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Todays world need is a corporate world and it requires a lot of management activities
to achieve success, for this purpose in this competing corporate world of multinationals and
industries , industrial revolution has brought with it group production and group consumption
activities and also it has brought in a lot of corporations competing for preferences and
success in the business world, it may be a Logistics Sector or any other type of industry
experience and specialization, have become a must to compete with others become very
much essential for all the companies.
For the purpose of acquiring practical knowledge of the working and functioning of a
company. Bangalore University has incorporated an in plant training into its business
management schedule. This in plant training tells us how the different departments in the
organization work as a single unit.
Lecturers teach the students; this learning will make an individual knowledgeable in
theory of the various functions of a company. But a person comes out from class room and
visits various industries, in this situation he can learn more from them. In such a situation real
experience in the practical functioning and operations of a company can be of very much use
to the students of management studies.


Logistics is the management of the flow of resources, between the point of origin and the
point of destination in order to meet the requirements of customers or corporations. Logistics
involves the integration of information, transportation, inventory, warehousing, material
handling, and packaging, and oftentimes security. Today the complexity of production
logistics can be modeled, analyzed, visualized and optimized by plant simulation software.
Logistics can involve a wide variety of consumer goods such as food, IT materials, aerospace
resources, and defense equipment.
Logistics is the management of the flow of goods, information and other resources, including
energy and people, between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet
the requirements of consumers. Logistics involve the integration of information,
transportation, and inventory, warehousing, material-handling and packaging.
The Logistics industry includes five broad segments-ocean freight, airfreight, rail freight,
trucking and third party logistics (3PL) services
Indian Logistics industry is value data around US $30bn.Theindustryis projected to
Growth of logistics industry largely depends on infrastructure availability. Government
spending and involvement of private players will catalyze the growth of the industry
Government programs and measures such as establishment of logistics parks and investmentlinked tax deduction will support the industry to speed up its growth.
The countries organize logistics market represent 6%ofthetotalmarket.This is projected to
grow at a 25% by FY11 to US$15bn.
Logisticscostis13%ofIndiasGDPincomparisonto11%inEuropeand9%intheU.S.Of the total
logistics cost, transportation represents 39% while warehousing, packaging and inventory
accounts for 24% of the total costs.
Higher logistics costs is mainly due to poor infrastructure facilities in the country. The higher
logistics cost represents higher products/services cost in the international market.
Third party logistics business in India is anticipated to hi t US$90mn by 2012.Domestic
companies are willing to expand their efficiency to meet the rising demand globally,
according t o a study by industry body Also cham.

Logistics Industry

Industry Size

Industry Size




Road Freight
Rail Freight
Air Freight
Port Related Logistics

(USD billion)

(USD billion)




Logistics Management and Logistics Management Software

Logistics management is that part of the supply chain which plans, implements and controls
the efficient, effective forward and reverse flow and storage of goods, services and related
information between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet

requirements. A professional working in the field of logistics management is

called a logistician Software is used for automating logistics activities which helps the supply
chain industry in automating the work flow as well as management of the system. Very few
generalized software are only available in the new market in the said topology. This is
because there is no common rule to generalize the system as well as work flow even though
the practice is more or less the same. Most of the commercial companies do use one or the
other custom solution. There are various software that are being used within the departments
of logistics mainly in Conventional Departments and for Container Trucking.
a. Business Logistics
Logistics as a business concept evolved only in the 1950s. This was mainly due to the
increasing complexity of supplying one's business with materials and shipping out products
in an increasingly globalized supply chain, calling for experts in the field who are called
Supply Chain Logisticians. This can be defined as having the right item in the right quantity
at the right time at the right place for the right price and it is the science of process having its
presence in all sectors of the industry. The goal of logistics work is to manage the fruition of
project life cycles, supply chains and resultant efficiencies. In business, logistics may have
either internal focus (inbound logistics), or external focus (outbound logistics) covering the
flow and storage of materials from point of origin to point of consumption. The main
functions of a qualified logistician include inventory management, purchasing, transportation,

warehousing, consultation and the organizing and planning of these activities. Logisticians
combine the professional knowledge of each of these functions so that
there is a coordination of resources in an organization. There are two fundamentally different
forms of logistics. One optimizes a steady flow of material through a network of transport
links and storage nodes. The other coordinates a sequence of resources to carry out some
b. Production Logistics
The term is used for describing logistic processes within an industry. The purpose of
production logistics is to ensure that each machine and workstation is being fed with the right
product in the right quantity and quality at the right point in time. The issue is not the
transportation itself, but to streamline and control the flow through the value adding
processes and eliminates non-value adding ones. Production logistics can be applied in
existing as well as new plants. Manufacturing in an existing plant is a constantly changing
process. Machines are exchanged and new ones added, which gives the opportunity to
improve the production logistics system accordingly. Production logistics provides the means
to achieve customer response and capital efficiency. Production logistics is getting more and
more important with the decreasing batch sizes. Even a single customer demand can be
fulfilled in an efficient way. Track and tracing, which is an essential part of production
logistics - due to product safety and product reliability issues - is also gaining importance
especially in the automotive and the medical industry.
Origins and definition
The term logistics comes from the Greek logos (), meaning "speech, reason, ratio,









word logistiki (), meaning accounting and financial organization.

