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2.1.3.

Cooperative Learning
Classrooms are very social places but often when teachers think about
learning the focus is on individual learning and the social aspects are often viewed
as a distraction and/or a nuisance. If, however teachers are able to make positive
use of this social aspect and the social arrangement of the classroom then more
learning

would

take

place.

Cooperative

Learning

improves

students'

communication skills and enhances their ability to be successful in the world of


work and to live in the society.
2.4.1. Definition and Characteristic of Cooperative Learning Model
Cooperative Learning is children learning together in groups, which are
structured so that group members have to cooperate to succeed. Effective
cooperative learning is dependent on the sort of talk, which takes place in the
group between students. Talking about a question helps create meaning and
understanding; humans make meaning about things through talk. Studies have
shown that by having to explain answers to problems to a peer that the act of
having to clarify and communicate actually enhances the students understanding.
In these conversations it is the process of discussion that is important not whether
the answers are right or wrong. According to Vygotsky, new knowledge and ideas
develop in a context of discussion, and they appear first out there in the extra
mental plane.
During cooperative learning activities, each member of a team is
responsible not only for learning what is taught but also for helping team-mates
learn, thus creating an atmosphere of achievement. Students work through the
assignment until all group members successfully understand and complete it. In
cooperative learning students will:
1) Gain from each other's efforts.
2) Your success benefits me and my success benefits you.
3) Understand that all group members share in the outcome.

4) We all sink or swim together.


5) Know that how well you do is the result of both individual and team
performance.
6) We cannot do it without you.
7) Feel proud and jointly celebrate when a group member is recognized
for achievement.
8) We all congratulate you on your accomplishment!
The best place to start in trying to use Co-operative Learning effectively is
to first understand the purposes of such a methodology. There are basically four
main reasons why Cooperative Learning is to be recommended:
a. More children actively learning
Co-operative Learning helps to actively engage more children in learning
than do teacher centered or lecture-oriented methodologies. In using the
latter, it is usually only possible to actively engage at most one or two
students in active learning at the same time. By using more cooperative
methodologies in which students work together in groups, all students are
actively engaged on a learning task. Students become more active
participants in their own learning, as opposed to passive recipients of
knowledge who only listen, observe and take notes.
b. Children learn to help one another
Co-operative Learning encourages students to support their classmates in a
group rather than to compete against one another. In this way, students can
combine their talents and help one another.
c. Child-to-child learning support

Co-operative Learning provides the opportunity for higher-achieving


students to help students who are slower learners. These higher achieving
students can probably communicate more easily with their peers than can
the teacher. The help of these students also increases the amount of
explanation that occurs in the classroom overall.
d. Improved motivation through success
Co-operative Learning helps to improve the motivation of many students
by offering the opportunity to more students to experience the joy of winning (in
the case of cooperative activities that require games) and academic success. In
classrooms where students are only allowed to compete individually, only the few
high achieving students will likely have this experience. In classrooms where the
students are divided into cooperative teams, each with its high- and low-achieving
students, the opportunity to succeed is more evenly distributed.
(USAID, 2009).
From some of the concepts and basic elements that are owned by
cooperative learning, it can be arranged also cooperative learning syntax as below:
Learning Phase
Phase-1

