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# Complete on a Separate Sheet

## 1. Which one of the following temperatures is approximately equal to "room temperature?"

A) 0 K B) 0 C C) 100 C D) 100 K E) 293 K
2. Complete the following statement: A temperature decrease of 30 C is equal to a
temperature decrease of
A) 30 F. B) 30 K. C) 17 F. D) 26 F. E) 303 K.
3. Absolute zero on the Celsius temperature scale is 273.15 C. What is absolute zero on
the Fahrenheit temperature scale?
4. Three thermometers are in the same water bath. After thermal equilibrium is established,
it is found that the Celsius thermometer reads 100 C, the Fahrenheit thermometer reads
212 F, and the Kelvin thermometer reads 273 K. Which one of the following statements
is the most reasonable conclusion?
A) The Kelvin thermometer is incorrect.
B) The Celsius thermometer is incorrect.
C) The Fahrenheit thermometer is incorrect.
D) All three thermometers are incorrect.
E) The three thermometers are at different temperatures.
5. Complete the following statement: The term heat most accurately describes
A) the internal energy of an object.
B) a measure of how hot an object is.
C) the absolute temperature of an object.
D) the molecular motion inside of an object.
E) the flow of energy due to a temperature difference.
6. The units of heat are equivalent to those of which one of the following quantities?
A) force/time B) work C) temperature D) specific heat capacity E) power
7. The specific heat capacity of iron is approximately half that of aluminum. Two balls of
equal mass, one made of iron and the other of aluminum, both at 80 C, are dropped into
a thermally insulated jar that contains an equal mass of water at 20 C. Thermal
equilibrium is eventually reached. Which one of the following statements concerning the
final temperatures is true?
A) Both balls will reach the same final temperature.
B) The iron ball will reach a higher final temperature than the aluminum ball.
C) The aluminum ball will reach a higher final temperature than the iron ball.
D) The difference in the final temperatures of the balls depends on the initial mass of the
water.
E) The difference in the final temperatures of the balls depends on the initial temperature
of the water.

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8. Two spheres, labeled A and B have identical masses, but are made different substances.
The specific heat capacity of sphere A is 440 J/kg C and that of sphere B is 160 J/kg
C. The spheres are initially at 21 C; and the same quanity of heat is added to each
sphere. If the final temperature of sphere A is 72 C, what ifs the final temperature of
sphere B?
9. A 200.00-kg object is attached via an ideal pulley system to paddle wheels that are
submerged in 0.480 kg of water at 20.0 C in an insulated container as shown in the
drawing. Then, the object fallls through a distance of 5.00 m causing the paddle wheel to
turn. Assuming all of the mechanical energy lost by the falling object goes into the water,
determine the final temperature of the water.

## Use the following to answer questions 10-11:

A 2.00-kg metal block slides on a rough, horizontal surface inside an insulated box. After sliding
a distance of 500.0 m, its temperature is increased by 2.00 C. Note: Assume that all of the heat
generated by frictional heating goes into the metal block. For this metal, the specific heat
capacity is 0.150 cal/(g - C).

10. How much work does the force of friction do on the block?
11. What is the coefficient of sliding friction between the block and the surface?
12. Complete the following statement: When a substance undergoes fusion it
A) freezes. B) sublimes. C) condenses. D) vaporizes. E) evaporates.
13. Which would cause a more serious burn: 30 g of steam or 30 g of liquid water, both at
100 C; and why is this so?
14. A 5.0-g sample of ice at 0.0 C falls through a distance of 20.0 m and undergoes a
completely inelastic collision with the earth. If all of the lost mechanical energy is
absorbed by the ice, how much of it melts?

15.

Using the data in the table, determine how many calories are needed to change 100 g of

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## solid X at 10 C to a vapor at 210 C.

16. A 0.030-kg ice cube at 0 C is placed in an insulated box that contains a fixed quantity of
steam at 100 C. When thermal equilibrium of this closed system is established, its
temperature is found to be 23 C. Determine the original mass of the steam at 100 C.