Logistics is considered to have originated in the military's need to supply themselves with
arms, ammunition and rations as they moved from their base to a forward position. In
ancient Greek,Roman and Byzantine empires, military officers with the title Logistikas were
responsible for financial and supply distribution matters.
The Oxford English Dictionary defines logistics as "the branch of military science relating to
procuring, maintaining and transporting material, personnel and facilities." However,
the New Oxford American Dictionary defines logistics as "the detailed coordination of a
complex operation involving many people, facilities, or supplies" and the Oxford Dictionary
online defines it as, "the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation:"

Another dictionary definition is "the time-related positioning of resources." As such, logistics

is commonly seen as a branch ofengineering that creates "people systems" rather than
"machine systems". When talking in terms of human resources management, logistics means
giving inputs, i.e. "recruiting manpowers", which ultimately work for the final consumer or to
According to the Council of Logistics Management, logistics contains the integrated
planning, control, realization and monitoring of all internal and network-wide material-, partand product flow including the necessary information flow in industrial and trading
companies along the complete value-added chain (and product life cycle) for the purpose of
conforming to customer requirements.
Main logistics targets
Logistics is one of the main functions within a company. The main targets of logistics can be
divided into performance related and cost related. They are high due date reliability, short
delivery times, low inventory level and high capacity utilization. But when decisions need to
be made, there is always a trade off between these targets.
Logistics viewpoints
Inbound logistics is one of the primary processes and it concentrates on purchasing and
arranging inbound movement of materials, parts and/or finished inventory from suppliers to
manufacturing or assembly plants, warehouses or retail stores.
Outbound logistics is the process related to the storage and movement of the final product
and the related information flows from the end of the production line to the end user.
Logistics fields
Given the services performed by logisticians, the main fields of logistics can be broken down
as follows:

Procurement Logistics

Production Logistics

Distribution Logistics

After sales Logistics

Disposal Logistics

Procurement Logistics consists of activities such as market research, requirements planning,

make or buy decisions, supplier management, ordering, and order controlling. The targets in
procurement logistics might be contradictory - maximize the efficiency by concentrating on

core competences, outsourcing while maintaining the autonomy of the company, and
minimization of procurement costs while maximizing the security within the supply process.
Production Logistics connects procurement to distribution logistics. The main function of
production logistics is to use the available production capacities to produce the products
needed in distribution logistics. Production logistics activities are related to organizational
concepts, layout planning, production planning, and control.
Distribution Logistics has, as main tasks, the delivery of the finished products to the
customer. It consists of order processing, warehousing, and transportation. Distribution
logistics is necessary because the time, place, and quantity of production differs with the
time, place, and quantity of consumption.
Disposal Logistics' main function is to reduce logistics cost(s), enhance service(s), related to
the disposal of waste produced during the operation of a business.
Military logistics
In military science, maintaining one's supply lines while disrupting those of the enemy is a
crucialsome would say the most crucialelement of military strategy, since an armed
force without resources and transportation is defenseless. The defeat of the British in
the American War of Independence and the defeat of the Axis in the African theatre of World
War II are attributed to logistical failure.[citation


The historical leaders Hannibal

Barca, Alexander the Great, and the Duke of Wellington are considered to have been
logistical geniuses.
Militaries have a significant need for logistics solutions, and so have developed advanced
implementations. Integrated Logistics Support (ILS) is a discipline used in military industries
to ensure an easily supportable system with a robust customer service (logistic) concept at the
lowest cost and in line with (often high) reliability, availability, maintainability and other
requirements as defined for the project.
In military logistics, logistics officers manage how and when to move resources to the places
they are needed.
Supply chain management in military logistics often deals with a number of variables in
predicting cost, deterioration, consumption, and future demand. The US Military's
categorical supply classification was developed in such a way that categories of supply with
similar consumption variables are grouped together for planning purposes. For instance,
peacetime consumption of ammunition and fuel will be considerably less than wartime
consumption of these items, whereas other classes of supply such as subsistence and clothing

have a relatively consistent consumption rate regardless of war or peace. Troops will always
require uniform and food. More troops will require more uniforms and food.
Some classes of supply have a linear demand relationshipas more troops are added more
supply items are neededas more equipment is used more fuel and ammunition is consumed.
Other classes of supply must consider a third variable besides usage and quantity: time. As
equipment ages more and more repair parts are needed over time, even when usage and
quantity stays consistent. By recording and analyzing these trends over time and applying to
future scenarios, the US Military can accurately supply troops with the items necessary at the
precise moment they are needed. History has shown that good logistical planning creates a
lean and efficient fighting force. Lack thereof can lead to a clunky, slow, and ill-equipped
force with too much or too little supply.
Business logistics
A logistics provider's warehouse of goods being stacked on pallets with a forklift.
Logistics as a business concept evolved in the 1950s due to the increasing complexity of
supplying businesses with materials and shipping out products in an increasingly globalized
supply chain, leading to a call for experts called supply chain logisticians. Business logistics
can be defined as "having the right item in the right quantity at the right time at the right
place for the right price in the right condition to the right customer", and is the science of
process and incorporates all industry sectors. The goal of logistics work is to manage the
fruition of project life cycles, supply chains and resultant efficiencies.
In business, logistics may have either internal focus (inbound logistics), or external focus
(outbound logistics) covering the flow and storage of materials from point of origin to point
of consumption (see supply chain management). The main functions of a qualified logistician
include inventory management,purchasing, transportation, warehousing, consultation and the
organizing and planning of these activities. Logisticians combine a professional knowledge
of each of these functions to coordinate resources in an organization. There are two
fundamentally different forms of logistics: one optimizes a steady flow of material through a
network of transport links and storage nodes; the other coordinates a sequence of resources to
carry out some project.
Production logistics
The term production logistics is used to describe logistic processes within an industry. The
purpose of production logistics is to ensure that each machine and workstation is being fed

