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THE INSTITUTE FOR PUBLIC RELATIONS

COMMISSION ON PR MEASURMENT AND EVALUATION


University of Florida * PO Box 118400 * Gainesville, FL 32611-8400
(352) 392-0280 * (352) 846-1122 (fax)
www.instituteforpr.com

DICTIONARY OF PUBLIC RELATIONS


MEASUREMENT AND RESEARCH

2002, THE INSTITUTE FOR PUBLIC RELATIONS

This booklet was prepared and edited by


Dr. Don W. Stacks, University of Miami

COMMISSION ON PUBLIC RELATIONS MEASUREMENT & EVALUATION


DICTIONARY EDITORIAL BOARD

Forrest W. Anderson
Forrest Anderson & Associates, Inc.
Walter G. Barlow
Research Strategies Corporation
Dennis H. Bender
Habitat for Humanity International
Kathryn Collins
General Motors
Donna Q. Coletti
Texas Instruments
John W. Felton
Institute for Public Relations
John Gilfeather
Roper ASW
Dr. James E. Grunig
University of Maryland
Linda Hadley
Porter/Novelli
Michelle Hinson
Institute for Public Relations

Bruce C. Jeffries-Fox
Jeffries-Fox Associates
Fraser Likely
Likely Communication Strategies Ltd.
Dr. Walter K. Lindenmann
PR Research & Measurement Specialist
David Michaelson
Consultant
Thomas Nicholson
Sears, Roebuck & Co.
Sunshine Janda Overkamp
Council on Foundations
Katharine D. Paine
K.D. Paine & Partners
Lisa Richter
Fleishman-Hillard Inc.
Mark Weiner
Delahaye Medialink
Dr. Donald K. Wright
University of South Alabama

FOREWORD
Words are innocent, neutral, precise, standing for this, describing that, meaning the
otherso if you look after them you can build bridges across
incomprehension and chaos.
I dont think writers are sacred, but words are. The deserve respect. If you get the right
ones in the right order they can nudge the world a little.
From the play, THE REAL THING by Tom Stoppard

Why a dictionary for public relations measurement and research?


Because we dont all measure the same things, measure the same ways, or use the same
tools or terminology. To get all of us on the same page we need to know precisely what
we mean when we use or say certain words in measuring our activities and our research.
Some may complain that the words we have chosen to define are too simplistic.
Remember Webster once defended his word choice by explaining that its the little words
we think we know the meaning of - but dont - which cause most of the problems in
understanding and communications.
We thank Dr. Don Stacks and others who have given so generously of their time to
assemble this special choice of words and politely debate each definition. We have listed
their names for you and they will tell you they gratefully acknowledge that this is a work
in progress. Public relations continuously evolves so there are no final words.

Jack Felton
President & CEO
Institute for Public Relations

Gainesville, Florida
September 2002

DICTIONARY OF PUBLIC RELATIONS


MEASUREMENT AND RESEARCH
A

Alpha Level (
) the amount of error

Attitude Research the measuring and

or chance allowed in sampling or

interpreting a full range of views,

inferential testing

sentiments, feelings, opinions, and

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) an


inferential

statistical

significance

for

test

of

continuous

beliefs that segments of the public


may hold toward a client or product
Attitude Scale a measure that targets

measurement dependent variables

respondent

against a number of groups as

toward

independent variables

interval-level data and requires that

Articles an output, typically printed

Attitude a predisposition to act or


toward

some

object;

motivating factor in public relations;


composed
affective

typically

an arbitrary or absolute midpoint

disagree)

be

provided

to

the

respondent; also known as Likert or


Semantic Differential measures

dimensions:

Audience a specified group from

(emotional

evaluation),

within a defined public targeted for

connotative

evaluation)

object;

beliefs

three

of

cognitive (knowledge evaluation),


and

some

or

(neutral or neither agree nor

but also found on the Internet

behave

attitudes

(behavioral

influence

Baseline

Categorical Data

________________________________________________________________________
Baseline an initial measurement
against

which

all

subsequent

measures are compared

BRAD (1) British Rate and Data


measure (2) provides circulation and
advertising costs data

Behavioral Objective (1) an objective

that specifies the expected public


Campaign (Program) the planning,
relations

campaign

or

program
execution, and evaluation of a public

outcome

in

terms

of

specific
relations plan of action aimed at

behaviors; (2) a measure that is


solving a problem
actionable in that it is the behavior
Case Study Methodology an informal
requested of a target audience
research methodology that gathers
Belief a long-held evaluation of some
data on a specific individual or
object, usually determined on a basis
company

or

product

with

the

its occurrence; clusters of beliefs


analysis focused on understanding
yield attitudes
its

unique

qualities;

is

not

Benchmarking (Benchmark Study)


generalizable to other cases or
(1) a measurement technique that
populations
involves having an organization
Categorical Data measurement data
learn something about its own
that are defined by their association
practices, the practices of selected
with groups and are expressed in
others, and then compares these
terms of frequencies, percentages,
practices
and proportions (see: nominal and
Bivariate

Analysis

statistical
ordinal data)

examination

of

the

between two variables

relationship

Category

Coefficient Alpha

________________________________________________________________________
Category in content analysis the part

Circulation number of copies of a

of the system where the content

publication

as

(units of analysis) are placed; also

opposed to read)

distributed

(as

referred to as subjects or buckets

Closed-Ended Question a question

Causal Relationship a relationship

that requires participants to answer

between variables in which a change

selected

in one variable forces, produces, or

responses

brings about a change in another

agree, neither agree nor disagree,

variable

disagree, strongly disagree)

Census collection of data from every

Clustered

and
(e.g.,

Sample

predetermined
strongly

agree,

type

of

probability sample that involves first

person or object in a population


Central Tendency a statistic that

breaking

the

population

into

describes the typical or average case

heterogeneous subsets (or clusters),

in the distribution of a variable; see:

and then selecting the potential

mean, median, mode, range, standard

sample

deviation,

individual clusters

standardized

score,

at

random

from

the

Coefficient Alpha (
) a statistical test

variance, z-score
Characters a manifest unit of analysis

for a measurements reliability for

used in content analysis consisting of

interval and ratio data; also known as

individuals

Cronbachs coefficient alpha

or

roles

(e.g.,

occupations, roles, race)


Chi-Square (X2)

An

inferential

statistical test of significance for


categorical data (nominal or ordinal)

