longer than the duration of any
needle peak. As a result, thermal loading calculated on the

Usually, coincident load behavior is summarized for


application to power distribution system engineering by the
coincidence factor, and the coincidence curve. Coincidence
faclur is a measure of how peak load varies as a function of
group size for customers

observed peak for the group


L(individual peaks)

(3)

Fig. 12 illustrates well that as the number of customers in the


group increases, the peak load/customer usually drops by a
considerable amount.
Coincidence factor, C,
can be
represented of as a function of the number of customers, n, in a
group
(4)
C(n) ~ peak load of a group of n customers
n x (average individual peak load)
where n is the number of customers in the group,
and 1 < n < N = number of customers in the
utility system

basis of coinddent curve shape is usually representative of the

thermal loads that will result from the actual non-coincident


Diversity factor, D(n), is the inverse of coincidence factor.
load curves.
Voltage drop and losses are another matter, however. Fig. It measures how much higher the customer's individual peak is
13 compares the losses that result in a set of triplex service than its contribution to group peak.
drops, for the two load curves Fig. 12A and Fig. 128. The
D ~ Diversity factor ~ II Coincidence fac~or
(5)
result shown is typical. Use of coincident rather than noncoincident load curve typically results in errors of up to 50% in
The coincidence factor, C(n), has a value between 0 and I,
estimating low voltage system losses, and up to 16% in
and
varies with the number of customers in a fashion identical
estimating the total voltage drop to the customer's meter.
to the way the peak load varies. Fig. 14 shows a coincidence
curve, a plot of how C(n) varies with n. Typically, for
2217 watt-hours
1192 watt-hours
Calculated Based on
Calculated Based on
residential and small commercial load classes, C(n) tends
Non-Coincident Curve
Coincident Curve
toward an asymptotic value of between .33 and .50 for large
values of n. The value for larger commercial and industrial
customers is usually higher,- .75 to .85 is typical. Table 5
gives representative asymptotic coincidence values for typical
customer classes. Coincidence behavior varies greatly from
'
one utility to another, and among customer classes. The curves
and tables shown here are representative of the type of
behavior seen in all power systems, but can not be
quantitatively generalized to all power systems.

'

Hour of the Day

Hour of the Day

Fig. 13-Eiectric losses through a typical set of residential service


drops, for the load curves in Fig. 12A (left) and 12B (right).
Voltage drop would similarly show a significant difference.

22

1u

.:
C)
J!!

1l

Usually, coincident load curve data is readily available, but


accurate non-coincident load curve data is not. In addition,
~
uc
many types of recording systems and analysis methods distort
non-coincident load curve data when it is recorded, producing
a smoother curve and lower peak loads than actually existed in
0 - -~0
the load. Gathering and verifying accurate load curve shape,
1
5 10
100
1000
10000
load factor, and losses factor data for non-coincident and
Number of Customers in the Group
"partially coincident" (groups of 5-20 customers) equipment
analysis requires care and attention to detail. However, it is Fig. 14-Peak load per customer as a function of the number of
recommended, due to the potential error that inexact data customers in a group (left scale) and coincidence factor (right
scale) for residential class, from a power system in the central US.
creates in losses and voltage drop and flicker computations.

Chapter 24

793

Characteristics of Distribution Loads

TABLE 5-ASYMPTOTIC WINTER PEAK SEASON COINCIDENCE FACTOR


BY CUSTOMER CLASS, FROM A SYSTEM IN THE CENTRAL UNITED
STATES, BASED ON 15 MINUTE DEMAND PERIOD DATA

Customer

C(n) for n large

Class

Summer

Winter

Agricultural
Residential

.56
.39

.38
.46

Small retail Commercial


Large Commercial

.47

.48

.90

.91
.50
.98

52

Smail Industrial
Large Industrial
Other

.97
.87

20. Load Duration Curves


A convenient way to study load behavior for some
engineering purposes is to order the demand samples from
greatest to smallest, rather than as a function of time, as shown
in Fig. 16. The two diagrams shown in Fig. 16 consist of the
same 24 numbers, in a different order. Peak load, minimum
load, and energy (area under the curve) are the same for both.
Hourly Load Curve

