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Palladin - Wikipedia

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Available structures

Ortholog search: PDBe (

term=Q9ET54%20or%20Q8WX93%20or%20D6R9F5) RCSB (
List of PDB id codes
2DM2 (, 2DM3 (

Aliases (


/wiki/Human_Genome_Organisation) CGI-151, CGI151, MYN, PNCA1, SIH002, palladin, cytoskeletal associated protein
External IDs

OMIM: 608092 ( MGI: 1919583

( HomoloGene: 75052
dopt=HomoloGene&list_uids=75052) GeneCards: PALLD
Gene ontology

Molecular function

muscle alpha-actinin binding (

protein binding (
actin binding (

Cellular component

cell projection (

focal adhesion (
growth cone (
ruffle (
plasma membrane (
axon (
cell junction (
Z disc (
actin filament (
actin cytoskeleton (
podosome (
cytoskeleton (
nucleus (
lamellipodium (

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Palladin - Wikipedia

cytoplasm (
cytosol (
Biological process

epithelial cell morphogenesis (

keratinocyte development (
cytoskeleton organization (
actin cytoskeleton organization (
cell migration (

Sources:Amigo ( / QuickGO (




23022 (

72333 (



Q8WX93 (

Q9ET54 (






RefSeq (mRNA)

RefSeq (protein)

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Palladin - Wikipedia



Location (UCSC)

Chr 4: 168.5 168.93 Mb


Chr 8: 61.51 61.9 Mb


position=chr4:168497066-168928457) position=chr8:61511433-61902690)
PubMed search

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View/Edit Human

View/Edit Mouse

Palladin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PALLD gene.[3][4][5][6] Palladin is a component of
actin-containing microfilaments that control cell shape, adhesion, and contraction.[6]


Disease linkage
Further reading
External links

Palladin was characterised independently by two research groups, first in the lab of Carol Otey (in 2000) [4]
and then in the lab of Olli Carpn (in 2001).[7] It is a part of the myotilin-myopalladin-palladin family and
may play an important role in modulating the actin cytoskeleton.[8] Palladin, in contrast to myotilin and
myopalladin, which are expressed only in striated muscle, is expressed ubiquitously in cells of mesenchymal
Palladin was named after the Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio, reflecting its localization to
architectural elements of the cell.[4]

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The eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Palladin

is one component of this complex
cellular machinery.

In humans, it appears that seven different isoforms exist, some of which arise through alternative splicing.[9]
In mice, three major isoforms of palladin arise from a single gene. These isoforms contain between three and
five copies (depending on the isoform) of an Ig-like domain and between one and two copies of a
polyproline domain.[4]

Palladin's precise biological role is poorly understood, but it has been shown to play a role in cytoskeletal
organization, embryonic development, cell motility, scar formation in the skin, and nerve cell

Disease linkage
Recently, it has been demonstrated that palladin RNA is overexpressed in patients with pancreatic neoplasia,
and that palladin is both overexpressed and mutated in an inherited form of pancreatic cancer.[10] The
palladin mutation identified in familial pancreatic cancer may be unique to a single North American family,
as this same mutation has not been found in any other European or North American populations,
respectively, in two other genetic studies.[11][12]
Further, Salaria et al. have shown that palladin is overexpressed in the non-neoplastic stroma of pancreatic
cancer, but only rarely in the cancer cells per se,[13] suggesting that palladin's role in this disease may
involve changes in the tumor microenvironmment. More research is clearly required before this protein and
its role in neoplasia can be fully understood.
Disease-causing mutations have also been identified in the two other members of this gene family. Myotilin
mutations cause a form of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, and mutations in myopalladin cause an inherited
form of heart disease (dilated cardiomyopathy).


