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(KPOD, DPOD, Tidal Link and Cholri Weir)


South Asia Region, Agriculture and Rural Development

Acronyms and Abbreviations


May 2005

Asian Development Bank
Area Water Board
Creation of Assets for Rural Women
Community Investment Fund
District Coordination Officer
Executive District Officer
Food and Agriculture Organization
Gross domestic Product
Government of Pakistan
Government of Sindh
Health and Nutrition Development Society
Integrated Coastal Zone Management
International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
Left Bank Outfall Drain
Million Acre Feet
National Commission for Human Development
Non Governmental Organizations
National Institute of Oceanography
National Rural Support Program
On Farm Water Management
Pakistan Environment Protection Agency
Pakistan Fisher Folk Forum
Project Management Unit
Right Bank Outfall Drain
Sindh Coastal Rehabilitation Project
Sindh Rural Support Program
Strengthening Participatory Organizations
Space and Upper Atmospheric Research Organization
Tehsil Municipal Administration
Water and Power Development Authority
World Wildlife Fund


(KPOD, DPOD, Tidal Link and Cholri Weir)

Page No.
Executive Summary ................................................................................................. v
I. Background ...................................................................................................


II. Introduction..................................................................................................


III. Results of Mission Analysis of Available Data .......................................... 10
IV. Findings of the Mission................................................................................ 21
V. A Restatement of the Problem and the Objectives .................................... 29
VI. Developing Strategy...................................................................................... 31
VII. Recommended Strategy............................................................................... 35
VIII. Conclusions and Recommendations ........................................................... 39
IX. Next Steps ..................................................................................................... 42

Annex 1. Persons Met by the Mission...................................................................... 46
Annex 2. References ................................................................................................. 49
Annex 3. Program for World Bank Mission............................................................. 53
Annex 4. Concepts in Tidal Link Design.................................................................. 56

May 2005


........................ Table 5.................................................. Boundary Condition.............................................. 10 11 12 25 26 27 List of Figures Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7a Figure 8a Figure 8b Figure 9 Figure 10 Bed Level Longitudinal Section at the Tidal Link.............................................................. 2004) ................................... Content of SMO Monitoring Reports .......... Content of NIO Annual Physical Monitoring Report .......... 2004) ............... 13 13 14 14 15 15 16 18 19 25 59 List of Maps Map 1: LBOD Outfall System........ 43 Map 3-6: Satellite Images of the Indus Delta ........................................ Water Salinity at RD-30 (NOI................................................ Monthly Rainfall Frequency Analysis ............. Table 4. Salinity Evolution in Dhands Area (NOI.............. 2004).......... Salinity in Dhands Area (NOI........................................................................ Table 2......... Selected Parameters from the Analysis of Sugar Factory and KPOD Effluent .......... Table 3........................... Tidal Link Channel--Typical Cross Sections .................................................. 2 Map 2: Schematic Diagram of LBOD Outfall .................... Decisions and Actions of the Government in Response to Damages to LBOD .................... Cross Section at RD-125 as Compared to Design Section.......................................................... Number of Birds Recorded in the Annual Waterfowl Census by SWD ............... Table 6.................................................... Tidal Levels at RD-93 (NOI.... 2004) ...........................................List of Tables Table 1................................................ Earlier Salinity Measurements in the Tidal Liink Area (mS/cm) ...........43-46 May 2005 iv ........ 24-Hours Rainfall Frequency .................................................................................................................................... 2004) ................................................ Measured Water Current al RD-93 (NIO..........................

and Nawabshah Districts. DPOD. At present both tidal fluctuations and sea water intrude into the dhands and KPOD. In 2001 a WB fact finding mission concurred with the government that the damages were beyond repair. Sanghar.27 million acres in Mirpurkhas. The result is that there is now an open connection between the dhands and the Tidal Link. The mission concluded that the Tidal Link carried a flow at least two times the design discharge of 4. and excessive drainage during low tide. No tidal fluctuations are evident in Sanhro and Mehro Dhands. These conditions were not foreseen at design stage. Tidal Link and Cholri Weir) REPORT OF THE WORLD BANK INTERNATIONAL PANEL OF EXPERTS EXECUTIVE S UMMARY LBOD Stage I project was executed during 1984-1997 to relieve water logging and salinity in 1. exposing the dhands to tidal fluctuations. A small tidal creek type system of drainage channels has now developed in Cholri Dhand. sea water intrusion. d) lack of maintenance in the LBOD system. A combination of factors that caused damages and loses in the lower basin were identified by the mission: a) the storm that affected the area combined with a typhoon and sea high tide. c) breaches occurred in the upper LBOD basin. May 2005 v . to an area about 11 km downstream of the Cholri Weir. The project included a Tidal Link Canal to carry the saline drainage effluent from a spinal drain 42 km across the coastal zone to the Arabian Sea in view of the international and environmental dimensions of the Rann of Kutch. The World Bank organized a mission in March 2005 to review the present conditions at the outfall and identify the possible alternatives to mitigate the damages and secure the benefits of LBOD. f) institutional weakness and lack of preparedness for an emergency flood management. In July 2003 storms resulted in extensive damages and losses in the Lower Badin District in the vicinity of LBOD which galvanized the Government of Pakistan and the population in the Badin District to find and implement a solution to this problem. sedimentation. Sea water was no t expected to penetrate more than 19 km from its outlet upstream into the Tidal Link. Soon after completion some of the banks and weir structures in the Tidal Link failed mainly because of the silty loam material of the soil in the area used in the construction which is highly sensitive to flow velocity which scoured the bed and breached the embarkments.400 cusecs during the floods of July 2003.PAKISTAN REVIEW OF THE PERFORMANCE OF THE LEFT BANK OUTFALL DRAIN STAGE I (KPOD. which is closest to the Tidal Link. b) water coming to the area from the irrigation canals and irrigation refusals. and the drainage and environmental functions of the Tidal Link portion of the LBOD outlet is impaired.

2. The mission recommends a combination of “hard” structural measures and institutional “soft” actions to address these objectives. Most of the agencies concerned with some aspect of LBOD drains and the Tidal Link have undertaken missions to examine the conditions on the ground. The LBOD can now be described as a “new river” that is forming an estuary and is an integral part of creek formation into the coastal area. and its progress is difficult to predict. The present conditions of the outfall system do not provide the hydrological. A comprehensive strategy or plan to solve the current problems has not yet been prepared. including so called immediate measures. Adapting to this new process requires continuous hydraulic and environmental monitoring in a learning by doing approach.year period. Badin received 218 mm of rain and Nawabshah in the upper part of the LBOD basin received 191 mm. are considered appropriate for those site conditions. LBOD canals were overtopped and numerous breaches occurred. Implement the World Bank’s proposed concept for a the livelihoods relief and improvement program in the coastal areas of Badin and Thatta. to alleviate the situation. As a result local people have felt the LBOD outfall scheme increase the vulnerability of their already fragile livelihood system. the mission recommends to initiate without further delay the implementation of the institutional and structural following proposed actions: 1. but do not constitute a comprehensive and sustainable solution. Develop and agree in a Flood Management Plan to compliment the emergency contingency plan proposed by the Badin DCO. 3. particularly a plan that wo uld respond the wide range of challenges and objectives. Equally important. and have made proposals. Establish a professional O&M program for the main drains and outfall system. May 2005 vi . namely repairs to parts of the drainage system and lowering the DPOD weir. environmental and social functions that were originally considered at the design phase. in part because farmers in the upper LBOD basin cutting the banks of the drains to hasten the drainage of rain water from their fields. In view of the mission estimate that a 24 hrs storm event similar to that experienced in July 2003 has a 56% probability of occurring in a five. resulting in severe scour of the Tidal Link Canal as well as breaches in both its right and left embankments. Other actions should be further analyzed before implementation.During the July 2003 storm. The mission believes that the present actions taken by the Government. The Tidal Link has invited the sea to approach the land and now the tidal fluctuations are visible. This process will continue. the discharge into KPOD and the Tidal Link Canal were more than twice the design discharge.

4. Re-design the outfall system, considering the alternative proposals identified
by the mission to reduce the flood risk problems and the impact of the discharge
of saline effluent.

Reinforcement of the LBOD right embankment, and the construction of
escapes from the left bank of the Spinal Drain and KPOD in the
direction of the Thal using to the extent possible the ancient Dhoro
Puran river bed. Install flap-gates in the drains discharging into LBOD

Diversion of the Seerani drain and other Kotri drains into the dhands.

Possible connection of the Pateji and Mhero dhands

Construct a gated structure at the DPOD and KPOD to control the flows
in both directions.

Analyze the location of the tidal control structure in the KPOD and
possible control structures in the drains.

The proposal to extend the drainage system by studying LBOD Stage II & III in light of
the present outfall conditions of the outfall should be postponed until the existing
problems are adequately address and solved. Moreover, the strategy to manage the
storm drainage in the upper basin needs to be organized and tested. This approach
would avoid aggravating or increasing social unrest, vulnerability and anxiety in the
Badin District that might result from a decision to go ahead with premature studies at a
time when people participation is most needed.
Given the complexity of the system and its present evolution and dynamics, the
proposed physical interventions require continuous monitoring as a part of the learning
by doing process, and the collection of data essential for adequate analysis of problems
and options. These studies and follow up actions, if the Sindh Government agrees, will
be included in the Sindh Water Sector Improvement Project presently in advance stage
of preparation.

May 2005


May 2005


(KPOD, DPOD, Tidal Link and Cholri Weir)


Beginning in the 1960s, the Government of Pakistan (GOP) undertook a major
program to provide drainage to relieve water logging and salinity in the 18 million
hectares irrigation system in the Indus River plain. By the early 1980s it became clear
that a sustainable and environmentally sound strategy was needed to permanently
remove the accumulating salt in the basin. The first stage of the strategy was to
develop the Left Bank Outfall Drain (LBOD) in Sindh near the tail end of the Indus
irrigation system. The Rs44,924 million (US$1, 021. million) 1 LBOD Stage I project
would relieve water logging and salinity in 1.27 million acres in Mirpurkhas, Sanghar,
and Nawabshah Districts, and the eastern part of the Badin District, and would include
a Tidal Link Canal to carry the saline drainage effluent from a spinal drain 42 km
across the coastal zone to the Arabian Sea (Map 1) 2 . The World Bank Implementation
Completion Report of June 1998 reported that the economic benefits and performance
of LBOD Stage I Project under normal circumstance and within the target area of these
three districts as well as eastern Badin is positive and substantial. The World Bank
Implementation Completion Report (ICR) estimate of economic rate of return at the
forecasted completion date of 2002 was 13%3 in comparison to the World Bank
estimate of the opportunity cost of capital in Pakistan at that time of 12%. However,
within a short time of completion of the Tidal Link Canal, problems of erosion in the
canal and deterioration of the Cholri Weir began to appear.


The total estimated cost of the project at appraisal in November 1984 was US$635.7 million.


Maps, Charts, Figures and Tables, unless they appear in the text, are located at the end of the report.


The Implementation Completion Report (ICR) mission estimated that unquantifiable benefits (for
example, non-farm benefits such as storm water drainage or the multiplier effects of the project’s
substantial employment benefits) that were not included in this estimate of the economic IRR could
increase the IRR to 15-20%.

Although the Tidal Link continues to function. November 2004 2. and movement of the tides and seawater into the drains and dhands have called into question the long term sustainability and functionality of the LBOD outlet works. destruction of the Cholri Weir intended to protect environmentally important coastal zone areas. Pinyari Canals) Source: Panel of Experts Drainage Master Plan. it became clear after the 2003 storm that LBOD outlet system could not handle or be secured against the effects of the large volume of May 2005 2 . its many breaches. Continuation of the erosion of the Tidal Link Canal bed and banks. Moreover. Overloading of the LBOD drains during the July 2003 storms worsened the impact of the heavy rain that caused widespread damage. changes in canal cross section. Fuleli. and the penetration of tidal fluctuations and sea water upstream to where it could threaten ecosystems and the drains. was worsened and accelerated by major storms associated with the southwest monsoon in 1999 and 2003.Map 1: LBOD Outfall System Kotri Basin (Left Bank.