Cohort Survey

Communication Product

_______________________________________________________________________
Cohort Survey a type of longitudinal

identifying

the

communication

survey in which some specific group

programs and their communication

is studied over time according to

products utilized for each audience,

some criteria that stays the same

by determining the effectiveness of

(e.g., age = 21) while the samples

these programs and their products,

may differ

and by identifying gaps in the overall

Column Inches total length of an

existing communication program;

article if it were all one-column

uses accepted research techniques

measured in inches (or centimeters);

and

determines the total share of ink

following methodologies:

formal,

that a company or brand has

informal,

content

achieved

analysis, survey, in-depth interview,

Communication the process that deals

methodologies

case

(see

study,

the

focus group, experiment, secondary,

with the transmission and reception

historical, participant-observation)

of intentional messages that are a

Communication Product (Product)

part of a natural language system

the end result of the communication

(e.g., words, phrases, sentences,

product process resulting in the

paragraphs)

production and dissemination of a


a

brochure, media release, video news

systematic review and analysis of

release, web site, speech, and so

how effectively an

forth

Communication(s)

Audit

organization

communicates with all of its major


internal and external audiences by
identifying

these

audiences,

by

Communication(s) Research
5
Construct Validity
________________________________________________________________________
Communication(s) Research any

to be within 3% of the true

systematic study of the relationships

population answer; if 55% responded

and patterns that are developed when

positively, the confidence interval

people seek to share information

would be from 52% to 58%);

with each other

sometimes

Community Case Study an informal


methodology whereby the researcher

called

measurement

error
Confidence

Level

in

survey

takes an in-depth look at one or

methodology based on a random

several communities subsections of

sampling technique, the amount of

communities

an

confidence we can place on our

organization has an interest by

confidence interval (typically set at

impartial, trained researchers using a

95%, or 95 out of 100 cases truly

mix

research

representing the population under

participant-

study, with no more than 5 cases out

of

in

which

informal

methodologies

(i.e.,

observation, role-playing, secondary

of

analysis,

population);

content

analysis,

interviewing, focus groups)


Confidence

Interval

in

100

misrepresenting
sometimes

that
called

sampling error
survey

Construct Validity a statistically

methodology based on a random

tested form of measurement validity

sampling technique, the range of

that

values or measurement within which

dimensionality of a measure

a population parameter is estimated


to fall (e.g., for a large population we
might expect answers to a question

seeks

to

establish

the

Content Analysis
6
Convenience Sample
________________________________________________________________________
Content Analysis (1) an informal
research

methodology

measurement
systematically

(and

tool)
tracks

that
messages

questions;

sometimes

called

funnel question.
Contingency Table a statistical table
for

displaying

the

variables

relationship

(written, spoken, broadcast) and

between

translates them into quantifiable

frequencies

form via a systematic approach to

sometimes called a cross tabulation

defining message categories via

table or cross tab

and

in

terms

of

percentages;

specified units of analysis; (2) the

Continuous Data data that measured

action of breaking down message

on a continuum, usually as interval

content

data

into

predetermined

components (categories) to form a


judgment capable of being measured

Convenience
probability

Sample
sample

where

nonthe

of

respondents or objects are chosen

measurement validity that is based

because of availability (e.g., man on

on other researchers or experts

the street); a type of non-probability

evaluations of the

sample in which who ever happens

Content

Validity

form

measurement

to be available at a given point in

items contained in a measure


Contingency Question a survey

time is included in the sample;

question that is to be asked only to

sometimes called a haphazard or

some respondents, determined by

accidental sample

their

responses

to

some

other

Correlation
7
Cyber Image Analysis
________________________________________________________________________
Correlation (r) a statistical test that

against

others

known

to

have

examines the relationships between

specified relationships with what is

variables (may be either categorical

being measured; the highest form of

or continuous)

measurement validity

Correlation Coefficient a measure of


association

that

describes

the

direction and strength of a linear

Crossbreak Analysis a categorical


analysis that compares the frequency
of responses in individual cells

relationship between two variables;

Cross-Sectional Survey a survey

usually measured at the interval or

based on observations representing a

ratio

single point in time; see: snapshot

data

level

(e.g.,

Pearson

Product Moment Coefficient, r), but


can be measured at the nominal or

survey
Cumulative Scale (Guttman Scale/

ordinal level (e.g., Spearman-Rho)

Scalogram) a measurement scale

Cost Per Thousand (CPM) cost of

that assumes that when you agree

advertising for each 1,000 homes

with a scale item you will also agree

reacted by the media

with items that are less extreme

Covariation a criterion for causation

Cyber Image Analysis (1) the

whereby the dependent variable

measurement of Internet content via

takes on different values depending

chat rooms or discussion groups in

on the independent variable

cyberspace regarding a client or

Criterion Variable the variable the


research wants to predict to
Criterion-Related Validity a form of
validity that compares one measure

product

or

measurement

topic;
a

(2)

clients

everywhere on the Internet

the
image

Data
8
Descriptive Research
________________________________________________________________________
subgroups (e.g., age, sex, income-

level, race, educational-level, place


Data

the

observations

or
of residence, occupation)

measurements

taken

when

public

relations

Demographic
evaluating

Data

data

that

differentiates between groups of


campaign or program (see: nominal,
people or things (e.g., sex, race,
ordinal, interval, ratio)
income)
Deduction a philosophical logic in
Dependent Variable the variable that
which

specific

expectations

or
is measured or collected

hypotheses are developed or derived


Depth

Interview

an

extensive,

on the basis of general principles


probing,
Delphi

Technique

open-ended,

largely

research
unstructured

interview,

usually

methodology (usually survey or


conducted in person or by telephone,
interview) where the researcher tries
in which respondents are encouraged
to forecast the future based on
to talk freely and in great detail
successive waves of interviews or
about given subjects; also known as
surveys with a panel of experts in a
an in-depth interview
given field as a means of building a
Descriptive Research a form of
consensus of expert opinion and
research that gathers information in
thought relating to particular topics
such a way as to paint a picture of
or issues
what people think or do
Demographic Analysis analysis of a
population in terms of special social,
political, economic, and geographic