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PALLD has been shown to interact with EZR.[7]

1. "Human PubMed Reference:".
2. "Mouse PubMed Reference:".
3. Nagase T, Ishikawa K, Suyama M, Kikuno R,
Hirosawa M, Miyajima N, Tanaka A, Kotani H,
Nomura N, Ohara O (Jul 1999). "Prediction of the
coding sequences of unidentified human genes.
XIII. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA
clones from brain which code for large proteins in
vitro". DNA Res. 6 (1): 6370. doi:10.1093/dnares
/6.1.63. PMID 10231032.
4. Parast MM, Otey CA (Sep 2000). "Characterization
of Palladin, a Novel Protein Localized to Stress
Fibers and Cell Adhesions". J Cell Biol. 150 (3):
64356. doi:10.1083/jcb.150.3.643. PMC 2175193
. PMID 10931874.
5. Wiemann S, Weil B, Wellenreuther R, Gassenhuber
J, Glassl S, Ansorge W, Bcher M, Blcker H,
Bauersachs S, Blum H, Lauber J, Dsterhft A,
Beyer A, Khrer K, Strack N, Mewes HW,
Ottenwlder B, Obermaier B, Tampe J, Heubner D,
Wambutt R, Korn B, Klein M, Poustka A (2001).
"Toward a Catalog of Human Genes and Proteins:
Sequencing and Analysis of 500 Novel Complete
Protein Coding Human cDNAs". Genome Res. 11
(3): 42235. doi:10.1101/gr.GR1547R.
PMC 311072 . PMID 11230166.
6. "Entrez Gene: PALLD palladin, cytoskeletal
associated protein".
7. Mykknen OM, Grnholm M, Rnty M, Lalowski
M, Salmikangas P, Suila H, Carpn O (2001).
"Characterization of Human Palladin, a
Microfilament-associated Protein". Mol. Biol. Cell.
12 (10): 306073. doi:10.1091/mbc.12.10.3060.
PMC 60155 . PMID 11598191.
8. Otey CA, Rachlin A, Moza M, Arneman D, Carpen
O (2005). "The palladin/myotilin/myopalladin
family of actin-associated scaffolds". Int. Rev.
Cytol. 246: 3158.
PMID 16164966.

9. Rachlin AS, Otey CA (2006). "Identification of

palladin isoforms and characterization of an
isoform-specific interaction between Lasp-1 and
palladin". J. Cell. Sci. 119 (Pt 6): 9951004.
doi:10.1242/jcs.02825. PMID 16492705.
10. Pogue-Geile KL, Chen R, Bronner MP, CrnogoracJurcevic T, Moyes KW, Dowen S, Otey CA, Crispin
DA, George RD, Whitcomb DC, Brentnall TA
(2006). "Palladin Mutation Causes Familial
Pancreatic Cancer and Suggests a New Cancer
Mechanism". PLoS Med. 3 (12): e516.
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030516. PMC 1751121
. PMID 17194196.
11. Slater E, Amrillaeva V, Fendrich V, Bartsch D, Earl
J, Vitone LJ, Neoptolemos JP, Greenhalf W (2007).
"Palladin Mutation Causes Familial Pancreatic
Cancer: Absence in European Families". PLoS
Med. 4 (4): e164.
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040164. PMC 1855695
. PMID 17455999.
12. Zogopoulos G, Rothenmund H, Eppel A, Ash C,
Akbari MR, Hedley D, Narod SA, Gallinger S
(2007). "The P239S palladin variant does not
account for a significant fraction of hereditary or
early onset pancreas cancer". Hum. Genet. 121 (5):
6357. doi:10.1007/s00439-007-0361-z.
PMID 17415588.
13. Salaria SN, Illei P, Sharma R, Walter KM, Klein
AP, Eshleman JR, Maitra A, Schulick R, Winter J,
Ouellette MM, Goggins M, Hruban R (2007).
"Palladin is Overexpressed in the Non-Neoplastic
Stroma of Infiltrating Ductal Adenocarcinomas of
the Pancreas, but is only Rarely Overexpressed in
Neoplastic Cells". Cancer Biol. Ther. 6 (3): 3248.
doi:10.4161/cbt.6.3.3904. PMC 3144721 .
PMID 17404500.

Further reading
King CM, Olive CW, Cardona RA (1975).
"Activation of carcinogenic arylhydroxamic acids
by human tissues". J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 55 (2):
2857. doi:10.1093/jnci/55.2.285. PMID 1159819.

Lai CH, Chou CY, Ch'ang LY, et al. (2000).