17. Judy places 0.150 kg of boiling water in a thermos bottle. How many kilograms of ice at
-12.0 C must Judy add to the thermos so that the equilibrium temperature of the water is
75.0 C?
18. A household humidifier continuously takes water in at 20.0 C at a rate of 5.60 105
kg/s and heats it until it evaporates. If the cost of electricity is \$ 0.14/kWh, what is the
daily cost of operating the humidifier? Notes: one kWh = 3.60 106 J; and for water, the
specific heat capacity is 4186 J/(kg C) the latent heats of fusion and vaporization are
3.35 105 J/kg and 2.26 106 J/kg, respectively.
19. After working a 0.55-kg iron horseshoe with a temperature of 460 C on an anvil, a
ferrier drops it into a bucket that contains 11 kg of water with an initial temperature of 24
C. Assuming no heat is transferred to the environment, determine the final temperature
of the horseshoe in the bucket of water when thermal equilibrium is achieved. The
specific heat capacity of iron is 452 J/kgC. For water, the specific heat capacity is 4186
J/kgC.
20. Complete the following statement: The transfer of heat by convection will occur
A) only in metals.
B) only in a vacuum.
C) only in non-metallic solids.
D) with or without the presence of matter.
E) only in the presence of a liquid or a gas.
21. Which one of the following is not an example of convection?
A) Smoke rises above a fire.
D) Water cooks spaghetti.
B) An eagle soars on an updraft of wind. E) An electric heater warms a room.
C) A person gets a suntan on a beach.
22. Suppose you are sitting next to a fireplace in which there is a fire burning. One end of a
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metal poker has been left in the fire. Which one of the following statements concerning
this situation is true?
A) You can feel the heat of the fire primarily because of convection.
B) The other end of the poker is warmed through conduction.
C) Heat escapes through the chimney primarily through conduction.
D) You can feel the heat of the fire primarily because of conduction.
E) The other end of the poker is warmed through convection.
23. The two ends of an iron rod are maintained at different temperatures. The amount of heat
that flows through the rod by conduction during a given time interval does not depend
upon
A) the length of the iron rod.
B) the thermal conductivity of iron.
C) the temperature difference between the ends of the rod.
D) the mass of the iron rod.
E) the duration of the time interval.
24. Complete the following statement: Most of the heat that is lost to space from the earth
occurs by
A) conduction.
B) convection.
E) both conduction and convection.
25. Complete the following statement: The interior of a thermos bottle is silvered to minimize
heat transfer due to
B) conduction.
C) conduction and convection.
26. A beaker of water is placed on a Bunsen burner. As the lower layers of water are heated,
they become less dense and rise. This permits cooler layers to move downward and be
heated. Eventually, the water boils. Which method(s) of heat transfer is (are) primarily
responsible for boiling the sample?
A) conduction
B) convection
E) both conduction and convection
27. The space between the inner walls of a thermos bottle is evacuated to minimize heat
transfer by
B) conduction.
C) conduction and convection.

28. Complete the following statement: The first law of thermodynamics states that

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A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

## heat is a form of energy.

entropy is a function of state.
the entropy of the universe is increasing.
the change in the internal energy of a system is given by Q W.
no engine can be more efficient than a Carnot engine operating between the same two
temperatures.