Nevertheless the efforts genuinely displayed some information was not accessible in the offices visited and will require a detail search in the future. The Provincial Government the 30 of September. Karachi. Sindh Irrigation and Power Department (IPD). The mission is very grateful to all these officials and experts for their hospitality and assistance. The World Bank sent an official request to the Federal Government on November 8. Santiago Funes.storm water runoff that results from the large. and the Additional Secretary. and to discuss the issues with government officials. 2004 in the meeting held to present the conclusions of the Drainage Master Plan. social and institutional expert. local government officials. Badin and Thatta to learn about the project area and review the LBOD outfall system performance since its completion. After the July 2003 storms. Mission Leader and water management expert. 5 A list of organizations and officials that met with the mission is given in Annex 1 and the detail program mission is given in Annex 3. technical staff of the concerned agencies and Institutes. Walter Garvey. 1999 and 2003. provided important lo gistical support and substantive guidance to the mission. 2004 to inform about the objectives of the mission and prepare the necessary arrangements to facilitate the implementation of the mission with the participation of the different government agencies involved in the LBOD Stage I Project. Hyderabad. asked the World Bank to organize an International Panel of Experts (POE) to review the hydrologic. intense monsoon season rain storms like those that have occurred recently in this region in 1994. Mr. Dr. The mission visited Islamabad. and to recommend a course of action to the Government. stakeholders in the project area including fisherman and farmers. the PC of NDP. ecological. The mission wants to acknowledge the full support given to the mission and the full access to the information ready available. Government and non-government officials and technical experts were extremely generous with their time and provided considerable data and background information and reports to the mission. environment and water resources expert. The World Bank Country Office. The mission initial findings were presented to the Minister of Irrigation and Power Mr. 4. to assess the current performance of LBOB and the Tidal Link and identify the associated problems. the staff and management of the Irrigation and Drainage Authority (SIDA). 3. water quality data that had been gathered since 1999. particularly in view of the further analysis of the mission’s proposed actions The POE4 undertook a mission to Pakistan from March 7 to March 2005. May 2005 3 . and Dr. the Government of Sindh and the Federal Government were anxious to find a strategy to secure the benefits generated from LBOD Stage I Project in its upper reaches and prevent the recurrence of damages in the outfall from such events. The concerned agencies at Federal and Provincial level undertook studies and site visits and presented proposals for action by the Government. Nadir Leghari on Friday 18 of March. 4 The POE consisted of Dr. which resulted in extensive damages and losses. coastal engineering expert. Javier Aparicio. Fernando Gonzalez. and NGOs5 . Purpose and objective of the mission..

shallow depressions some of which are lakes perennially filled with brackish to hyper-saline water. Sanghar and Mirpurkhas Districts. which is the natural outlet for this slow and shallow overland flow. 5. The area served by LBOD was proposed by the Government of Pakistan because of the acute problems of salinity and waterlogging which severely affected the productivity. The natural drainage is also impeded in the monsoon season by the high tides and extensive flooding of the coastal zone. June 1998. The Badin District in the lower LBOD basin consists of extremely flat land that is traditionally exposed to extensive inundation during heavy rain because of low infiltration rates and slow runoff (this cond ition prevails to a somewhat lesser degree in many areas of the upper basin as well). in view of the financial and time constraints the project was divided in different stages. Stage II and III were intended to extend the coverage to the other Districts. 18037 7 In 1980 the GoP proposed to the Bank the LBOD project which covered 10 districts served by Sukkur Barrage. The accumulated discharge of the spinal drain was connected downstream to two older drains 9 (Map 1): Kadhan Pateji Outfall Drain (KPOD) (a drain built to collect saline discharge from numerous small drains in the Kotri basin of eastern Badin District and carry this drainage discharge into Pateji Dhand and the Rann of Kutch). The purpose of the LBOD scheme was to relieve water logging by lowering the water table and remove saline water from this irrigated area. flat plain consisting of mud and partly salt encrusted flats. Stage I project included the priority districts of Nawabshah. and the Dhoro Puran Outfall Drain (DPOD) (an old natural channel thought to be a remnant of an ancient Indus River channel that flowed into Shakoor Dhand near the Rann of Kutch). The upper basin of LBOD. income and livelihood of the population living in this area. This brought the brackish and in some cases saline agricultural drainage water of LBOD Stage I Project to the edge of the coastal zone – a wide. A full description can be found in the World Bank Implementation Completion Report (ICR). 6 This report does not contain a complete description of the LBOD Stage 1 project. 8 The Project also provided important irrigation improvements including the remodeling of two major canals. and watercourse lining and land leveling. and a zone of active tidal creeks that connect this plain to the sea.II. Sanghar and Mirpurkhas Districts in central Sindh Province receive irrigation water from the Indus River by means of the Sukkur Barrage and the Nara and Rohri canals. May 2005 4 . an moribund natural channel that empties into Shakoor Dhand. The LBOD Stage I project7 provided drainage tubewells and tile drains to lower the water table and collect saline water as well as new and remodeled surface drains to collect and transfer this saline water to a new spinal drain8 . 9 The bifurcation of the Spinal Drain flow was made just upstream of the connection with KPOD by means of an uncontrolled broad crested weir located in a side channel excavated in the left bank so that a portion of the spinal drain discharge would be diverted through the Dhoro Puran Link to the Dhoro Puran. Report No. Nawabshah. INTRODUCTION The LBOD Stage I project 6 . construction of an off-channel storage reservoir.

which discharges through the Dhoro Puran natural channel into Shakoor Dhand. from this coastal and near-coastal zone in Badin District is south and southeastward towards the Rann of Kutch. and operation of the drainage tubewells improved. NDP represented a major change in the water resources development strategy in Pakistan shifting the priority from physical interventions to emphasize the need to improve management of the existing infrastructure. the World Bank.6. and the Japanese Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC). and to protect the dhands from excessive drainage during low tide when the water would flow back into the Tidal Link Canal. was built where the Tidal Link Canal passes through Cho lri Dhand in order to attenuate high water levels in the Tidal Link Canal during high tide by allowing water to flow into the dhands during this period. Sanhro and Mehro Dhands contain Ramsar sites. Cholri. when the Kotri Basin drains (which lie west of the LBOD basin) were built to discharge into the dhands they have become an important local fishery. the Tidal Link Canal connected directly to the sea. and Pateji. the negative effects of the intrusion of the much more saline sea water would also be minimized. Portions of two of the Sindh dhands (Sanhro and Mehro) have been declared Ramsar sites. The Tidal Link Canal was isolated from the Rann of Kutch and the dhands by high embankments. To avoid discharging LBOD through KPOD directly into this environmentally sensitive international wetland. called the Cholri Weir. The National Drainage Program (NDP). is included on the WWF list of the 200 globally most important biodiversity hot-spots. which also contains a large Ramsar site partly in Pakistan. Shakoor Dhand. and a waterfowl habitat of international importance. the enlarged KPOD drain. The natural pattern of surface drainage and overland flow. 10 11 There are four important dhands in this part of the Sindh coastal zone: Sanhro. undated). An 1800 ft weir. and water course improvements including lining and precision land leveling. May 2005 5 . NDP financed the completion of irrigation improvement works including the remodeling of the Nara and Jamrao irrigation canals. Shakoor Dhand and the Rann of Kutch lie astride the Indian-Pakistan border. The outlet works of LBOD thus consist of the DPOD. is a shallow depression in the Rann of Kutch south and east of the Tidal Link that has no direct link to an active tidal creek (WAPDA Note. Mehro. Its was estimated to cost US$785 Million at appraisal. Numerous existing drains and drainage structures in the LBOD and Kotri basins were rehabilitated to take care of the deferred maintenance. The National Drainage Program11 (NDP) was launched in 1998 to improve the efficiency of the irrigation and drainage system in Pakistan. The National Drainage Program was financed by the Government of Pakistan. Since sea water was not expected to come closer than about 11 km downstream of the weir. These shallow lakes and lagoons are inter-connected at high tide in the wet monsoon season when most of the eastern coastal zone is a vast shallow water body. The Sindh dhands10 (lakes) lie entirely in Pakistan and are generally connected to the Rann of Kutch especially at high tide. a Tidal Link Canal was built 42 km southwestward across the dhands and the Rann of Kutch from KPOD to the nearest active tidal creek. NDP was deliberately “frontloaded” with institutional and policy reforms and “backloaded with an investment program. NDP 7. and the Rann of Kutch. Since the 1960s. Shah Samado Creek. the Asian Development Bank (ADB). and the Cholri Weir. especially of storm runoff.

the focal point for implementation of the LBOD EMMP. but sea water was not expected to penetrate more than 19 km upstream to an area about 5 km downstream of the Cholri Weir. These analyses determined that tidal fluctuations would be felt all the way up the Tidal Link Canal form Shah Samando Creek to a point somewhere near the terminus of KPOD.financed the monitoring program including the work of the National Institute of Oceanography and the SCARP Monitoring Organization (SMO) of WAPDA as well as an extensive research program and a number of critical policies and planning studies including the National Drainage Master Plan (DMP) that is now under preparation. Rahu and Tango Bago – suffered prolonged flooding and extensive damage during the July 2003 storms. The Tidal Link Canal bed and banks were constructed with the soil obtained from the canal excavation and consisted mainly of silty loam in which scour and erosion processes are highly sensitive to flow velocity. S. universities and organizations with experience and expertise in the relevant areas ensuring that a shared knowledge base is developed along with the human resources to sustain the program over the long term. with ADB assistance the long delayed implementation of the LBOD Environmental Management and Monitoring Plan (EMMP) is about to be implemented 12 . this process has supported the emergence of local leaders such as elected members of Area Water Boards (AWBs) and elected officers of Farmer Organizations (FOs) who have played an active and constructive role in the LBOD debate that continues to the present. At the request of the Government the Bank organized a Panel of Experts to provide recommendations for the implementation of the Plan. 8. At sub-project level Environmental Scoping and Screening Procedure was developed and applied to all NDP investments. 9. The EMU will coordinate implementation of the program in collaboration with a number of cooperating Sindh agencies. the main connection between the Tidal Link and the dhands. In Sindh.F. The EMU will be responsible for implementation of this program. which encompasses the coastal zone – namely the Talukhas of Badin. May 2005 6 . Summary of issues associated with the operation of LBOD. A PC-II to finance the associated studies and monitoring program has also been submitted to the Government. The eastern portion of Badin District. Substantial progress was made under NDP to increase the participation of farmers in the operation and maintenance of the irrigation and drainage system. KPOD and DPOD drains and the Tidal Link. The design phase of the Tidal link Canal included both physical and mathematical model studies. for a more detailed description of concepts in design see Annex 4. Although the World Bank components of NDP have been completed. At present both tidal fluctuations and sea water intrude into the dhands and KPOD. In particular. the JBIC and ADB components have been extended. LBOD drain passes through the eastern part of Badin District and discharges to the KPOD and DPOD spinal drains. has submitted a PC-I to the Government to finance the functioning of an Environmental Management Unit (EMU) that has been operational within SIDA since 2003. and the 12 The Sindh Irrigation and Drainage Authority (SIDA). This Procedure played a major role in steering NDP investments away from environmental sensitive areas and costly land acquisition problems.