Load duration curve

.82

19. Coincidence of Load Varies as Demand Varies


The coincidence curves and coincident data normally
gathered and applied to power system engineering represent
peak period behavior - the load conditions tor which the
system design is targeted. On occasion, however, off-peak Fig.16-The hourly demand samples in a 24-hour load curve are
coincidence data arc gathered, usually to support detailed study "re-ordered" from greatest magnitude to least to form a daily
of load control, energy efficiency, and other integrated load duration curve.
resource programs (discussed later in this section), or for
Load duration curve behavior will vary as a function of the
detailed assessment of losses behavior and equipment
level of the system. Load duration curves for small groups of
performance on an annual hasis.
The "connected" load on a power system does not vary customers will have a greater ratio of peak to minimum than
substantially as a function of time. Electric demand varies similar curves for larger groups. Those for very small groups
because the portion of devices activated by their control system (e.g, one or two customers) will have a pronounced
(whether manual or automatic) varies as a function of time. "blockiness," consisting of plateaus - many hours of similar
During peak periods, a greater fraction of all customer demand level (at least if the load data were sampled at a fast
appliances are activated: There is a higher coincidence of enough rate). The plateaus correspond to combinations of
loads. For example, in some areas in the southern United major appliance loads. The ultimate "plateau," would be a
States, over 90% of all residential space heaters are operating load duration curve of a single appliance, for example a water
at the time ( J 5-minute demand period) of winter system peak. heater that operated a total of 1,180 hours during the year.
However, during the maximum demand period of an off-peak This appliance's load duration curve would show 1,180 hours
at its full load, and 7,580 hours at no load, with no values in
day (e.g .. a day in late fall) only 20% will be operating.
Regardless, on either a winter peak day, or an off peak fall between.
Annual load duration curves. Most often) load duration
day, individual households create needle peak loads as major
appliances operate through their on-off cycles. However, curves are produced on an annual basis, reordering all 8, 760
during off-peak tirnes, there will fewer needle peaks, uf less hourly loads (or all 35,040 quarter hour samples if using ISaverage duration. As a result, the likelihood of overlap of minute demand intervals) in the year from highest to lowest to
needle peaks (e.g., coincidence) among neighboring customers form a diagram like that shown in Fig. 17. The load shown
is less than at peak.
As a result, coincidence curves was above 997 MW (system minimum) 8,760 hours in the
representing load behavior during peak and an off-peak times year, but above 2,000 MW for only 1700 hours.
will differ, as shown in Fig. 15.
22

10

"'

Peak winter day

ig

~"

.....
0

8
0
1

100
5 10
1000
Number of Customers in the Group

0
10000

Fig. 15-Coincidence curve for winter peak conditions, and for offpeak conditions (late fall).

OL--------------------------0
8760
Number of Hours Per Year

Fig. 17-Annual load duration curve for a power system serving a


metropolitan area in the southeastern United States.

794

Characteristics of Distribution Loads

~22

A: Appliance Interlocking

~22 .

C: AC, WH Downsizing (15%)

B: AC Load Control

...
......

..

1 ~----~--~=---~=-~~.
10

100

1000

10000

Number of Cu$tomers

~
~

: ~----~--~=---~=-~~.
10

100

1000

10000

Number of Culltomers

F: Home Automation/Real-Time Prtcing

I
~

Number of Customers

~22

~ ~--~~--~--~~~~
1
10
100
1000
10000

~
i oL-----~--~~--~~~~
1
HI
100
1000
10000

E: Building Shell Improvement Insulation)

Number of Cu$tomers

0: AC,WH Eft. Increase. 15"/o

Chapter 24

~
z

i 0'~--~~--~~--~~~~
1
10
100
1000
10000
Number of Customers

~ ~--~~--~~--~~~~
1
10
100
1000
10000
Number of Customers

Fig. 18-Examples of coincidence curve modification due to various types of demand~side management (OSM) programs.

Thin solid

line indicates base coincidence behavlor. Heavier lines indicate the coincidence behavior of the load after DSM modification.

