Unit – 5 Metrology & Instrumentation

Engineering profiles. In-process inspection: Making the measurement while the part s being produced on the machine. Types of measurement and Instruments metrology: Defined as the measurements of dimensions: Length, thickness, diameter, taper, angle, flatness and

Line Graduated Instruments Line Graduated Instruments are used for measuring length (linear measurement) or angles (angular measurement) Linear measurement:
a)

Rules: Simplest and most commonly used instrument for making linear measurements is a steel rule, bar, tape with fractional or decimal graduations. Vernier calipers: Can be used to measure inside or outside lengths, also available with digital readouts. These electronic devices are easier to read and less subject to human error.

b)

c) Micrometers: Commonly used for measuring the thickness and inside or outside dimensions of parts Digital micrometers are also available and are equipped with digital readouts Micrometers micrometer) are also available for measuring depths (micrometer depth gage) and internal diameters (inside

Angle – Measuring Instruments a) Bevel Protractor: A bevel protractor is a direct reading instrument similar to a common protractor, except that it has a movable element. The two blades of the protractor are placed in contact with the part being measured and the angle is read directly on the Vernier scale

b) Sine bar: Measuring with a sine bar involves placing the part on an inclined bar plate and adjusting the angle by placing gage blocks on a surface plate. After the part is placed on the sine bar, a dial indicator is used top scan the top surface of the part Gage blocks are added or removed as necessary until the top surface is parallel to the surface plate Angle on the part is then calculated using trigonometric relationships

Surface plates are made of Cast iron or natural stones such as granite. Granite surface plates have the desirable properties of being resistant to corrosion, non-magnetic and low thermal expansion.

Comparative length-measuring instruments: Dial Indicators: Simple mechanical devices that convert linear displacements of a pointer to the amount of rotation of an indicator on a circular dial Indicator is set to zero at a certain reference surface and the instrument or the surface to be measured is brought into contact with the pointer. Movement of the indicator is read directly on the circular dial to accuracies as high as 1 micron.

Electronic Gages: Electronic Gages sense the movement of the contacting pointer through changes in the electrical resistance of a strain gage or through inductance or capacitance. Electrical signals are then converted and displayed digitally a linear dimensions (DRO) `Used for measuring bore diameter and vertical length

Commonly used Electronic Gage is the Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT), used extensively for measuring small displacements.

Advantages: Ease of operation Rapid response DRO Less human error Flexibility Capability to be integrated into automated system through microprocessor and computers.

Laser Scan Micrometers: Laser beam scans the work piece at a speed of 350 times per second Capable of resolutions as high as 0.125 microns and are suitable for on – line measuring of stationary, rotating or vibrating parts.

Geometric features: Straightness: Can be checked using a straightedge or a dial indicator

Flatness: Interferometry is a method of measuring flatness using an optical flat. The device, a glass disk or fused quartz with parallel flat surfaces is placed on the surface of the work piece. When a monochromatic light beam (a light beam with one wave length) is aimed at the surface at an angle, optical flat splits the light beam into two beams, appearing as light and dark bands. Number of fringes that appear is related to the distance between the surface of the part and the bottom surface of the optical flat. Perfectly flat w/p will not split the light beam and fringes will not appear.

Roundness:

Profile:

Coordinate Measuring Machine: CMM consists of a platform on which the w/p is placed and moved linearly or rotated. A probe, attached to a head capable of lateral and vertical movements, records all measurements. Capable of recording measurements of complex profiles with high sensitivity and with high speed. Equipped with DRO and can be linked to computers for online inspection of parts

Gages: Gage Blocks: They are Individual Square / rectangular / round metal blocks of various sizes made very precisely from heat treated and stress relieved alloy steels or carbides.

Surfaces are lapped, flat and parallel within a range of 0.02 to 0.12 microns Available in sets of various sizes, containing almost 100 blocks. Can be assembled in many different combinations to reach desired height. Dimensional accuracy can be as high as 0.05 microns Four basic grades of gage blocks, in decreasing order of accuracy: • Grade 0.5: Reference gages, for very high precision work • Grade 1: Laboratory grade, for calibration of instruments • Grade2: Precision grade, for tool rooms and inspection • Grade 3: Working grade, for use in production shops

Fixed Gages: Do not measure the actual dimensions, indicate whether the part is accepted or rejected.
a)

Plug gages: Commonly used to check the holes

Two gages are required to check the quality of hole / bore Go Gage and No Go gage b) Ring Gage: Used to check shafts and round parts Two gages: Go Gage and No Go Gage c) Snap gages: Used to check the external dimensions

Pneumatic gages (Air gages): The gage head has holes through which pressurized air is supplied by a constant-pressure line, escapes Smaller the gap between the gage and the hole, the more difficult it is for the air to escape, and higher the back pressure.

Back pressure is sensed and indicated by a pressure gage which is calibrated to measure dimensional variations of holes.

General Characteristics and selection of measuring instruments The characteristics and quality of measuring instruments are generally described by various specific terms

Accuracy: Degree of agreement of the measured dimension with its true magnitude. Calibration: Adjusting or setting an instrument to give readings that are accurate within a reference standard. Linearity: Accuracy of the readings of an instrument over its full working range. Amplification / Magnification: Ratio of instrument output to the input dimension. Precision: Degree to which an instrument gives repeated measurement of the same standard.

Resolution: Smallest dimension that can be read on an instrument. Sensitivity: Smallest difference in dimension that an instrument can distinguish or detect. Stability / Drift: Instrument’s capability to maintain its calibration over a period of time.

Profilometer: • Electro-mechanical instrument, most widely used to measure surface roughness • Actually measure the difference in the depth of the surface irregularity • Two main units of the profile meter are the tracer and amplifier

Tracer has stylus at its tip made of diamond with a point radius of about 12 micron and is suspended on the flat spring Upper end of stylus is linked to an induction coil, which is located in the field of a permanent magnet Any movement in the coil induces a voltage the contour of the irregularities

• As the tracer moves across the surface the stylus will follow • Up & down movements of the stylus are converted into a small fluctuating voltage • Voltage is fed into the amplifies • Amplified voltage is fed into the roughness meter • Meter shows the variations in average roughness height.

Tool Maker’s Microscope • Used to measure different tool angles • Consists of an optical head which can slide along the guide ways of the vertical column and can be clamped with screw at any position • Focusing is performed by adjusting on an optical head • W/p is kept on the table which consists of a transparent glass plate secured on a heavy hollow base • Table is equipped with clips / clamps / vise / centers for holding various types of work piece • Table has a compound slide to give longitudinal and lateral measurements actuated by accurate micrometer screw • Light source is incorporated at the back of the base: horizontal beam of light is provided. • Beam of light is reflected at right angle by a mirror upwards towards the table • Light beam passes through the transparent glass plate of the table on which the w/p is placed • A shadow image of the w/p contour passes the objective of the optical head and gets projected on a screen after reflections from three prisms

• Observations are made thru the eyepiece to facilitate measurements • Cross lines are engraved on the screen which can be rotated thru 360 deg. • Eye piece field of view contains an illuminated circular scale with minimum reading of 1 minute

Has its greatest utility in measuring odd profiles, hole locations and locations of odd profiles, angles etc.

• Measurements of external threads, tool angles, gages etc.

Autocollimator: Resembles a telescope with a light beam that bounces back from the object, is used to accurately measure small angular deviations on a flat surface. Profile Projector: Used to check geometry of cutting tools for machining screw threads and to check all profiles on the surface of w/p The image of the w/p is projected onto a screen at magnifications of 100 X or higher

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