Descriptive Statistics
9
Ethnographic Research
________________________________________________________________________
Descriptive Statistics the reduction

journalistic copy intended to make

and simplification of the numbers

the reader think it originates from an

representing

independent source (also knows as

research,

to

ease

an advertorial)

interpreting the results


Descriptive Survey a type of survey

Environmental Scanning a research

that collects in quantitative form

technique

basic opinions or facts about a

developments in any area or field by

specified population or sample; also

carrying out a systematic review of

known as a public opinion poll

what appears in professional, trade,

Double-Barreled Question a question

for

tracking

new

or government publications

that attempts to measure two things

Equal Appearing Interval Scale a

at the same time; a source of

measurement scale with predefined

measurement error

values

associated

statement;

also

with
known

each
as

Thurstone Scale
Editorial (1) the content of a
Equivalent Advertising Value (AVE)
publication written by a journalist, as
equivalent cost of buying space
distinct from advertising content
devoted to editorial content.
which

is

determined

by

an
Ethnographic Research an informal

advertiser; (2) an article expressing


research methodology that relies on
the editorial policy of a publication
the tools and techniques of cultural
of a matter of interest (also known as
anthropologists and sociologists to
a leader or leading article);
obtain a better understanding of how
(3)space in a publication bought by
an

advertiser

that

includes

Evaluation Research
10
Face Validity
________________________________________________________________________
individuals and groups function in

Explanatory Research a form of

their natural settings (see also:

research that seeks to explain why

participant-observation)

people say, think, feel, and act the

Evaluation Research a form of

way they do; concerned primarily

research that determines the relative

with the development of public

effectiveness of a public relations

relations theory about relationships

campaign or program by measuring

and

program outcomes (changes in the

deductive

processes;

are

typically

levels of awareness, understanding,

Exploratory Research a form of

attitudes, opinions, and/or behaviors

research that seeks to establish basic

of a targeted audience or public)

attitudes, opinions, and behavior

against a predetermined set of

patterns or facts about a specific

objectives that initially established

population or sample; are typically

the level or degree of change desired

inductive and involve

Events (1) a community affairs or

extensive

probing of the population or sample


or data

sponsorship output
Experimental Methodology a formal

research methodology that imposes


Face Validity a form of measurement
strict artificial limits or boundaries
validity

that

is

based

on

the

knowledge

of

the

on the research in order to establish


researchers
some causal relationship between
concept being measured; the lowest
variables

of

interest;

is

not
form of measurement validity

generalizable to a larger population

Facilitator
11
F-Test
________________________________________________________________________
Facilitator an individual who leads a

uses a group approach to gain an in-

focus group; also known as a

depth understanding of a client,

moderator

object,

Factor Analysis a statistical tool that


allows

researchers

to

test

the

or

product;

is

not

generalizable to other focus groups


or populations

dimensionality of their measures;

Formal Methodology (1) a set of

used to assess a measures construct

research methodologies that allows

validity

the researcher to generalize to a

Field Study Methodology a formal

larger audience but often fails to gain

research methodology that imposes

in-depth understanding of the client,

less

or

object, or product; (2) a set of

boundaries on the research in order

methodologies that follow scientific

to test some causal relationships

or social scientific method; (3) a set

found in experimental research and

of methodologies that are deductive

generalize

in nature

restrictions

them

or

to

limits

larger

Frequency a descriptive statistic that

population
Filter Question a question which is

represents the number of objects

used to move a respondent from one

being counted (e.g., number of

question to another; a question that

advertisements, number of people

is used to remove a respondent from

who attend an event, number of

a survey or interview; also known as

media release pickups)


F-Test

a funnel question
Focus

Group

Methodology

an

informal research methodology that

an

significance
Analysis

inferential
associated

of

Variance

test

of
with

(AOV)

Funnel Question
12
Hypothesis
________________________________________________________________________
Funnel Question a question used in a

Guttman

Scale

(Cumulative

questionnaire or schedule that moves

Scale/Scalogram) a measurement

an interviewer or respondent from

scale

one part of a survey to another (e.g.,

unidimensionality

Are you a registered voter? If the

people, when faced with a choice

respondent

will also choose items less intense

says

yes,

certain

questions are asked; if not, then

that

communication

includes

the

explicit

research methodology that examines


the causes and effects of past events

and

Hypothesis an expectation about the

intended

nature of things derived from theory;

proposed

a prediction of how an independent

strategy

an

audience/receiver,

that

Historical Methodology an informal

statement of intentions that supports


a

(2)

G
(Objective)

and

(1)

than the one chosen

other questions are asked)

Goal

assumes

measurable outcome (or desired

variable

changes

level of change in that audience),

variable;

formally

stated

and a specific timeframe for that

predication

change to occur

purchase more of X than females),

(e.g.,

dependent

males

as

a
will

Gross Rating Points (GRP) measures

but tested via the null hypothesis

of weight or readership or audience

(males and females will not differ in

equivalent to audience exposure

their

among one percent of the population


(see also: Targeted Gross Rating
Points [TGRP])

purchases

of

X)

Hypothesis Testing
13
Inferential Research
________________________________________________________________________
Hypothesis

Testing

determining

compares

two

levels

whether the expectations that a

independent

variable

hypothesis represents are, indeed,

continuous

measured

found in the real world

variable

of
against

an
a

dependent

Independent Variable the variable

against which the dependent variable


Image Research a research program
is tested
or campaign that

systematically
In-Depth Interview Methodology an

studies peoples perceptions toward


informal research methodology in
an organization, individual, product,
which

an

individual

interviews

or service; sometimes referred to as a


another in a one-on-one situation;
reputation study
see depth interview
Impressions the number of people
Induction a philosophical logic in
who might have had the opportunity
which

general

principles

are

to be exposed to a story that has


developed

from

specific

appeared in the media; also known


observations
as opportunity to see; usually
Inferential

Research

statistical

refers to the total audited circulation


analyses that test if the results
of a publication or the audience
observed for a sample are indicative
reach of a broadcast vehicle
of the population; the presentation of
Incidence the frequency with which a
information that allows us to make
condition or event occurs in a given
judgments whether the research
time and population or sample
Independent t-test an inferential
statistical test of significance that