21. Coincidence Curve and DSM Interaction


Many integrated resource methods, such as appliance
interlocking and load control, and other demand-side
management (DSM) measures, change the coincidence
behavior of customer loads, not the loads themselves. For
example, adding insulation and weather-sealing to a building
does nothing to change the load of its air conditioning and
heating system. These energy conservation measures slow
heat transfer into and out of the building, lengthening the the
"off' portions of every on-off cycle. The same needle peaks
occur, but spaced farther apart in time. Basically, this DSM
measure cuts the percent of time the AC!heater is on. and
hence the coincidence of these appliances.
Fig. 18A illustrates the change in coincident load behavior
made by universal use of appliance interlocking among all
residential customers in a large group. Interlocking involves
jointly wiring the them10stats for the electric water heater, and
the air-conditioner/heater, so that the water heater cannot
operate if the air-conditioner/heater is operating. lt is a simple
fonn of the appliance schedule optimization that can be
affected with home automation systems.
The broad line in Fig. 18A shows the resulting coincidence
curve. The 22 k W peak values, which occasionally resulted
from the random overlapping of appliances activating
simultaneously, are now completely avoided. As a result, the
22 kW peak values, and the value of the coincidence curve at
the Y -axis, are both reduced by the magnitude of the water
heater's connected load (4 kW in this example).
However, the water heater is not denied energy. Its use is
merely deferred until periods when the air conditioner or heater
is switched off. As soon as the master (AC-heater) appliance

switches off, the water heater will activate. Over any lengthy
period of time (an hour or more) both appliances usually
receive all the energy they need. Thus, over any large group of
customers, coincidence of energy usage within any demand
period will not be affected. The asymptote is unchanged.
An opposite type of effect is shown by the broad line in Fig.
188. Appliance load control is basically a method to limit
duty cycle, and thus coincidence of load. Typically, load
controllers are set to limit the operation of any appliance to no
mort! than a certain number of minutes per demand period. For
example, a controller might be set to limit its air conditioner to
no more than 12 minutes operation out of any 15 minute
period. a duty cycle of 80%. During peak conditions, the
average thennostat may want to operate its air conditioner 90%
of the time. Thus, this load control effects an II% reduction in
air conditioner energy usage. As a result, the asymptotic value
of the coincidence curve. for large groups of customers with
load control, is reduced.
Such a load control measure makes no impact on the
maximum height of the needle peaks produced by any
household. The AC unit is still the same connected load, and
still likely to overlap with other appliances to create high
needle peaks. As a result, load control has no impact on the
value of the coincidence curve for individual customers. In
cases where control is poorly coordinated, or the load control is
aggressively used to maximize the reduction of coincident
peak load, it can produce a "'rebound effect," increasing peak
loads on some levels of the system, as shown by the dotted line
in Fig. 18R. Fig. 18C through Fig. 18F represent the actions of
other often-used DSM approaches.
Fig. 18 illustrates two vety important points about DSM
programs. First, DSM programs do not necessarily produce

Chapter 24

795

Characteristics of Distribution Loads

to zero. Demand recorders as used in revenue metering and


most (but not all) electronic meters use this type of load
recording.
Essentially, instantaneous sampling records the actual load
value at specific instants spaced an interval apart. Period
integration averages its load measurement over the entire
sample interval between two of those instances. There can be~
and usually is, a considerable difference in the recorded data,
IV. MEASURING LOAD CURVE DATA
depending on which of these two different sampling techniques
Regardless of the actual behavior of the electric load, it is is used.
measured and sampled through the '"eyes" of equipment and
procedures which may introduce errors by not capturing
completely all of the load's characteristics. Many types of load
recording perform a type of filtering that makes load behavior
look more coincident (smoother, lower peak) than it actually
was. Other types mis-recording of load cycles in a way that
renders the load curve data virtually useless. In both cases, the
data looks like load curves, but is inaccurate. Regardless,
power engineers must be aware of the source of all load data,
the method used in its recording, and any limitations it creates
22
Demand sampled- 1 hr.
on the accuracy or use of the resulting data.

similar amounts of load reduction on all levels of the power


system. Second, by use of coincidence curve analysis of the
type shown in Fig. 18, it is possible to target a DSM program's
load reductions at particular levels of the power system. DSM
measures that affect the peak loads of large groups of
customers, or small groups, can be selected as needed to target
feeder or service (LV) levels.