However. Design criteria assumed that these drainage sources would be cut off (tubewells and tile drain sump pumps would be turned off) so that the canals would be free to carry runoff from rainfall. inspect the facilities in the field. the discharge into KPOD and the Tidal Link Canal were more than twice the design discharge. Local people believed that the LBOD outfall design cut across rather than following the natural drainage pattern.drainage and environmental functions of the Tidal Link portion of the LBOD outlet are impaired. sedimentation. resulting in severe scour of the Tidal Link Canal as well as breaches in both its right and left embankments. The result is that there is now an open connection between the dhands and the Tidal Link. erosion around the structure became evident. No tidal fluctuations are evident in Sanhro and Mehro Dhands. and recommend actions to be taken. severe erosion of the Tidal Link canal banks. Despite attempts to repair this damage. monsoon storms in 1998 and 1999 led to the complete destruction of the weir due mainly to scour of its foundation and erosion of its abutments. the Government of Sindh appointed a high. wave action and high tides that occur in the area during the southwest monsoon. evidence of scour of the canal bed and erosion of a considerable part of the berm on top of the canal embankments. LBOD canals were overtopped and numerous breaches occurred. in part because farmers in the upper LBOD basin cutting the banks of the drains to hasten the drainage of rain water from their fields. especially those who live in the lower LBOD basin in Badin. which is closest to the Tidal Link. 10. The mission received several comments from local people. As a result local people have felt the LBOD outfall scheme would increase the vulnerability of their already fragile livelihood system. 13. Equally important. They felt its orientation southwestward would expose the structures to the persistent high winds. Among the Committee’s key findings and observations were: 56 breaches in the southern and northern embankments of the Tidal Link. sea water intrusion. 11. reviewing the national Drainage Master Plan (DMP) noted that during their recent visit to Badin that drainage issues play an important role and are heavily debated in the area. most of the northern embankment along with May 2005 7 . Badin received 218 mm of rain and Nawabshah in the upper part of the LBOD basin received 191 mm. and a number of experts which do not agree with the LBOD outfall scheme. 2003. and excessive drainage during low tide. A small tidal creek type system of drainage channels has now developed in Cholri Dhand.level Technical Committee in early 2000 to review available project documents and monitoring data. the report of the Panel of Experts. During the storm of the July. exposing the dhands to large tidal fluctuations. After the damages to the LBOD outfall system in 1999. Within months of the completion of the weir. LBOD’s canals were designed to carry the relatively modest quantities of agricultural subsurface drainage with about 4 ft of freeboard. For example. 12. The Cholri Weir was constructed in the right bank of the Tidal Link Canal where it crossed the dhands to prevent damage to this area that could be cause by tidal fluctuations. Upstream. Response of the Government – GOS Technical Review Committee. the design criteria provided an available capacity to drain a 125 mm rainfall of 5 days duration in a 5 days period.

The mission believed these conditions would render any attempt to repair the damages useless using conventional methods until such time as there is more knowledge of the processes underway in the Tidal Link area. environmental and social consequences. The mission concurred with the view of the GOS Technical Committee that the “no-action” recommendation of the committee is justified not only because the damage is beyond repair by conventional methods. but also because the scour of the channel bed and erosion of the embankments are still active under the influence of the uncontrolled tidal flow through the tidal link and flow to and from Rann of Kutch and the Dhands. staffed by multidisciplinary specialists. the Government of Sindh appointed an inter-agency Committee to formulate an environmental package for rehabilitation of affected areas of the Tidal Link. the World Bank organized a Fact Finding Mission to understand the technical details. the section of the channel has been widened considerably in several places. The judgment of the Committee was that the Tidal Link was continuing to function and the ongoing channel evolution would stabilize sometime in the future with a section that would generally follow the current alignment. 15. but could say little of a specific nature about the actual environmental damages since no data was available except for a few baseline studies carried out in 1996 and 1997. However. water quality and hydrology. to carry out the analysis of the monitoring data and coordinate the activities of cooperating agencies. and the uncertain viability of conventional mitigation options. fisheries. in light of the uncertainties concerning the factors governing the ongoing changes within the Tidal Link. and the water level in the Dhands had been lowered and Cholri Dhand drained by tidal fluctuations in the Link. After reviewing the situation on the ground and discussion with local stakeholders. In March 2001. and full implementation of the Environmental Monitoring and Management Plan (EMMP) prepared for LBOD Stage I Project in 1998 (which included extensive study and monitoring of ecological. the Cholri Weir had been destroyed. The Committee recommended in October 2001 that a permanent institution be set up under the Managing Director of SIDA. This included continuation of the hydrologic and hydraulic monitoring being carried out by the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO). and to suggest to the Government of Sindh further steps to be taken. The mission stressed that intensive monitoring of the physical and environmental conditions in the Tidal Link area should be continued to provide a basis for formulating further action. system performance and the damages to the Tidal Link. and that surveys and monitoring should be continued. the Committee recommended that no repair should be carried out in Tidal Link as damages done by cyclone are beyond the repair limit.the entire berm was eroded away. In July 2001. World Bank Fact Finding Mission. avifauna. also to understand the possible technical. and socio-economic conditions in the dhands and the wider Tidal Link area). GOS – Environment Committee. the Committee recognized that the Tidal Link and the coastal wetland through which it passes is of strategic national and provincial importance. 14. The Committee agreed with the recommendations of the Technical Committee and the World Bank Fact Finding Mission for additional monitoring and data collection including water quality May 2005 8 . water quality and LBOD Stage I Project operational monitoring by the WAPDA’s SCARP Monitoring Organization (SMO).

The Panel prepared terms of reference for this study and the Government of Sindh agree in the proposed methodology and the time-framework to finalize it. The approach. The Committee recommended that stakeholder participation be increased in any future activities to ensure social acceptance of plans and measures. 16. May 2005 9 . galvanized the Federal and Provincial Governments into action. The National Drainage Master Plan (DMP).monitoring. The Panel recommended that the TBOD option may not be considered anymore. These decisions provided a substantive framework for the Mission. 17. regarding the physical interventions. The Panel was critical in terms of the proposals presented in the DMP. which is based on drainage basins. salt balances. and that any future proposed actions be subject to an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in accordance with Sindh EPA regulations including an ecological risk assessment. Initial Impact Environmental Assessment and particularly objected the Trans Boundary Outfall Drain (TBOD). The Drainage Atlas promised to be an excellent publication and presents the most relevant drainage information available in the country. They were made available to the members of the mission before it began its work in Pakistan. Recent actions taken by the Government. is useful. The Panel observed that the DMP contains a good and clear overview of the past developments with respect of drainage developments. Table 1 synthesizes the main decisions and actions that have been taken. At a request of the GOP the WB organized a POE to review the DMP from August to November 2004. The Committee recommended improvement of the roads in the area and improvement of communications systems that would enable more rapid and effective response to disaster and crisis events. The losses suffered in the Badin District during the 2003 rainfall. The Panel visited Sindh Province and conducted a practical training in the DRAINFRAME methodology and organized a stakeholders consultation in Kotri Basin and made recommendations to develop a Drainage Development and Water Management Plan for this basin. The report of the POE of the DMP was available for the Outfall of LBOD mission and was an useful element in the preparation of this report. As of 20th August 2004 the Government has decided upon a number of actions in connection with LBOD and the aftermath of the 2003 events.

of expertise.000 cusecs of Fuleli canal??] into KPOD during heavy down spur – to be implemented Redesigning LBOD spinal drain for a 50 years return period of 150 mm rainfall – Preparation of a proposal. machinery and equipment for LBOD operation and maintenance to be implemented Seawater intrusion recommendations technical to be implemented Planning Commission to evaluate the LBOD Stage-II proposal in consultation with WAPDA and GoS on priority basis to be implemented May 2005 and tidal effects: analysis and 10 . of the KPOD up to RD –38 under construction GoS to strengthen institutions as Irrigation and Power Department and SIDA in revamping of the irrigation system and lining of the water courses in future to be implemented Better coordination among concerned departments to avoid discharging [17. funds. manpower.Table 1. to be submitted to the GoP to be implemented Ensuring that farmers upstream LBOD would not be allowed breaching the infrastructure to be implemented Improved pre-monsoon arrangements – better coordination between provincial departments and the Irrigation Department to be implemented Regularly monitoring of high tide in the Tidal Link and other geographical changes to be implemented Provision to SIDA. Decisions and Actions of the Government in Response to Damages to LBOD Measure Decision Study of alternative disposal locations in Thar desert (east of the LBOD spinal drain) for diversion of storm water analysis and eventual implementation after review Study of the construction of a gated structure either on spinal drain or DPOD analysis and eventual implementation after review Slashing off of the fixed weir on DPOD (to lower the invert of the crest of the weir) Implemented Reinforcement of at least 10 km of the right bank of Sirani drain. as an apolitical institution. if feasible.

the topography of Shakoor Dhand. Table 3 shows the type of data collected and reported by NIO form their annual physical monitoring of the Tidal Link. water quality and environmental studies of the area 12. Water Quality of the above said tubewells 9. or complete rainfall data and storm analysis except for the 1994 storm. Table 2: Content of SMO Monitoring Reports 1 Groundwater Table Monitoring 2 Hydrologic Monitoring of Drainage and Scavenger Tubewells 3 Interceptor Drains Monitoring 4 Tile Drains Monitoring 5 Soil Monitoring 6 Water Quality Monitoring 7. Physical monitoring information available to the mission.III. Nevertheless. WAPDA’s SCARP Monitoring Organization (SMO) annually publishes extensive LBOD Stage I Project monitoring data that concerns primarily groundwater and internal drains. Physical data related to the Tidal Link are mainly available in the Annual Physical Monitoring Report of the National Institute of Oceanography (carried out under contract to the SMO). P e r f o r m a n c e T e s t o f 4 4 4 D r a i n a g e T u b e w e l l s w h i c h a r e recently installed in Mirpurkhas Component of LBOD Stage I Project area 8. The mission had no access to topographic maps of the region. Soil type and its physical chemical characteristic considerably effect the design and drainage efficiency of the drain May 2005 11 . Observed Depth to Watertable for installing piez ometer pipe of the said area 11. 19. The general content of the SMO reports is summarized in Table 2. which contains results from monitoring campaigns made from 1999 to 2004. The Mission had access to a considerable amount of new data which is still in the process of being analyzed by the Pakistan Authorities. Detail monitoring and survey of Chotiari Reservoir discharge. Depth to watertable survey of the Chotiari Reservoir area for installing lines of piezometers 13 Detailed Monitoring of Tile Drain by installation of piezometers close to the drain to find out the impact of filter efficiency of the tiles. as the discussion below points out there remain important data gaps that will impede needed analysis and decision making. Soil sampling of the above area according to the specification in previous MOU 10. RESULTS OF M ISSION ANALYSIS OF AVAILABLE DATA 18. Soil type and its physical chemical characteristic considerably effect the design and drainage efficiency of the drain 14 Detailed Monitoring of Interceptor Drain by installation of piezometers close to the drain to find out the impact of filter efficiency of the interceptor drain.

From cross.June 2004) 2.1. particularly near the discharge of the Tidal Link Canal into Shah Samando Creek (Figures 1 and 2). Bed Level Longitudinal Section Survey 20.9 m/s for silt loam.6. Therefore.1 Water Currents (1999-to June 2004) 2. It is likely that these high velocity flows were the primary cause of the Cholri Weir failure in 1998.2. due both to erosion produced by the above mentioned high velocities and the relatively high load of sediments brought from upstream sections. which should be less than 0. Analysis of information concerning the performance of the Tidal Link. May 2005 12 .5 Survey of Dhands (1999-June 2004) 2. Meteorological Observations (1999-June 2004) 1.6 Bathymetry (1999-June 2004) 2. the channel cross sections and longitudinal profile are continuously changing. Erosion is especially intense at the outlet of the channel to the Shah Samando Creek. Velocities caused by ebb flows were even greater than when the Tidal Link was recently built.2 Surface Water Temperature (1999-June 2004) 2 Oceanographic/Hydraulic Observations (1999-June 2004) 2. The most severe changes in the longitudinal profile of the channel are observed in the breached zone.4 Suspended Load (1999-June 2004) 2. Both measured data and computer simulations suggest that maximum velocities in the Tidal Link are around m/s (Figures 3 and 4) at the time of NIO measurements. downstream from RD – 38 (Figure 1).1 Temperature and wind speed 1.3 Water Salinity (1999-June 2004) 2. erosion is observed all along the Tidal Link and in KPOD. Bed Level Cross-Section Survey 2. This velocity is greater than the permissible velocity of the loam material forming the channel.2 Tidal Levels (1999.and longitudinal sections reported by NIO.1.Table 3 Content of NIO Annual Physical Monitoring Report 1.

00 -6. DEPTH 2002 -15 HEIGHT (m) HEIGHT (m) BED LEVEL LONGITUDINAL SECTION FROM RD -56 TO RD -93 AT THE TIDAL LINK DURING SEPTEMBER 1998 AND DECEMBER 2002 BY ECHOSOUNDING -15 SEP.00 -2.00 2. 2004) May 2005 13 . DEPTH 1998 -20 -20 -56 -58 -60 -62 -64 -66 -68 -70 -72 -74 -76 RD'S -78 -80 -82 -84 -86 -88 -90 -92 Figure 1 RD-125 8. Cross section at RD-125 as compared to design section (NIO.0 0 -5 -5 -10 -10 DEC.00 6.00 -100 0 100 200 300 400 500 Figure 2.00 -4.00 4.00 0.

