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are:

Cross-sectional area Ac = 1.8 10 3 m 2

Mean core length l c = 0.6m

Gap length g = 2.3 10 3 m

N = 83 turns

Core:

Mean length lc ,

area Ac ,

permeability

N turns

Air gap

g

of fringing fields at the air gap and leakage flux. (a) Calculate the reluctance of the

core Rc and that of the gap R g . For a current of i = 1.5 A , calculate (b) the total

flux

Sol:

(a)

Ac = Ag = 1.8 10 3 m 2

Let

Rc =

lc

lc

=

=0A

wb

Ac u r u o Ac

Rg =

g

2.3 10 3

=

u o Ag 4 10 7 1.8 10 3

= 1.017 10 6 A

wb

(b)

=

NI

83 1.5

=

=

= 0.1224 10 3 wb

6

Rc + R g Rc + R g 1.017 10

(c)

e=N

d d

=

dt dt

= N = 83 0.1224 10 3 = 1.016 10 2 wb

(d)

QL =

L =

N 2 o Ag

N N 2 N 2 N 2

N2

=

=

=

=

=

=

F

g

i

F

R g

Rg

g

N

o Ag

1.016 10 2

=

= 0.6773 10 2 H = 6.773mH

i

1.5

Sol

(a):

Ac = Ag = 1.8 10 3 m 2

lc

lc

0.6

=

=

= 1.061 10 5 A

wb

Ac u r u o Ac 2500 4 10 7 1.8 10 3

(Rc = 1.597 10 5 A )

wb

g

2.3 10 3

=

= 1.017 10 6 A

Rg =

wb

u o Ag 4 10 7 1.8 10 3

Rc =

(b)

=

NI

83 1.5

=

=

= 1.10844 10 4 wb

Rc + R g Rc + R g ( 1.017 + 0.1062 ) 10 6

( = 1.059 10 4 wb )

(c)

= N = 83 1.10844 10 4 = 92 10 4 wb = 0.92 10 2 wb

( = 0.92 10 2 wb )

(d)

L=

0.92 10 2

=

= 0.613 10 2 H = 6.13mH

i

1.5

(L = 5.858mH)

1.3 Consider the magnetic circuit of Fig. 1.24 with the dimensions of Problem

1.1.Assuming infinite core permeability, calculate (a) the number of turns required

to achieve an inductance of 12 mH and (b) the inductor current which will result in

a core flux density of 1.0 T.

Figure 1.24

Sol :

part (a):

L=

= N L =

Rc =

N

i

lc

=0

Ac

F 0 Ag

F

F

F

F

=

=

=

=

lc

g

g

Rtot Rc + R g

g

0+

+

0 Ag

Ac 0 Ag

F = Ni =

L=

N i 0 Ag

g

N N N i 0 Ag N 2 0 Ac

=

=

i

i

g

g

N=

Lg

=

0 Ac

12 10 3 2.3 10 3

= 110 turns

4 10 7 1.8 10 3

part (b):

1.1

Ag = Ac

B g = Bc =

Ac

F = N i = H c lc + H g g

B=H

F=Ni=

F=

Bg

0

Bg

Bc

lc +

g

Bg

i = 0

N

g

=

Bc g

1 2.3 10 3

=

= 16.6

0 N 4 10 7 110

1.6

The magnetic circuit of Fig. 1.25 consists of a core and a moveable plunger of

width lp, each of permeability . The core has cross-sectional area Ac, and mean

length lc, The overlap area of the two air gaps Ag is a function of the plunger

position x and can be assumed to vary as

Ag = Ac 1

X 0

You may neglect any fringing fields at the air gap and use approximations

consistent with magnetic-circuit analysis.

a. Assuming that , derive an expression for the magnetic flux density in

the air gap Bg as a function of the winding current I and as the plunger position

is varied (0 x 0.8X0 ). What is the corresponding flux density in the core ?

b. Repeat part (a) for a finite permeability .