with the right product in the right quantity and quality at the right time. The concern is not the
transportation itself, but to streamline and control the flow through value-adding processes
and eliminate nonvalue-adding ones. Production logistics can be applied to existing as well
as new plants. Manufacturing in an existing plant is a constantly changing process. Machines
are exchanged and new ones added, which gives the opportunity to improve the production
logistics system accordingly. Production logistics provides the means to achieve customer
response and capital efficiency.
Production logistics is becoming more important with decreasing batch sizes. In many
industries (e.g. mobile phones), a batch size of one is the short-term aim, allowing even a
single customer's demand to be fulfilled efficiently. Track and tracing, which is an essential
part of production logisticsdue to product safety and product reliability issuesis also
gaining importance, especially in the automotive and medical industries.
Logistics management
Logistics is that part of the supply chain which plans, implements and controls the efficient,
effective forward and reverse flow and storage of goods, services and related information
between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet customer and legal
requirements. A professional working in the field of logistics management is called
a logistician.
Logistics management is known by many names, the most common are as follows:

Materials Management

Channel Management

Distribution (or Physical Distribution)

Supply Chain Management

The Chartered Institute of Logistics & Transport (CILT) was established in the United
Kingdom in 1919 and was granted a Royal Charter in 1926. The Chartered Institute is one of
the professional bodies or institutions, for the logistics and transport sectors, that
offers professional qualifications or degrees in logistics management.
Warehouse management systems and warehouse control systems
Although there is some functionality overlap, the differences between warehouse
management systems (WMS) and warehouse control systems (WCS) can be significant.
Simply put, a WMS plans a weekly activity forecast based on such factors as statistics and
trends, whereas a WCS acts like a floor supervisor, working in real time to get the job done
by the most effective means. For instance, a WMS can tell the system it is going to need five

of stock-keeping unit (SKU) A and five of SKU B hours in advance, but by the time it acts,
other considerations may have come into play or there could be a logjam on a conveyor. A
WCS can prevent that problem by working in real time and adapting to the situation by
making a last-minute decision based on current activity and operational status.
Working synergistically, WMS and WCS can resolve these issues and maximize efficiency for
companies that rely on the effective operation of their warehouse or distribution centre.
Logistics outsourcing
Logistics outsourcing involves a relationship between a company and an LSP (Logistic
Service Provider) which, compared with basic logistics services, has more customized
offerings, encompasses a broad number of service activities, is characterized by a long-term
orientation, and, thus, has a rather strategic nature.
Third-party logistics
Third-party logistics (3PL) involves using external organizations to execute logistics
activities that have traditionally been performed within an organization itself. According to
this definition, third-party logistics includes any form of outsourcing of logistics activities
previously performed in-house. If, for example, a company with its own warehousing
facilities decides to employ external transportation, this would be an example of third-party
logistics. Logistics is an emerging business area in many countries.
Fourth-party logistics
The concept of Fourth-Party Logistics (4PL) provider was first defined by Andersen
Consulting (Now Accenture) as an integrator that assembles the resources, capabilities and
technology of its own organization and other organizations to design, build, and run
comprehensive supply chain solutions. Whereas a third party logistics (3PL) service provider
targets a function, a 4PL targets management of the entire process. Some have described a
4PL as a general contractor who manages other 3PLs, truckers, forwarders, custom house
agents, and others, essentially taking responsibility of a complete process for the customer.
Emergency logistics
Emergency logistics is a term used by the logistics, supply chain and manufacturing
industries to denote specific time critical modes of transport used to move goods or objects
rapidly in the event of an emergency. The reason for enlisting emergency logistics services
could be a production delay or anticipated production delay, or it could be that specialist
equipment is needed urgently to prevent instances such as aircraft being grounded (also

known as "aircraft on ground"--AOG), ships being delayed, or telecommunications failure.

Emergency logistics services are typically sourced from a specialist provider.



Pentagon Logistics was founded by logistics professionals in 2001 with a vision to be

recognized as the most dependable and responsive logistics service provider. Survival of the
fittest is more than apt in todays competitive world. One has to provide qualitative services
at the most competitive prices at the right place & at the right time. For this you need to have
a reliable service provider so that you can concentrate on your core competencies.
With Pentagon Logistics the leading service provider with a full menu of logistics services
your business will boom. Our logistics services are at the forefront, offering state-of-the-art
3rd party and 4th party logistics solutions to all customers. Pentagon Logistics is structured
to provide logistics and supply chain solutions to the growing global industry.