Inferential Statistics
14
Instrumental Error
________________________________________________________________________
results

observed

in

sample

generalize to the population from

public

relations

campaign

or

program.
Inputs the research information and

which the sample was drawn


Inferential Statistics statistical tests

data from both internal and external

that allow a researcher to say within

sources applied in the conception,

a certain degree of confidence

approval, and design phases of the

whether variables or groups truly

input stage of the communication

differ in their response to a public

production process

relations message (see: Analysis of


Variance,

Chi-Square,

Bivariate

Inquiry Research a formal or


informal research methodology that

Correlation, Correlation, Regression,

employs

systematically

t-test)

analysis,

survey

Informal Methodology a research

content

methodology,

and/or interviewing techniques to

methodology that does not allow the

study the range and

types of

researcher to generalize to a larger

unsolicited

inquiries

that

audience

organization

may

but

gains

in-depth

receive

an
from

understanding of the client, object,

customers, prospective customers, or

or product

other target audience groups

Informational Objective an objective

Instrumental Error in measurement,

that establishes what information a

error

target audience should know or the

measuring instrument was poorly

degree of change in knowledge

written

levels after the conclusion of a

that

occurs

because

the

Interval Data
15
Known Group t-test
________________________________________________________________________
Interval Data measurement data that

individuals are deliberately selected

are defined on a continuum and

for inclusion in the sample by the

assumed to have equal spacing

researcher because they have special

between data points (see interval and

knowledge, position, characteristics

ratio

or

data);

temperature

examples
scale,

include

standardized

represent

other

relevant

dimensions of the population that are


deemed important to study; also

intelligence test scores


Interview Schedule a guideline for

known as a purposive sample

asking questions in person or over

the telephone
Key

Performance

(Performance

Issues Research a formal or informal


Result) the desired end effect or
research

methodology

that
impact of a program of campaign

systematically studies public policy


performance
questions of the day, with the chief
Known Group t-test an inferential
focus on those public policy matters
statistical test of significance that
whose definition and contending
compares the results for a sampled
positions are still evolving
group

on

some

continuous

Items a manifest unit of analysis used


measurement

dependent

in content analysis consisting an


against a known value
entire

message

itself

(e.g.,

an

advertisement, story, press release)


J
Judgmental Sample a type of nonprobability

sample

in

which

variable

KR-20
16
Manifest Content
________________________________________________________________________
KR-20 a reliability statistic for
nominal-

or

ordinal-level

measurement; also known as Kuder-

or objects that is observed or


measured over time (e.g., multiple
snapshot samples)

Richardson Formula 20

Mail Survey a survey technique

Latent Content from content analysis,

whereby a questionnaire is sent to a

an analysis of the underlying idea,

respondent via the mail (or Internet)

thesis, or theme of content; the

and the respondent self-administers

deeper meanings that are intended or

the questionnaire and then sends it

perceived in a message

back
interval-level

Mall Intercept Research a special

measurement scale that requires

type of person-to-person surveying

people to respond to statements on a

in which in-person interviewing is

set

conducted

Likert

Scale

of

an

predetermined

reactions,

by

approaching

usually strongly agree, agree, neither

prospective participants as they stroll

agree nor disagree, disagree, strongly

through shopping centers or malls; a

disagree; must possess an odd

non-probability form of sampling

number of reaction words or phrases;

Manifest Content (1) from content

also

called

summated

ratings

method because the scale requires


at least two, if not three, statements
per measurement dimension
Longitudinal Survey a type of survey
that consists of different individuals

analysis, an analysis of the actual


content of a message exactly as it

Market Research
17
Median
________________________________________________________________________
appears as opposed to latent content
that must be inferred from messages
Market Research any systematic

Mean a descriptive statistic of central


that

describes

which a measurement scale actually


measures

what

it

believed

to

measure (see: face validity, content

study of buying or selling behavior

tendency

Measurement Validity the extent to

the

validity, construct validity, criterionrelated validity)

average of a set of numbers on a

Media includes newspapers, business

continuum; also called average;

and consumer magazines and other

(2) the process of applying a precise

publications, radio and television,

number or metric, which is both

the Internet; company reports, news

valid and reliable, to the evaluation

wires,

of some performance

brochures; Internet websites and

Measurement (1) a way of giving an

government

reports

and

discussion groups

dimension,

Media Evaluations the systematic

generally by comparison to some

appraisal of a companys reputation,

standard;

products or services, or those of its

activity

precise

usually

done

in

quantifiable or numerical manner


Measurement Error for surveys, see
confidence interval
Measurement Reliability the extent

competitors, as measured by their


presence in the media
Median a descriptive statistic of
central

tendency

indicating

the

to which a measurement scale

midpoint in a series of data, the point

measures the same thing over time

above and below which 50 percent

(see: coefficient alpha, test-retest

of the data values fall

reliability, split-half reliability)

Mention Prominence
18
Network Analysis
________________________________________________________________________
Mention Prominence an indication of

Message Strength trend analysis

how prominent a company, product,

factor that measures how strongly

or issue was mentioned in the media,

message about a client or product or

typically measured in percent of

topic was communicated

article and position within the output

Mode a descriptive statistic of central

(e.g., headline, above the fold, first

tendency

indicating

the

most

three minutes)

frequently

occurring,

the

most

Mentions counts of incidents of a

typical, value in a data series

company or product or person

Moderator an individual who leads a

appears in the media, one mention

focus group; also known as a

constitutes a media placement

facilitator

Message Content (1) the verbal,

Motivational Objective an objective

visual, and audio elements of a

that establishes the desired level of

message; (2) the material from

change

which

specific attitudes or beliefs after a

content

analyses

are

conducted; (3) a trend analysis factor


that measures what, if any, of

in

target

audiences

public relations campaign


Multivariate Analysis an inferential

actually

or descriptive statistic that examines

contained in the media (see also:

the relationship among three or more

message content analysis)

variables

planned

messages

are

Message Content Analysis analysis of


media

coverage

of

messages
Network Analysis a formal or

regarding a client or product or topic


informal
on key issues

research

method

that

Neutral Point
19
Null Hypothesis
________________________________________________________________________
examines how individuals or units or

an equal change of being selected for

actors relate to each other in some

observation or measurement
Nonverbal

systematic way

Communication

that

Neutral Point in attitude measurement

aspect of the communication that

scales a point midway between

deals with the transmission and

extremes;

scales

reception of messages that are not a

usually defined as neutral or

part of a natural language system

neither agree nor disagree

(e.g., visual, spoken [as opposed to

in

Likert-like

Nominal Data measurement data that


are simple categories in which items

verbal], environmental)
Normal Curve measurement data

are different in name only and do not

reflecting

possess any ordering; data that are

distribution of data points or cases

mutually exhaustive and exclusive;

based on interval- or ratio-level data

the simplest or lowest of all data;

that are normally distributed and

categorical data; example: male or

error

female, where neither is seen as

parametric data sets have their own

better or larger than the other

normally distributed data that fall

Nonparametric Statistics inferential


and descriptive statistics based on
categorical data

free;

the

all

hypothetical

continuous

or

under its specific normal curve


Null Hypothesis the hypothesis of no
difference that is formally tested in a

Non-Probability Sample a sample

research campaign or program; its

drawn from a population whereby

rejection is the test of the theory

respondents or objects do not have

Objective
20
Outcomes
________________________________________________________________________
Opportunities to See (OTS) the

number

of

times

particular

Objective (1) a measurable outcome in


audience has the potential to view a
three

forms:

informational
message, subject or issue; also

(cognitive),

motivational
known as impressions

(attitudinal/belief),

behavioral
Ordinal Data measurement data that

(actionable);

