Fundamentals of Computer ICMT(Institute of Computer & Mobile Technology

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Computer:Computer is an electronics device (Machine), which is capable to performing arithmetical, logical & data analysis task. It accepts data in a form of input process them & produces desired result (Output). C – Complete O – Obedient M – Machine

P – Powerful U – User T – Type E – Every Thing R – Right

Components of Computer:-

There are four types of component use in Computer. Input Memory Process Output

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Fundamentals of Computer ICMT(Institute of Computer & Mobile Technology)

Input:Input devices are use to input data instruction in Computer. They are necessary to convert our information or data into a from which can be understood by the computer. A good input device provides different type of input facility.

Keyboard:This is the standard input device attached to all computers. The layout of keyboard is just like the traditional typewriter of the same key. It also contains some extra command and function keys. It contains a total of 104 to higher keys. The computer can recognized the electrical signal to represent the data. Total key of Keyboard:! – Exclamation mark @ - At the rate of # - Hass $ - Dollar Created by – Atul Kumar Roll No - 001 2

Fundamentals of Computer ICMT(Institute of Computer & Mobile Technology) % - Percent ^ - Carat & - And * - Sticks(star) ( ) / { } / [ ] – Brackets < - is less than > - is grater than ? – Question mark , - Comma “ – Double A – Z – Alfa 0 – 9 – Numeric / - Front slash \ - Back slash | - Pipe line Num – Numeric lock Caps lock – Capital lock Pg Up – Page Up Pg Dn – Page down Del – Delete Ins – Insert Esc – Escape ↑ - Up arrow Created by – Atul Kumar Roll No - 001 3

Fundamentals of Computer ICMT(Institute of Computer & Mobile Technology) ↓ - Down arrow ← - left arrow → - Right arrow Enter key Shift + - Add - - Subtract _ - Under score ← - Back space Space bar Ctrl - Control Alt – Alter Tab Home End Scroll lock Break F1 – F12 – Function key

Mouse:Mouse is an input device which is use with our personal computer. It controls on a small ball and has two or three buttons on the top. When we roll the Created by – Atul Kumar Roll No - 001 4

Fundamentals of Computer ICMT(Institute of Computer & Mobile Technology) mouse across a flat surface the screen curser moves in the direction of mouse moment. The curser moves very fast with mouse giving you more freedom in working any facility.

Joy Sticks (Paddle):It is an input device which is use to any type of game. It moves left, right forward or backward.

MICR (Magnetic Ink Character Recognition):-

It is an also input device which is use to input magnetic character. Magnetic ink character are passed through a strong magnetic field the ink coded character become magnetism and recognized by magnetic ink document reader. Actually these input devices are mainly used in banking, industry to read cheque.

OCR (Optical Character Recognition):-

It is an input device which is capable to reading any printed or hard written text. They can read at rate of 50-3000 character per second. OCR devices are expensive and used only for large volume processing applications.

OMR (Optical Mark Recognition):Created by – Atul Kumar Roll No - 001 5

Fundamentals of Computer ICMT(Institute of Computer & Mobile Technology)

It is an input device this device can recognize mark made with pencil or ink on a specially designed with boxes which can be marked with a dark pencil or ink. It is mostly used in correcting multiple choice question in competitive exam.

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BCR (Bar Code Reader):It is an input device it is used to identify a particular product written in bar or stripes over that product. The example are books, package etc. the Universal Product Code consists of 11 digit computer readable code that are used in labeling the retail product. One – number system character, Five – manufacture, Five – I tom code number The reader head is moved across the bar lines to read the information contained in the bar.

Scanner:It is an input device which is use to enter the graphical data such as figure, document, chart, logo, monogram and other type of figure in the computer. It is just like Xerox machine. Light Pen:-

A light pen is a pointing device which can be used to select an option by simply pointing at it or draw figure directly on the screen and move the figure around. A light pen has a photo detector as its tip. This detector can detect changes in brightness of the screen light pens are useful for menu based applications inside of moving the mouse around or using a keyboard, the user can be select an option by pointing at it this is also useful for drawing graphics in CAD(Computer added device) Created by – Atul Kumar Roll No - 001 7

Fundamentals of Computer ICMT(Institute of Computer & Mobile Technology)

Digital Camera:Camera that uses a bank of charged – coupled device(CCD) memory units to compute an image store it digitally on to a disk or in RAM in body of camera.