Teacher behavior
Teacher express all learning objective to be

Express the objective learning achieved in learning and motivate students to


and motivate students
Phase-2

participate in learning
Teacher present information to student by

Presenting information

way of demonstration or through reading

Phase-3

materials
Teacher explain to student how to form study

Organize the students' into group to perform in an efficient transition


learning group
Phase-4

Teacher guide the learning group as they

Guide the group work and work on assignments in each groups


learning
Phase-5

Teacher evaluate the results of learning

Evaluation

material that has been learned or each group

Phase-6

presented the result of his work


Teacher looking for ways to reward for efforts

Reward

and learning result of both the individual and

group
Relevant models needed to optimize, improve and develop the
communication skills and mathematical reasoning students. One way to improve
poor communication and mathematical reasoning students is by using a learning
model that is more supportive of student activity in understanding the material and
emphasize students' active role in learning in order to improve communication
and mathematical reasoning students. Effective learning models and is expected to
improve communication skills and mathematical reasoning student is cooperative
learning model, because in a cooperative learning model or syntax are elements
that require students to work together, discussions and group presentations
(Ainun, 2015) .
There are several types of cooperative learning model although the basic
principle in cooperative learning does not change, these types include Learning
model Type of Team Games Tournament (TGT) and Cooperative Learning model
of type Student Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD).
2.1.3.2. Learning Model Type of Team Games Tournament (TGT)
Cooperative learning is learning by discussion groups (work in groups).
The group in question is the students interact with each other to discuss issues that
will be done. Cooperative learning model Team Games Tournament (TGT) is one
model of cooperative learning that lesson apply the concept of the game (games)
were performed between groups with members of each group. Cooperative
learning model TGT placing students in small groups made up of students who
have the ability, gender, and ethnic which different.
Teams-Games-Tournaments (TGT) was originally developed by David
DeVries and Keith Edwards (1972) at the Johns Hopkins University. It is one kind
of cooperative learning methods. The students compete with members of other
teams to contribute points to their team score. Students compete at least threeperson "tournament tables" against others with a similar past record in
mathematics. After then a procedure changes table assignments to keep the
competition fair. The winner at each tournament table brings the same number of

points to his or her team, regardless of which table it is; this means that low
achievers and high achievers have an equal opportunity for success. High
performing teams earn team rewards (Salam, 2015).
The classroom organization with TGT method allows us to create an
intergroup procedure so as to compare the degree of performance of the different
teams. It consists of creating teams of four to five students and arranges a
competition with the members of the other teams. The teams are the cooperative
element of the TGT. The TGT guarantees the implication and participation of each
of every member of the group and allows them to compete with the other
members of the other teams who have a similar level to their own, which reduces
considerably the angst of the competition (Solihatin, 2014).
Cooperative learning model TGT type has syntax like cooperative learning
model other as show in table below:
Learning Phase
Phase-1

Teacher behavior
Teacher express all learning objective to be

Express the objective learning achieved in learning and motivate students to


and motivate students
Phase-2
Present

the

material

participate in learning
Teachers communicate

information

or

and material to students by way of documentation

information
Phase-3

or through reading material


Teachers explain to students how to form a

Organize the students' into group in order to transition efficiently and in


learning group
Phase-4

learning
Teachers guide study groups during the tasks

Guiding the group work and

together and guide the students played a game

study, and conduct

in accordance with the structure cooperative

tournaments

learning

Phase-5

Tournament (TGT)
Teachers evaluate student learning outcomes,

Evaluation

determine individual scores and progress, and

model

of

type

Team

Games

determine the average score obtained by each


Phase-6

group
Teachers give awards to students of the

Giving reward

results achieved by the students.

Table 2.2. Syntax of Cooperative Learning Model Team Games Tournament


(TGT)
According to Slavin (2010: 166) explain there are five key components in
cooperative learning model type Team Games Tournament (TGT) is: (1) Class
Presentation; (2) Team; (3) Games; (4) Tournament; and (5) Recognition Team
1) Class Presentation
Presentation in the classroom is the first thing done on the components of
cooperative learning TGT. Class presentation should focus on its own TGT
unit means that the students will realize that they have to actually pay
attention during the presentation as it will help them while working on the
quizzes will be given by the teacher.
2) Team
Team on cooperative learning model type Team Games Tournament (TGT)
consist between 4 5 student that represent academic of student, gender,
race and ethnicity. The main function of teams in cooperative learning is
ensure that all of team (student) really learn and more specifically to
prepare students for tournament.
3) Games
Games consists of questions designed to test student knowledge gained
from classroom presentation and discussion in group. Most of the game
consists of the numbered questions. Student choosing a numbered card and
try to answer the question according to the number. Student who answered
the question true be given score
4) Tournament
Tournaments usually starts at the end of the week or after the class ended
after the presentation and study groups have completed the worksheet. To
start the tournament, the teacher divides the students into several groups
tournament. Students who have the high ability of each group of first place
A1 A2
A3
A4
in the table. Students who have the ability medium of each group of
HighMedium Medium Low
second place on the table. And so on the grouped student in the table
shown on figure below.

Table Tournament

GROUP
A Tournament 3Table Tournament 4
1Table Tournament
2Table

B1 B2
B3
B4
HighMedium Medium Low

C1 C2
C3
C4
HighMedium Medium Low

GROUP C

GROUP B

Fig. 2.2. Scheme of Team Group Tournament (TGT)


Based on figure above, we can see in table tournament 1 there are
A1, B1, and C1. It means that in table tournament there are students who
have high academic ability. In table tournament 2 there are A2, B2, and
C2. It means that in table tournament there are students who have medium
academic ability. In table tournament 3 there are A3, B3, and C3. It means
that in table tournament there are students who have medium academic
ability. And the last in table tournament 4 there are A4, B4, and C4. It
means that in table tournament there are students who have low academic
ability.
Reader
1. Take the numbered cards and look for
problems relating to the number on the
game sheet
2. Read the question loudly
3. Try to answer the questions of the game
sheet
Reader
1. Take the numbered cards and look for
problems relating to the number on the
game sheet
2. Read the question loudly
3. Try to answer the questions of the game
sheet