Figure 1.25

Sol :

part (a):

F = N i = 2 gH g + H c (l c + l p )

, B= H

F = N i = 2 gH g

Bc =

Ag

x

B g = B g 1

Bc =

A

X

c

0

Ac

, Hg =

NI

2g

= Bc Ac = B g Ag

part (b):

2 gH g + H c l c + l p = NI

Bg = 0 H g

F=Ni=

Ag

Ac

=

; B g Ag = Bc Ac

; Bc = H c

Bg

Bc

(l c + l p ) +

2g

B g (l c + l p )

Bg

+

2g

Ag

A

= Bg c

(l c + l p )

2g

Bg =

Ni

Ag

(l c + l p )

2 g Ac

+

0

Ni

x

1

(l c + l p )

X 0

2g

+

0

=

0

2 g +

N i 0

x

(l c + l p )

1

X 0

1.8

Fig 1.24

An inductor of the form of Fig 1.24 has dimensions:

Cross-sectional area Ac=3.6 cm 2

Mean core length lc=15cm

N= 75 turns

Assuming a core permeability of = 2100 0 and neglecting the effects of leakage

flux and fringing fieldscalculate the air-gap length required to achieve an inductance of

6.0mH

Sol

N 2 Ac

g = 0

L

4 10 7 75 2 3.6 10 4

lc =

6 10 3

1

2

15 10 = 4.17 mm

2100

1.9

Fig 1.26

The magnetic circuit of fig1.26 consists of magnetic material in a stack of height h. The

ings have inner radius Ri and outer radius Ro. Assume that the iron is of infinite

ermeability and neglect the effects of magnetic and fringing. For Ri=3.4cm

Ro=4.0cm h=2cm g=0.2cm calculate

a The mean core length lc and the core cross-sectional area Ac

b The reluctance of the core Rc and that of the gap Rg

N=65

c The inductance L

d Current I required to operate at an air-gap flux density of Bg=1.35T

e The corresponding flux linkages of the coil

Sol:

a lc = 2 ( Ro Ri ) g =3.568cm

Ac = ( Ro Ri )h = 1.2cm 2

g

0.2 10 2

A

=

= 1.33 10 7

7

4

0 Ac 4 10 1.2 10

wb

b R g =

Rc =

c L =

lc

=0

Ac

N2

= 0.317 mH

Rc + Rg

I=

B g Rc + R g Ac

N

= 33.1 A

e = NB g Ac =10.53mWb

sol :

( a)

l c = 2 ( R0 Ri ) g = 2 (4.0 3.4) 0.2 = 3.57cm

Ac = ( R0 R)h = (4.0 3.4) 2 = 1.2cm 2

(b)

g

0.2 10 2

=

= 1.33 10 7

7

4

u 0 Ac 4 10 1.2 10

u = 750u 0

Rg =

A / wb

RC =

lc

3.57 10 2

=

= 3.16 10 5

uAc 750 4 10 7 1.2 10 4

(c )

L=

(d )

I=

N2

= 0.311mH

Rc + R g

B g (Rc + R g )Ac

N

= 33.8 A

(e )

= NB g Ac = 65 1.35 1.2 = 10.5 mWb

A/ w

1.12 The inductor of fig.1.27 has a core of uniform circular cross-section of area Ac

mean length lc and relative permeability ur and an N-turn winding. Write an

expression for the inductance L.

Core:

mean length lc,

area Ac,

relative permeability ur

N-turm

coil

Figure 1.27

Sol:

Rc

+

F

Rg

F

(Rc + Rg )

Ac = Ag

F = N I

u = u0 ur

u A

N I u 0 Ag N I u 0 u r Ac

F

uA c

=F 0 g +F

=

+

R g + Rc

g

lc

g

lc

1

1

u

N

I

A

= 0 c

+

lc

g

u r

N u 0 N 2 Ac

=

=

l

I

I

g+ c

ur

L=

F = N I

u = u0 ur

=

u 0 Ag

N I u 0 Ag N I u 0 u r Ac

uA

F

=F

+F c =

+

R g + Rc

g

lc

g

lc

Ag Ac

= u0 N I

+

g

lc

ur

L=

2

N u 0 N Ag u 0 N 2 Ac

=

=

+

lc

I

I

g

ur

Ac = 1.0cm 2

l c = 15cm

g = 0.8mm

N = 480turns

Neglecting leakage and fringing and assuming r = 1000

the inductance.