Track Ball:Track ball is a also pointing input device that works like mouse. It also contain a ball and button.

Memory:In the computer memory is use to store the data result and programs for performing different type of calculation. In other words we can say that the memory of computer is the brain of computer. Which stores all the information about your Computer. There are two type of memory use in Computer.

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Primary Memory:-

it is also called main memory or primary storage device. It is chip, which is contains large amount of data inside a single chip. There are two of Primary Memory

(A)

ROM

(B)

RAM

ROM:-

ROM stands for Read Only Memory. With the help of this memory we can read the information which generated by the manufactures of computer. The information such as Brand Name, Company Name, Date and all the operational information of Computer. It is divided into three parts.

(a) PROM PROM:-

(b) EPROM

(c) EEPROM

PROM stands for Programmable Read Only Memory. In this type of ROM, once the chip has been programmed, recoded information can’t be changed i.e. the PROM becomes as ROM and store information can only be read. PROM is also a non volatile storage.

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EPROM:EPROM stands for Eraser able Programmable Read Only Memory. This type of ROM can be programmed or reprogrammed usually by expensing a normally converted sector to ultraviolet light when the EPROM is in use information can only be “read” and the information remains an the chip unit is erased.

EEPROM:EEPROM stands for Electrical Eraser able Programmable Read Only Memory. a recently developed type of memory that can be programmed and erased by electrical signals. EEPROM is used in many electronic devices not just in computers.

RAM:-

RAM stands for Random Access Memory. This type of memory is use to store the date of information in randomly. It is also called volatile memory because when switch off the Computer all the data will be lost which are storage in this memory. It is very fast accessing memory. It is divided into three parts.

(a) DRAM

(b) SRAM

(c) FRAM

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Fundamentals of Computer ICMT(Institute of Computer & Mobile Technology)

DRAM:DRAM stands for Dynamic Random Access Memory. This chip consist of a transistor which functions like a mechanical on-off light switch and a capacitor which is used to store an electric charge depending upon the switching action of the transistor. the capacitor may have no charge (0-bit) or hold a charge (1-bit). if we switch on the system the capacitor hold a charge (1-bit). Suppose, if we switch off the system the capacitor have no charge (0-bit) and what ever data is in this DRAM was fresh. it is thus called volatile storage.

SRAM:SRAM stands for Static Random Access Memory. This chip also consists of a transistor capacitor and special regenerator circuits which are used to get back the refreshed data when we switch off the system Static RAM’s are more complicated than Dynamic RAM. Static RAM’s are used in specialized applications. Dynamic RAM’s are typically used on the primary storage section.

FRAM:-

FRAM stands for ferromagnetic RAM. This type of RAM provides a Static (Non-volatile) storage of data.

SECONDARY STORAGE (AUXILLARY MEMORY):The Central Processor Unit has internal memory but this application program as well as the data for processing because it is volatile memory. so it is necessary to stand the storage capability of a computer by using external to main memory. The Secondary Storage Devices are used to store system program data files software package and so on. There are different types of Secondary Storage Device use in Computer.

FLOPPY DISK:-

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Floppy disk are 3.5 inches or 5.25 inches dimensionally and area of a plastic box. Inside of this box a disk made up of plastic material coated with magnetic oxide which is use to store the data in general form. There are a spindle hold in the center of the disk there are each an in desk hole in the right side of spindle hole. A read/write area available on the top side of floppy disk. There is a write protect launch available on down left corner of a floppy disk. The storage capacity of a floppy disk may be 1.44MB or 1.2MB. The floppy may be single sided or double sided floppy can store the data in one side but the double sided floppy can store the data in both side. The floppy are divided into different type of track and sectors. There are seven or nine track in every sector on the disk is use to store the data of bad track and sector.

HARD DISK:Hard disk is a particular storage device which is use to store large volume of data in different area. It is a group of disk which is inside a box. Storing on a central row. The storage capacity of hard disk is very large. It may be 40MB to 360GB. There is at list one separate read/write a head for is each recording surface of the disk pack and some drive have two or more. The hard disk is best on 40Years old technology. A Hard Disk consists of one or more magnetic disk content in a box. They are used to store the data program and other digital data. Each and every disk is divided into concentric circle or track. There are distance gap between read/write head and the surface of the disk. The disk drive provide for long term memory. A Hard Disk generally content there plates of total 6 read/write head. All the heads are moveable and ordinary Hard Disk rotate at 5400 RPM(Rotation Per Minute).