"Identification of Novel Human Genes
Evolutionarily Conserved in Caenorhabditis elegans
by Comparative Proteomics". Genome Res. 10 (5):
70313. doi:10.1101/gr.10.5.703. PMC 310876 .
PMID 10810093.

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Bang ML, Mudry RE, McElhinny AS, et al. (2001).

"Myopalladin, a Novel 145-Kilodalton Sarcomeric
Protein with Multiple Roles in Z-Disc and I-Band
Protein Assemblies". J. Cell Biol. 153 (2): 41327.
doi:10.1083/jcb.153.2.413. PMC 2169455 .
PMID 11309420.
Mykknen OM, Grnholm M, Rnty M, et al.
(2002). "Characterization of Human Palladin, a
Microfilament-associated Protein". Mol. Biol. Cell.
12 (10): 306073. doi:10.1091/mbc.12.10.3060.
PMC 60155 . PMID 11598191.
Eberle MA, Pftzer R, Pogue-Geile KL, et al.
(2002). "A New Susceptibility Locus for Autosomal
Dominant Pancreatic Cancer Maps to Chromosome
4q32-34". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 70 (4): 10448.
doi:10.1086/339692. PMC 379100 .
PMID 11870593.
Moriyama K, Bonifacino JS (2003). "Pallidin is a
component of a multi-protein complex involved in
the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles".
Traffic. 3 (9): 66677.
PMID 12191018.
Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al.
(2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more
than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA
sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26):
16899903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899.
PMC 139241 . PMID 12477932.
Lee SY, Obata Y, Yoshida M, et al. (2003).
"Immunomic analysis of human sarcoma". Proc.
Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100 (5): 26516.
doi:10.1073/pnas.0437972100. PMC 151395 .
PMID 12601173.
Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, et al. (2004).
"Complete sequencing and characterization of
21,243 full-length human cDNAs". Nat. Genet. 36
(1): 405. doi:10.1038/ng1285. PMID 14702039.
Rnty M, Taivainen A, Moza M, et al. (2004).
"Molecular analysis of the interaction between
palladin and alpha-actinin". FEBS Lett. 566 (13):
304. doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2004.04.006.
PMID 15147863.

Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004).

"The Status, Quality, and Expansion of the NIH
Full-Length cDNA Project: The Mammalian Gene
Collection (MGC)". Genome Res. 14 (10B):
21217. doi:10.1101/gr.2596504. PMC 528928 .
PMID 15489334.
Hillier LW, Graves TA, Fulton RS, et al. (2005).
"Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences
of human chromosomes 2 and 4". Nature. 434
(7034): 72431. doi:10.1038/nature03466.
PMID 15815621.
Rnty M, Taivainen A, Moza M, et al. (2005).
"Involvement of palladin and alpha-actinin in
targeting of the Abl/Arg kinase adaptor ArgBP2 to
the actin cytoskeleton". Exp. Cell Res. 310 (1):
8898. doi:10.1016/j.yexcr.2005.06.026.
PMID 16125169.
Shiffman D, Ellis SG, Rowland CM, et al. (2005).
"Identification of Four Gene Variants Associated
with Myocardial Infarction". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 77
(4): 596605. doi:10.1086/491674. PMC 1275608
. PMID 16175505.
Boukhelifa M, Moza M, Johansson T, et al. (2006).
"The proline-rich protein palladin is a binding
partner for profilin". FEBS J. 273 (1): 2633.
PMID 16367745.
Rnty MJ, Leivonen SK, Hinz B, et al. (2007).
"Isoform-specific regulation of the actin-organizing
protein palladin during TGF-beta1-induced
myofibroblast differentiation". J. Invest. Dermatol.
126 (11): 238796. doi:10.1038/sj.jid.5700427.
PMID 16794588.
Beausoleil SA, Villn J, Gerber SA, et al. (2006).
"A probability-based approach for high-throughput
protein phosphorylation analysis and site
localization". Nat. Biotechnol. 24 (10): 128592.
doi:10.1038/nbt1240. PMID 16964243.
Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, et al. (2006).
"Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation
dynamics in signaling networks". Cell. 127 (3):
63548. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026.
PMID 17081983.

External links
palladin protein, human (
term=palladin+protein,+human) at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings
Retrieved from ""
Categories: Genes on human chromosome 4

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