Sol:

L = N

then

L=

Rc + R g =

and

N i

Rc + R g

lc

g

+

0 r Ac 0 Ag

N 2 Ac

N 2 Ac

N2

= 0

= 0

= 30.5mH

lc

Ac g

lc

Rc + R g

+

+g

r

Ag

r

calculate

1.14 The inductor of problem 1.13 is to be operated from a 60-Hz voltage source. (a)

Assuming negligible coil resistance, calculate the rms inductor voltage

corresponding to a peak core flux density of 1.5 T. (b) Under this operating

condition, calculate the rms current and the peak stored energy.

Sol:

part(a)

e(t ) = N

d (t )

dt

and

(t ) = B peak A cos t

E=

2fNAB peak

2

= 19.2Vrms

part(b)

I rms =

Vrms

= 1.67 Arms

L

1.16 A square voltage wave having a fundamental frequency of 60Hz and equal positive

and negative half cycles of amplitude E is applied to a 1000-turn winding

surrounding a closed iron core of 1.2510 3 m 2 cross section.

a. Sketch the voltage, the winding flux linkage , and the core flux as a function of time

b. Find the maximum permissible value of E if the maximum flux density is not exceed

1.15T

60Hz E 100

1.25 10 3 cm 2

<A>.

E

T = 1/60

=N=1.4375

<B> Bpeak=1.15T

Emax=4fNAcBpeak=46010001.25m1.15=345V

fig1.29.The core is of unif

orm cross-sectional area Ac=5.0cm 2 and of mean length lc=25cm.

a. Calculate the air-gap length g and the number of turn N such that the inductance is

1.4mH and so that inductor can operate at peak currents of 6A without saturating.

Assume that saturation occurs when the peak flux density in the core exceeds

1.7Tand that, below saturation ,the core has permeability =32000

For an inductor current of 6A,use Eq3.21 to calculate (i) the magnetic stored energy

in the air gap and (ii) the magnetic stored energy in the core. Show that the total

magnetic stored energy is given by Eq1.47

A. N =

NI 0 lc

LI

= 99turns g = 0

AcBsat

Bsat

B. 3.21 Wgap =

Wtot=Wgap+Wcore=0.252J

1.47 W=L/2*I2=0.252J

AcgB 2 sat

AclcB 2 sat

= 0.207 J Wcore =

= 0.045 J

2 0

2

1.19 A proposed energy storage mechanism consists of an N-turn coil wound around

a large nonmagnetic(u=u0) toroidal form as shown in Fig.1.30.As can be seen

from the figure, the toroidal form has circular cross section of radius a and

torridal radius r, measured to the center of the cross section. The geometry of

this device is such that the magnetic field can be considered to be zero

everywhere outside the toroid. Under the assumption that a << r, the H field

inside the toroid can be considered to be directed around the toroid and of

uniform magnitude

H=

Ni

2r

a. Calculate the coil inductance L.

b. The coil is to be charged to a magnetic flux density of 1.75 T. Calculate the

total stored magnetic energy in the torus when this flux density is achieved.

c. If the coil is to be charged at a uniform rate(i.e.,di/dt = constant), calculate

the terminal voltage required to achieve the required flux density in 30 sec.

Assume the coil resistance to be negligible.