To provide cost effective, efficient and
value added services to our esteemed
clients and to establish creative impact
on their supply chain management
To be the world class logistics solution
providing company to meet growing
demands of Global industry.
Quality Policy
We at Pentagon Logistics are committed to provide creative supply chain solutions, for
all type of industry, with effective execution and understanding the present and future
needs of customer's business, at competitive cost by continually enhancing customer
satisfaction through competent personnel & effective quality management systems.

We have Logistics Engineering team to overview productivity and process review within the
warehouses , Cycle Count Team to monitor inventory integrity and MIS team to provide and
design customized MIS. These are some of our key differentiator functions over the
competition enabling us to execute our promise to deliver continuous value.
Our performance in productivity, inventory integrity, resource quality and quantity are
among the best in the industry. We rely heavily on customized MIS to demonstrate
performance improvements on a continuous basis.
Crashing transaction times
Meeting agreed transaction times allow you to meet your delivery schedules. Improving these
times by increasing productivity sharpens warehouse throughput and makes your invoices
payable early. Crashing times actually adds to your working capital.
We work on improving transaction cycle times by using modern Industrial Engineering
techniques, as well as implementing learning achieved from experience and industry

On a larger plane - TTM (Time to Market), TTC (Time to Cash) etc. are our customer
expectations that we have assisted them in bringing around remarkable results.
Innovative Solution

"Value addition" is the basis of any successful and sustained business relationship between
two entities.
Pentagon Logistics offers innovative solution as one such value addition to our customers,
where we contribute to our customer's value chain not only as a one-time value addition but
of a continual nature due to Pentagon tradition of improving it, with time.
Apart from the best in class performance which is a trademark Pentagon Logistics service, a
good example is the Pentagon "Business Industrial Engineering" (BIE) function which adds
value to our customer businesses via innovative solutions upon and around their key W&D
requirements of: Innovative Warehouse design to enable Higher thoughput at lesser costs.
MHE and MSE selection to suit the Volume, flow (direction & magnitude) and cycle time
metrics for Optimal Cost-Benefit ratio.
Distribution network design based on data analysis of our customer's transaction numbers.
Continuous Improvement - Pentagon BIE function does this as a 'birth principle' than a
customer need / expectation / requirement.
Managing Reliability in Processes
Pentagon recognizes the importance of stable processes in Warehousing and Transportation,
which form most significant costs out of total Logistics costs.
Errors often creep even in routine transactions, the impact of which adversely affect
customer satisfaction and may result in consequential problems of payment delays / defaults,
loss of "repeat business" maybe profits as well.
Pentagon has been providing reliability levels of over 99+% to our customers with. We have
achieved this based our process flow mapping, mechanism to measure them and take
proactive steps to improve them. SOPs, DPMs, Daily Exception reporting and management
are some of the tools we will use to achieve the said reliability for you.
Pentagon cherishes dependability as one of the core values.


1. Freight


As more and more companies are

migrating into the global
marketplace, they've come to expect
a freight forwarding service which is
equal to the task of meeting their
unique requirements. We are ready to
answer that challenge with our vast
network of international contacts
and expert knowledge of the
international freight forwarding.
Door to Door Service
Air Freight - Imports and
Sea Freight - Imports and
Multi-modal Transport
Customs Clearance

Air Freight
Our airfreight services help you to ship your cargo to
almost every destination worldwide.
Our specialists have many years of experience in the area
of air cargo shipments. And with our good connection with
major worldwide carriers, we are able to offer the best
solution to compete with time, safety, cost and space.
Our focus is on prompt and timely delivery of your
shipments along with constant communications so that you

are in control of your cargo at all times.

Our services include:
Import Cargo Handling
Export Cargo Handling
Import and Export Cargo Consolidation
Dangerous and Valuable Cargo
Door to Door Services

Sea Freight

Through our network of experienced professionals, strong

world shipping connections and extreme flexibility, we are
able to specifically respond to whatever your shipping
needs may be.
Our experience, local market know-how, partnership with
carriers, global network lets you take advantage of the
following:o Efficient load capacities
o Routing geared to meet your time\cost requirements
o Competitive prices
o Flexible schedules
Our services include:
Full Container Load(FCL)
Less than Container Load(LCL)
Buyer Consolidation
Direct & Transhipment service options
Port to Port Services
Door to Door Services
Break Bulk

Project Cargo Handling

The complex requirements that encompass Project Cargo

execution requires 'out of the box' thinking in order to
create and implement effective solutions.
We provide the specialized expertise such as logistics
capabilities, precise timing, wide geographical knowledge,
and global connections to coordinate project cargo
movements from origin to destination.
Our project handling capabilities include:
Freight negotiation (COA negotiation, long term rate validities).
Special equipment transport (flat racks, open tops, hard top platforms solution).
2. Third Party Logistics
Pentagon Logistics is one source for comprehensive logistics services. Our established
operations offer supply chain, transportation and inventory management, warehousing
operations, reverse logistics and more -- all custom-tailored to the individual needs of our
customers. Our in-house consultants and operations experts provide valuable experience and
expertise in a wide variety of areas including IT, automotive and e-commerce. The
warehouses are equipped with the best material handling and storage equipment, controlled
by an in-house developed Warehouse Management System.
Inbound Logistics


Purchase Order Management

Milk Route Collections

Hub & Spoke model for Consolidation

Container Movement

Stores Management and Line Feeding

Just In Time Inventories

Vendor Managed Inventories

Performance Analysis and Process Optimization

Space Management

Planning & Forecasting

Excise & Octroi

Consolidation Centers

Line Feeding


Outbound Logistics

Setting up a Distribution network

Providing certainty and committed service levels.