(2)

an

explicit
are categories in which items are

statement of intentions that supports


different in name and possess an
a communication strategy, and, to be
ordering of some sort; data that are
measurable, includes an intended
mutually exhaustive and exclusive
audience/public, a proposed change
and

ordered;

categorical

data;

in a communication effect, a precise


example:

income as categories of

indication of the amount or level of


under $25K, $26K$50K, $51K
change and a specific timeframe for
$75K, $76K$100K, over $100K
the change to occur
Outcomes (1) quantifiable changes in
Omnibus Survey an all purpose
awareness,
national

consumer

poll

knowledge,

attitude,

usually
opinion, and behavior levels that

conducted on a regular schedule


occur as a result of a public relations
(once a week or every other week)
program or campaign; (2) an effect,
by major market research firms; also
consequence, or impact of a set or
called piggyback or shared-cost
program of communication activities
surveys.
or products, and may be either shortOpinion a verbalized or written
term (immediate) or long term
evaluation of some object

Outgrowth
21
Panel Survey
________________________________________________________________________
Outgrowth the culminate effect of all
communication

programs

and

Outtake (1) measurement of what


audiences have understood and/or

products on the positioning of an

heeded

or

responded

to

organization in the minds of its

communication products call to

stakeholders or publics

seek further information from PR

Output (1) what is generated as a

messages prior to measuring an

result of a PR program or campaign

outcome; (2) audience reaction to the

that impacts on a target audience or

receipt of a communication product,

public to act or behave in some way

including favorability of the product,

this is deemed important to the

recall and retention of the message

researcher

embedded

(also

known

as

in

the

product,

and

judgmental sample); (2) the final

whether the audience heeded or

stage of a communication product

responded to a call for information

production process resulting in the

or action within the message

production and dissemination of a

communication product (brochure,


Paired t-test an inferential statistical
media release, web site, speech,
test of significance that compares
etc.);

(3)

the

number

of
data that are collected twice on the

communication products or services


same sample
resulting from a communication
Panel Survey (1) a type of survey that
production

process,

the

number
consists of the same individuals or

distributed

and/or

the

number
objects that is observed or measured

reaching a targeted audience


over time; (2) a type of survey in
which a group of individuals are

Parameter
22
Performance Measure
________________________________________________________________________
deliberately recruited by a research

Percentage a descriptive statistic

special

based on categorical data; defined as

demographic characteristics for the

the frequency count for a particular

express purpose of being interviewed

category

more than once over a period of time

frequency count; example: 10 males

for various clients on a broad array

out of 100 people = 10%

firm

because

of

their

in

by

the

total

Percentage Point the number that a

of different topics or subjects


Parameter

divided

sampling,

characteristic of a population that is

percentage is increased or decreased


Performance the act of carrying-out,
doing, executing, or putting into

of interest
Parametric Statistics inferential and
descriptive

statistics

based

on

effect; a deed, task, action, or


activity is a unit of a program of
performance

continuous data
Participant-Observation an informal

Performance Indicator a sign or

research methodology where the

parameter that, if tracked over time,

researcher takes an active role in the

provides information about the on-

life

going results of a particular program

of

an

organization

or

community, observes and records


interactions, and then analyzes those

Percent of Change a measure of

coverage

or

Performance Measure is a number


that shows the exact extent to which

interactions

increase

of performance or campaign

decrease

of

media

a result was achieved

Performance Result
23
Program
________________________________________________________________________
(Key

Probability Sample a sample drawn at

Performance) the desired end

random from a population such that

effect or impact of a program of

all possible respondents or objects

campaign performance

have an equal chance of being

Performance

Result

Performance Target a time-bounded


and measurable commitment toward

selected

for

observation

or

measurement
Probe Question a question used in a

achieving a desired result


Periodicity a bias found in sampling

questionnaire

or

schedule

that

due to the way in which the items or

requires the participant to explain an

respondents are chosen; example:

earlier response, often in the form of

newspapers may differ by being

why do you think this?

daily, weekly, weekday only, and so

Product (Communication Product)


the end result of the communication

forth
Poll (1) a form of survey research that

product process resulting in the

focuses more on immediate behavior

production and dissemination of a

than attitudes; (2) a very short

brochure, media release, video news

survey-like

release, web site, speech, and so

method

whose

questionnaire asks only very short

forth

and closed-ended questions

Program (Campaign) the planning,

Position Papers print output

execution, and evaluation of a public

Positioning trend analysis factor that

relations plan of action aimed at

measures how a client or product or


topic was positioned in the media
(e.g., leader, follower)

solving a problem

Prominence of Mention
24
Push Poll
________________________________________________________________________
Prominence

of

Mention

trend

relations

campaign

or

program

analysis factor that measures how

selects specific targeted audiences in

prominently a client or product or

an attempt to influence it regarding a

topic was mentioned and where that

company,

mention occurred (e.g., headline, top

individual

of the fold, what part of a broadcast)

product,

issue,

or

Public Opinion Poll a type of survey

Proportion a descriptive statistic

that collects basic opinions or facts

based on categorical data; defined as

about a specified population or

the percentage as made part of one

sample; also known as a descriptive

(1); example: 10 males out of 100

survey

people are 10 hundredths of the of

Purposive Sample a non-probability


sample in which individuals are

the sample
Psychographic Research research

deliberately selected for inclusion

focusing on a population or samples

based on their special knowledge,

non-demographic

position, characteristics, or relevant

traits

and

characteristics, such as personality


type, life-style, social roles, values,
attitudes, and beliefs

dimensions of the population


Push Poll a survey technique in which
an interviewer begins by acting as if

Public (1) a group of people who have

the telephone call is a general survey

consequences on an organization or

but then asks the respondent a

affected by the consequences of

question

organizational decisions; (2) a group

behaviors or outcomes of a person or

of people from which the public

product

implying

questionable

Q-Sort
25
Range
________________________________________________________________________
participant; see also: funnel and