CD (COMPACT DISK):-

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It is also called Optical Disk because it is made up of Optical fiver. The storage capacity of Optical Disk may be 700MB. The Compact Disk is a thin plate of clear polycarbonate plastic with a metal layer covered with a protective layer with the aluminum large dimensionally 120mm in layers diameter. It is useful to stores multimedia component just like video clips, audio clips, animations sound and other data. It is inexpensive to duplicate. It is easy to distribute and store different type of data. It is read only there for can not be updated. There are different types of Compact Disk.

(a) CD ROM – Compact Disk Read Only Memory

(b)CD R – Compact Disk Recordable

(c) CD RW – Compact Disk Rewritable (d)DVD – Digital Versatile Disk

VCD – Video Compact Disk

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Fundamentals of Computer ICMT(Institute of Computer & Mobile Technology)

PROCCESS:-

It means CPU. CPU stands for Central Processing Unit. It is regarded as the brain of Computer. The CPU provides the fundamental command and instruction environment for the Computer. It contains three things ALU, CU and Memory.

ALU:The operational component of the Computer that can perform to solve arithmetical & logical problem is called ALU. It is made up with two things “Digital Circuits” & “Registers”. Digital Circuits help in arithmetical & logical operations while Registers stores instructions during run time.

CU(Control Unit):-

Control Unit directs & co-ordinates the all component of Computer. It is insure that information has been transferred between Memory, ALU, & Input/Output devices.

OUTPUT DEVICE:Created by – Atul Kumar Roll No - 001 14

Fundamentals of Computer ICMT(Institute of Computer & Mobile Technology)

There are four type of output device.

Monitor:-

Computer screen is known as monitor .it is also known as VDU (Visual Display Unit ).It provides windows using that user can get output .Monitor are made up with four flowing technology. (a) Cathod Ray Tubes (CRT)

(b) Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)

(c) Plasma Display

(d) Projection Display Created by – Atul Kumar Roll No - 001 15

Fundamentals of Computer ICMT(Institute of Computer & Mobile Technology)

Video Standard:-

1970:- Monochrome monitors came that only supported text. 1981:IBM introduced the Color Graphics Adapter (CGA) .it supported four color. its resolution was 320 pixel horizontally and 200 vertically .It was not sufficient four image resolution. IBM introduced EGA(Enhanced Graphic Adapter). It allows16’ different Colors. It ‘s resolutions 640.350 improved 1987- IBM introduced new monitor as VGA ( Video Graphic Adapter ) widely uses in personal computer and still in use today .Its resolution an depend on number of color for 16 color .Its resolution 648.480 and for 256 colors its resolution is 320.200 pixel. IBM introduced extended graphic adapter (XGA). XGA came in two version in which XGA-2 become very popular XGA -2 often 200X600 pixels resolution in 16 millions colors and 1024.768 resolution is 65,536 colors. This is the standard monitors that supported a palette of up to 16,000,000 colors .Its resolution is flexible and user can adjust it. Atul Kumar Roll No - 001 16

1984:-

1990:-

SVGA(Super Video Graphic Array):-

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Refresh Rate:-

Monitors constantly at work time redrawer refreshing image on screen image are refresh from left to right and to button by electronic “gun” or beam. it is measured in hertz(Hz). it is the frequency of which the monitor is capable for operating video band width .it is measured in Mhz. This is a plan in which contains are displayed in two passes using interlacing refresh procedure. It the first pass the been sweep across every alternate scan line from top to bottom. Then after the vertical retrace the beam sweep out the remaining scan lines.

Video Band Width:Interlacing:-

Printer:-

Printers are Output Device. Those are used for producing output. It is able to produce both text and graphic output. There two important categories.

(a) Impact Printer:(b) Non – Impact Printer:Impact Printer:-

Impact Printer are typewriter machine were a hammer stricks against paper through in ribbon every hammer contains image of character or graphic Example of impact printer are :-

Dot Matrix Printer:Created by – Atul Kumar Roll No - 001 17

Fundamentals of Computer ICMT(Institute of Computer & Mobile Technology)

It is made of separate pin like hammer that strike the ribbon against the paper in computer determined patterns of dots. Dot matrix can be eighter 80 columns or 132 column printers it is cheaper in compared to other printer its speed is 32 to 600 CPS(Character Per Second).