Boundary Condition May 2005 14 . 2 0 0 4 ) Boundary Condition a=-1. M e a s u r e d w a t e r c u r r e n t a l R D -93 ( N I O .5 m 6 Velocity (m/s) 5 4 3 2 1 0 600 1600 2600 3600 4600 5600 6600 7600 Main channel distance (m) Q=850 m3/s Q=500 m3/s Q=350 m3/s Q=250 m3/s Figure 4.Figure 3 .

NIO further reports that the influence of tidal fluctuation is noticeable up to RD +2.4 to 2. the high saline sea water from Shah Samando Creek which previously was detected up to RD -125 and RD -95 has now extended up to RD -38 and possibly beyond. within KPOD and near the outfall of Seerani drain into KPOD. salinity is extremely high. Moreover.000 ppm (Figure 7). Another indication of the extent to which the tide has penetrated the Tidal Link is salinity. 2004). According to NIO (2004).46 m. The mission concluded from the data available that the tidal influence extends considerably upstream in the Tidal Link and into KPOD. Figure 6 shows a clear influence of the tide cycle on the salinity as far from Shah Samando Creek as RD -30. and during November – December 1999 the tide levels recorded at RD –21 were 0. The mission noted that in Pateji Dhand. Water Salinity at the Tidal Link Drain at RD -30 During 04 to 07-07-2000. 2 0 0 4 ) 21. T i d a l l e v e l s a t R D -9 3 ( N O I .31 to 1. NIO reports that the tidal amplitude at RD -93 (see Figure 5) is about 2 m. 60 Salinity (ppt) SALINITY (ppt) SALINITY (ppt) 55 50 45 40 35 12:00 07:00 13:00 19:00 05:00 11:00 17:00 07:00 13:00 HOURS Figure 6. due to high evaporation in the area and the fact that this dhand does not currently receive water from any drain nowadays while the other dhands do. 2004) May 2005 15 .20.84 m (NIO. TIDAL LEVELS AT RD -93 DURING 07 TO 11 -02 -2001 5 Height (m) HEIGHT (m) HEIGHT (m) 4 3 2 1 0 00:00 08:00 16:00 00:00 08:00 16:00 00:00 08:00 16:00 00:00 08:00 16:00 00:00 08:00 16:00 HOURS F i g u r e 5 . formerly the outfall of KPOD. around 68. Water salinity at RD -30 (NOI. during October 1999 the tide levels recorded at RD –22 were 1.

Salinity in Dhands area 42 44 46 (NOI. e D 42 18 0f se tu ni m (e 16 du tit aL 14 12 10 32 . These factors . 34 36 38 40 Longitude (minutes of 68 Deg. 13 There is a high time variability involved in the process at the outfall area. monthly seasonal variations and annual differences with the droughts. The comparison among the different measurements or satellite images taken at different times could proved misleading. The Tidal Link left bank is attacked from the Rann of Kutch by tides and storm surges. 2004) 22. and is directly exposed to wave action generated by strong storm and southwest monsoon winds and waves in the zone of influence of tides (Map 3).22 20 )g. May 2005 16 . such as those produced by the 1999 cyclone and the 2003 storm13 . Water quality and water levels in the Dhands have hourly variations with the tide.) Figure 7 .are especially amplified during high storm surges.

It is expected that this situation will continue to develop until a new equilibrium is achieved in which sediment load carried by the tidal wave and upstream flow is compensated by sediment detachment brought about by the ebb phase of tide. The Mission had access to a limited amount of rainfall data.000 cusecs that resulted from rainfall of 218 mm recorded at Badin. Assessment of changes and conditions using remote sensing.8 cusecs. The LBOD and Tidal Link are quickly becoming both a new river and an upstream extension of the Shah Samando Creek. but the Mission found that it was not the case during the 2003 storms. to drought conditions. This would correspond to a design capacity of 2400 cusecs and a maximum carrying capacity of 4440 cusecs corresponding to a 125 mm rainfall of 5 days duration. 1999 and 2003 storms in 67 years. leaving a free board of around 2 ft . From statements made by several officials. Analysis of storm conditions in the LBOD basin. Interviews. Not only was base flow present in the system but irrigation water refusals were also diverted directly to the drain system and additional inlets were provided by farmers breaching the embankments. The mission concluded that the Tidal Link carried a flow much greater than the design discharge. satellite images show small changes in the overall coastal plain and geomorphology during the last few years (Map 3-6). presentations and the reports of the LBOD consultants (1984 and 1994) indicate clearly to the mission that the LBOD channel design discharge was set considering only drainage rates of 1. 25. Apart from that. The May 2005 17 . Analysis of available data indicates that the maximum discharge experienced in KPOD and Tidal Link in 2003 was around 10. which would result in flood duration of 5 days. Existing tidal fingers have also extended further in the northern direction and in some cases have joined those connected to the Tidal Link. From these data a simplified frequency analys is of annual maximum 24 h and monthly precipitation at Badin Station was made. which occurred after two other storms earlier in the same month. The disposal of storm water into the surface drainage was to be limited using control inlets sized assuming a ponding depth of around 1 foot and discharge restricted to 1. although it is not clear whether this effect has been due to changes in the Tidal Link or.23.5 cusec/sq mile or 1.4 mm/day (this number changed for different project areas). as reported anecdotally by many people. There are eight storms at least as intense as the 1994. Satellite images also show a reduction of the surface area of the Dhands. July 2003 resulted in the largest monthly rainfall recorded at Badin station in 67 years. 24. Satellite images (Map 3-6) show that several tidal fingers have developed around the channel from breaches left by past floods and cyclone events. it was assumed in the design of LBOD canals that the channel system would not be allowed to carry base flow during heavy rainfall. IMTA will provide more detail information and confirm this assessment as part of the on-going work performed by the Institute for this mission.

mm 200 2003 150 100 50 0 2 1 5 10 20 50 100 Return period (years) Figure 8a: 24-hour Rainfall Frequency 14 The reduced variate R shown in Figure 8a and 8b is related to the return period T by the equation T   R = − ln ln    T − 1  May 2005 18 . With respect of the monthly rainfall. the graph shows a return period of 67 years. This implies a probability of 56% of having at least one similar or grater storm to occur in a period of 5 years. Badin Station 300 250 Rainfall. 24 h Rainfall. For a rainfall duration of 24 hours.results are shown in Figures 8a and 8b 14 .6 years. the 2003 storm has a return period of 6. Factually the July 2003 monthly rainfall is the highest recorded rainfall in Badin.

Despite its harsh appearance. Having brought LBOD drainage water through KPOD to the edge of the coastal zone. scientists who have visited the area report that it is ecologically rich. broad mud flats that often have a salt crust. the border actually coming within sight of the lower KPOD canal. and economically valuable resources especially fisheries. Throughout the 20th century. They were seeking a safe. major changes were made in the hydrology and sediment load of the Indus River. by knowledgeable specialists carrying out studies in the Indus delta region. and a major. and it is generally agreed. The coastal zone is also shared with India. The Indus Treaty which basically allocated three Eastern Rivers to India and three Western Rivers to Pakistan allowed this country to develop its water May 2005 19 . The coastal zone in this part of the Indus plain is a vast. Its consists of shallow lakes (dhands) formed in numerous depressions. mm 350 300 2003 Rainfall. mm 250 200 150 100 50 2 5 20 50 0 1 10 100 Return period (years) Figure 8b: Monthly Rainfall Frequency Analysis 26. sustainable and environmentally sound place to dispose of the salt and other pollutants in the drainage water. the designers of this scheme were faced with major dilemmas. high quality habitat for resident and migratory birds and waterfowl that arrive along the Indus flyway. dynamic and complex wetland with large areas of global ecological importance. Environmental monitoring.level change processes within the delta and this coastal zone about which there is inadequate knowledge at present on which to base the formulation and implementation of effective management plans.Monthly Rainfall Badin station. that this has set in motion macro. and a dynamic delta region that consists of numerous active tidal creeks that connect the upland areas of the coastal zone to the sea.

Of particular concern are the problems of the deltaic areas of Sindh. A more sustained effort in monitoring and data collection is needed to face today GOS challenge to mitigate the damages to the outfall system. including the construction of Tarbela and Mangla dams. 28. to fully understand the long term changes (over the last 50 years) in the coastal zone that appear to have affected the dhands and to define the mitigation measures to be implemented. Fortunately NIO monitoring of salinity in the dhands and the Tidal Link have continued from 1999 to June 2004 (discussed in the next chapter). The Environmental Monitoring and Management Plan (EMMP) for LBOD Stage I Project. very little real data and information were available on which to base the formulation of additional environmental and ecological management measures. extreme weather events and natural disasters as well as a generally poor natural resource endowment have persistently plagued the coastal areas of Sindh. of Jamshoro) were carried out to add to the physical monitoring data being gathered by the NIO and the SMO (hydraulics and salinity among other things). Reports prepared by UN Agencies suggest that the impact of natural calamities in this area has been severe for the low income and vulnerable groups. 29. 27. The Mission received detailed information from the World Bank team preparing a Proposal for Livelihoods Improvements: Badin and Thatta Districts. the designers decided to transport the LBOD discharge through a new canal directly to an active tidal creek where the flow would be diluted and discharged to the sea during low tide. As pointed out by the authors. In view of the international dimensions of the Rann of Kutch.resources and the expansion of the irrigated water supply capacity from 67 MAF to 104. prepared by the consultants in 1998. Unfortunately this EMMP could not be implemented due in large part to the disputes between GOS and WAPDA. and the economic and ecological importance of the dhands. The benefits for Pakistan have allowed the country meeting the basic needs of its populatio n and double the irrigation acreage. However. Socio-economic information. and resulted in a disruption in livelihoods and increased their vulnerability. especially Badin and Thatta Districts. May 2005 20 . In 1997 baseline studies of the fishery (Univ. The country is now engaged in studying the environmental flows required to maintain the ecological and productive functions of the estuary. The monitoring system in place is still limited and does not fully help to understand thoroughly the impacts that have occurred and the mitigation measures to be implemented. and the lack of a committed institutional focal point in Sindh that could persuade policy makers of the importance of providing the necessary resources and financial support such a program requires. stressed the implementation of a well designed monitoring program that would build the knowledge base and help authorities to spot adverse trends and formulate mitigation measure. The ongoing study provided most of the social-economical data and related information used by the POE. Measures were implemented that would protect the valuable dhands (Cholri Weir). of Jamshoro) and avifauna (Zoological Department of Pakistan) of the dhands along with a socio-economic assessment of the fishing community (Univ. and the canal was designed (high embankments topped by a berm) to withstand the forces it would encounter (wind and waves) as it crossed the Rann of Kutch.

key changes are now recognized in the topography. Most of the households in the coastal tazims are more foodinsecure than other neighboring areas. fishing in the dhands is also an unstable base for rural livelihoods. Farming is an underdeveloped and increasingly risky activity. The extreme climatic events of the last four years including continuous droughts and two major storms have affected this area. the coastal population of Badin increased from 450. There are also important deviations from the original project estimations of the salinities. Notwithstanding the favorable and important repercussions of the drainage provided in the upper areas of the district. the system has not significantly benefited the lower rural areas in coastal Badin tha t have some access to land. which as usual depends on the volume not used in the higher parts of the system. clean water and electricity. • Since well before the contribution of the LBOD Stage I Project.000 ($70) per month. The people of the area have demonstrated considerable resilience and coping capacity over the years particularly during these extraordinary circumstances. and have become the center of discussion in the Sindh society.30. Nevertheless recent WB diagnostic in the area reports that 70% of the rural population is earning less than Rs. having access to degraded cultivable land. the Indus Delta has been in a complex and delicate transition from the original equilibrium to a May 2005 21 . At the tail end of the irrigated area.5% in 7 years. 31. 34. meanly from natural growth). schooling and health. However despite emigration and the difficult living conditions to which the people of this area have been confronted with. Concerning basic services. The main reasons. people are living in fragile conditions. IV. As per the events in July 2003 local elected authorities firmly indicated to the Mission that the amount of water received at the lower Badin was unprecedented. in their views were: the additional volume collected by the drainage system at the higher lands and the performance of the outfall system. An increased vulnerability has worsened poverty conditions for the population in the area. if any. FINDINGS OF THE M ISSION 35. Several investments in agro. 4. Because of increased population pressure over diminished natural resources. because of uncertainties of the availability of water. The dynamic context of the LBOD scheme.000 in 1998 to an estimated 520. The capacity of ol cal households to own and maintain a few heads of livestock is also limited. batimetry and cross sections of the Tidal Link and the KPOD.industry in recent years have increased employment in the zone. velocities and water levels at several places. 32. With the information available to the mission about the initial state of the area. have not been significant so far.000 in 2005 (15. 33. the improvements. The present conditions of the outfall area are quite different form the ones observed when LBOD outfall system was in the stage of preparation and before it started operations.