probe questions
Q-Sort a measurement instrument that
Questionnaire

measurement

focuses on respondent beliefs by


instrument

that

questions

and

contains

exact

asking them to sort through piles of


measures

an

opinion statement and sort them into


interviewer or survey researcher uses
piles on an 11-point continuum
to survey through the mail, Internet,
usually bounded by most-like-me
in person, or via the telephone; may
to most-unlike-me
be closed-ended and open-ended, but
Qualitative Research usually refers to
typically

employs

more

closed-

studies that are somewhat to totally


ended questions.
subjective, but nevertheless in-depth,
Quota Sample a type of nonusing

probing,

open-ended,
probability sample that draws its

response

format

or

reflects

an
sample based on a percentage or

ethnomethodological orientation
quota from the population and stops
Quantitative Research usually refers
sampling when that quota is met; a
to studies that are highly objective
non-probability sample that attempts
and projectable, using closed-ended,
to have the same general distribution
forced-choice

questionnaires;
of population characteristics as in the

research that

relies

heavily on
sample

statistics and numerical measures


R

Question a statement or phrase used in


a questionnaire or schedule that

Range a descriptive central tendency

elicits either an open- or closed-

statistics

that

expresses

the

ended response from a research

difference between the highest and

Ratio Data
26
Response Rate
________________________________________________________________________
lowest scores in the data set;

Regression (REGR) an inferential

example: responses to a question on

statistical test of significance that

a 1 to 5 Likert-like scale where all

predicts

reaction categories were used would

(measured)

yield a range of 4 (5 minus 1)

independent variables that may be

Ratio Data measurement data that are


defined on a continuum and possess

dependent

variable

outcomes

for

either categorical (e.g., bivariate) or


continuous (interval) in nature

an absolute zero point; examples:

Reliability general: the extent to

number of children, a bank account,

which results would be consistent, or

absolute lack of heat (0o Kelvin =

replicable, if the research were

459.67o or 273.15C)

conducted a number of times; see

Reach refers to the scope or range of

also measurement reliability

distribution and thus coverage that a

Research the systematic effort before

given communication product has in

(formative research) or during and/or

after

targeted

audience

group;

(summative

or

evaluative

broadcasting, the net unduplicated

research) a communication activity

(also called duplicated) radio or

aimed at discovering and collecting

TV

or

the facts or opinions pertaining to an

commercials as measured for a

identified issue, need, or question;

specific time period

may be formal or informal

audience

for

programs

Readership Number of people who

Response

Rate

from

survey

actually read each issue of a

methodology,

publication, on average

respondents who actually completed


an interview

the

number

of

Sample
27
Secondary Methodology
________________________________________________________________________
variables; also known as a scatter

diagram or scatterplot
Sample a group of people or objects
Schedule (1) the timeline on which a
chosen from a larger population (see:
public

relations

program

or

probability sample, non-probability


campaign is conducted; (2) a list of
sample; convenience sample; panel
questions, usually open-ended, used
survey;

longitudinal

survey;
in

focus

group

and

in-depth

snapshot survey)
interviews to gather data
Sampling Error for surveys, see
Screener Question one of several
confidence level
questions

usually

asked

at

the

Scale a measurement instrument


beginning of an interview or survey
consisting of attitude or belief items
to

determine

if

the

potential

that reflect an underlying structure


respondent is eligible to participate
toward some attitude or belief object
in the study; see also funnel
Scalogram

(Guttman
question

Scale/Cumulative

Scale)

a
Secondary Methodology an informal

measurement scale that assumes (a)


research methodology that examines
unidimensionality

and

(b)

that
extant

data

in

order

to

draw

people, when faced with a choice


conclusions; a systematic re-analysis
will also choose items less intense
of a vast array of existing data; often
than the one chosen
used

in

benchmarking

Scattergram a descriptive statistics


benchmark studies
based

on

continuous

data

that

graphically demonstrated how data


are

distributed

between

two

and

Semantic Differential
28
Skip Interval
________________________________________________________________________
Semantic Differential an attitude

of outputs or opportunities to see

measure that asks respondents to

(OTS) is devoted to a client or

evaluate an attitude object based on

product; also known as share of

bipolar

coverage

adjectives

or

phrases
continuum

Simple Random Sample a type of

represented as consisting of an odd

probability sample in which numbers

number of intervals; developed by

are assigned to each member of a

Osgood, Suci, and Tannenbaum

population, a random set of numbers

Semantic Space the idea that people

is generated, and then only those

separated

by

can evaluate an attitude object along

members

having

the

random

some spatial continuum

numbers are included in the sample

Share of Ink (SOI) measurement of

Situation Analysis an impartial, often

the total press/magazine coverage

third-party assessment of the public

found in articles or mentions devoted

relations

to a particular industry or topic as

problems, or opportunities, that an

analyzed to determine what percent

organization may be facing at a

of outputs or opportunities to see

given point in time

(OTS) is devoted to a client or

Share of Voice (SOV) measurement


total

public

affairs

Skip Interval the distance between


people selected from a population

product

of

and/or

coverage

devoted

to

based
usually

on

systematic

defined

as

sampling;
the

total

to

population divided by the number of

topic

as

people to be sampled (e.g., for a

analyzed to determine what percent

sample of 100 people to be drawn

radio/television
particular

coverage

industry

or

Snapshot Survey
29
Statistical Significance
________________________________________________________________________
from a population of 10,000 people,

receives a part of the measure and

the

the second segment receives the rest

skip

interval

would

be

100/10,000

100

individuals

Standard Deviation (
) a descriptive

skipped

between

selected

statistic of central tendency which

participants)

indexes

the

variability

of

Snapshot Survey a type of survey that

distribution; the range from the mean

consists of individuals or objects that

within which approximately 34% of

is observed or measured once; see

the cases fall, provided the values

also: cross-sample survey

are distributed in a normal curve

Snowball Sample a type of nonprobability

sample

in

Standardized Score (Z-Score) a

which

descriptive

statistic

individuals who are interviewed are

continuous

data

asked to suggest other individuals

individual scores based on their

for further interviewing

standard deviations from the group

Sources Mentioned trend analysis


factor that measures who was quoted
in media coverage; also known as
quoteds

based

that

on

expresses

mean; range of scores is usually


3.00 to +3.00
Statistical Significance refers to the
degree

to

which

relationships

Speaking Engagements print or

observed in a sample can be

broadcast or Internet communication

attributed to sampling error or

product output

measurement error alone; expressed

Split-Half Reliability a test for a

in terms of confidence that the

measures reliability where a sample

relationships are due to error X% of

is randomly split and one segment

the time (e.g., 5%) expressed in

Stratified Sample
30
Targeted Gross Rating Points
________________________________________________________________________
terms of the confidence that we have