Sol:

(a):

L=

L=

(b):

u 0 Ag N 2

g

u oa 2 N 2

= 12.7 mH

2r

W = Vcore (

B2

) = 4.87 J

2u 0

(c): T = 30 sec,

di ( 2rB ) /( u 0 N )

=

= 2.92 10 3

dt

T

di

v = L = 37 V

dt

A / sec

1.20 Figure 1.31 shows an inductor would on a laminated iron core of rectangular

cross section. Assume that the permeability of iron is infinite. Neglect magnetic

leakage and fringing in the two air gaps(total gap length = g). The N-turn

winding is insulated copper wire whose resistivity is m. Assume that the

fraction fw of the winding space is available for copper; the rest of the space is

used for insulation.

a. Calculate the cross-sectional area and volume of copper in the winding

space.

b. Write an expression for the flux density B in the inductor in the terms of the

current density Jcu in the copper winding.

c. Write an expression for the copper current density Jcu in terms of the coil

current I, the number of turns N, and the coil geometry.

d. Derive an expression for the electric power dissipation in the coil in terms of

the current density Jcu.

e. Derive an expression for the magnetic stored energy in the inductor in terms

of the applied current density Jcu.

f. From parts(d) and (e) derive an expression for L/R time constant of the

inductor. Note that this expression is independent of the number of turn in

the coil and does not change as the inductance and coil resistance are

changed by varying the number of turns.

Sol:

(a):

Acu = f w ab;

(b):

B = u0 (

(c):

Jcu =

J cu Acu

)

g

NI

Acu

Vol cu = 2ab( w + h + 2a )

(d):

(e):

(f):

1

( ) LI 2

2Wmag u 0 whAcu2

Wmag

L

= 2

=

=

=

1

1

R

Pdiss

gVol cu

2

( ) RI

( ) Pdiss

2

2

B2

B2

) = gwh(

)

2u 0

2u 0

a=h=w=1.5cm b=2cm g=0.2cm

The winding factor (i.e., the fraction of the total winding area occupied by

conductor) is f w =0.55. The resustivity of copper is 1.73 10 8 m . When the

coil is operated with a constant dc applied voltage of 35V, the air-gap flux density

is measured to be 1.4T. Find the power dissipated in the coil current, number of

turn, coil resistance, inductance, time constant, and wire size to the nearest

standard size,(Hint : Wire size can be found from the expression

Awire

AWG = 36 4.312 ln

8

1.267 10

Where AWG is the wire size, expressed in terms of the American Wire Gauge, and

Awrie is the conductor cross-sectional area measured in m 2 .)

Sol:

Acu = f wab = 0.55 1.5 2 = 1.65cm 2

a.

Pdiss = 2Wmag

B 2 gVolcu

gVolcu

2

gwh

=

2

0 whAcu2

2 0 0 whAcu

1.4 2

1.73 1010 36

= 113.57(W )

= 2 0.2 1.5 1.5

2

7

7

8 10 4 10 1.5 1.5 1.65

b.

I=

Pdiss 113.57

=

= 3.24( A)

V

35

c.

J cu =

NI

=

Acu

N=

Pdiss

113.57

=

= 1350

Volcu

1.73 10 10 36

=

= 687.5 687()

I

3.24

d.

R=

Pdiss 113.57

=

= 10.82( )

I2

3.24 2

L

= 6.18m sec

R

e.

f.

Wire size=23AWG

1.22 The magnetic circuit of Fig. 1.32 has two windings and two air gaps. The core can

be assumed to be of infinite permeability. The core dimensions are indicated in

the figure.

a. Assuming coil 1 to be carrying a current I1 and the current in coil 2 to be zero,

calculate (i) the magnetic flux density in each of the air gaps, (ii) the flux linkage of

winding 1, and (iii) the flux linkage of winding 2.

b. Repeat part (a), assuming zero current in winding 1 and a current I 2 in winding 2.

c. Repeat part (a), assuming the current in winding 1 to be I1 and the current in

winding 2 to be I 2 .2

d. Find the self-inductances of windings 1 and 2 and the mutual inductance between the

windings.

Sol:

a. Assuming coil 1 current I1 and coil 2 current I2=0A .

(i.) (B )

F0 A

; =

A

g

F A N i

B1 = 1 0 1 = 0 1 1

A1 g1

g1

B=

B2 =

F2 0 A2 0 N 2i2

=

A2 g 2

g2

(ii.) winding 1 ( )

= N = N

PS .