22. Load Sampling Rate and Type


Most load measurement, recording, and analysis equipment
and procedures work with load curve data as sampled data.
Load values are measured and recorded at uniform intervals of
time. For example, often load curves are represented in
engineering studies as 24 hourly loads. Many load recorders
measure and store load behavior on a 15-minute basis. There
are two very important aspects of sampling. The first is the
type of sampling used, the second is the rate of its application.
Discrete sampling measures and records the load's value at
specific periodic instances. For example, load recorder may
measure electrical load every 15 minutes. Every quarter hour,
this device "opens its eyes" to sample the load, and records the
value, and begins a waiting period until the next sampling
instant. What the load does in between those 15-minute
sample periods is immaterial to the recorder.
This kind of sampling, which is often called instantaneous
sampling. is the type normally dealt with in textbooks on signal
processing as "discrete sampling." Much of the load data used
in power systems studies comes from this type of sampling.
Many types of distribution load recorders ("'oad loggers") do
only instantaneous sampling. SCADA systems that "trap" load
readings on a periodic basis do instantaneous :sampling.
Manual reading of load strip charts is basically discrete
sampling: typically, load data is prepared for computer
processing from strip charts by an engineer or analyst who
reads the value every so often from the strip chart and codes it
into the computer data base.
Demand sampling, also called period integration,
measures and records the total energy used during each period.
If applied on a I 5-minute basis, period integration records the
energy (demand) during each IS-minute period. At the
beginning of each measurement interval, a watt-hour meter is
re-set to zero and begins counting the energy used. At the end
of the period, the reading is recorded, and the counter is re-set

22kW

Discrete Sampled- 1 hr.

Fig. 19-Two different load sampling methods (middle, bottom)


ap.plied on an hourly basis to the residential load curve from Fig.
12A (top), produce quite different data.

Fig. 19 shows the single all-electric household daily load


curve from Fig. 12A, along with versions of it obtained by
sampling on an hourly basis with period integration (middle)
and discrete sampling (bottom).' Neither demand sampling
nor instantaneous discrete sampling on an hourly basis
captures all the details of the load behavior. However, in this
case, discrete sampling produces a very spurious-looking load
curve, for reasons that will be discussed later.
23. Observed Load Behavior and Sampling Rate
The second important aspect of load curve sampling is the

sampling rate. Fig. 20 shows Fig. 12A load curve sampled


with period integration on a 5, 15, 60 and 120-minute basis.
Note that the resulting data displays significantly different
1

The load curve in fig. l2A was obtained using period integration
(demand sampling) on a five-minute interval basis.

796

Characlerislics of Distribution Loads

behavior, depending on sampling rate. As the sampling is


done faster, the curve shape displays more of its blocky, on-off
nature: the recorded data comes closer to representing the true
load curve shape peak value_
But as shown, if a load is sampled by period integration
applied at a slow rate, the resulting load data may look smooth,
when, in fact, actual behavior is erratic, with high needle
peaks. Fig. 21 shows peak demand for the data in Fig. 12,
plotted as a function of period integration sampling rate. The
measured peak load decreases as the sampling period increases
from five-minutes to one hour. The reason is that the sampling
rate, or demand interval, defines the meaning of ''peak".
Sampled at one-minute intervals, the peak is the maximum 60second demand. Sampling on an hourly basis smoothes out a
lot of the needle peaks, and yields a curve whose peak is the
maximum one hour demand. A non-coincident curve (top of
Fig 20) can look like it was smoother and very "coincident"
simply because it was demand-sampled at too low u sampling
rate.

2HW

5 Minutes

Time of Day

22kW

30 Minutes

25

15

30

60

90

Fig. 2 1-Measured peak demand of a single residential customer


varies greatly depending on the intervals used to sample its load.

