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You are on page 1of 11

Fall 2014

Exam 1

October 20, 2014

Time Limit: 50 Minutes

Name (Print):

Student ID:

This exam contains 11 pages (including this cover page) and 5 problems. Check to see if any pages

are missing. Enter all requested information on the top of this page, and put your initials on the

top of every page, in case the pages become separated.

You may not use your books or notes on this exam. However, you may use a single, handwritten,

one-sided notesheet and a basic calculator.

Note also that the LAST PAGE has a couple useful integrals!!

You are required to show your work on each problem on this exam. The following rules apply:

coherent way, in the space provided. Work scattered all over the page without a clear ordering

will receive very little credit.

Mysterious or unsupported answers will not

receive full credit. A correct answer, unsupported by calculations, explanation, or algebraic

work will receive no credit; an incorrect answer

supported by substantially correct calculations and

explanations might still receive partial credit.

If you need more space, use the back of the pages;

clearly indicate when you have done this.

Box Your Answer where appropriate, in order

to clearly indicate what you consider the answer

to the question to be.

Do not write in the table to the right.

Problem

Points

10

10

10

10

10

Total:

50

Score

Exam 1 - Page 2 of 11

xy 0 = cos(y), y(1/2) = 0.

xy 0 + 2y = sin(x).

Exam 1 - Page 3 of 11

Solution 1.

(a) The equation is separable. We separate and integrate, finding

Z

Z

1

sec(y)dy = dx.

x

This tells us that

ln | sec(y) + tan(y)| = ln |x| + C,

and exponentiating we obtain

1

sec(y) + tan(y) = B .

x

The initial condition then says

sec(0) + tan(0) = B

1

.

1/2

sec(y) + tan(y) =

1

.

2x

2

sin(x)

y0 = y +

.

x

x

For this we have the integrating factor

(x) = e

2

dx

x

= e2 ln(x) = x2 .

Z

Z

sin(x)

y = x2 x2

dx = x2 x sin(x)dx = x2 (x cos(x) + sin(x) + C).

x

Thus the general solution is

y=

cos(x) sin(x)

C

+

+ 2.

2

x

x

x

Exam 1 - Page 4 of 11

Directions: The multiple choice section consists of five multiple choice questions. You are NOT

required to justify your answer.

(a) (2 points) Which of the following initial value problems could have more than one solution?

A.

y 0 + y 2 = 3xy + cos(x), y() = 2 2 .

B.

xy 0 = 2xy 3, y(1) = 1.

C.

y 0 = y 1/3 , y(0) = 1.

D.

y 0 = |1 y| + 1, y(0) = 1.

y 0 = 3y

is which type of equation?

A. Linear B. Homogeneous

xy 2 + yx2

x+y

C. Seperable

D. Exact

(c) (2 points) What is the largest interval we should expect a unique solution to the initial

value problem

(3 x)y 0 = sin(x)y + tan(x), y() = 0

A. (/2, 3)

B. (3, 3/2)

C. (/2, 3/2)

D. (/2, /2)

q

x

1

A. The general solution of y 0 = y(1y)(1+y)

is y = CeCex 1

B. An initial value problem must have at least one solution.

C. If (x, y) is an integrating factor for the equation M (x, y) + N (x, y)y 0 = 0, then

42(x, y) is also an integrating factor for the same equation.

D. A family of solutions to y 0 = 2x + 2y is given by y = x2 + y 2 + C.

(e) (2 points) Which of the following statements is TRUE about the equation

y 0 = y(ey ey )(1 y 2 )

A.

B.

C.

D.

y = 0 is a semistable equilibrium

y = 1 is an unstable equilibrium

y = 1 is a semistable equilibrium

y = 0 is a stable equilibrium solution

Solution 2. DCBCA

Exam 1 - Page 5 of 11

3. (10 points) (a) (5 points) Show that the following equation is exact. Then find a family of

solutions.

ex sin(y) 2y sin(x) + (ex cos(y) + 2 cos(x))y 0 = 0.

(b) (5 points) Find an integrating factor for the following differential equation (you do NOT

need to solve the equation).

3x2 y + 2xy + y 3 + (x2 + y 2 )y 0 = 0.

Exam 1 - Page 6 of 11

Solution 3.

(a) In this case, we have

M (x, y) = ex sin(y) 2y sin(x), N (x, y) = ex cos(y) + 2 cos(x).

Therefore

My (x, y) = ex cos(y) 2 sin(x), Nx (x, y) = ex cos(y) 2 sin(x).

Thus the equation is exact. To solve it, we find (x, y) satisfying x = M and y = N .

Partial integration says

Z

Z

Z

(x, y) = x (x, y)x = M (x, y)x = (ex sin(y)2y sin(x))x = ex sin(y)+2y cos(x)+h(y).

From this, we see that

y (x, y) = ex cos(y) + 2 cos(x) + h0 (y).

Comparing this to N (x, y), we obtain that h0 (y) = 0. Thus without loss of generality, we

can take h(y) = 0, and (x, y) = ex sin(y) + 2y cos(x). A family of solutions is therefore

ex sin(y) + 2y cos(x) = C.

