Unit – 3 Milling & Grinding Machines

Milling is one of the basic machining processes. Milling is a very versatile process capable of producing simple two dimensional flat shapes to complex three dimensional interlaced surface configurations. The milling process: – Typically uses a multi-tooth cutter – Work is fed into the rotating cutter – Capable of high MRR – Well suited for mass production applications – Cutting tools for this process are called milling cutters

Types of Milling Machines
According to configuration and motion of the work-holding table / bed Knee type: In such small and medium duty machines the table with the job/work travels over the bed (guides) in horizontal (X) and transverse (Y) directions and the bed with the table and job on it moves vertically (Z) up and down.

Bed type: Usually of larger size and capacity; the vertical feed is given to the milling head instead of the knee type bed

Planer type: These heavy duty large machines, called plano-miller, look like planing machine where the single point tools are replaced by one or a number of milling heads; generally used for machining a number of longitudinal flat surfaces simultaneously, viz., lathe beds, table and bed of planning machine etc.

1 Rotary table type:
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Such open or closed ended high production milling machines possess one large rotary work-table and one or two vertical spindles as typically shown in Fig.; the positions of the job(s) and the milling head are adjusted according to the size and shape of the job.

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According to the orientation of the spindle(s). Plain horizontal knee type This non-automatic general purpose milling machine of small to medium size possesses a single horizontal axis milling arbor; the work-table can be linearly fed along three axes (X,Y, Z) only; these milling machines are most widely used for piece or batch production of jobs of relatively simpler configuration and geometry

Horizontal axis (spindle) and swivelling bed type These are very similar to the plain horizontal arbur knee type machines but possess one additional swivelling motion of the work-table

Vertical spindle type In this machine, the only spindle is vertical and works using end mill type and face milling cutters; the table may or may not have swivelling features

Specification of milling machine: • Table size • Max. length of longitudinal, cross, vertical travel of table • Number of spindle speeds • Number of feed • Spindle nose taper • Power Milling Cutters Milling machines are mostly general purpose and have wide range of applications requiring various types and size of milling cutters. Intermittent cutting nature and usually complex geometry necessitate making the milling cutters mostly by HSS which is unique for high tensile and transverse rupture strength, fracture toughness and formability almost in all respects Tougher grade cemented carbides are also used without or with coating, where feasible, for high productivity and product quality. Broad classifications of milling cutters Milling cutters are broadly classified as, (a) Profile sharpened cutters – where the geometry of the machined surfaces are not related with the tool shape, viz; 1 i. Slab or plain milling cutter : straight or helical fluted
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ii. Side milling cutters – single side or both sided type

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iii. Slotting cutter iv. Slitting or parting tools v. End milling cutters – with straight or taper shank vi. Face milling cutters

(b) Form relieved cutters – where the job profile becomes the replica of the tool-form, e.g., viz.; 1 i. Form cutters
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ii. Gear (teeth) milling cutters iii. Spline shaft cutters iv. Tool form cutters

5 v. T-slot cutters 6 vi. Thread milling cutter Use of profile sharpened cutters The profile sharpened cutters are inherently used for making flat surfaces or surface bounded by a number of flat surfaces only. • Slab or Plain milling cutters : Plain milling cutters are hollow straight HSS cylinder of 40 to 80 mm outer diameter having 4 to 16 straight or helical equi-spaced flutes or cutting edges and are used in horizontal arbor to machine flat surface.

• Side and slot milling cutters These arbor mounted disc type cutters have a large number of cutting teeth at equal spacing on the periphery. Each tooth has a peripheral cutting edge and another cutting edge on one face in case of single side cutter and two more cutting edges on both the faces leading to double sided cutter. One sided cutters are used to produce one flat surface or steps comprising two flat surfaces at right angle. Both sided cutters are used for making rectangular slots bounded by three flat surfaces. Slotting is also done by another similar cutter having only one straight peripheral cutting on each tooth. These cutters may be made from a single piece of HSS or its teeth may be of carbide blades brazed on the periphery or clamped type uncoated or coated carbide inserts for high production machining.

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• Slitting saw or parting tool These milling cutters are very similar to the slotting cutters having only one peripheral cutting edge on each tooth. However, the slitting saws 1 are larger in diameter and much thin 2 possess large number of cutting teeth but of small size 3 used only for slitting or parting

End milling cutters or End mills The common features and characteristics of such cutters are: •

mostly made of HSS 4 to 12 straight or helical teeth on the periphery and face

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diameter ranges from about 1 mm to 40 mm very versatile and widely used in vertical spindle type milling machines end milling cutters requiring larger diameter are made as a separate cutter body which is fitted in the spindle through a taper shank arbor.