As shown in Fig. 20 and Fig. 21, changing the sampling


rate changes the perceived or measured peak value and the
"choppiness" (variance) seen in the load curve. However, not
all types of load curves are equally sensitive to this
phenomenon. This effect is most pronounced when sampling
non-coincident load curves - those representing small sets of
appliances or just a few customer. It is minor or undetectable
when sampling load of large groups of customers, such as an
entire system.
Thus, the apparent coincidence of load changes as a
function of sampling rate. Fig. 22 shows coincidence curves
for the residential customers used earlier in Fig. 12-16, recomputed based on period integration sampling intervals of 5,
15, and 60 minutes. Because the peak load of a single
customer, upon which coincidence factor computation is based,
changes a great deal as a function of sampling rate (Fig. 21 ),
the coincidence curve, itself, will change. Characteristics and
sensitivity discussed here involve only period integration
sampling (i.e., demand recorders), which is the most common
approach to gathering load research and load curve data.
2

o1

...

5 minute periods
15 minute periods
60mlnute periods

60 Minutes

I
1l

22kW

120

Sampling Period Minutes

c
~

.!!

"-'m

1~

8
0

0
1

5 10
100
1000
Number of Customers in the Group

10000

Fig. 22-Coincidence curv~ based on data measured at 60, 15, and


5 minute demand intervals for residential all-electric homes.

22kW

120 Minutes

Aliasing.

I.s.

Instantaneous sampling has a far different

interaction with sampling rate and recording accuracy than the

0
Fig. 20-Single household load (Fig. 12A) sampled by period
integration (demand recorder) on a 5, 30, 60, 120-minute basis.

period integration method discussed above. Fig. 23 shows the


load for a single household (Fig. 12A) measured by
instantaneous sampling on an hourly basis. One profile is the
result of sampling instantaneously every hour, on the hour.
The other is sampled hourly a quarter past the hour. The
apparent load curve shape, and peak load of these two curves
are different. Neither is an accurate representation of the
actual1oad curve behavior.

Chapter 24

Characteristics of Distribution Loads

The problem with instantaneous sampling applied in this


case is that its rate is much to slow to "see" the load behavior.
But unlike period integration, which smooths the load curve
when applied at a slow rate, instantaneous discrete sampling
distorts it, badly, as shown. The load being recorded in this
case (Fig. 12A ), has very erratic on-off load behavior common
to non-coincident loads. It is simply random chance whether a
particularly hourly recording instant, falls upon a needle peak,
or a "needle valley." For a load that has needle peaks, as does
any individual household load, instantaneous sampling at a low
sampling rate gives very poor, even completely unusable
results.

Aliasing, or "beat frequency" peaks

Fig. 23-Single household load curve (top of Fig. 20) sampled with
hourly discrete sampling. Left: load curve sampled discretely

every hour at the beginning of the hour. Right; sampled every


hour 15 minutes after the hour.

