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DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Components of
the Digestive System
Digestive Tract
 Gastrointestinal
(GI) tract or
alimentary canal
 muscular tube
 extends from
oral cavity to
anus
Digestive Glands

6 Functions of the Digestive
System
1.Ingestion:
 occurs when materials enter digestive tract
via the mouth

2.Mechanical processing:
 crushing and shearing
 makes materials easier to propel along
digestive tract

3. Digestion:
 is the chemical breakdown of food into
smaller molecules
 for absorption by digestive epithelium

4.Secretion:
 is the release of water, acids, enzymes,
buffers, and salts into tube where
digestion occurs
 by epithelium of digestive tract

5. Absorption:
 organic substrates, electrolytes, vitamins
and water
 digestive epithelium

6.Excretion
 elimination of wastes and residues

Two Types of Digestive System
• Incomplete digestive
system
– One-way, saclike
digestive cavity

• Complete digestive
system
– A tube with an opening
at each end

Swallowing
• Complex reflex

• Tongue forces bolus into pharynx
• Epiglottis and vocal cords close off
trachea; breathing temporarily ceases
• Bolus moves from the esophagus
through the esophageal sphincter into
stomach

Parts of Alimentary Tract
Mouth
 anterior end of the
gastrointestinal tract

Pharynx
Esophagus
 gullet
 connects the mouth with
stomach

Structure of the Stomach
 J-shaped organ lies below
the diaphragm
 temporary storage of food
 protein is partially digested
 water is partially absorbed
 sphincter at both ends
 outer serosa covers smooth
muscle layers
 Mesogaster
- suspends the stomach to the
dorsal wall of the abdomen

muscle

Stomach Secretions
 Hydrochloric acid (HCl)
- produced by parietal cells
 Gastric acid
- produced by the chief cells
 Pepsinogen (inactive form of a proteindigesting enzyme)
- produced by chief cells
 Mucin
- produced by mucous cells

Mixing of Chyme
• A thick mixture of

bolus and gastric fluid
(chyme)

• Mixed and moved by
waves of stomach

contractions
(peristalsis)

Small intestine

 longest and most coiled
tube of digestive tract
 final digestion and
absorption of digested
food materials
a. duodenum – anterior
part
b. ileum – posterior part
c. jejenum – middle part
(absent in some species
of frog)
 mesenterium/ mesentery
proper

• movement into
duodenum controlled
by pyloric sphincter

• duodenum receives
secretions from
pancreas, liver, and
gallbladder; continues
process of digestion

Intestinal Secretions
 Wall of the duodenum secretes
 Disaccharidases - digest
disaccharides to monosaccharides

 Peptidases - break protein fragments
down to amino acids
 Nucleases - digest nucleotides down
to nucleic acids and monosaccharides

Large intestine
 Shorter and larger
than small intestine
 Mesorectum
 storage of
undigested food

 Anus
- excretion of
undigested food

Digestive Glands

Liver
 largest gland
 metabolism of fats(fat
digestion)
 secretes bile
• Bile is stored in
gallbladder, then
secreted into
duodenum
• Bile emulsifies fats;
breaks them into
small droplets

Functions of the liver
 Inactivation of toxins
 Storage of fat soluble vitamins
 Storage of iron
 Storage of glycogen and lipid
 Organ of immune system

Pancreas
 adjacent to the
duodenum
 produce enzymes
secreted into duodenum
a.Pancreatic amylase
b.Trypsin and
chymotrypsin
c. Carboxypeptidase
d. Lipase
e. Pancreatic nucleases

Histology (Digestive System)

Stomach
 Tunica mucosa
- mucous membrane
- single layer of columnar
epithelial cells
 Tunica submucosa
- internal layer of c. tissue
- blood vessels and nerves
 Tunica muscularis
- layer of smooth muscle
cells arranged in 2
concentric layers
 Tunica serosa
- single layer of squamous
cells

• Rugae (folds)

Structure of Small Intestine
submucosa

gut lumen

serosa

circular
muscle

longitudinal
muscle

blood vessels

mesh of nerves
(plexus)

• Villi (folds)

• Different layers of
the small intestine

Liver
 Hepatocytes/liver cells
- secrete bile
- metabolism of
carbohydrates, fats and
amino acid
 Sinusoids
- Spaces separating group
of hepatic cells
 Kupffer cells
- macrophages found in the
sinusoids
- destroy bacteria that enter
blood through the large
intestine

Pancreas
- consist of 2 types of
glands:
1. Exocrine gland
(tubulo-acinous gland)
- produce digestive
enzymes (pancreatic
juices)
2. Endocrine gland (Islet
of Langerhans)
- produce insulin
(controls carbohydrate
and sugar
metabolism)