Shared Public Warehouses

Optimization to bring down Total Transaction Cost

Pre Delivery Inspection


Accessory fitting






Reverse Logistics

After Sales

Customer Feedback

Claims Settlement




From warehousing to transportation, our process strength and operational excellence

extends to all core functions of contract logistics.

We combine warehousing, transportation and value-added services to ensure a

custom fit. Our facilities share common processes and systems, so you receive
consistent reporting in addition to dependable customer service. IT enablers like
Warehouse Management System simplifies all data exchange.

We invest time and expertise to fully understand your business before designing plans
to improve your supply chain. We take responsibility for the performance of all our

suppliers and for ensuring availability of resources and equipment needed to control
the flow of goods under our charge.
We seek to deliver advanced customer service quality by:

Customizing dedicated facility or flexible shared facilities

Optimizing performance of your existing assets. We are happy to work from your
facilities if it increases efficiency.
Our services deliver:

Inventory integrity

Shorter lead times

Increased productivity

Greater responsiveness

Fast and reliable start-ups

Flexibility to meet growing volumes and resultant peaks and valleys

Recruitment, training and motivation of workforces

Transfer of industry best practices from other sectors and regions

Rock-solid record keeping

Transaction integrity

Transaction history record keeping

Comprehensive menu of standard reports

3. Warehousing and Distribution Services
Our range of warehouse offerings is amongst the most diverse in India. We provide the
following types of warehousing services:

Dedicated Warehouses

Shared-user Warehouses

Limited term project centric warehouses.

Dedicated Warehouses
Best in class solutions
Customized to meet your specific requirements of design, layout, storage and handling, we an
set up dedicated warehouses wherever you wish.
We are mobile, flexible and ready to go. From concept to operations, we use modeling to find
an optimal location, identify the real estate using our database, and define the necessary
systems and operating structure. We work closely with you right through the design and
layout stages.
Our project management team integrates facility and systems operations and resource
planning before hand over. Your distribution centre functions smoothly and you get visibility
of the project from the very beginning.
Shared Warehouses
Flexibility all the way
Our Shared logistics facilities provide you flexibility on space and services without a sizable
investment and long-term commitment.
These facilities can receive products and provide downstream distribution. Through shared
resources - space, overheads, labour and equipment - our customers benefit from synergies
that significantly reduce supply chain costs and improve efficiencies dramatically.
Smaller businesses requiring distribution operations without long-term lease or capital
commitments can benefit from this. As can larger enterprises for a new acquisition, product
launch or seasonal overflow. Leading manufacturers and retailers of the Automotive,
Telecom and Retail, among other sectors, use our services.
Taking charge, giving control
We offer a range of programs within our customers' facilities. We can support your team or
be your team by handling such tasks as labour or yard management, packing, designing,
container stuffing, line feeds, water spider maintenance, and just-in-time deliveries.
We help you cut costs, increase productivity, and get the best out of your most valuable
resource - your people. Quality and safety are part of our culture and we invest a substantial
amount of time building consistent processes, aligned with your best practices and training,
to achieve our goals of zero recordable incidents.
4. Installation Support Logistics

Our support to Installation Engineers combines several critical functions involving

warehouse, transportation, up-lifting expertise and on site marshalling of manpower and
lifting equipment.
The installation material is typically delicate, large, unwieldy and heavy and needs care for
material and building protection. We also take care of local permissions.
We have special teams providing Telecom Installation Support logistics. Our flexible
response to severe Transaction skew is greatly appreciated by our clients. We have a large
vendor base which allows us to scale up on demand. Our transportation management skills
and computer software allow us to meet these requirements. We run complex programs that
ensure high levels of accuracy.
We also manage local and specialized deliveries - from coordinating and training staff on
product installation to retail merchandising and more. These include customized inside-thehome deliveries and installation services.
Our proven transportation solutions coupled with local market intelligence helps us in
delivering these capabilities:

Dependable Vendor Management

Route understanding, planning & optimization

Octroi Management

Milk-Run Management

Multi-Point Distribution Management

Pan-India & regional Services Management

72, 5th Cross Street,
Thiru-Vi-Ka Industrial Estate,
Guindy , Chennai -600 032.
Tamilnadu India

Phone: 044 43322527

Email: Info@


To study the organizational functions.

To study functions of various departments.
To study internal dependence of these all departments.
To understand the difference between theoretical & practical aspects of functioning

To get real time exposure of corporate world.