797

24. Signal Engineering Perspective on Load Sampling


Load as a function of time is a signal, a value measured as a
function of a continuously varying indexing parameter. A
fundamental concept of signal engineering is that .ruJ,Y signal
can he represented as the sum of a set of sine waves of
different frequencies and magnitudes. Low frequencies are
slowly undulating sine waves, high frequencies represent rapid
shifts in value. Any behavior that is characterized by rapid
shifts in value is high frequency behavior. A load curve with a
great deal of on-off'"choppiness," as for example Fig. l2A, has
a large amount of relatively high frequency behavior. On the
other hand, a smooth coincident load curve (Fig. 12B) has no
high frequencies.
A fundamental theorem of sampled signal theory is that for
instantaneously discrete sampled data to be valid, the sampling
must be done at twiCe the rate of the highest frequency in the
signal. Thus, to capture completely behavior of a load curve
that has rapid shifts in load (and thus avoid errors as depicted
in Fig. 23), it is necessary to sample it twice as often as its
appliance loads cycle on and off. Since many appliances turn
on and off within a fifteen or even ten-minute period, a
minimum rate of five-minute sampling is necessary to see peak
load, coincidence, and load curve behavior of such mpid
cycling on an individual household basis. Better yet, oneminute samples can be used when trying to identify appliance
or individual household load behavior in detail.
As mentioned in sub-section 23, instantaneous discrete
sampling and period integration sampling differ dramatically in
what they do if sampling rate falls short of these requirements.
Essentially, period integration samples a load curve but filters
it simultaneously. The averaging over each demand interval,
as discussed above, smoothes out choppiness (removes high
frequencies). To a very good approximation, this type of
sampling can be thought of as responding only to frequencies
in the signal that are in the band of frequencies below one-half
its sampling rate. The period integration responds to
frequencies in the band it can "see" (those below its sampling
rate limit) and ignores those above that limit.
Thus, sampling a load at half-hour intervals with period
integration will obtain valid information on all frequencies in
the load up to one cycle/hour, but will smooth out, or filter,
fluctuations that are due to more rapid load behavior. (This
perspective is slightly simplistic - i.e., only approximate on
several minor technical points - but sufficient for this
discussion). Instantaneous sampling, on the other hand, does
not filtering, and tries to respond to everything it sees.
However, it can only validly see frequencies below twice its
sampling rate. It responds to frequencies above that limit by
aliasing them, interpreting high frequency changes as low
frequency. The result is a recorded load curve that may be
invalid for most engineering and analysis purposes, as are
those in Fig. 23.

\Vhile the two load curves in Fig. 23 look quite different,


and bear no resemblance to the actual load curve shape, they
share one characteristic: Roth seem to oscillate back and forth
every three to five hours. This is called aliasing, or "frequency
folding" in signal theory, and is essentially a "beat frequency"
generated by interference between the sampling rate, and the
duty cycle rate of the appliances in Fig. l2A. Something
similar to this occurs any time the measured quantity being
sampled cycles back and forth at a faster rate than the
sampling. In this example, appliances are cycling on and off
at a rate much too fast for the hourly sampling rate to track.
The beat frequency, or "aliasing profile" shown here, is a
characteristic of under-sampled curves, something to watch for
in load data. This type of distortion is common. It is fairly
easy to detect by manual inspection (at least if given some
training and understanding of what causes it), and its presence
means that the load curve data is probably completely invalid.
In the presence of a great deal of erratic on-off load shifts,
as occurs in most non-coincident loads, neither period
integration (demand sampling) or instantaneous discrete
sampling gives a completely accurate measurement of the load
curve behavior. The integration method averages behavior
over each period. The instantaneous method may chance upon
any value. If the load being measured is fairly smooth, for
example the load of an entire power system, then the level of
error in either case is minute and the issue unimportance. On 25, Determination of the Sampling Method and Type
the other hand, if there is a good deal of non-coincident load
Both period integration and instantaneous sampling record
behavior, as usually with loads measured on the distribution
system, then the sampling rate phenomena discussed here arc only "approximate data" when applied at too low a sampling
rate to track non-coincident behavior in the load. Instantaneous
of concern in the load analysis and subsequent engineering.

849

Index
PAOS

Transmission Line (continued)