the Tidal Link and its embankments altered the previous streamflow pattern in the tidal area of the dhands. NIO scientists and others studying the Indus delta also believe that the estuary. These conditions were not expected to extend into KPOD during the design phase. has also shrunk with negative impacts to livelihoods. brought higher velocities than the erosion limits for the soil material in the Tidal Link.000 m3 and even suggested the May 2005 22 . including scientists from the Institute of Oceanography). Increased water use in the Indus River basin mainly for the expansion of irrigated agriculture has changed the water flow and the sediment load that had built the delta over geologic time. reported by the LBOD Stage I Project EMMP Report (1998). river flow and sediment transport has been drastically changed. The breaches that resulted from the failure of the Cholri Weir and the embankments concentrated the flow in some areas facilitating new connections from the dhands and the Tidal Link to the sea. Why did the Cholri weir and the Tidal Link embankments fail? The report describing this original design (Delft Hydraulics. The observed changes at macro scale have been interpreted by some experts (interviewed by the mission. the fragile equilibrium among tidal and litoral currents. This seems to be confirmed by the finding of purely oceanic origin organisms in the tidal creeks by the same scientists. The river was dry during last year’s kharif season below Kotri barrage.. According to the National Oceanographic Institute. This contributed to the establishment of brackish or estuarine conditions with lower salinity in these dhands. • Construction of agricultural drainage in the lower part of the Kotri basin changed the equilibrium of the dhands especially Sanhro and Mehro since the 1960s. The salinities in these drains. • Furthermore. with serious perturbations due to the drastic changes in the Indus River hydrologic and sediment regimes. commercial activities and fisheries. The new section and slope in the Tidal Link have changed the anticipated tidal effect in the outfall resulting in marine water intrusion in the drains and dhands. as a shrinking of the Indus delta. The combined effect is facilitating the drainage of the dhands and increasing the amplitude of the tidal fluctuations in KPOD and its connected drains up to about RD 80. were much lower than seawater salinities. resulting in the reported high productivity and favorable bird habitat. predicted an annual dredging requirement of 70. They have also increased dramatically the depth of the Tidal Link up and within KPOD. 1989) considered scouring a distant event. • The combined effects of runoff from heavy rainfall and the tide. This condition has been changed as Figures 7 & 9 amply demonstrate. and tidal fluctuations much grater than estimated in the original design. especially during the rainy season. The new pattern modified the water velocities in the dhands and caused erosion and siltation that are difficult to quantify with the present state. These effects have widened the original excavated channel to more than double the original design width. which is the most productive part of this delta. creating new ecosystems in some cases. 36.

This trend could lead to form a new small estuary that would have a base flow from subsurface drainage and storm flows during the rainy season. The embankments failed in 1999 probably from the combined effect of scouring in the Tidal Link Canal bed and banks due to high velocities. In deltas. but it is clear that the causes were different for the weir and the embankments. In any event. The original geometric setup of the Tidal Link Canal has suffered considerable changes because of the flows produced by the 1999 and 2003 storms. Any alternative considering future rehabilitating the TL should consider these adverse site conditions in designing the new structures. 1999 and 2003 storms have not been recorded. They incur substantive change during large storms and floods. the principle underpinning the design criteria was to control the water inflow to the drains in the farmer’s fields. in the 80s when the studies were prepared the 1994. 39. What will be the future equilibrium condition? Can we predict a future equilibrium of this very complex system? The system is still evolving (even under a no action alternative) and it is difficult to have a clear vision about what new equilibrium state of the area would be. Under these circumstances the tidal effect would continue traveling upstream the present position into the drainage system and the dhands would have a more direct connection to the sea with a probable reduction of their area. Of course. May 2005 23 . like the one of the Indus. A similar storm will occur in the next 5 years with a probability of 56% (8 similar 24 hrs storms have occurred in the last 67 years). The mission did not have access to precise written information including observation notes about the causes of the failure of the Chori weir and the embankments of the Tidal Link. similar to the one of the 24 hrs duration of July 2003 storm. and it failed in 1998 and 1999 probably from scouring of the foundation along the canal bed and from water flowing over the crest of the weir. Damage to the weir began within a few months of its completion. 38. overtopping (due to storm flow in the channel greater than the design flow) and the wave action in unprotected slopes during high tides. It appears that the erosion pattern will continue upstream into the drainage system forming a wider and deeper channel and widening the connection to the sea (see figure on evolution of cross sections and bed profile). Severe 24 hour duration storms. It is clear that the changes observed in the delta are caused by a combined effect of the LBOD Stage I project and the extraordinary events in 99 and 2003. 37. The accumulated rainfall in July 2003 is the record highest for any given month. During large extreme events one can expect to have more changes tha n in many years of relative small storms and flows. River and coastal systems do not usually change during ordinary conditions. they tend to deposit sediments along the bed until a large storm or flood occurs. A preliminary analysis of the recently collected data suggests that the stable slope is different from that adopted in the original design.purchase of dredging equipment and the construction of a dredger service depot at Ali Bandor. Were the 1999 and 2003 rainfall events too rare to be considered the basis for the design of the system?. Nobody was at the site during these events. occurred in 1994 and 1999.

During the mission visit. farmers in the upper LBOD basin quickly cut the drain embankments to allow their field to drain more rapidly increasing the amount of runoff flowing into the drain and increasing the discharge. diversions into the irrigation canals was not stopped leaving them full and causing several breaches when additional water entered the canals from the rainfall. Behavior of the LBOD drainage system. In 1998 the LBOD consultants EMMP Report summarized the salinity data available at that time from surveys carried out between 1983 and 1989 (the time of the first environmental assessment of LBOD Stage I Project) and 1997. The Badin District in the lower LBOD basin consists of extremely flat land that is susceptible to extensive inundation during heavy rain because of low infiltration rates and slow runoff (this condition prevails to a somewhat lesser degree in many areas of the upper basin as well). Salinity contours covering the four Sindh dhands for the period 2001-2003 is shown in Figure 7. 41. The designers assumed that these sources of water would be cut off during heavy rainfall. 2003: first. 15 Generally there are not sufficient controls to prevent canal flows from entering the distributaries. However. the affected population reported damages from breached canals and informed about the rapid rise in water levels that caused severe damage in this area. minors. However. May 2005 24 . and third. Data on the evolution of salinity in the dhands at 18 stations over the period 2001 (after the 1999 cyclone) to 2003 (after the 2003 monsoon storm) are shown in Figure 9. The only new data of real relevance to environmental damages in the dhands area is the salinity data collected by NIO. The natural drainage is also impeded in the monsoon season by the high tides and extensive flooding of the coastal zone. Larger amounts of runoff that would result from larger rainfall would have to be stored on the farmer’s land for longer periods. except from most of the tubewells. During such periods farmers commonly allow flow in their water courses 15 to go directly to the drains since their field are being inundated by the heavy rain further increasing drain discharge. and even if there were. second.40. Environmental damages. Hence. so that the canal and its full free board of 4 ft could be used to carry runoff from heavy rain. this capacity could drain a total of only 125 mm of rainfall over 5 days with a 5 days flood duration with inlet controls to 1. two things happened during the particularly heavy rainfall experienced in July. which is the natural outlet for this slow and shallow overland flow. timely decisions to reduce diversions into the irrigation canals. The LBOD spinal drain and its associated collector drains were designed to carry agricultural and subsurface drainage. The resulting high discharges overloaded the LBOD system downstream causing numerous canal breaches that poured water into the already clogged drains and compounded flooding in eastern Kotri Basin and Badin District. as shown in Table 4. is a critical part of the overall response to heavy rain and flood risk management. there is generally not sufficient escape capacity to handle the very high discharges that would result if water is not taken in the distributaries.8 cusecs and ponding depth of one foot. the baseflow of agricultural drainage water was not cutoff and it continued to flow into the drains. and watercourses.

Comparison of the above table with Figures 7 & 9 demonstrates clearly the substantial increase in salinity throughout the dhands since 1997. salinity conditions range from those typical for sea water to the hyper-saline Pateji Dhand (Figure 7). salinity conditions remained very favorable for the basically brackish or estuarine ecosystem that had developed over the years in the dhands. Up to 1997 at least. At present.7-20 18-38 10-25 15-170 NA 54 Surface Water Salinity in Dhands Area 50 45 Salinity (ppt) 40 35 30 Salinity (ppt) January 2001 Salinity (ppt) January 2002 Salinity (ppt) December 2002 Salinity (ppt) December 2003 25 20 1 3 5 7 9 1 1 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 Dhand Stations Figure 9.5-80 5. The hyper-salinity of the Rann of Kutch is remarkable.3-12 1. The anecdotal evidence seems to conflict over whether the dhand surface area has shrunk. Other than the obvious intrusion May 2005 25 .5-8.Table 4. and indicates that it may be influencing salinity in the Tidal Link and the dhands where it flows through the existing breaches in the Tidal Link Canal left bank.5-? 54 1. or the depth has substantially decreased because of the direct connection between Cholri Dhand and the Tidal Link. 2004) 42.7 4-15 15-77 15-80 NA 5. and the NIO data indicates that that is also the case today. Salinity evolution in Dhands area (NOI.7-11. Earlier Salinity Measurements in the Tidal Link Area (mS/cm) Location Mehro Dhand Sanhro Dhand Cholri Dhand Pateji Dhand Tidal Link channel Rann of Kutch Shah Samando Creek Open Sea 1983-89 Jan-Feb 1997 4. Only Pateji Dhand had persistently high salinity in both the 1980s and in 1997.8 7.

The mission observed very heavy pollution in the Karo Gungro drain reported to be caused by wastewater discharges from sugar mills and towns in the sub-basin (though piped sewerage system coverage in area is thought to be very low). and hence to determine what are the primary causes of these changes and how any imbalances could be corrected or their effects mitigated. The 1998 LBOD Stage I Project EMMP Report compared water quality data collected by LBOD drains in 1994 for sugar factory effluent with similar data at two points along KPOD. that the major influences on the water quantity and quality balance has shifted to evapotranspiration (ET) and sea water intrusion with a consequent increase in overall salinity. Table 5. after Shahid Amjad and Samina Kidwai. 16 As shown in the Drainage Master Plan POE Report. 43.335 43. Annex II. But the effects are evident: a major decrease in birds and waterfowl. It seems from the available data therefore. absence of the distinctive vegetation and other fauna that existed in the shallower areas of the dhands. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the flow in the two major Kotri drains that discharge into Sanhro and Mehro Dhands. Freshwater.448 13.115 50. KPOD used to discharge into the more isolated Pateji Dhand but this source of brackish water has been diverted into the Tidal Link. it is therefore difficult to say what the primary causes are of this drastic change in salinity. NIO.548 24. May 2005 26 . Number of Birds Recorded in the Annual Waterfowl Census by SWD16 Year 1990 2001 2002 Jubho Lagoon 68. have greatly diminished because of the shortage of irrigation water but there is no measured data to support this. brackish water and coastal wetlands of Sindh: Status Paper. and a major decrease in the yield specie composition of the fishery. the Karo and Fulelli drains respectively.712 Nurri Lagoon 71. Karachi. Changes in the number of birds in the two Ramsar sites located in Sanhro Dhand (Jubho Lagoon) and Mehro Dhand (Nurri Lagoon) respectively as recorded by the Sindh Wildlife Department (SWD) in their annual census is summarized in Table 5.997 44. The total combined number of birds in the two adjacent and inter-connected lagoons also shows a substantial decline of about 46% between 1990 and 2002. Little or no trend is indicated by the Nurri Lagoon data but the data for Jubho Lagoon shows a substantial decline. This comparison is shown in the Table 6.of sea water into Cholri Dhand. The analytical problem is that there is not sufficient data to understand the current water balance of the dhands in terms of both water quantity and water quality.