• Face milling cutters The shape, geometry and typical use of face milling cutters are shown in the following fig. The main features are: 1 • usually large in diameter (80 to 800 mm) and heavy 2 • used only for machining flat surfaces in different orientations 3 • mounted directly in the vertical and / or horizontal spindles

4 • coated or uncoated carbide inserts are clamped at the outer edge of the carbon steel body as shown 5 • generally used for high production machining of large jobs.

Use of form relieved cutters (milling) The distinguishing characteristics of such cutters, in contrast to profile sharpened cutters, are ; 1 • form of the tool is exactly replica of the job-profile to be made 2 • clearance or flank surfaces of the teeth are of archemedian spiral shaped instead of flat 3 • teeth are sharpened by grinding the rake surface only 4 • used for making 2-D and 3-D contour surfaces • Form cutters Such disc type HSS cutters are generally used for making grooves or slots of various profiles

Form cutters may be also end mill type like T-slot cutter

Gear teeth milling cutters Gear milling cutters are made of HSS and available mostly in disc form like slot milling cutters and also in the form of end mill for producing teeth of large module gears. The form of these tools conforms to the shape of the gear tooth-gaps bounded by two involutes

Such form relieved cutters can be used for producing teeth of straight and helical toothed external spur gears and worm wheels as well as straight toothed bevel gears.

Spline shaft cutters These disc type HSS form relieved cutters are used for cutting the slots of external spline shafts having 4 to 8 straight axial teeth.

Tool form cutters Form milling type cutters are also used widely for cutting slots or flutes of different cross section e.g. the flutes of twist drills, milling cutters, reamers etc., and gushing of hobs, taps, and short thread milling cutters

Thread milling cutter Such shank type solid HSS or Carbide cutters having thread like annular grooves with equi-spaced gushings are used in automatic single purpose milling machines for cutting the threads in large lot production of screws, bolts etc. Both internal and external threads are cut by the tool The milling cutter is used in long thread milling (e.g. lead screws, power screws, worms etc.)

Milling Processes
Three types: Slab Milling (Peripheral Milling) Face Milling End Milling

1) Slab Milling (Peripheral Milling) Operation performed to produce a machined surface parallel to the axis of the rotation of cutter Cutting force may not be uniform throughout the length of cut by each tooth Quality of surface generated and the shape of chip formed is dependent upon the rotation of cutter relative to the direction of feed movement of the work

Based on the relative movement between the tool & work slab milling is classified into two types • • Conventional milling or Up milling Climb milling or Down milling

Conventional milling or Up milling: Process of metal removal by a cutter which is rotated against the direction of travel of work piece Thickness of chip is minimum at the beginning of the cut and it reaches to the maximum when cut terminates Cutting depth increases from zero to the maximum value per tooth movement of the cutter.

Cutting force is directed upwards and tends to lift the work from fixtures As the cutter progresses, the chip accumulate at the cutting zone and carried over with the cutter spoiling the work surface

Climb milling or Down milling Process of removing metal by a cutter which is rotated in the same direction of travel of the work piece Thickness of chip is maximum when the tooth begins the cut and it reduces to the minimum when the cut terminates

Cutting force is maximum when the tooth begins its cut and reduces to minimum when the tooth leaves the work Chip disposal is easy and does not interfere with the cutting process. 2) Face Milling Operation performed by a milling cutter to produce a flat surface perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the cutter Peripheral cutting edges of cutter do the actual cutting and face cutting edges finish up the work surface by removing a very small amount of material When the cutter rotates through half of the revolution the direction of movement of cutter tooth is opposite to the direction of feed Condition reverses when the cutter rotates through other half of the revolution Chip thickness is minimum at the beginning & at the end of cut and is maximum when the work passes through the center line of cutter

3) End Milling Considered as the combination of peripheral & face milling operation Cutter has teeth both on the end face & also on periphery Suitable for pocket milling & slot milling operation

Indexing
Process of dividing the periphery of a work piece into any number of equal parts Equal spacing of teeth on the gear blank is performed by indexing Indexing can be adopted for producing hexagonal and square head of bolts, cutting splines on shafts, fluting drills etc. Indexing is accomplished by using a special attachment known as dividing head or index head. Dividing head are of 3 types • • • • • • • • Plain or simple dividing head Universal dividing head Optical dividing head Direct / Rapid indexing Plain / Simple indexing Compound indexing Differential indexing Angular indexing