The study is being conducted for the Pentagon Logistics. This study tells us an overall view
of organization and functions carried out by different departments like Software
development, Marketing, Human Resource, and Finance.

Primary and secondary data have been collected and used to bring out this project report
Primary data have been collected through
The Manager was personally met to get more information regarding the following aspects:

History of the company.

Methods adopted by the company in promoting the product in the market.
Annual turnover and demand of the product.
Administration of sales.
Marketing mix strategy.
And other information.

Interview with the sales department.

This was conducted to get the suitable answers for the below questions.
To know the sales activities adopted by them.
To get the advice about the better promotion and advertisement policies. Which the
company should adopt.

To get advice about the marketing strategy adopted.

Secondary data has been collected from

Search engines and Websites

Annual report of Pentagon Logistics.

The limitations of the study are as follows
The information provided by the company is assumed to be authentic.
The data and opinion collected are assumed to be objective.
This study was done. Mainly through the secondary data.
Also time limitation of the study.
The survey is conducted only on limited respondent.



The role of Human resource department is in charge of recruiting, training, and the
dismissal of employees in an organisation.

Recruitment and selection

Training programmes

Training programs are held by the HRD to improve the employees skills, as well as to
motivate them.
There are three main types of training:
1. Induction training
2. On-the- job training
3. Off-the-job training

Manpower Planning

The HR department needs to think ahead and establish the number and skills of the workforce
required by the business in the future. Failure to do this could lead to too few or too many
staff or staff with inappropriate needs.

Dismissal and Redundancy (retrenchment)

Dismissal is where a worker is told to leave their job due to unsatisfactory work or behaviour.
Redundancy is when the business needs to reduce the number of employees either because it
is closing down a branch or needs to reduce costs due to falling profits. It may also be due to
technological improvements, and the workers are no longer needed.
1. Pre-Recruitment Process
a. Receipt of requirement of manpower from various department heads.
b. Scutinise them and take approval from concerned authorities if the post is new.
c. Prepare a recruitment budget and CTC for the employee and take approval.
d. Select the appropriate Recruitment process.
2. Recruitment Process
a. Prepare Advertisements etc for the recruitment.
b. Scrutinise and shortlist the applications received.
c. Send interview call letters/mails as required.
d. Conduct Interviews through panels.
e. Preparation of offer letters as required.
3. Joining Formalities:
a. Administrating Joining formalities.
b. Pre Employment Reference checks.
c. Preparation of Appointment Advice and intimating the same to other departments.
d. Preparing and entering new hire paperwork.
e. Co ordinating to get Employee ID Cards.
f. Handing over the New hire to the concerned HOD/Manager.
g. Preparation of Job Profiles co ordination with HOD/Managers for new posts.
4. Employee Personal File Maintenance:
a. Opening new file and Closing the Resigned employees File.
b. Make sure all Employee files are maintained safely with care.

c. Make sure all personal records are available in the files.

d. Periodic Personal File Auditing.

5. Employee Data Base:

a. Keeping Track of Knowledge Management Software.
b. Maintenance of HRIS.
6. Confirmation Formalities:
a. intimating the concerned HOD/Manager about the due dates for confirmation.
b. Conducting Confirmation Appraisals.
c. Co ordinating for Skill Gap Analysis.
d. Co ordinating to set Quality Objectives for each job profile.
e. Ensuring updating of the existing Job Profiles.
f. Processing the Confirmation.
7. ISO Compliance:
a. Ensuring all the updating of the ISO documentation and HR Formats.
b. Learning and enforcing Standard Operating Procedures (SOP).
c. Facing the Internal and External Audits, accountable to enforce the correctional actions.
8. Statutory Compliance:
a. Handling PF and ESI formalities and co ordinating with other departments.
b. Handling Apprentice Training, Submitting Periodic Returns to Board.
c. Submitting other returns to the labour Department as per Shops and establishment Act.
9. Training And Development:
a. Conducting Induction Training for new hires.

b. Training Need Analysis based on Skill Gap Analysis, Appraisal Feedback and suggestions.
c. Co coordinating External and Internal Training Programs.
d. Maintaining Training Records.
e. Analysis of Training Feedback.
10. Performance Appraisal:
a. Prepared the new Appraisal Form.
b. Educated employees about self-appraisal.
c. Provided inputs to HODs for Appraisals.
d. Prepared Appraisal Letters.
11. Employee Relation:
a. Having formal and Informal counselling with employees.
b. Prepared Event Calendar of monthly recreation to motivate employees.
c. Handling Corporate Medical Insurance.
d. Processing required letters on employees request.
12. Report Generation:
a. Generating and analyzing Employee Attrition Reports, Training Evaluation, and Manpower
b. Weekly and monthly recruitment reports
c. Report generation of Pre appraisal, Appraisal and Post Appraisals.
d. Salary Details Reports to Accounts Department.
e. Reports as per the HODs request.
13. Exit Formalities:
a. Administering Exit paper work including all Statutory requirements.
b. Conducting Exit Interviews.
c. Preparing Exit Interview Summary.

d. Giving post employment reference for relieved employees.

e. Processing File to Accounts Department for final settlement.