Daisy Wheel Printer:-

This is also an impact printers which has made of plastic hub that has large numbers of flexible radical spokes and each spoke have different character. the wheel is rotated horizontally step by step under computer control and stops when a desired character comes under wanted position then an hammer strikes on each character inked ribbon .this is slower than dot matrix but it is produced high resolution output.

Line Printer:-

Line printers print entire line in a single operation without necessary printing one character at a time. it is line length is up to 160 characters. it speed is 300 to 2000 lines per minute .these printer are used mainframe or minicomputer.

Non Impact Printer:-

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Non impact printers do not strikes again ribbon or paper at the printing time. it used chemical hit or electrical single to print5 symbols on the paper. These printers have less noise than impact printers. It’s speed is fast and it has ability to produce high quality graphics. Example of Non Impact Printers is:-

Inkjet Printer:-

Inkjet Printers print by in drop lets accurately on the paper in the from of required image. It is expressive but produce high quality output. It’s speed is 30 cps to 300 cps.

Laser Printer:-

las er printer print by defecting laser beam on to the photo sensitive surface on a drum and the image attracts, the toner to image area. The toner is then electrically transferred to the paper and fixed into the permanent image. its speed can range between 10 to 200 page /minute. it is expensive but provider noiseless operation.

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Fundamentals of Computer ICMT(Institute of Computer & Mobile Technology)

Plotter:Plotter is output device which is used to produce graphical output to another paper. Plotter has robot arm to draw with colored pens on sheet of paper. This is mainly used for drawing instruction plan on the paper.

Speaker:-

Speaker is output device which is used to produce sound output to Computer.

Generation of computer:-

The term of “generation” refer to major development in electronic data processing computer technology has been aimed at making smaller , cheaper and efficient computers. The development of computer has been very rapid in the last five years. It has been distinct stages each of three stage is called generation.

First Generation:-

The first generation computer was started in 1951. It was the first commercial (UNIVAC) develop by Mauchly and Eckert for the Remington Rand Corporation. The main component of the first computer generation was Vacuum tube. It was a light bulb tube they generated a great Created by – Atul Kumar Roll No - 001 20

Fundamentals of Computer ICMT(Institute of Computer & Mobile Technology) deal of heat. It was large in size as a room. A.C was disquiet in this generation of computer. It store data on punched card. The result of this generation computer was not sufficient.

Second Generation(1959-1969):-

The main components of second generation of computer was transistor. Transistor is a small device that transferred electric signals across a register. Transistor was much smaller than vacuum tube. So, they consume small space so the computer was smaller than first generation. The transistor needed no warm up time. So, they were faster and more reliable. A.C was also required in this generation. The assembly language was developed in this generation. It was symbolic language for display the symbols in spite of different command such as Add, Sub, Mul, Div.

Third Generation:-

The third generation of computer was develop after 1965. It took comparably less space. it’s main components was integrated circuits . It was made up off Transistors. Large number off transistors was kept inside a single chip. The chip was made up off silicon. Speed was increased in this generation of computer. Powerless decreased in third generation. High level language was developed in this generation. Storage capacity increased. A/C was also required in this generation of computer.

Fourth Generation:-

The fourth generation computer come of 1970. The main components of fourth generation computer are Scale Integration. Large number of IC Chips consists in a single scale. That is called Scale integration. Which consists generally one thousands IC in a single scale. After that third generation invents Large Scale Integration (LSI). There are ten thousand IC chip consists inside a scale which is called LSI. It is also called processor. After inventing the processor super large scale Integration made by Intel Corporation which is called Micro Processor. It is very fast as fast as calculate one million calculations. AC was not required for this generation of computer. It is also called Micro Computer or Desktop Created by – Atul Kumar Roll No - 001 21

Fundamentals of Computer ICMT(Institute of Computer & Mobile Technology) Computer.

Fifth Generation:-

The fifth generation computer will be must powerful and intelligent Computer. Which used expert system and natural system? It will be able to thinking the problem and also correction.

The Classification of Computer:-

The classification of computers can be characterized by cost, size, storage capacity number of users and processing speed. Computer can be classified as four category.

Super Computer:-

The speed of a computer is limited by two things. The first is the switching time and the second is time taken by an electric plus to go from one part of the computer to another. We can store large amount of data in super computer. It is very faster and more speeds for data processing. Super computer are able to reach the larger volume and speed performances for the mainframe by using the parallel processing Per ten thousand is much faster computer in the world. [1 second -10-12].