Symbols/Words a manifest unit of

that the results are due to what was

analysis used in content analysis

measured X% of the time (e.g., 95%

consisting of specific words (e.g.,

confident)

pronouns, client name, logotypes)

Stratified

Sample

type

of

probability sample that involves first

that are counted


Systematic

Sample

type

of

breaking the total population into

probability sample in which units in

homogenous subsets (or strata), and

a population are selected from an

then selecting the potential sample at

available list at a fixed interval after

random from the individual strata;

a random start

example: stratify on race would

require breaking the population into


Target Audience a very specific
racial strata and then randomly
audience

differentiated

from

sampling within each strata


audience by some measurable
Survey

Methodology

formal
characteristic or attribute (e.g., sports

research methodology that seeks to


fishermen)
gather

data

and

analyze

a
Targeted Gross Rating Points (TGRP)

populations or samples attitudes,

beliefs,

and

opinions

Gross

Rating

Points

(GRP)

(see
targeted to a particular group or

longitudinal, panel, cohort, snapshot


target audience
survey); data are gather in-person or
telephone (face-to-face), or selfadministered via the mail, email, or
fax

Test-Retest Reliability
31
Type of Article
________________________________________________________________________
Test-Retest Reliability a test for a
measures reliability by testing the
same sample with the same measure

topic; typically defined as positive,


neutral/balanced, or negative
Trend

Analysis

tracking

of

performance over the course of a PR

over time
Themes a latent unit of analysis used

campaign

or

program;

survey

in content analysis that measures an

method whereby a topic or subject is

underlying theme or thesis (e.g.,

examined over a period of time

sexuality, violence, credibility)

through

Throughputs

the

development,

creative, and production activities


(writing, editing, creative design,

repeated

independently

surveys

selected

of

samples

(snapshot or cross-sectional survey)


t-test an inferential statistical test of

printing, fabrication, etc.) as part of

significance

the

measurement dependent variables

throughput

stage

of

continuous

communication product production

against

process

variable; used when total number of

Time/Space Measures a manifest unit

for

bivariate

observations are less than 100 (see:

of analysis used in content analysis

paired

consisting of physically measurable

known group t-test)

units (e.g., column inches, size of

independent

t-test;

independent

t-test;

Type of Article (1) categories of a

photographs, broadcast time for a

publication

such

as

story)

review,

by-lined

product
article,

Tone trend and content analysis factor

editorial, advertorial, feature

that measures how a target audience

story; (2) trend analysis factor that

feels about the client or product or

measures the nature of client or

Unit of Analysis
32
Z-Score
________________________________________________________________________
product or topic coverage (e.g.,

extent to which individual scores in a

column inches, broadcast time)

data set differ from each other; the


sum

of

the

squared

standard

deviations from the mean ()


Unit of Analysis the specification of
what is to be counted in content

analysis methodology; consist of

Word/Symbol from content analysis,

symbols/words,

time/space

a unit of analysis

measures, characters, themes, and

items; may be manifest (observable)


Z-Score (Standardized Score) a
or latent (attitudinal)
descriptive statistic of central
Univariate Analysis the examination
tendency that takes data from
of only one variable at a time
different types of scales and
V

standardizes them as areas under the

Validity general: the extent to which a


research project actually measures
what it is intended, or purports to
measure; see also measurement
validity
Value

an

expectation,

underlying
usually

cultural

directs

an

individuals beliefs
Variance (
2) a descriptive statistic of
central tendency that measures the

normal curve for comparison


purposes

About the Commission on Public Relations Research & Evaluation


The Commission on Public Relations Measurement & Evaluation is an initiative of the
Institute for Public Relations (IPR), the only independent foundation in the public
relations field. Located on the campus of the University of Florida, IPR sponsors
research, competitions, awards, lectures & publications - all dedicated to improving the
professional practice of public relations around the world.
Commission Mission

To be the leading provider of information about & advocate for PR and related
communication research & evaluation.

To be the first group PR professionals turn to when they require definitive


answers on PR & related communication research & measurement methods &
standards.

To generate consensus on research & measurement standards, creating


authoritative papers on critical issues in the PR research field.

To ensure the broadest possible dissemination of its findings.

To actively promulgate the need for & value of research & evaluation in public
relations.

Commission Objectives

To be the leading arbiter of accepted standards for research & measurement that
relate specifically to public relations, as well as for related communication
disciplines that may apply or be linked to public relations programs and activities.

To be the instigators of original research to develop these standards.

To be proponents of the use of research in planning & evaluating public relations


& related communications activities.The Commission views itself as a credible
provider of PR & related communications research & evaluation information,
because it includes representatives of the four pillars of the PR profession:
o

the client sector

counseling firms

research firms

Academicians

The papers & other supporting materials provided by the Commission, and its own
research, seek to adhere to the highest standards of research methodology and apply them
in a very practical sense to real-life public relations planning, program development &
measurement experience. The Commission recognizes that broader use of research &
measurement in public relations can not only increase the effectiveness of public relations
but also raise its profile as a management discipline. The Commission will track its
success through number of requests for research and measurement white papers

generated by the Commission, sponsorship of original primary research projects,


Commissioner participation in various public relations forums (including award
adjudication, speeches, panel participation, and writing relevant columns) around the
world, and website usage and evaluation among the public relations community.
About the Institute for Public Relations (IPR)
IPR is the only independent foundation in the field of public relations dedicated to
research and education. Established by a group of senior public relations practitioners in
1956 as the Foundation for Public Relations Research and Education, IPR has
distinguished itself by pioneering involvement in the field of public relations. Through
publications, lectures, awards, symposia, professional development forums and other
programs, IPR has been at the leading edge of efforts to promote academic and
professional excellence and to build the professional body of knowledge.
Through the years, IPR has made impressive contributions to the sum and substance of
modern public relations. Our non-proprietary research has led to breakthroughs in
improving the teaching and the understanding of public relations.
IPR has supported more than 250 separate research projects covering everything from
what PR students should study to an analysis of how new technologies are affecting the
profession.
Besides covering basic operational costs, IPR's Annual Fund helps support:

Basic and applied research to build the professional body of knowledge.