The Finance Department coordinates the financing and the accounting for all the programs
and services offered by the City and its subsidiary districts. Some of the areas of
responsibility include long-range financial planning, budget management, accounts
receivable/cashiering, accounts payable, payroll, purchasing, general accounting and
reporting, debt administration and the administration of grants, assessment districts,
community facilities districts and other fee districts. The Finance Department prepares
graduates for rewarding careers in all areas of financial management. Job opportunities are
diverse, and for new job applicants in this market, salaries are competitive. The curriculum is
designed to give students cutting-edge knowledge in their preparations for finance jobs,
including positions in corporate financial management, investment and portfolio
management, banking, and the management of financial institutions.

Acquiring Sufficient and Suitable Funds: The primary aim of finance function is to
assess the needs of the enterprise, properly, and procure funds, in time. Time is also an
important element in meeting the needs of the organization. If the funds are not
available as and when required, the firm may become sick or, at least, the profitability
of the firm would be, definitely, affected. It is necessary that the funds should be,
reasonably, adequate to the demands of the firm. The funds should be raised from
different sources, commensurate to the nature of business6 Financial Management and
risk profile of the organization. When the nature of business is such that the
production does not commence, immediately, and requires long gestation period, it is
necessary to have the long-term sources like share capital, debentures and long term
loan etc. A concern with longer gestation period does not have profits for some years.
So, the firm should rely more on the permanent capital like share capital to avoid

interest burden on the borrowing component.

Proper Utilization of Funds: Raising funds is important, more than that is its proper
utilization. If proper utilization of funds were not made, there would be no revenue
generation. Benefits should always exceed cost of funds so that the organization can
be profitable. Beneficial projects only are to be undertaken. So, it is all the more
necessary that careful planning and cost-benefit analysis should be made before the

actual commencement of projects.

Increasing Profitability: Profitability is necessary for every organization. The planning
and control functions of finance aim at increasing profitability of the firm. To achieve
profitability, the cost of funds should be low. Idle funds do not yield any return, but

incur cost. So, the organization should avoid idle funds. Finance function also
requires matching of cost and returns of funds. If funds are used efficiently,

profitability gets a boost.

Maximizing Firms Value: The ultimate aim of finance function is maximizing the
value of the firm, which is reflected in wealth maximization of shareholders. The
market value of the equity shares is an indicator of the wealth maximization.


Marketing is the process used to determine what products or services may be of interest to
customers, and the strategy to use in sales, communications and business development. It
generates the strategy that underlies sales techniques, business communication, and business
developments. It is an integrated process through which companies build strong customer
relationships and create value for their customers and for themselves. Marketing Department
which identifies the customer, satisfies the customer, and keeps the customer. With the
customer as the focus of its activities, marketing management is one of the major components
of business management.
Marketing department is often seen as of prime importance within the functional level
of an organization. Information from an organization's marketing department would be used
to guide the actions of other departments within the firm. a marketing department could
ascertain (via marketing research) that customer desired a new type of product, or a new

usage for an existing product. With this in mind, the marketing department would inform the
R&D department to create a prototype of a product/service based on consumers' new desires.
To our business success, the seven functions of marketing can help you to do just that,
as they broadly encompass everything that is done to bring a product to market while meeting
customer needs and earning a profit for the company. They are an essential part of an
effective business Plan.
Pricing the product is what will determine how much profit they make. The company

experiment with pricing until they've found the price point at which they competitive and feel
profitable. It will also need to take the business overhead costs into consideration when
setting prices. The company needs to find out what the demand is for product, as a product is
only worth as much as someone will pay for it.

In a nutshell, selling is providing a way to give the customer what he wants. The
company sells their product directly to the customer, or sells it at wholesale prices to retailers.
They sell a product made especially for sale to other businesses.

Financing refers to how the business will obtain the money it needs to start operations
and stay operable. This function encompasses investors, financing, budgeting and other
financial concerns that your business may have. It also refers to how a customer will pay for
the goods or services that the company is selling.

A product or service is useless to your business if no one knows about it. The
promotion function of marketing refers to the efforts you make to get the word out about
what you are selling. This function also encompasses the art of convincing individuals that
product is necessary, better than those the competition offers and is of good quality.

The distribution function of marketing deals with how they will get the products or
services that the company is selling to customer. Transportation, warehouses and shipping
timelines are part of distribution. Distribution refers to where you will sell the product and

also deals with the timing of product or services. For example, a business that sells pools may
focus their marketing efforts during the spring.
Product Management

In business this company wants their product to be in demand. To ensure that this is
the case, businesses manage their products by changing them to fit current trends, increasing
quality, evaluating market conditions and other criteria. New products may be developed as
the market changes.
Marketing Information Management

When they are trying to decide where to locate a retail outlet, when to release a new
game or how much people will pay for a latte, the company gather data that is specific to the
market in which they are selling. They move to conduct surveys, analyze existing data or
employ other techniques to evaluate whether your target market will be interested in
purchasing your product at the price point and location that you are considering.