tquivalent Circuits
ABCD Constants ... 266 to 268, 270, 278
Equivalent Pi. ... 267, 269, 272
Equivalent T.
267
Long Lines ........... 266, 267
Short Lines. .
. ... 265, 270
Equivalent Impedances
Equivalent Pi ... 267 to 269, 272
Equivalent T.
. 267, 268
Simplified Method ... 267 to 270
Equivalent Pi vs. ABCD.
.268
Equivalent Spacing.
280
Fault Clearing
Times.
. . 785 to 789, 792 to 797
Flashover Characteristics of Suspension Insulators. .
. . 597
Footing Resistance.
579
Ground Wires .............. 606, 607
Impedance Data- (See Aerial
Lines)
Impedance DataTypical.
. . 279, 280, 395, 396
Impedance in One Line.
25
Increasing Protection Level.. 585, 586
Inductance for Surge.
. ... 524
Insulators Required for
Switching Surges.
. .584
Lightning
Performance.587 to 592, 792 to 797
Lightning Protection.
. .. 578, 579
Lightning Stroke Current
Probability Curve ............ 585
Loss
Long Lines.
273, 278
Short Lines ....... 271, 282, 286
Loss Diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . .... 278
Lowering Tower-Footing
Impedance ............ .
. .593
Mid-Span Potential Due to
Lightning.
. .. 581, 584
Mid Span Spacings.
. ...... 584
One Line Open..... . .
25
Permissible Loading ........ 479, 480
Permissible Loading Curve .. 479, 480
Power Equations
General Equivalent ........ 277
In Terms of ABCD Constants 278
J_,ong Lines. .
. .... 27 5
Short Lines.
. ... 273
Vector Equations.
. .... 273
Probability of Outage.
. . 586
Proteetive Angle. . . . ..... 579, 592
Quick-Estimating
Charte 38, 39, 281 to 283, 285, 287
Quick-gstimating Table.
7
Recent Design
Practice .... 785 to 789, 792 to 797
Regulation and Loss Chart ...... 287
Relay Protection of. .
. . 356
Series Capacitors.
482
Stability Features.
. ... 785
Statistical Data 785 to 789, 792 to 797
Steady-State Analyzed by
Traveling Waves.
. ... 540
Steel Towers..
590, 591
Surge Impedance ...... 280, 281, 524
Surge Impedance
Loading. .
. . 280, 281, 479, 480
Switching. .
. ... 387
Tower Footing Resistance ...... , 579
Tower Top Potential Due to
Lighlning.
581, 584
Transient Stability,With Redosure.492
Two Lines Open....... . . . . . . . 25
Typical Constants. 279, 280, 395, 396
Typical Fault Clearing
Times ... , .. 785 to 789, 792 to 795
Typical Impedance
Data ........... 279, 280, 395, 396
Use of Protector Tubes (See Also
Protector Tubes). . .
. .. 599
VihraLion Dampers.
. . 792

PJ.Glll

Transmission Line (continued)


Voltage Regulation of
Long Lines.
. .. 271, 288
Short Lines . . . . . . 270, 271, 286
Voltages Due to Lightning ... 559, 560
Wave Shape.
. ... , . .
. .560
Wave Propagation on, Chap. 15 .. 523
Wood Con~
struction ... 588, 589, 591, 596, 598
Transmission System, Mechanical
.. 439
Analogy.
Transpositions
Fundamental Frequency Effects 748
Noise Frequency Effects.
. ... 778
Traveling Waves................. 523
AppHed to 60-Cycle Conditions .. 540
Attenuation and Distortion
.... 536 to 540
Attenuation Empirical Data .... 538
Conditions at the Beginning of
a Parallel.
. ... 534
Coupling Factor.
534
Coupling Factor for Two Ground
Wires.
. ... 535
Current. . . . . . . . . . . . .
. ... 524
Depth of Penetration.
. 537
Distortion of. . .
. . 536
Illustrations.
. .. 523, 526
In Reverse Direction..
525
Junction of Several Lines_... . . 528
Line Terminated by a Capacitor. 529
Line Terminated by an Inductance
Any Wave Form....
528
l:5quare Topped Wave.
. .. 528
Line Terminated by Network .... 530
Line Terminated by Resistance ... 527
Mathematical Expression
525
Mechanical Analogy.
523
Mutually Coupled CircuitsAnalytical Representation . . . 532
On Parallel Conductors,..
533, 534
Points of Discontinuity.
526
Principle of Superposition.
. .. 525
Reflections .................... 526
Reflections by Lattice Network ... 530
Reflections Due to Shunt Network 530
Square-Topped. . ............. 528
Transmitted and Reflected.
530
Velocity of Propagation
.. 525
Wave in One Conductor with a
Parallel Conductor Grounded .. 533
Trigonometric Function Tables
810
Trip-Free Control, Circuit Breakers. 377
Triple Harmonics
Power System.
. . 772
Synchronous Machines.
. 760
Transformers. .
761
Tripping A-C, for Circuit Breakers. . 378
Tuning Devices for Power-Line
1
Carrier.
. ............. 417 to 420
Turbine Generators
Progress in Design.
3
Standard 3600-Rpm Condensing.
3
Two-Reaction Method.
. .444, 476
Unbalanced Currents in Cables.
84
Unbalance Factor ... _. . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Unbalanced Faults-Use of :::lymmetri24, 26
f'al Components
Underground Secondary Network. . . 702
Ungrounded Systems
. 649 to 651
Application ..
Discussion .
. 643, 644
Vector
Conjugate of.
20
Operator "a". . .
13
Rotation.
. 13, 14
Sequence....................
14
Veloeity of Propagation-Traveling
Waves..........
. .525
Vertieal Networks.
. ... 713
Vibration Dampers-Typical
Practice. . .
. ... 792 to 795
Volt-Time Curves........... . .... 614