Indexing methods

Direct / Rapid indexing Used when a large number of identical work piece are indexed by very small divisions With a rapid index plate having 24 holes, it is possible to divide the work into equal divisions of 2, 3, 4, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 parts. Rule for direct indexing To find the index movement, divide the total number of holes in the direct index plate by the number of divisions required on the work. No. of holes to be moved = 24 / N [(Number of holes in index plate) / (Number of divisions)] Simple / Plain Indexing More accurate and suitable for numbers beyond the range of rapid indexing (Index plates with circle holes patented by Brown & Sharp Mfg. Company) Accepted as standard index plates by Indian machine tool manufacturers. • • • Plate No.: 1 – 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 Plate No.: 2 – 21, 23, 27, 29, 31, 33 Plate No.: 3 – 37, 39, 41, 43, 47, 49

Formula for index crank movement = 40 / N

[worm gear has 40 teeth and 40 turns of the crank will rotate the spindle through one complete revolution] (i.e) 1 turn of crank will cause the spindle to be rotated by 1/ 40 of a revolution.

(ex.) set the dividing head to mill 30 teeth on a spur gear blank Index crank movement = 40 / 30 = 1⅓ x 7 / 7 = 1 7/21 Therefore, for indexing, one complete turn and 7 holes in 21 hole circle of the index plate is to be moved by the index crank.

Compound Indexing Two separate movements of the index crank in two different hole circles of one index plate to obtain a crank movement which is not possible in plain indexing First movement is performed similar to the plain indexing Second index movement is performed by removing the rear lock pin and then rotating the plate together with the index crank forward / backward through the calculated number of spaces of another hole circle and then lock pin is engaged. Effective indexing movement will be the summation of the two movements Rule for compound indexing 40 / N = n1 / N1 ± n2 / N2 Where, N – No. of divisions required

N1- Hole circle used by crank pin N2 – Hole circle used in lock pin n1 – Hole spaces moved by the crank pin in N1 hole circle n2 – Hole spaces moved by the plate and crank pin in N2 hole circle

Differential Indexing Indexing is obtained by the combination of 2 movements Movement of the index crank similar to the simple indexing Simultaneous movement of the index plate when the crank is turned Rule for differential indexing Gear ratio = (A – N) 40 / A where ‘A’ is the selected number which can be indexed by plain indexing and the number is approximately equal to N. N is the required number of divisions to be indexed

In the ratio, the nr of fraction indicate driving gears on the index head spindle and the dr indicate the driven gears on the index plate Index crank movement = 40 / A Index crank is to be moved by an amount for N number of times for complete division of work Ex. To index 83 divisions Index crank movement in plain indexing: 40 / N = 40 / 83 Since there is no 83 hole circle, the number cannot be indexed by plain indexing Assume A = 86, a number close to 83 and indexed by plain indexing Gear ratio: (A – N) 40 / A = (86 – 83) 40 / 86 = 3 x 40 / 86 = (72 / 24) x (40 / 86) Drivers: 72, 40 and Driven: 24, 86 Index crank movement: 40 / 86 = 20 / 43 For complete indexing, the index will have to be moved by 20 holes in 43 hole circle for 83 times As (A – N) is positive, the index plate should move in the same direction as the crank Angular Indexing

Angular indexing is the process of dividing the periphery of a work in angular measurements and not by the number of divisions Indexing method is similar to plain indexing When the index crank is rotated by 40 number of revolutions the spindle rotates through one complete revolution or by 360 deg. One turn of crank will cause the spindle and work to rotate through 360 / 40 = 9 deg. Rule Index crank movement = Angular displacement of work in degrees / 9 = Angular displacement of work in minutes / 540 = Angular displacement of work in Sec. / 32400 Ex. Index an angle of 19˚40’ = (19 x 60) + 40 = 1180’ Index crank movement = 1180’ / 540’ = 2 5/27 Index crank should be moved two complete turns and 5 holes of 27 hole circle.