The Commission on Public Relations Measurement and Evaluation, which seeks


to be the foremost provider of information about and advocate for public relations
and related communication research and evaluation. The Commission's mission is
to establish accepted standards for research and measurement that relate
specifically to public relations, as well as for related communications disciplines
that apply to public relations programs and activities.

Distinguished awards and competitions that serve as incentives for students and
scholars to build the body of knowledge in the field.

International symposia on issues of critical import to practitioners and educators.

The IPR Research and Education Newsletter, which lists PR research projects
underway, the latest PR studies, survey results, publications, and a calendar of
upcoming meetings of interest to PR executives, researchers and educators.

IPRs mission is to improve the effectiveness of organizations by advancing the


professional knowledge and practice of public relations through research and education.
Everything we do -- our publications, our awards, our competitions, our research -- is
open to students, educators and practitioners regardless of their organizational
affiliations.
Every year, IPR must raise the funds necessary to underwrite our operations and initiate
new projects and activities. All contributions are tax deductible. Those wishing to donate
may contact IPR at 352-392-0280

Publications by the Commission on Public Relations Measurement & Evaluation


All publications are available free of charge on IPRs web site at www.instituteforpr.com
Measurement Tree
There's a tree top, a tree of life, a tree house, a shoe tree, even a tree frog but the newest tree
phenomena is a Measurement Tree - a systematic new way to evaluate the effectiveness of
public relations programs.
Communication and PR: Made to Measure
By Fraser Likely
PR/Communication Performance Measurement Consultant
PR/C managers need to better manage their measurement activities. A generic performance
measurement management framework is presented - a framework that captures various levels
and categories of evaluation. The framework may be used by PR/C managers as they think
through the design of their own customized measurement framework or scorecard.
Copyright 2002
Public Relations Research for Planning and Evaluation
Resource Booklet Prepared By Walter K. Lindenmann, Ph.D.
Specialist in Public Relations Research and Measurement
Copyright 2001
Research Doesn't Have to Put You in the Poorhouse
By Dr. Walter K. Lindenmann, former head of research at Ketchum in New York.
Copyright 2001
The study outlines how to save money by using such inexpensive techniques as quick-tab polls,
piggy-back questions, secondary analysis, internet projects and intercept interviews.
A non-profit builds a Dashboard that belongs in every boardroom
The Habitat for Humanity case study
By Katharine Delahaye Paine & Dennis H. Bender
Copyright 2001
Toward an Understanding of How News Coverage and Advertising Coverage and
Advertising Impact Consumer Perceptions, Attitudes and Behaviour
By Bruce Jeffries-Fox
Copyright 2001
A comparison study of the impact of news coverage and advertising on perceptions, attitudes
and behavior. Examines the differences in effectiveness of media coverage and advertising over
a specific period of time at AT&T. The study identifies situations in which the two forms of
communications complement each other and when they undermine each other. It identifies ways
the two can be managed to gain the greatest efficiency and impact.

Selling PR Research Internally:


Changing the Mindset about Communications
By Lisa Richter and Walter G. Barlow
Copyright 2001
Based upon years of experience in the field, the study helps management leaders have a clearer
understanding of the role and value research offers the communication process.
Fun Things to do with Measurement
By Katharine D. Paine, president, Delahaye Medialink
Copyright 2001
Guidelines for Formative and Evaluative Research in Public Affairs
By James E. Grunig and Larissa A. Grunig
Copyright 2001
A Report for the Department of Energy Office of Science
Spotlight on 'Public Health'
A Benchmark Content Analysis of Press Coverage
For The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
By Dr. Walter K. Lindenmann
Copyright 2001
Measuring Public Relations Effectiveness For
The Dole Food Company and the Society for Nutrition Education
By Dr. Walter K. Lindenmann
Copyright 2001
Setting Measureable Public Relations Objectives
By Forrest W. Anderson and Linda Hadley
Copyright 1999
Uses case studies to describe how to tie precise objectives to measures of program success. Also
offers a series of key questions to help practitioners create more realistic and better-targeted
goals linked to organizational objectives.
Guidelines and Standards for Measuring and Evaluating PR Effectiveness
By Dr. Walter K. Lindenmann
Copyright 1997
Summarizes the ideas, thoughts and suggestions of an Institute for Public Relations special task
force seeking to set industry-accepted minimum criteria for evaluating PR outputs and
outcomes.

Other resources:
Primer of Public Relations Research
Copyright 2002

"Primer of Public Relations Research." Published by The Guilford Press, New York,
"Primer" provides easy to understand explanations of the complexities, methodologies and
terminology of PR research. Dr. Don Stacks, University of Miami, shows that public
relations research can be far easier and more affordable than most people think. Order
directly from the publisher or Amazon.com.
Psychology and Public Relations Today:
Annotated Bibliography of Recent and Significant Psychological Research of Import To
Public Relations Practitioners
By Nicholas DiFonzo and Elizabeth Toth
Copyright 2001
Underwritten by a generous grant from General Motors, this bibliography consists of recent
psychological research, reviews, and theoretical works that bear upon the work of the public
relations practitioner.
The Magic Communication Machine - Examining the Internet's Impact on Public
Relations, Journalism and The Public
By Donald K. Wright, Ph.D.
Copyright 2001
This comprehensive study, sponsored by The WORLDCOM Public Relations Group,
examines the Internet's impact on public relations, journalism and the public. It shows that
journalists feel the quality of their work has improved, with reporting made easier as a result
of the Internet and e-mail, and that e-mail has become the preferred medium for
communication between public relations people and journalists. The study also warns of the
growing concerns of abuse of information and data clutter.
Playing by the Rules:
Relationships with Online Users
By Mara E. Len-Ros, Ph.D. student
Winner of the 2000 Lindenmann Award
Copyright 2000
RATES (Rules-Appropiate Testing Evaluation Scale) and Implications for E-Commerce and
Portal Web sites.
Corporate Communications Policy Concerning The Internet
By Donald K. Wright, Ph.D.
Copyright 1998
Corporate Communications Policy Concerning The Internet:
A Survey of the Nation's Senior-Level Corporate Public Relations Officers.