1. Quick responses to market changes


Existing workload is too high

2. Excellent transport links


Project planning is non existent

3. Higher operational efficiency


Missing expertise in some areas


Too much waste

4. Currently in a good financial position

5. Quick decision making



1. Need to increase market share

1. Contractors have little loyalty

2. Could convert existing product for new

2. Cost of technology investment


3. Possible relocation costs due to poor

3. Moving a product into a new market


location currently held

4. Local authority refusing plans for future
building expansion




a strategic

the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities,

planning method
and Threats






a project or


a business venture. It involves specifying the objective of the business venture or project and
identifying the internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieve that
A SWOT analysis must first start with defining a desired end state or objective. A
SWOT analysis may be incorporated into the strategic planning model. Strategic Planning has
been the subject of much research.

Strengths: characteristics of the business or team that give it an advantage over

others in the industry.

Weaknesses: are characteristics that place the firm at a disadvantage relative to


Opportunities: external chances to make greater sales or profits in the


Threats: external elements in the environment that could cause trouble for the

The aim of any SWOT analysis is to identify the key internal and external factors that
are important to achieving the objective. These come from within the company's unique value
chain. SWOT analysis groups key pieces of information into two main categories:

Internal factors The strengths and weaknesses internal to the organization.

External factors The opportunities and threats presented by the external

environment to the organization.

The internal factors may be viewed as strengths or weaknesses depending upon their
impact on the organization's objectives. What may represent strengths with respect to one
objective may be weaknesses for another objective. The factors may include all of
the 4P's; as well as personnel, finance, manufacturing capabilities, and so on. The
external factors may include macroeconomic matters, technological change, legislation,
and socio-cultural changes, as well as changes in the marketplace or competitive position.
The results are often presented in the form of a matrix.
SWOT analysis is just one method of categorization and has its own weaknesses. For
example, it may tend to persuade companies to compile lists rather than think about what
is actually important in achieving objectives. It also presents the resulting lists
uncritically and without clear prioritization so that, for example, weak opportunities may
appear to balance strong threats.
The SWOT analysis is as follows:Strengths:1. There are professional trainers at Pentagon Logistics.
2. Through the unit was formed recently, the staff was earlier attached to the Training
Division of Pentagon Logistics and has almost 10 years of experience.
3. Pentagon Logistics has prior experience in web development & software
development. We have modules and have ways and means of achieving our tasks in
this regard.

Strengths are assessed by analyzing fundamental issues that include competitive advantages,
organizational capabilities, significant areas of experience or expertise, and advantages in
price, value and quality. This analysis highlights the strong points of the organization. From
there, action plans can be drawn up to build on these strengths, maintain them or leverage
Weaknesses:1. Some officers at Pentagon Logistics lack self motivation. They are reluctant in
developing their knowledge and skills to higher levels and become better trainers.
Recently they were introduced to the Training of Trainers (TOT) program and asked
to follow three programs to develop themselves. But no one volunteered.
2. Inactivation is another weakness. Main reason for to become inactive are:1. Lack of knowledge among office bearers
2. Mishandling of money
3. Lack of commitment
This part of the analysis identifies weaknesses so that ways can be found to eliminate or
minimize them. Typical analysis focuses on issues, such as weaknesses in the organizations
value proposition, gaps in capabilities, lack of financial strength or problems with cash flow,
the supply chain, morale, commitment or leadership.
Opportunities:1. We can target even the corporate for training, which can high elevation the brand.
2. There is a high regard for training provided by Pentagon Logistics, even among other
institutions which engage in this type of training.
3. This flexibility makes it a particularly practical tool for the trainer and one of the most
effective training methods for getting learners engaged and thinking about the issues.
4. Where they have high technological support.

Opportunities analysis addresses where priorities should be set or how efforts might be
redirected. Issues typically analyzed in this phase include market developments, competitor
vulnerabilities, and global influences, technological advance and potential partnerships
Threats:1. A lot of institutions are in the habit of carrying out training which is lacking in quality.
2. Some institutions pay money to the participants of the training programs and this
enables them to attract more people.
3. The environmental issues, competitor intentions, market demand, technologies,
obstacles to current plans, insurmountable weaknesses and economic issues.
The objective of the threats analysis is to identify and find ways to mitigate potential threats.

The company should take necessary steps to explore themselves in staffing and to
provide necessary training to their employees.
Employers are lacking to produce inter personal relationship with their employees.
Overall performance of the company is excellent.
Employees are fully satisfied with the management.
The Management is lacking in providing proper advertisement.


In each & every Department the functions there are some pros & cons, which can be
rectified for the continuous growth of the organization. Into their Products & Services,
the suggestion was provided for further improvement.
Pentagon Logistics has the customers across the India, they can able to built strong
customer relationship and it will be helpful to the growth of the organization.
They can build their infrastructure to international standards.

This project deals with studying the working of various functional areas by
observation method.

The played by different managers at different position at various

position at various positions and situation are clearly analyzed so that it would helping better
understanding and realization of ambience in an organization.
It helps me to know the functions of all the departments of the company.


-by Philip Kotler.


-by Prasanna Chandra.


-by K Ashwathappa

-by Kothari


12th annual report Pentagon Logistics.

Report on Organisational Study at CNET technologies