Mainframe Computer:-

These are also multi-user system. They are generally used in a centralized computer center. Different terminals and these are connected to the mainframe Computers. Mainframe Computers provide in large storage capacity and faster CPU speed. It isn’t based on single chip processor several math’s and logic processor’s are used. Its speed is measured in neon seconds. A maximum of 200 users can work at a time. A few application areas’s where these computers are mostly used for engineering designs, line application with large data base etc.

Mini Computer:-

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Fundamentals of Computer ICMT(Institute of Computer & Mobile Technology)

Mini computer are perform different type of work less than Mainframe Computer. It is a multi processor system. Which process 10 to 30 million instructions per second. They have operating multitasking and network capabilities an ambling them to serve more than one user. A Mini Computer can support more 100 terminals they are used in interactive application in Industries, Organization, Collage and University.

Micro Computer:-

The Micro Computer is a called as personal Computer. It is a single user system. That is only a single person work at a time. These Computers are very popular in the market because of its low rate. Micro computer uses micro processor that is a single chip that contains Processor Register and Control Unit. The number of peripherals attached to these Computers are very few.

Different Type of Computer:the basis of working facility. There are two type of computer.

Different type of computer on

Digital Computer:-

The Digital Computer display the information or any type of result in the form of digits. Digital computer are generate Code, Graphics and Special Character in the form of digit. It also generate graphs pay-roll, salary chart and soon.

Analog Computer:-

Analog Computer are represent the result in symbolic code and except data in the form of electro form. These are two types of Analog Computer. The first is called Mechanical Analog Computer. Mechanical Analog Computer represents the data in physical diameter and the Electrical Analog Computer represents the data in the basics electric voltage.

LIMITATION OF A COMPUTER Computers are very powerful tool, but can’t think and make any design on its own.  Computer can’t take over all activities simply because they are less flexible than human.  Computer can’t perform anything outside the defined scope.  Computers don’t have the potential to workout an alternative salutation.  The cost of computer is yet another factor which is limiting their use Created by – Atul Kumar Roll No - 001 23

Fundamentals of Computer ICMT(Institute of Computer & Mobile Technology)

Hybrid Computer:-

This computer is the combination of both Analog Computer Components and Digital Computer Components. This integration is obtain by digital to analog converter and analog to digital converter. A Hybrid Computer may use and produce analog data or digital data. This kind of computer is useful in model building for costing speedometer.

Embedded Computer:-

This is a Micro Processor Computer that works with in another tool. It has no slandered input and output memory hardware. It is use to expended the capacities of the tools where it has been embedded. Ex- the Micro Processor used in your Washing Machine is an example of Embedded Computer.

What is data? Data is just like a raw material which is used to perform any types of calculation with the help of computer. In other words we can say that all the components which is used for input process and output of the computer is called Data Characteristics of Computer:- Processing of data by hands is satisfactory only when the amount of data to be processed is small but the manual data processing is slow then computers can perform hundreds of thousands of calculation at an incredible speed. Computers are fast accurate and reliable. They don’tforget anything and they don’t complain. Speed _> Realtability -> Computer are more realiable where realabibility is the measurements of the Modern computers can do millions of calculation in kla second. This means the computer can do certain jobs hundreds of klthousands of times faster than humans canone of the major factor of judging the power of a computer is it’s speed also. The more power full computer. performance of a computer. Reliability of computer = Serviceable time / serviceaber time +down time Serviceable time is the total time during which a computer is in a state where it can operates normally including time when the computer is ideal but not the time. When it is unattended . Down time is the time when a computer is in operable due to a machine part. Software :-Computer software is a set of instruction which makes computer functional and provides arithmetical and logical capablity to hard ware perforam there operation A Created by – Atul Kumar Roll No - 001 24

Fundamentals of Computer ICMT(Institute of Computer & Mobile Technology) Computer software is divided into two catogary 1.system software 2.application software. 1.system software:-system software is a set of instruction that makes computer hard Ware functional to enterprate and excute application application software Example of system software are language transfer operating system utilities and special purpose softwere 2:-Application software-an application software is a set of programming instruction that is able computer to solue specific task. Example of application software are inventory control date base management etc. Language translater :-this is a system software which translates a computer program written by a user into machine code. Thes translaters assembler. Compiler and interpater. .assembler:- assemler takes assembly language program written use in code symbol translate into machine language. Compiler:-compiler is a translater which read an entire program pritten in high

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