46.4 Color Odor Ph Electrical Conductivity 480 (mS/cm) Total Solids (mg/l) 142. 48.4 685 624 396 5000 580 340 45. improved access to water in agriculture are the longstanding needs in the perception of rural population in coastal Badin.693 (COD) (mg/l) KPOD Effluent @ RD 84 Colorless Odorless 7. provincial and national level.000 Chemical Oxygen Demand 12. basic services. Introducing the District’s Contingency Plan to Combat Cyclones and Flood/Rain 2004-2005 it is said that “Although Government has provided maximum relief and other agencies have also substantially contributed…. It is however evident that civil society concerns on the outfall structures emerged pretty soon after the Tidal Link inception (i. and started a process in that direction. Social perceptions of the LBOD system and the events of 2003. better communication infrastructure. 47. Fishermen are aware on the need for a strengthened organization concerning access to resources and markets. altogether with needs and demands for relief and immediate support. Fishermen and farmers interviewed at their villages vividly described the succession of events in 2003 and alluded to the deterioration of the local livelihoods. The mission had the opportunity to receive a number of well articulated queries from representatives of the civil society organizations active at district.e. but area and population affected is of such a large scale that people are still not satisfied”. The impact from the heavy rains in 2003 seems to have galvanized the opinion of an important part of the local population in Badin and the neighboring district of Thatta. Sindh Chamber of Agriculture and Sindh Abadgar Board on 15/02/1996). preparedness and relief support. LBOD did not fulfill expectations in the lower Badin. These communities are expecting more efficient and expeditious early warning. From the perspective of most of the concerned stakeholders. However some representatives of farmer groups also informed the mission of the benefits derived from LBOD in both agricultural May 2005 27 . 50.6 KPOD Effluent @ RD 21 Colorless Odorless 7. Selected Parameters from the Analysis of Sugar Factory and KPOD Effluent Analysis Sugar Factory Effluent Dark brown Pungent 6. To some extent the population in the area is accustomed to the impact of climatic calamities but worrying increased because of uncontrolled floods in the future. Employment. A vision for the future could be extracted from them. 49.Table 6. Some of the expressions were in line with queries submitted to the World Bank Inspection Panel.

elected representatives broadly coincided on the need for de-linking the Tidal link and the KPOD drain. iv) insufficient arrangements concerning preparedness and information in connection with flood rela ted disasters. In general there is a consensus in most of the proposals to discharge the LBOD storm drainage into the former course of the DPOD. 53. SIDA and the IPD of Sindh to start the implementation of the actions presented in Table 1. which was usually 2 months while in the July 2003 storm it was only 10 to 15 days. The mission concluded that the institutional arrangements and capacity to address events such as the heavy rains that occurred in 2003 were not adequate and that a number of institutional-related issues should be improved. The present institutional setup and its consequences. iii) unexpected behavior of the drainage users. 51. particularly but not exclusively at the outfall level. [That] the primary objective of LBOD system was to save the people of Sindh from adverse effects of the extraordinary rains. The President instructed the Army and WAPDA. [That] the people of Sindh have. The President visited the area shortly after the mission departed and personally stated the commitment of the Government of Pakistan’s solution to the problems following detailed analysis and recommendations from the concerned institutions at the federal and provincial levels. therefore. some of them emphasized that local communities would not accept any further expansion of the LBOD system to northern areas. nor they would permit any civil work at the disposal level contrary to the natural flow of the run-off in the coastal plain. to an additional and non expected run off. 54. 52. so as to reduce the risk of discontinuation of crucial May 2005 28 .productivity and in the time the floods recede from their lands. 55. and v) insufficient arrangements to organize and implement the immediate relief activities. Reflecting on its discussion with a wide variety of stakeholders. thus originating an unexpected increase in the flow to the lower areas. particularly farmers located in the upper levels of the system that deteriorated the infrastructure and contributed. A number of elected representatives at the level of Union Council and Nazims presented extensively their views to the mission. ii) need to improve the structural and non structural components in the flood management arrangements at all levels. The process of transfer of operation and maintenance responsibilities from the central level to the provincial SIDA should be completed. Other farmers pointed out the “lack of discipline and organization” in some parts of the drainage system that opened free course to the water in their plots cutting the drains. The mission noted that member farmers of the Area Water Board organized under NDP enjoying credibility in the area and affected by the floods. the mission identified the following issues: i) weaknesses in operation and maintenance of LBOD Stage I Project major components. underscored the positive benefits of the LBOD Stage I Project in the agricultural sector as well as the need to further improvements and corrections in the outfall structures. lost faith in LBOD”. President Musharraf stated in 2004 that “[…] people of Badin and Thatta had suffered a lot because of the absence of the proper floodwater disposal system.

facilitating rapid and excessive drainage of Cholri Dhand at low tide (it is not known how far this effect extends into the dhands).industries in the basin. But it presented major problems in parts of the LBOD basin and large areas of the Kotri basin in Badin District in July 2003 due to a combination of factors: i) the high intensity of the rainfall. Government is committed to solve the problems and has developed a series of proposed remedies to the outfall structures referred in other parts of this report. 56. The storm drainage capacity was overwhelmed during the July 2003 storms that occurred in the area. measured salinity at RD-30. including increased flood risk downstream in Badin District. The Dhands. There are also impacts related to expansion of the area affected by tides and sea water (for example. 59. and increased salinity in the Dhands located in the Sindh portion of the Rann of Kutch (measured salinity in the Dhands. and caused the gradual silting of this Dhand. Subsurface drainage is now improving the conditions and the sustainability of the irrigated agriculture of the LBOD basin. The open connection between the Tidal Link and the dhands has introduced significant tidal fluctuations at least in Cholri Weir. Officials are fully aware of the difficulties emerging from institutional weaknesses and indicated the need for a rapid and efficient completion of the ongoing process of devolution and decentralization. The mission observed that the dhands may now be under threat from pollution by sugar factories and other polluters upstream on the drains that outfall into the dhands. The increased salinity of the dhands is probably caused by a combination of decreased flows in some of the Kotri drains (Kora and Fuleli) that flow into the Sanhro and Mehro Dhands. V. However.activities and record valuable knowledge. iii) inadequate operation of canal and drainage structures. varies from 35 to 68 ppt). A R ESTATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM AND THE OBJECTIVES 57. 58. and the inflow of some sea water through the open connection with the Tidal Link. diversion to KPOD (which collected the eastern Kotri drains and emptied into Pateji Dhand) into the Tidal Link. It is important for the Province to reduce the uncertainties in the availability of financial resources for the sector. Evaporation may also be a more important part of the water balance of the dhands than in previous times. Figure 7. Salinity has increased in the dhands (Figures 7 & 9). It has increased agricultural production stimulating the development of agro. Sanghar. Runoff from heavy rainfall. LBOD Stage I Project has had positive results in Mirpurkhas. Figure 6. just downstream of where KPOD joins the Tidal Link varies between 40 and 50 ppt). iv) May 2005 29 . ii) storm drainage of such magnitude was not considered in the design of the drainage that was primarily constructed to manage subsurface drainage flows. institutional weaknesses persist in the capacity of the system to perform efficiently under storm events. as well as strengthening the capacity for operation and maintenance of the drainage system at all levels. and Nawabshah Districts. and in eastern Badin District. A tidal creek type drainage network has developed where the erstwhile Cholri Weir was located.

• Limit sea water intrusion and tidal fluctuations in the Kotri drains along KPOD. 60. Cholri weir and the embankments of the Tidal Link failed and are at present in a state “beyond repair”. and vi) farmers behavior providing additional outlets to the drains. This failure was partly due to design issues and the magnitude of the storm flows being well beyond the design parameters and criteria. which constitutes the most important part of the LBOD outfall has been submitted to higher stress than originally expected. 61. The Tidal Link Canal. effective and timely manner in case of an extreme event like the one in July 2003. and appears to be moving upstream into KPOD. • Ensure that local officials are prepared to act locally in a coordinated. The end result is a completely changed outfall condition leading to a process that is forming a new estuary configuration. The challenges ahead. and within KPOD itself • Restore salinity conditions and limit the influence of tidal fluctuations and sediment accumulation in the Dhands • Control the estuary development process in the outfall and limit its adverse effects. 99 and 2003. to diminish economic losses and prevent loss of life of the local population • Contribute to improved livelihoods in the lower Basin District. This ongoing process has widened and deepened the Tidal Link sections and increased the tidal fluctuations and the penetration of sea water much farther upstream in the Tidal Link Canal than was thought to be possible at the time it was designed. The Tidal Link Canal. This process is still active and evolving. The problem today is to define near term and long-term effective and cost efficient alternatives that contribute to meeting the following objectives: • Diminish the flood risk of the lower basin in Badin District area for villages and agricultural land. • Improve the safety and security of the LBOD drainage system • Improve the capacity of Dhoro Puran (DPOD) to act as an effective component of the LBOD system. May 2005 30 .uncoordinated and lack of preparedness of institutions. especially during the storm events of 94. v) lack of maintenance of relevant structures.

The two abutments of the structure in this area appear to the mission to be weak with a significant risk that KPOD could erode a path around the structure. measured data are not available as yet to show what the tidal amplitude and salinity are in the lower reaches of KPOD. Nearly everyone has a strong feeling that measures should be taken to prevent tidal fluctuations and sea water from entering KPOD. 63. “A” – Regulating structure at the junction of KPOD and the Tidal Link. The mission believes that if further data collection and analysis demonstrates the need and value of such a structure. The mission recommends a combination of “hard” structural measures and institutional “soft” actions to address the objectives described in paragraph 60. However one would expect the flow (saline agricultural drainage water (baseflow) and storm runoff) to be completely mixed by the time it reaches the diversion point. Map 2 shows a schematic diagram of the LBOD outfall system including the basic elements of the system and the various options. To facilitate discussion of the structural options presently available.VI. Third. and have made proposals. First. A comprehensive strategy or plan to solve the current problems has not yet been prepared. At low tide. though the resulting salinity of the flow would certainly be lower than the baseflow. and the capacity of the Dhoro Link increased. The design was based on the operating assumption that the flow from all tubewells and tile drains would be stopped during a storm. that it should be locate well upstream of the junction of KPOD and the Tidal Link Canal. and hence whether a structure is really needed and would provide substantial benefit commensurate with the high cost of such a structure. As an immediate measure the weir crest has been lowered 2. There are several considerations and issues that cast doubt on the viability of this option. the gates would be opened to allow the water in KPOD to flow downstream into the Tidal Link Canal. This would commonly be accomplished by construction of a gated regulator across KPOD.. Summary of the options available. the gates of such a structure would have to be operated with discipline for it to be both safe and effective. Second. including so called immediate measures. The purpose of this structure was to allow a substantial portion of LBOD peak flows (2000 cfs out of 4600cfs) to be diverted through the Dhoro Link to the old Dhoro Puran River (referred to as DPOD) and thence to Shakoor Dhand 17 . Most of the agencies concerned with some aspect of LBOD drains and the Tidal Link have undertaken missions to examine the conditions on the ground. Structural options . An uncontrolled weir was built in the Dhoro Link in the left bank of the Spinal drain where it meets KPOD. to facilitate the diversion of a larger percentage of the peak flow 17 In the LBOD design this was referred to as the diversion of freshwater (storm runoff) flowing in LBOD. May 2005 31 .5 ft. particularly a plan that would respond the wide range of challenges and objectives outlined in the previous chapter. D EVELOPING A STRATEGY 62. At high tide in the Tidal Link the gates would be closed to prevent intrus ion into KPOD. and present experience in Sindh suggests that this may not be possible. to alleviate the situation. a very large structure with many gates would be needed. “B” & “C” – Control structures at the bifurcation of the Spinal Drain.

