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Chapter I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND


This chapter introduced the problem and the background of the study with
emphasis to the teaching techniques used by English teachers in teaching literature.

Introduction
Literature plays an important role for a learner. Its purpose is to entertain, to
inform and most especially to educate. It also leaves records of people, places and things
and keeps the language intact (Viray, et.al. p.5). With that, literature has existed because
there were people who want to express their feelings, emotions and experiences in
writing. It has been taught as a medium of expression.
By studying literature, exploration and analysis of written materials will be
developed. Literature let learners begin to see the world through the literary works; where
learners in effect become more sensitive to good writing in general. Studying short
stories, then, can help students become better readers, better writers, and even better
human beings. Reading literature, studying it, and taking it seriously enriches human
beings as well (Barden, Thomas E). Literature was seen as a means of empowering
opportunity for developing the literary competence. In this regard, teaching of literature
in the classroom promotes discovery-learning as learners take a critical stance towards
interpreting the meanings which makes them see literature as a personal experience and
take responsibility of their learning.

Chapter II
REVIEW ON RELATED STUDIES AND LITERATURE
To be more enlightened with the present problem, the researchers exerted all their
efforts to find some related literature and studies to be able to extract relevant principles
from the works of other writers and researchers.

Foreign Studies
According to the study of Siti Norliana Ghazali entitled ESL Students Attitude
towards Texts and Teaching Methods Used in Literature Classes (2009), A way to
motivate students to read literature is through better text selection. The most important
criterion in text selection is probably students interest. This does not mean that the texts
have to be about teenagers issues only. Students response suggested that they would like
to read about adventure, mysteries and life experience. As students come from different
background, interest and abilities, the best option is to choose texts which vary in terms
of genres, topics and language level. Data from this study suggested that students were
generally satisfied with the short stories but were less enthusiastic about the poems and
novels. Perhaps more contemporary poems can be included in the text selection and for
novels, it is better if more choices are provided and students are allowed to choose those
which suits their interest and language level.

Chapter III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter included the research method used, locale and population used in the
study in addition to the description of respondents, procedures used for gathering data,
instrument used and statistical treatment of data.

Research Design
The researchers used descriptive method of research in the study. Calmorin (1994)
defines the descriptive research as the study that focuses at the condition; the purpose is
to find truth. The truth may have many different forms such as increase in quantity of
knowledge of new generation as new Law, an increased insight into factors which are
operating the discovery of a new causal relationship, more accurate information of a
problem to be solved and many others.
The researchers had chosen the descriptive method in the study for its emphasis
was placed on the discovery of ideas and insights. This method was the best means to
obtain the necessary information regarding the teaching techniques. The researchers
sought to assess the teaching techniques used by the English teachers in teaching
literature. Through the use of descriptive method the researchers found the answer on the
contained variables stated in the study.

Chapter IV
PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
This chapter contained the presentation, analysis, and interpretation of the result
of the research. Data were presented in tables and were presented and analyzed with
corresponding interpretation and discussion of analysis that gave answer to the statement
of the problem.
Table 2
Length of Teaching Experience
Years in Teaching
Below 5 years
6 to 10 years
11 to 15 years
16 to 20 years
20 years and above
TOTAL

Number of Respondents
27
20
14
6
7
74

Percentage
36.49%
27.03%
18.92%
8.11%
9.46%
100.00%

Out of the 74 respondents, 27 (36.49%) had been teaching below 5 years, 20


(27.03%) of them were teaching for 6 to 10 years while respondents teaching for 11 to
15 years were 14 (18.92%) and those who were teaching for 16 to 20 years were 6
(8.11%). The remaining 7 (9.46%) respondents were teaching for almost 20 years and
above.
Table 2 showed that 27 (37.00%) were the majority of the respondents teaching
below 5 years and 6 (8.00%) were the least number of the respondents that belongs to 16
to 20 years of teaching according to the respondents length of teaching experience.

Chapter V
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter presented a summary of the findings of the study, the conclusions
that were drawn from the obtained results, as well as the recommendations forwarded in
the light of findings and conclusion that were arrived at.
Findings:
The following were the significant findings of the study:
1. Profile of the Respondents:
1.1 According to length of teaching experience:
1.1.1 Thirty seven percent or 27 out of 74 respondents had taught for 5 years
and below; twenty seven percent or 29 out of 74 respondents had taught for 610 years; nineteen percent or 14 out of 74 respondents had taught for 11-15
years nine percent or 7 out of 74 respondents had taught for 21 years and
above, while the remaining eight percent or 6 out of 74 respondents had taught
for 16-20 years.
2. Techniques Used by Teachers in Literature Class
2.1 Out of the 15 techniques used in teaching literature, the vocabulary grid was
the most utilized by the respondents; followed by outlining technique, show and tell, role
play and improvisations, lecture methods, buzz group, group report, and interpretative
reading. The techniques sometimes used were