Grinding
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Metal cutting operation performed by means of a rotating abrasive wheel

- Used to finish workpiece with high surface quality & dimensional accuracy

Cutting action of Abrasive grains - Two types of grinding Rough / non-precision Precision

Types of grinding machine 1. Rough grinding machine: - Floor stand and bench grinders - Portable and flexible shaft grinders - Swing frame grinders - Abrasive belt grinders 2. Precision grinders - Cylindrical external grinders - Cylindrical internal grinders

- Surface grinders – reciprocating table and rotating table - Vertical and horizontal spindle - Tool and cutter grinders - Special grinding machine

Horizontal spindle reciprocating table surface grinder

Vertical spindle reciprocating table surface grinder

Horizontal Spindle Rotary table

Vertical spindle rotary table

Centre type Cylindrical grinding

Centre less through feed Grinding

Centre less In feed grinding and End feed grinding

Bond and bonding processes - Bond is an adhesive material employed for holding abrasive grinding the desired shape to the grinding wheels - Commonly used bonds for the manufacture of grinding wheels include - Vitrified bond for vitrified grinding wheels (V) - Silicate bond for silicate grinding wheels (S) - Shellac bond for elastic wheels (E)

- Rubber bond for vulcanized wheels (R) - Bakelite / Resinoid bond - Oxy-chloride bond Vitrified bond - Abrasive grains and clay-mixed together with sufficient water - Fluid mixture is poured in moulds and dried in a temperature of 730ºC for 12-14 days - Clay vitrifies – (ie) it becomes a glass like / porcelain substance that surrounds and connects the abrasive grains - Grinding wheel has good strength, good porosity, resistance to acids/alkalies/chemicals Silicate bond - abrasive grains mixed with sodium silicate - mixture is molded and allowed to dry for several hours - baking is done at 260-280ºC for 3-4 hours Shellac bond - Abrasive grain particles and shellac are mixed and the mixture is allowed is rolled and pressed to desired shapes - Baking of wheels is done at 290-300ºC for few hours - Wheels produced by this process have good elasticity and good cutting capacity

- Shellac bonded wheels are used for finish grinding of cam shafts, bearing rollers, etc. Rubber bond - Abrasive grains are mixed with rubber and a calculated amount of sulphur (vulcanizing) - Mixture is spread between rubber sheets, rolled to desired thickness and then vulcanized - Rubber bonded grinding wheels are very hard / tough and posses good strength - But they are not heat resistant Bakelite or resinoid bond - Abrasive grains and synthetic resins / bakelite - Mixture is molded into desired shape and baked at 200-250ºC for few hours - At this temperature the resin sets to hold the abrasive grains - Wheels are very hard, strong and capable of working at high speeds - Used for rough grinding / stock removing Oxy-chloride bonding - abrasive grains mixed with magnesium oxide and magnesium chloride

- mixing of bond and abrasive is performed as in the case of vitrified bonded wheel - used for making wheel segments Grinding wheel selection factor 1. Material - This influences the selection of abrasive, grain size, grade, structure and bond - Al2O3 recommended for material with high tensile strength - SiC recommended for material with low tensile strength - Fine grain is used for hard and brittle material - Coarse grain is used for soft ductile material - Hard wheel for soft materials - Soft wheel for hard materials - Close spacing required for hard and brittle materials - Wide spacing required for soft and ductile materials 2. Amount of stock to be removed - Involves accuracy and finish - Coarse grain used for fast cutting and fine grain for fine finish - Wide spacing for rapid removal and close for fine finish 3. Wheel speed - influences the selection of grade and bond

- higher the wheel speed with respect to work speed the softer the wheel should be. Recommended wheel speed for different type of grinding: Cylindrical Surface Internal Tool and cutter Centreless 4. Work speed - Higher the work speed with respect to wheel speed harder the wheel should be Working speed for different material Roughing C.I Al Soft steel Hard steel Wearing of Grinding wheel Glazing - Condition in which the face or cutting edge takes a glass-like appearance (i.e.) the cutting points of the abrasives have become dull and worm down 60 m/min. 30 m/min. 9 m/min. 20 m/min. finishing 120 m/min. 60 m/min. 15 m/min. 30 m/min. 1500-2000 m/min. 1200-1500 m/min. 600-1800 m/min. 1500-2000 m/min. 1500-1800 m/min.

Loading of wheel - Cutting face of the wheel has particles of the metal being ground adhering to it (i.e.) the openings / pores of the wheel face being filled up with metal powder Reconditioning of grinding wheel - Dressing removes loading and break away the glazed surface so that the sharp abrasive particles are ready for grinding. Dressing can be done by using : Star dresser Diamond dresser Star Dresser - Common type of wheel dresser - Consist of number of hardened steel wheels with points on their periphery - Dresser is held against the face of the revolving wheel and moved across the face to dress the whole surface Diamond dresser - Single crystal diamond tip is used as tool for dressing - Tip will be inserted in a holder in such a way that the tip alone is projected outward - Holder is provided with a magnetic stand which can be placed on the table of the grinding machine

- Dresser is held against the face of the revolving wheel and moved across the face.