Fig. 2.3. Scheme of Rule Tournament in Cooperative Learning


Model Type TGT
To start this tournament, we must first use the card as a tool to get
started. After the cards are shuffled, the reader take the card is beaten
earlier. The reader read the questions that are within the card and the
reader answer the question. If the answers of reader is wrong, the reader is
not subject to any punishment. The first challenger can challenge the
answer from the reader if the first challenger have different answer with
reader. But if the answer same with reader, the first challenger can pass the
challenger. The second challenger can challenge the answer form the
reader and first challenger if the second challenger have different answer
with reader and first challenger. But if the answer same with reader or first
challenger. If the reader answer correctly then reader will keep the card. If
the answer is wrong, the cards will not be returned. But be carefully, if the
answer from first challenger is correct, so the first challenger will keep the
card, while if the answer from first challenger is wrong, so the first
challenger obliged to return the cards that have been acquired. Same for
second challenger, if the answer from second challenger is correct, so the
second challenger will keep the card, while if the answer from second
challenger is wrong, so the second challenger obliged to return the cards
that have been acquired.
In next round, members of table tournament moved one position to
the left to become first challenger. The position is the challenger first
become second challenger and second challenger become the reader. The
games continues as it has been determined by the teacher and will end
when all student have had a turn as challenger I, II, and reader. At the end
of the game, the player records the number of card that answer correctly
on score recoding sheet paper start form the first match and until the end
of match.
The game is done at the same time and at the game lasts teacher
goes from one table to another to ensure the game have been finished and
take truth answer on score recording sheet paper.

5) Recognition team
Teachers announce who the winner of this tournament. Each group will be
given a reward or a gift if the group meets the predefined criteria. The
winner in this tournament, is determined by a predefined criteria. Group
that have equals average score of more than 50 as "Super Team". Then,
another criteria teams according to Slavin (2010:175)
Criteria (Average Score)
50
40
30

Reward
Super Team
Very Good
Good

Table 2.3. Score of Team Games Tournament (TGT)


GT cooperative learning model also has advantages and disadvantages as
other cooperative models. According to Taniredja (in Astutik, 2013: 4) describes
the advantages of cooperative learning model Team Games Tournament (TGT),
namely: (1). In learning using TGT learning of cooperative model students have
the freedom to interact and use their opinions; (2) the student has confidence
higher; (3). Behavior of students who disrupt other students become less; (4).
Students' motivation be more increases; (5). Gain a deeper understanding of the
subject matter, (6) increased kindness, sensitivity, and tolerance both between
students and between students and teachers; and (7) students can develop the full
potential of the wild himself, as well as with the cooperation of the students will
interact to learn in the classroom to life and not boring. While that is owned by a
cooperative learning model TGT is: (1) in learning, often students do not all
participate in donating your opinion; (2) lack of time for the learning process for
learning TGT using games and tournaments that require a longer time; and (3) the
possibility of noise when teachers cant manage the class.
2.1.3.3. Cooperative Learning Model Student Teams-Achievement Divisions
(STAD) Type
This type was developed by Robert Slavin and his colleagues from Johns
Hopkins University. This type is seen as the simplest and most direct of

cooperative learning approach. The teacher uses the STAD to teach new academic
information to students every week, either through verbal and written
presentation. The students in the class is divided into groups or teams, each
consisting of 4 or 5 members of the group. Each team has a heterogeneous
members, either gender, race, ethnicity, or ability (high, medium, low). Each
member of the team uses the worksheet academic; and then helps each other to
master the teaching materials through questioning and discussion among members
of the team. Individual or team, every week or every two weeks by a teacher
evaluation to determine their mastery of academic material that has been studied.
Each student and each team are given a score above mastery of teaching materials,
and for the individual student or team of high achievement or to obtain a perfect
score awarded. Sometimes some or all of the award-winning team if they can
reach a certain criteria or standards. The Steps of Cooperative Learning Model
STAD type as follows 1) Establish a group whose members are 4-6 people in a
heterogeneous (mixed according to achievement, tribe, etc.); 2) The teacher
presents a lesson; 3) The teacher gives the task to the group to be done by
members of the group. The members know to explain to other members until all
members of the group understand; 4) The teacher gives a quiz / questions to all
students at the time of answering the quiz should not help each other; 5) Provide
evaluation; 6) Conclusion (Munawaroh, 2015).
Cooperative learning model

