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A comprehensive 2012 study by political scientists from Harvard, University of

Trigger matched Mississippi and Fordham University, applying multiple statistical tests to spending
public funding burdens levels under the trigger laws in both Maine and Arizona, found no evidence of a chilling
privately-financed effect.
candidates and their Data from Arizonas state legislative elections revealed no conclusive evidence that the
supporters, causing them programs trigger provision reduced speech, or had an unequal effect on speech by
participating and nonparticipating candidates.
to reduce their speech.

- Chief Justice Roberts writing for

the majority, Arizona Free Enterprise,
564 U.S. 721, 741.