29. Brad spends four hours watching football on television and does 1090 J of work. In the
process, his internal energy decreases by 2990 J. Determine the value of Q , including the
algebraic sign.
A) 1900 J B) +1900 J C) 2990 J D) +4080 J E) 4080 J
30. What is the mass of 1.5 moles of hydrogen molecules, H2? (atomic mass of H = 1 u)
A) 0.0063 g B) 0.0030 kg C) 0.0082 kg D) 0.015 kg E) 0.022 kg
31. Note the following six properties:
(1) number of molecules
(3) temperature
(5) latent heat
(2) moment of inertia
(4) pressure
(6) volume
Which four of the listed properties are needed to describe an ideal gas?
32. A sample of a monatomic ideal gas is originally at 20 C. What is the final temperature
of the gas if both the pressure and volume are doubled?
33. Neon gas at 20 C is confined within a rigid vessel. It is then heated until its pressure is
doubled. What is the final temperature of the gas?
34. An ideal gas is confined within a closed cylinder at atmospheric pressure (1.013 105
Pa) by a piston. The piston moves until the volume of the gas is reduced to one-ninth of
the initial volume. What is the final pressure of the gas when its temperature returns to
its initial value?
35. The volume of a carbon dioxide bubble rising in a glass of beer is observed to nearly
double as the bubble rises from the bottom to the top of the glass. Why, according to our
textbook, does the volume nearly double?
A) The temperature at the bottom is cooler than it is at the top.
B) The amount of carbon dioxide in the bubble increases.
C) The fluid pressure of the beer is greater at the bottom of the glass than at the top.
D) The pressure inside the bubble decreases as it rises.
E) The shape of the glass determines the net force exerted on the bubble.
36. An ideal gas is contained in a vessel with a moveable piston. Initially, the gas has a
volume of 0.018 m3, an absolute pressure of 1.5 atm, and a temperature of 30 C. The
pressure is 0.75 atm when the volume of the container is decreased to 0.009 m3. What is
the final temperature of the gas?
37. Complete the following statement: The absolute temperature of an ideal gas is directly
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proportional to
A) the number of molecules in the sample.
B) the average momentum of a molecule of the gas.
C) the average translational kinetic energy of the gas.
D) the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of the gas by 1 C.
E) the relative increase in volume of the gas for a temperature increase of 1 C.
38. Which one of the following statements concerning a collection of gas molecules at a
certain temperature is true?
A) All molecules move with the same velocity.
B) Most of the molecules have the same kinetic energy.
C) The lower the temperature, the greater are the molecular speeds.
D) All molecules possess the same momentum.
E) The molecules have a range of kinetic energies.
39. A five liter tank contains 2.00 moles of oxygen gas, O2, at 40 C. What pressure is
exerted on the sides of the tank by the oxygen molecules?
40. Under which of the following conditions would you expect real gases to approach ideal
behavior?
A) low temperature and low pressure
D) high temperature and high pressure
B) high temperature and low pressure
E) high temperature and high density
C) low temperature and high pressure
41. Which one of the following factors is directly responsible for the pressure exerted by a
confined gas?
A) the atomic mass of the gas
B) the density of the sample of molecules
C) the temperature of the sample of molecules
D) the collision of gas molecules with the sides of the containing vessel
E) the average translational kinetic energy of the molecules
42. Complete the following statement: The internal energy of an ideal monatomic gas is
A) proportional to the pressure and inversely proportional to the volume of the gas.
B) independent of the number of moles of the gas.
C) proportional to the Kelvin temperature of the gas.
D) dependent on both the pressure and the temperature of the gas.
E) a constant that is independent of pressure, volume or temperature.
43. On a cold day (3 C) the gauge pressure on a tire is 2.0 atm. If the tire is heated to 27
C, without changing its volume, what will the gauge pressure be?
A) 2.1 atm B) 2.2 atm C) 2.9 atm D) 3.3 atm E) 27 atm

44. When the gas enclosed beneath the piston shown in the figure receives 1930 J of heat, Q,

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from its surroundings, it performs 2250 J of work in raising the piston. What is the
change in the internal energy of the gas?

A) 320 J

B) +320 J C) 4180 J

D) +4180 J

E) zero

## Use the following to answer questions 45-49:

Heat is added to a 1.0-kg solid sample of a material at 200 C. The figure shows the
temperature of the material as a function of the heat added.

45. Which one of the following statements concerning this substance is true?
A) It boils at 300 C.
B) It melts at 200 C.
C) It is a liquid at 200 C.
D) It can coexist as a solid and a liquid at 50 C.
E) It can exist as a solid, liquid, and gas at 150 C.
46. What is the latent heat of fusion of this material?
47. What is the latent heat of vaporization of this material?
48. What is the specific heat capacity of this substance in its solid state?
49. What is the specific heat capacity of this substance in its liquid state?

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