Student Team-Achievement Divisions

(STAD) type also have syntax like cooperative learning model other as show in
table below:
Learning Phase
Phase-1

Teacher behavior
Teacher expressing all the learning objectives

Express the objective learning to be achieved in the lesson and motivate


and motivate students
Phase-2
Present

the

information
Phase-3

material

student to learn
Teacher presenting information to student by
and way of demonstrating of through reading
material
Explain to how form study groups and assist

Organize the students' into each group in order to make transition


learning group

efficiently

Phase-4

Guiding groups learned by the time they do

Guiding the group work and the time the do their work
study groups
Phase-5

Evaluate the learning outcomes of the

Evaluation

material that has been taught or each group

Phase-6

presenting their work


Rewarding group based on both effort and

Giving

learning outcomes of individuals and groups

Reward
Table 2.4. The Syntax of STAD Learning Model
Same with cooperative learning model team games tournament (TGT), Students
Team-Achievement Divisions also have five key component but some component
like games and tournament nothing on STAD, but change Quiz and Individual
Progression Score. According to Slavin (2010:143) cooperative learning model
type STAD consist five key component is (1) Class Presentation; (2) Teams; (3)
Quiz; (4) Individual Progression Score; and (5) Recognition team
1) Class Presentation
In the class presentation, teacher introduces new material through
lecturing, class discussion, demonstration, or some form of teacher
presentation. Teacher make the presentation focus on STAD unit so
that the student realize they have to give their attention to this class
presentation so that it will help them to do the quiz.
2) Teams.
After the class presentation, teacher makes team group consist of four
of five heterogeneous team members. Team is the most important
feature in STAD which emphasize on doing the best for the team to
help each other in achieving their study. The main function of the team
is for ensuring all of members of the team to overcome the material
and ready to do the quiz well.
3) Quiz
The next step is individual quizzes. In this key component, all of the
student have to work individually and their team mates are not allowed
to help one another during these quizzes.
4) Individual Progression Score

After doing the quiz, teacher need to give individual progression score
to each team. This aims to motivate the student to do better for the next
quizzes. All of the members of the team can participate to give their
score to the team score. The students will collect their individual score
based on the improvement between their pre-score and their quiz
score.
5) Recognition Team
Team recognition where quiz score are juxtaposed to past averages;
points are given on improvement from past performance. In this key
component, teams that surpass the criterion set out should be given
some kind of reward for their success.
This cooperative learning model has some benefist. according to Roestiyah
(in Gusniar, 2014: 203) in creative journal Tadulako explains that there are six
clappers using cooperative learning STAD model types, (1) to provide an
opportunity for students to use the skills in asking questions and discusses an
issue; (2) to provide an opportunity for students to intensively conduct an
investigation regarding an issue; (3) can develop their talents and teach leadership
skills to discuss; (4) can allow teachers to pay more attention to students as
individuals and learning needs; (5) the students more actively join in their learning
and they are more active in discussions; and (6) can provide opportunities for
students to develop a sense of respect, his personal respect, and respect the
opinions of others. While, disadvantage of cooperative learning model of STAD
type is (1). requires a relatively long time, taking into account the three steps
STAD that drain time as the presentation material from teachers, group work and
individual tests / quizzes; and (2) working group involving only those who are
able to lead and direct those who are less intelligent and sometimes requires a
different place and different teaching styles.
2.1.3.4. Team Games Tournament (TGT) Model toward Mathematical
Communication
Pembelajaran Teams-Games-Tournament (TGT) dianggap sebagai salah satu tipe
pembelajaran kooperatif yang dapat memotivasi siswa untuk meningkatkan
kemampuan komunikasi dan penalaran matematis. Dimana model pembelajaran

kooperatif tipe TGT memiliki lima komponen utama yaitu presentasi kelas, tim,
game, tournament, dan rekognisi tim yang mengharuskan siswa bekerja dalam
kelompok-kelompok kecil. Oleh karena itu, dalam upaya meningkatkan
kemampuan komunikasi dan penalaran matematis siswa, model pembelajaran
kooperatif tipe TGT diharapkan dapat meningkatkan keaktifan siswa sehingga
mampu mengkonstruksi pengetahuannya sendiri dalam belajar.

2.2. Relevant Research


2.4. Conceptual Framework
Mathematics communication is a way to share ideas and clarify mathematical
understanding. Through communication, ideas become object of reflection,
refinement, discussion and change. When students are challenged to communicate
their ideas to others verbally or in writing. Students learn with clear, convincing,
and precise in the use of mathematics. The result of such thinking in the form of
mathematical concepts that arise during the process of solving the problem
progresses.