(b) We try to find an integrating factor of the form (x). Then

(x)(3x2 y + 2xy + y 3 ) + (x)(x2 + y 2 )y 0 = 0

should be exact. Here

M (x, y) = (x)(3x2 y + 2xy + y 3 ), N (x, y) = (x)(x2 + y 2 ).

We therefore calculate that

My (x, y) = (x)(3x2 + 2x + 3y 2 ), N (x, y) = 0 (x)(x2 + y 2 ) + (x)(2x).

Setting these equal to each other, we get

(x)(3x2 + 2x + 3y 2 ) = 0 (x)(x2 + y 2 ) + (x)(2x).

This simplifies to

(x)(3x2 + 3y 2 ) = 0 (x)(x2 + y 2 ).

Note that we can remove a factor of x2 + y 2 from both sides. Doing so, we obtain

(x)3 = 0 (x).

This is a separable equation a solution is (x) = e3x .

Exam 1 - Page 7 of 11

4. (10 points) Newtons law of cooling states that the temperature u(t) of an object changes at a

rate proportional to u(t) T (t), where T (t) is the surrounding temperature at time t. To put

this another way,

u0 (t) = k(u(t) T (t)),

for some constant k which in general depends on the material properties of the object and its

surroundings. At noon, a differential equations student fills a bird bath outdoors with water at

u0 degrees F . The temperature outside is given by T (t) = 65 + 5 cos(t/12), where t is given

in hours since noon.

(a) Find an equation for u(t) (your answer should involve k and u0 ).

(b) After two hours have passed, the temperature of the water in the bath acclimates, and

any terms of the form ekt in your solution from (a) are very, very small (and may be

taken to be zero). With this in mind, write an approximate expression for u(t), for t > 2

hours. Does the temperature after two hours depend on the starting temperature u0 ?

(c) Suppose that the next day, the differential equations student measures the temperature of

the water in the bird bath to be 0.1 degree less than the surrounding temperature. Using

your approximation from (b), determine the value of k.

Exam 1 - Page 8 of 11

Solution 4.

(a) We must solve the initial value problem

u0 (t) = ku(t) + k(65 + 5 cos(t/12), u(0) = u0 .

The differential equation is linear, and our integrating factor formula tells that an integrating factor is (t) = ekt , and that the solution is therefore

Z

Z

kt

kt

kt

u(t) = e

ke (65 + 5 cos(t/12)dt = 65 + 5ke

ekt cos(t/12)dt.

From the integrals on the back page we can evaluate this last integral. Simplifying the

result, we find

u(t) = 65 +

k2

5k

(k cos(t/12) + (/12) sin(t/12)) + Cekt .

+ (/12)2

To determine the value of the constant C, we use our initial condition. As a result we get

5k2

C = u0 65 k2 +(/12)

2 . Thus the final answer is

5k

5k 2

u(t) = 65+ 2

(k cos(t/12) + (/12) sin(t/12))+ u0 65 2

ekt .

k + (/12)2

k + (/12)2

(b) Taking our answer from (a), we let ekt 0, getting

u(t) 65 +

k2

5k

(k cos(t/12) + (/12) sin(t/12)) .

+ (/12)2

(c) We have that u(24) = T (24) 0.1, and therefore that

0.1 = 5

5k 2

.

k 2 + (/12)2

49/12 1.8326.

Exam 1 - Page 9 of 11

5. (10 points)

(a) (5 points) Find a family of solutions of the following differential equation

y0 =

xy

.

x+y

(b) (5 points) The population of creatures on a radioactive island consists of humans and

zombies. Let h denote the fraction of the population which is humans and z denote the

fraction of the population which is zombies, so that h + z = 1. Humans that come in

contact with zombies end up as zombies themselves, so that the rate of change of the

zombie population is equal to the number of such contacts. Furthermore, assume both

humans and zombies move about the island freely, so that the number of contacts is

proportional to the product of h and z, with proportionality constant k. Assuming that

0.99 of the population is human initially, set up (but do not solve) an initial value problem

describing the population of zombies as a function of time.

Exam 1 - Page 10 of 11

Solution 5.

(a) The equation is homogeneous. Doing the usual substitution z = y/x, we obtain

z + xz 0 =

1z

.

1+z

Therefore

1 2z z 2

.

1+z

This equation is separable. Separating and integrating, we find

Z

Z

1

1+z

dz =

dx.

1 2z z 2

x

xz 0 =

Therefore

1

ln |1 2z z 2 | = ln |x| + C.

2

Exponentiating both sides, we obtain

(1 2z z 2 )1/2 = Bx.

Substituting back in for z, this says

(1 2(y/x) (y/x)2 )1/2 = Bx.

(b) We have that z 0 = kzh, and since h = 1 z this becomes z 0 = kz(1 z). Moreover, since

h(0) = 0.99 we must have that z(0) = 0.01, and our initial value problem is therefore

z 0 = kz(1 z), z(0) = 0.01.

Exam 1 - Page 11 of 11

Z

b

a

eax cos(bx) + 2

eax sin(bx) + C.

eax cos(bx)dx = 2

2

a +b

a + b2

Z

b ax

a

eax sin(bx)dx = 2

e cos(bx) + 2

eax sin(bx) + C.

2

a +b

a + b2

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