1 = N11;1 =

N1i1

g

g

; R1 = 1 ; R2 = 2

R1R2

0 A1

0 A2

R1 + R2

R1R2

gg

02 A1 A2

g1 g 2

= 21 2

=

R1 + R2 0 A1 A2 0 ( A2 g1 + A1 g 2 ) 0 ( A2 g1 + A1 g 2 )

1 =

A A

N12i10 ( A2 g1 + A1 g 2 )

= 0 N12i1 1 + 2

g1 g 2

g1 g 2

(iii.) winding 2 ( )

2 = N 22 ;2 = B2 A2

A

2 = 0 N1 N 2i1 2

g2

b. Assuming zero current in winding 1 and winding 2 current is I2 .

(i.) (B )

B1 = 0; B2 =

F2 0 A2 0 N 2i2

=

A2 g 2

g2

(ii.) winding 1 ( )

1 = N1`2 ;2 = B2 A2 ; B2 =

0 N 2i2

NiA

; 2 = 0 2 2 2

g2

g2

A

1= 0 N1 N 2i2 2

g2

(iii.) winding 2 ( )

A

2 = N 22 = 0 N 2i2 2

g2

c. Assuming the current in winding 1 is I1 and winding 2 is I2 .

(i.) (B )

B1 =

F A N i

= 1 0 1 = 0 11

A1

A1 g1

g1

B2 =

Ni N i

= 0 11 + 0 2 2

A2

g2

g2

(ii.) winding 1 ( )

1 = N1 (B1 A1 + B2 A2 ) = N1 (1 + 2 )

A A

A

1 = 0 N12i1 1 + 2 + 0 N1 N 2i2 2

g1 g 2

g2

(iii.) winding 2 ( )

A

A

2 = N 2 B2 A2 = 0 N1 N 2i2 2 + 0 N 22i2 2

g2

g2

d. Find the self-inductances of winding 1 and 2 and mutual inductances.

A

A A

1 = N1 = L11i1 + L12i2 = 0 N12 1 + 2 i1 + 0 N1 N 2 2 i2

g2

g1 g 2

A

A

2 = N 2 = L21i1 + L21i2 = 0 N1 N 2 2 i1 + 0 N 22 2 i2

g2

g2

A

A

A A

L11 = 0 N12 1 + 2 ; L22 = 0 N 22 2 ; L12 = L21 = 0 N1 N 2 2

g2

g2

g1 g 2

1.23 The symmetric magnetic circuits of Fig.1.33 has three windings.Windings A and B

each have N turns and are wound on the two bottom legs of the core.The core

dimensions are indicated in the figure.a. Find the self-inductances of each of the

windings.

b. Find the mutual inductances between the three pairs of windings.

c. Find the voltage induced in winding 1 by time-varying current i A (t ) and

iB(t)

in windings A and B. Show that this voltage can be use to measure the imbalance

between two sinusoidal current of the same frequency.

Sol:

RA =

g

l

l

lA

R1 = 1 R 2 = 2 R g =

Ac

Ac

Ac

Ag

1.30 ( RA )

L 11 =

R1 + R g + R 2

N 2 Ac

l1 + l 2 +

R1 + R

+ R

lA

2

R

+ A

2

l

g

1

( l1 + l 2 + A +

)

Ac

2

0

g

0

1

g

( l1 + l 2 +

)

Ac

0

R A // R 1 + R 2 + R g =

Ac

Ac

+

g

lA

l1 + l 2 +

0

g

)

0

=

g

)

A c ( l1 + l 2 + l A +

0

l A ( l1 + l 2 +

N2

= L BB

R A + ( R A // R 1 + R 2 + R g )

L AA =

g

N 2 A c ( l A + l1 + l 2 +

)

0

=

g

g

l A ( l A + l1 + l 2 +

) + l A ( l1 + l 2 +

)

0

0

N

Ac

lA

L AB = L BA =

g

0

g

+

)

0

l A + l1 + l 2 +

l A + 2 ( l1 + l 2

N 2 ( R1 + R 2 + R g )