and that this should not exceed 5-6. The level at the DPOD/KPOD bifurcation was calculated assuming a common tide level at the discharge of both channels. If because of excess storm runoff upstream in the LBOD basin. Hence the maximum allowable flow in the Spinal Drain under these conditions would be about 7-8. not only would gated structure “B” ensure that the maximum flow in KPOD was below the limit. The first structure (“B”) would be located downstream of the bifurcation within the KPOD channel to enable strict control of the discharge in KPOD. This right bank must also be strengthened and all zones and points of weakness eliminated. For example. Also. Escapes could also be constructed in Seerani drain to divert water into the 18 A preliminary estimation of water levels at DPOD and KPOD/Tidal Link channels was done using the HEC/RAS program from the US Corps of Engineers. Results suggest an embankments level of about 22 ft around the fork. Provision of uncontrolled escapes in the KPOD left bank.000 cfs. The mission believes that two gated structures are needed to ensure operating flexibility and the safety of KPOD. The intrusion of tidal fluctuations and saline water into the small Kotri drains that flow into KPOD is a major concern of farmers in the eastern portion of Badin District (mainly in the Left Bank Canal sub-basin). due to the fact that no topographical information in the zone around Dhoro Dhand. Presently there is no data that would support assuming that a flow greater than about 2000 cfs can be diverted through the Dhoro Puran Link because of the downstream water levels in Shakoor Dhand and the condition of the Dhoro Puran River. May 2005 32 . The combination of these two control structure would provide maximum operating flexibility and control of LBOD flows. The second structure (“C”) would be a gated structure in the Dhoro Puron Link replacing the present uncontrolled weir. data on the precise conditions at the outfalls and the discharge coming from upstream at the Dhoro Puran old river course was available. The point where the Spinal Drain bifurcates is clearly a critical point in the LBOD outfall system. It should be noted that this is only a crude estimation of the levels.of the Spinal Drain. would enhance the safety of KPOD. in addition to those mentioned above for the Spinal Drain. The mission believes that the critical factor in the safety and security of the LBOD outfall system is the maximum discharge in KPOD. the height of the top of the right bank must be at least 22 ft based on the mission’s estimate of the water surface profile at the point where the flow bifurcates18 . especially around existing structures where drains enter the main canals. discharge into Cholri and Pategi Dhands was not taken into account. Suggestions have been made to provide small gated regulators or tide gates near each of these drain inlets to prevent back flow into the drain at high tide in KPOD. “D” & “E” – Measure to protect the Kotri Drains. the flow would be higher than this limit. the gates would permit significant flows to be sustained in the Dhoro Link helping to resuscitate the ancient Dhoro River and possibly improve groundwater and drinking water supplies in that area (flow simulations would need to be carried out and detailed water quality data would have to be available and analyzed to consider this possibility). In both the Spinal Drain and KPOD.000 cfs. but at non peak times. These escaped flows could be routed to the upper portion of the ancient Dhoro Puran River so long as the tailwater conditio ns of the Dhoro Puran Link were not worsened. escapes must be built into the left bank of the Spinal drain to reduce the discharge.

Control of Tidal Link access to the Dhands. should not be considered at this time in part because of the still active scour and erosion processes ongoing in the Tidal Link. The mission discussed a number alternative measures that might contribute to the recovery of the dhands. No data or evidence has so far come to light that these tidal and sediment effects have extended further into Sanhro and Mehro Dhands where two Ramsar sites exist (Pateji Dhands is isolated from the other three dhands by low silt barriers). The mission noted that one of the main causes of increased salinity in the Dhands is the reduction of drain inflow. and possibly Mehro Dhand. Those conditions were more brackish or estuarine with a maximum salinity of 20 ppt and a significant salinity gradient. even based on a new design. “F” . this option should be viewed as a serious step because it cuts off all opportunity for water May 2005 33 . However there is another option. but low cost measures might be formulated to adequately protect the embankment. would. The same approach might also be an attractive option in some of the other Kotri drains that outfall into KPOD if they are threatened by high water levels and there is similar waste land available. then such structures may be a viable option. However. The viability of this option might be questioned because of the likelihood of severe wave erosion. So far there is no data available to the mission that tidal fluctuations or sea water intrusion is a problem in the lower parts of these drains. Not enough is known about the overall water and salinity balance of the dhands to say at this point which are the dominate causes of the high salinity although it seems sure that sea water intrusion from the Tidal Link has contributed significantly. • One obvious option is to construct a low embankment or bund separating Cholri Dhand from Sanhro Dhand. Recent remote sensing studies carried out by SUPARCO on behalf of WAPDA suggest that the main effect of the open connectio n appears to be the sedimentation of Cholri Dhand and the formation of a tidal creek within this dhand that facilitates its rapid drainage at low tide. The mission believes that reconstruction of the Cholri Weir. If new data showed that the penetration of tidal fluctuations and sea water actually causes harm. One of the most important and complicated problems arises because of the open connection between the Tidal Link Canal and the Dhands created when Cholri Weir was destroyed. if the salinity of these drains is generally lower than the present salinity of the Dhands. Diversion of the Kotri drains that enter (or all of them as before) towards Pateji Dhand. contribute significantly to their improvement. A sound analysis is needed to insure that this action will not evolve in the formation of a new creek. Other Possible options to conserve and improve the dhand ecosystems. caused in part by the prolonged drought in the Indus River basin and the consequent reduction in the availability of irrigation water. Before the LBOD outfall system was constructed KPOD acted as a collector drain and carried these drain flows into Pateji Dhand. Nor can one say for sure whether recovery of normal drain flows from Karo and Fuleli drains combined with restoration of the inflow from the other Kotri drains would be sufficient to lower salinity in Sanhro and Mehro Dhands to levels similar to the past when it was a highly productive fishery and good waterfowl habitat.waste land that separates this drain from the dhands in order to control the water level in these drains.

Care would have to be taken to not prevent the recruitment of fish fry and young shrimps from the Tidal Link or the movement of breeding fishes toward the delta and the marine environment. and Pakistan could benefit from this experience since its experience with command and control regulatory approaches have been unsuccessful. If the dhands were to begin a slow recovery initiatives would have to be undertaken to organize fisherman and provide training and awareness Constructed wetlands have not been tried in Pakistan as a low cost method of treating wastewater or polluted water. • Third. A third possibility is to try to establish appropriate specie of reeds and other grasses that are well adapted to the prevailing salinities in the shallow silted area between Cholri and Sanhro Dhands. Global experience with constructed wetlands and other low cost wastewater treatment options has greatly increased in recent years. This would likely have a significant impact on the restoration process. Moreover this option should not be chosen until the dynamic water balance and patterns of water movement within the dhand system are well known and a verified model of these dynamics can be used to assess the feasibility and impact of this circulate between the dhands and it prevents the recruitment of juvenile fish. relatively low salinity water into the dhands is the best restoration strategy assuming this would shift the water and salt balance toward a lower salinity environment. as a method of treating sugar factory and other wastewater discharges to the drains that threaten the dhands. most experts and the mission agree that increased flow of brackish. something that can be determined by a comprehensive monitoring program designed to provide the data needed to analyze the dynamic water quantity and quality balance in the dhands. This method possibly combined with other low cost methods should be piloted as a way of treating the agricultural drainage water (if this would improve the viability of an option such as diverting LBOD flows into parts of the Rann of Kutch) and in particular. pollutants and nutrients moving from Cholri Dhand to Sanhro Dhand. past attempts to establish extensive mangrove belts or forests in this area of the coastal zone have not been successful probably because of the soils (they are reported to be flourishing in the area of Shah Samando Creek though over harvested by local people). Should these negotiations prove successful from Sindh’s perspective. experts suggested to the mission a number of non-structural natural measures that might attenuate the influence of the Tidal Link on the dhands and in particular slow or stop its progression beyond Cho lri Dhand. However. May 2005 34 . At present studies have begun to provide data and analysis to support ongoing negotiations concerning the allocation of Indus River flow to the Indus River and delta below Kotri Barrage. a percentage of the flow available should be diverted into the Kotri canals and drains to the dhands. 19 • Second. Such a reed and grass belt would behave much like a constructed wetland 19 filtering both sediments . shrimp and other fauna. A belt of mangroves generally along in the alignment where Cholri Dhand joins Sanhro Dhand has been suggested as a way of trapping sediment and attenuating any tidal pulses or effects that might enter Sanhro Dhand.

• Define a responsible agency with resources (expertise. synthesize the hydrographs at relevant points and review capacities in critical spots. • Review the design of the system for storm drainage and construct the entrances to the drains. Finding a sustainable solution. • Study the structures to modify present trend and diminish the flood risk to lower Basin villages and farmers. May 2005 35 . • Monitor. and to intensify the monitoring of water levels. 64. an embankment is under construction to protect low agricultural land around the dhands. and learn. These include: • Prepare a flood management plan including: a forecasting and awareness system. The Government of Sindh with Federal assistance is implementing actions to rehabilitate the system and to solve some of the problems. • The mission believes that for the time being the best strategy is to ensure increased flow of brackish water into the dhands from the Kotri drains including the diversion of those drains that currently flow into and use of fine mesh nets that take excessive quantities of young fish and shrimp. In particular. salinity and drain flows in the Dhands to improve the understanding of the water balance and to detect any negative trends that emerge in order to formulate mitigation measures. There is also progress in preparing plans for the evacuation in case of floods as well as compensation of persons affected by the 2003 stimulate their management of the fishery by preventing over. analyze the data. funds and equipment) and power to deal with O&M of main drains and outfall. Institutional Actions common to all infrastructure alternative options. and repairs are being made to gates in outlet structures. measures to protect some embankments in KPOD and the Kotri drains are being implemented. bathometry. operation program for canal and drain structures during heavy precipitation events and a contingency plan to assist local population in case of an emergency. Introduce a sound storm design analysis using appropriate models calibrated with past events including the July 2003 storms. sediment. there are a number of critical institutional actions and steps that must be taken in all cases. Regardless which combination of physical options are selected from possibilities described above. R ECOMMENDED STRATEGY 65. VII. Consider the natural drainage pattern and the long evolution of the system at feasibility stage. tides.

• Undertake more coordinated efforts among all agencies. sediment transport and a highly variable stream flow in the rainy season. but the effort was discontinued since June 2004. and • Strengthen coordinated international cooperation. For example. These works have high investments cost compared with the value of the property they are trying to protect. • Provide clear definition of responsibilities. propose schemes and designs. • Carefully apply sound engineering practice.66. and make the right decisions about the most efficient allocation of scarce resources and available funds. authority and accountabilities. high water velocities and tidal currents that made them fail soon after their completion. May 2005 36 . During the visit to the lower Badin area the mission observed the works being done to protect the low lands around the Shanro and Mahro dhands and the stone pitching being installed to protect the right embankment at the end of the Seerani drain near to KPOD. The mission recommends that the Government: • Adopt an adaptive approach that emphasizes learning by doing. Recording rainfall. The monitoring program is essential to have a final tidal and drainage system that can work according to the identified objectives. especially with the information now available to the mission. The mission recognized the efforts of the Government in getting information through the NIO. Recent experience shows that the structures are subject to: wave action. density gradients. Cost effective solutions need to be implemented by assigning priorities to investments considering costs and economic and social and environmental benefits of the related actions. water levels and discharges during floods can give more information about the real hydrographs along the drains. An approach is needed to carefully evaluate priorities. • Encourage people’s participation. • Prioritize actions according to cost efficient solutions. The costal environment has proven to be a complex and difficult environment with interactions of: tidal fluctuations. equilibrium conditions for the new estuary that is now developing and for the present trend or ultimate result of connections between the Tidal Link and the dhands are extremely difficult to understand and forecast. An adaptive approach is therefore recommended in order to learn at the same time the structures are built. However a more consistent and well-defined strategy is needed in order to cost efficiently and effectively improve the present condition and performance of the system. Learning by doing.