Voltage
Base .. ,, ...................... 295
Choice of... . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
Drop Due to Self and Mutual
Impedances.
. .......... 16
Drop, Examples.
. .313, 316, 319
Drop in
Distribution Feeders.
. .. 681
Distribution Transformers ..... 683
MaximumDuringFaultConditions 626
Recovery Theory.
. . 504, 505
Regulation.
. ........ 696
Surge. .
. ............. 523
Theory of Recovery. . .... , 504, 505
Trend.................
..,. 6
Unbalanced Three Phase.
. .14, 15
Voltage-Regulator
Approximate Impedance Data ... 395
Automatic Control Unit.
. .226
B-J ..................... 220 to 222
Cross-Current Compensation. 220, 222
Current-Limiting Device. . . 224, 231
Damping.
. ..... 221, 222
Damping Transformer_ ......... 220
Direct-Acting Rheostatic.
217,220
Electronic.
. .. 232
Field Forcing.
. .... 221, 222
Flicker. . . . . . . . .
738
For Machines .. .455, 479, 487 tu 489
Hunting. . . . . . . . . . . ..... 221, 222
Impedance Type,
.. 224, 225
Indirect Acting Exciter
Rheostatic.
. . 220 to 222
Line-Drop Compensation.
. .. 223
Manual Control Unit._.... . .. 228
Minimum Excitation Unit.
. .227
Sensitivity. .
217
Silverstat.
. , . 218 to 220
Static Potential Unit.
225
Synchronous Condenser.
. 223, 224
Types.
. .. 217
Voltage Adjusting Unit ........ 226
Voltage Regulation
Tap Changing Under Load .. 121,122
Water-Cooled Transformers.
. .106, 133
Water Power.
4
Wave Front-Effect on Attenuation .. 540
Wave Propagation on Transmission
Lines-Chap. 15..
. .523
Wave Shape
Capacitors.
. .. 252 to 254, 761
D-C Machines
.. 761, 772
Deviation Factor.
. .. 760
Filters, Effect of.
775
Guarantees. .
. .... 760
Induction Motors.
. .. 761
Inverters.
. . 766
LT. Factors. .... . . ... , .... 758, 772
KV.T Factors..
.758, 770,772
Lighting Circuits.
. ..... 770
Lightning Discharge Currents 570, 571
Power-System Survey.
. . 771, 772
Rectifiers ......... _............ 766
Synchronous Machines .. 759, 761, 772
System ................... 771, 772
T.I.F. Factors. . .757, 760,771,772
Transformers.
. .......... 761
Wave Traps.
. 766, 772 to 776
Welders- Various Types. .
. . 727
Wood~Flashover Kv.
. ..... 598
Wood Pole Structures.
. .596, 598
Zero Sequence
Capacitive Coupling in
Transformers. . . . . . . . . . .
. . 662
Current in a Delta Winding.
19
Isolating Device.
. . 653
Vectors ....................... 14
Voltage.; of Ungrounded Systems. 751
Zero-Sequence Impedance
Aerial Lines ........ 28, 41 to 47,396
Cable ............. 74 to 77, 79 to 94
Synchronous Machines .......... 520
Transformers .... 138, 139, 799 to 808