R A ( R A 2 ( R 1 + R 2 + R g ))

l1 + l 2 +

Ac

lA

g

0

l A + 2 ( l1 + l 2 +

g

)

0

L1 A = L A1 = L B1 = L1 B =

=

NN

1 Ac

l A + 2 ( l1 + l 2 +

NN 1

R A + 2 ( R1 + R 2 + R g )

g

)

0

1.41 , A,B

e=

d

d

d

d

Li = ( LA1i A + LB1iB ) = ( LA1i A LA1iB ) = LA1 (i A iB )

dt

dt

dt

dt

1.28 The coils of the magnetic circuit shown in Fig. 1.36 are connected in series so that

the mmfs of paths A and B both tend to set up flux in the center leg C in the same

direction. The coils are wound with equal turns, N1 = N 2 =100. The dimensions are:

Cross-section area of A and B legs=7 cm

Cross-section area of C legs=14 cm

Length of A path = 17 cm

Length of B path = 17 cm

Length of C path = 5.5 cm

Air gap = 0.4 cm

The material is M-5 grade, 0.0012-in steel, with a stacking factor of 0.94.Neglect

fringing and leakage.

a. How many amperes are required to produce a flux density of 1.2T in the air gap?

b. Under the condition of path (a), how many joules of energy are stored in the

magnetic field in the air gap?

c. Calculate the inductance.

Sol:

1.10 ,M-5 1.2T H m = 14( A )

M

H g = B =

0

1 .2

= 9.54 105 ( A )

M

4 10 7

F = Ni = Hl

I=

=

= 38.2

N

100

0.94

1.47

W =

(N )

=

=

N2

2L

2

R

2

g

2

B 2 Ag

0 Ag

2

gA g B 2

20

= 3 . 21 ( J )

find the point of maximum-energy product and corresponding flux density and

magnetic field intensity . Using these values .repeat EX1.10 with the alnico 5

magnet replaced by a neodymium-iron-boron magnet. By what factor does this

reduce the magnet volume required to achieve the desired air-gap flux density?

Sol:

1 B = 0.63 T and H = -470 kA/m.

so maximum energy is 2.9. 105 J / m 3

Am =Ag(Bg/Bm)

2

2

= 2*[0.8/0.63] cm = 2.54 cm

lm = -g(Hg/Hm)= g ( Bg / 0 Hm)

5

= 0.2(0.8 / 0 (4.7 *10 )) = 0.27 cm

Thus the volume is 2.540.25 = 0.688

5.09/0.688 = 7.4.

samarium-cobalt

Maximum energy

B=0.63T

B=0.47T

H=-470 kA/m

H=-360 kA/m

1.34 Figure2 shows the magnetic circuit for a permanent-magnet loudspeaker the voice

coil (not shown)is in the form of a circular cylindrical coil which fits in the air

gap .a samarium-cobalt magnet is used to create the air-gap dc magnetic field

which interacts with the voice coil currents to produce the motion of the voice coil .

the designer has determined that the air gap must have radius R=1.8cm.length

g=0.1cm , and height g=0.1cm , and height h=0.9cm . assuming that the yoke and

pole piece are of infinite magnetic permeability ( ),find the magnet hm and

the magnet radius Rm that wall result in an air-gap magnetic flux density of 1.2 T

and require the smallest magnet volume.(Hint : Refer to EX1.10 and to Fig.1.19 to

find the point of maximum energy product for samarium cobalt.)

Sol:

From Fig. 1, the maximum energy product for samarium-cobalt occurs at

B = 0.47 T and H = -360 kA/m

the maximum energy product is 1.69 *105 ( J / m 3 )

we want Bg = 1.2 T, Bm = 0.47 T and

Hm = 360 kA/m.

hm = g (Hg / Hm) = g (Bg /0*Hm)

= 2.65 mm

Am = Ag (Bg / Bm) = 2Rh(Bg/Bm) = 26.0

(R=1.8cm and h=0.9cm)

So smallest magnet volume Rm = Am / = 2.87cm

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