The mission was concerned that some of the remedial civil works under construction by the Government. Sound engineering practice. Design and construction need to endure under adverse conditions. particularly during high intensity rains and floods. people did not substantively participate in the design of the project according to their perceptions. It is suggested that the necessary studies to resolve the outfall problems of LBOD be part of the DMP and Sindh Water Sector Improvement Project. be subject to more careful review and supervision. The project proposal for improving the livelihoods of people in Thatta and Badin Districts. Failure of flood control dikes and structures are dangerous events that can cause extensive damages and losses. iii) secure access to and better management of natural resources. building an embankment circling the dhands to control flooding. were not reflected in the design of LBOD drains. Coordinated effort needs to be fostered. Pakistan has established strong links with donors. e. and the case of LBOD Stage I Project is an important example. At present there is not a clear allocation of responsibilities and accountabilities of the different organizations acting in the sector. There are a number of organizations that need to interact in order to have a balanced project according to the objectives identified in Chapter V. 67. training and better nutrition May 2005 37 . At present there are uncertainties and anxieties due to the experience during the 2003 flood. iv) viable community organization. In case of heavy rains a contingency plan needs to be implemented including the control of the discharges of the barrages and main canals in a real time basis. Improving livelihoods in the Badin District.g. including environmental organizations could contribute to bring the necessary expertise and funding for the implementation of the actions the mission is recommending. GoS has made progress in the institutional reform to improve irrigation efficiency and increase user participation in O&M of the system. discussed earlier would promote: i) better access to basic services. A special program including a multi-dimensional communications strategy with the participation of provincial and local authorities is key to have sustainable solutions to the problems in the system. the AWBs and the FOs are being formed. SIDA. An important effort by Sindh Government is now underway to increase coordination among all stakeholders but there is still a long way to go in order to insure a correct design and effective operation of the system. information. but budgets for O&M are not allocated and the abiana collected by FOs are not been used to improve the irrigation service. Establishing partnerships with international organizations. NGOs and other international organizations. ii) higher income generation through improved production and marketing of saline agricultural crops. International cooperation.People’s participation needs to be stimulated in order to find better solutions and to induce the cooperation of local authorities and population in the operation of the system. Definition of responsibilities and authorities within the framework of the irrigation institutional reform is needed. construction of roads in the lower flats and considering a different type of gates to control sea water intrusion into the drains. which in turn. v) improved access to education. In the past. fisheries and livestock.

local institutions. Drainage Beneficiary Groups dully established could help operation. • Promotion of collaborative arrangements between government line departments. • Integrated disaster preparedness planning at the district level. updating and implementation of a Flood management program and for organizing and supporting the local development of preparedness and response plans. NGOs. Operation and maintenance. 68. The unit would be responsible for the preparation. 69. 70. For instance. what appears to be a logical and sustainable proposition is integration of coastal communities with the rest of the economy”. when necessary. would be: • Disaster management policy and planning (with special reference to contingency plans). • Linking disaster management plans and strategies with periodical development planning aiming at disaster preparedness at village. as indicated by the existing regulations. • Local-specific disaster preparedness and response plans. improvement and rehabilitation of the drainage system. and effective warning system. The mission recommends to support SIDA to finalize. and to activate organizational arrangements as needed.and health. May 2005 38 . Amongst the main issues and actions to be considered by the Crisis management unit. Nazim and district level. Maintenance and operation activities in SIDA are to be performed. In particular. management. as soon as possible. within a collaborative framework at the level of AWBs and other organizations involved in the management of water resources at the district and Nazim levels. • District-specific hazard and vulnerability mapping. Crisis management unit. the process of transfer of LBOD Stage I Project operation and maintenance related responsibilities form WAPDA. media and at-risk communities for coordinated and supplementary counter-disaster measures. Financial resources need to be allocated to SIDA so as to cover LBOD Stage I Project O&M annual requirements. The Mission agrees with the proposal under preparation in the sense that “looking beyond the immediate and medium term problems and their possible solutions. the POE agrees that integrating the coastal econo my with the developed areas of the province would be the way to address the problem in the long run. and the requisite training and awareness building at all levels. with the aim of reducing the impacts from floods in the area served by LBOD system. The unit should be established and empowered to provide a coordinated timely response to the concerns emerging from the consequences of the 2003 floods and similar future events.

District and provincial levels to build the disaster response capacity. but do not constitute a comprehensive and sustainable solution to the problems. Adapting to this new process requires continuous hydraulic and environmental monitoring in learning by doing approach. The proposal to extend the drainage system by studying LBOD Stage II & III in light of the present outfall conditions of LBOD Stage I should be postponed until the existing problems at the outfall are adequately address and solved. the strategy to manage the storm drainage in the upper basin needs to be organized and tested.• Promotion of community level groups to address disaster preparedness and relief related activities. and • Promote training for communities and local officials and organizations in risk areas. namely repairs to parts of the drainage system and lowering the DPOD weir. Moreover. and its progress is difficult to predict. This process will continue. 74. The mission believes that the present actions taken by the Government. The present conditions of the outfall system do not provide the hydrological. The LBOD. Under the strategic approach described in Chapter VII. The proposal to build an embankment encircling the Sindh dhands should be abandoned. 73. The Tidal Link has invited the sea to approach the land and now the tidal fluctuations are visible in the KPOD. the Mission identifies the following objectives that the outfall should achieve in the a long term: • Secure the drainage benefits of LBOD • Reduce the flood risk in Badin District • Control the sea intrusion in the lower part of the existing drains May 2005 39 . CONCLUSIONS AND R ECOMMENDATIONS 71. are considered appropriate for those site conditions. environmental and social functions that were originally considered at the design phase. Also the idea of building a gated structure in the KPOD close to the Tidal Link should be carefully evaluated considering previous experience. Objectives for performance of the LBOD outfall. This approach would avoid aggravating or increasing social unrest. vulnerability and anxiety in the Badin District that might result from a decision to go ahead with these premature studies at a time when people participation is most needed. and in line departments at Nazim.KPOD can now be described as a “new river” that is forming an estuary and is an integral part of creek formation into the coastal area. 72. The concept of preventing the intrusion of the sea and tidal influence through the reinforcement of the left bank of the Seerani Drain should be further analyzed. a hypothetical implementation of LBOD Stage II or III would imply increases in the capacity of the present system. VIII. In any case. NGOs.

Recommended actions by the Government of Sindh. Implement and adequately fund the World Bank’s proposed concept for a the livelihoods relief and improvement program. In view of the mission estimate that a 24 hrs storm event similar to that experienced in July 2003 has a 56% probability of occurring in a five.• Restore the conditions of the dhands or mitigate the present damages • Control the evolution of the estuary at the outfall and limit its adverse effects • Improve the livelihoods of the population in lower Badin • Strength the institutional capacity for preparedness in case of emergencies 75. • Possible connection of the Pateji and Mhero dhands • Construct a gated structure at the DPOD and KPOD to control the flows in both directions. The mission recommends to initiate without further delay the implementation of the institutional and structural following proposed actions: Develop and agree in a Flood Management Plan to compliment the emergency contingency plan proposed by the Badin DCO. and the construction of escapes from the left bank of the Spinal Drain and KPOD in the direction of the Thal using to the extent possible the ancient Dhoro Puran river bed. Establish a professional O&M program for the main drains and outfall system. the proposed physical interventions require continuous monitoring as a part of the learning May 2005 40 . Given the complexity of the system and its present evolution and dynamics. Re-design the outfall system.year period. • Diversion of the Seerani drain and other Kotri drains into the dhands. 76. Postpone the implementation of LBOD II and III unless and until the existing problems with the sustainability and performance of the outfall are solved. • Analyze the location of the tidal control structure in the KPOD and possible control structures in the drains. considering the alternative proposals identified by the mission to reduce the flood risk problems and the impact of the discharge of saline effluent: • Reinforcement of the LBOD right embankment. Install flap-gates in the drains discharging into LBOD drain.

structures in gated) drains Dhoro Puran revival May 2005 41 .Mehro Sanhro dhands and Options Divert Seerani & other Monitor drains to dhands action PROBLEMS AND ISSUES TIDAL FLUCTUATION before taking Flood risk Sea water intrusion DPOD – structure Tidal structure location) DRAINS OPTIONS (study KPOD – structure Spinal Drain and KPOD – Right doing process. The options mentioned in the table below are also shown in schematic diagram of the LBOD outlet system in Map 2. The following table illustrates the problems and proposed infrastructure “hard” actions. escapes in Structure in drains (flap left bank. SEASON STRUCTURE DRY SEASON OUTFALL PROBLEMS AND ISSUES RAINY & STORMY Drainage . and the collection of data essential for adequate analysis of problems and options.Cholri Pateji dhands and Tidal Link and creeks Salinity .

Shakoor Dhand and Dhoro Puran. During the final meeting of the mission with the Sindh Minister of Irrigation and Power Sindh.IX. it could be possible to include the proposed monitoring actions. the Rann of Kutch. These included: Discuss. 77. and enter into agreements with IUCN and WWF along with cooperating Sindh environmental agencies and universities to monitor and study the affected ecosystems and wetlands in the dhands and Tidal Link area. This step is critical to ensuring timely budget approvals consistent with the results of feasibility studies. Funding. The Government of Sindh could consider this possible funding or decide among other alternatives and include its final choice in the Provincial Budget. agree and approve the proposed strategy among the concerned agencies at the Federal and Provincial levels. including field testing of mitigation measures in the dhands as discussed in Chapter VI. the mission was able to discuss the next steps that the Government of Sindh could consider. studies and investigations. 20 Water Sector Improvement Project May 2005 42 . The IPD needs to define TORs for feasibility studies and design of the physical interventions proposed above. An immediate action that can be taken is to extend the SMO monitoring contract with NIO encompassing an expanded and well design program of data collection and analysis in the Tidal Link. N EXT STEPS . Considering the long lasting relations of the World Bank with the Sindh Province and the advanced status of preparation of WSIP 20 . designs and capacity building initiatives identified by the mission in this project. KPOD. Finally. a phased and detailed plan of implementation of the approved actions needs to be organized.

Sanhro &Mehro) KOTRI DRAINS “C” Escape s “B” “D” Escapes “E” Diversion KPOD “F” SEA DPOD (Old Dhoro Puran River) “A” TIDAL LINK RANN OF KUTCH SHANKOOR DHAND Map 3 May 2005 43 . Pateji.MAP 2 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF LBOD OUTFALL Alternative Measures LBOD SPINAL DRAIN Escapes KOTRI DRAINS (Karo & Fululi) SINDH DHANDS (Cholri.

Map 4. Map 5 May 2005 44 .

Map 6 May 2005 45 .

Aslam Rahu. Akber Bajkani. Asghar Ali Halipota. World Bank. Ghulam Hyder Qureshi. Additional Secretary.. Sindh Mr. Ghulam Qadir Shah. Director Engineering. Haji Abdul Ghafoor Nazamani. Badin Mr. Anwer Ali Baloch. NDP Mr. Aslam Rahoo. A. Ghulam Murtaza Abro. Adbul Rehman Mallah. Deputy Director General WWF Sindh Mr.Annex 1. Union Council Kadhan Mr. SIDA Mr. Hazi Imayal. Managing Director. Asif Chama. Golarchi Mr. Nazim Union Council Thari Mr. Aijaz Qureshi. Director Technical WAPDA Mr. Fida Hussain Mandro. Matli Mr. Nazim Union Council Khosk Mr. PERSONS MET BY THE MISSION Mr. Khadim Hussain Talper. Habib Ursani. SIDA Mr. Sattar Hindaro. Director Provincial Coordination Cell.O. Conservation Manager WWF Sindh Mr. Director (SMO) South WAPDA Mr. Senior Engineer SMO South WAPDA Mr. Mr. Deputy General Manager Operation. Abadgar Badin Ms. Abdul Haque. Constance A. N. Aija Ahmed. Bernard. Jahen Khan Chandio. SIDA Mr. Nazim Union Council Buhgra Memon Mr. Abdul Mujeeb Abro. Nazim Union Council Seerani Mr. Abdul Hameed Memon. Akash Ansari. Deputy Director Engineering NDP Mr. Electrification LBOD WAPDA Mr.G. Deputy Director NDP Sindh Mr. Chairman Abadgar Board Badin Mr. Save the Cost Action Committee May 2005 46 . Khadim Ali Memon. NDP Coordination Cell Sindh Mr. Bahadur Khan Lund. Taulka Nazim Shahced Fazil Rahu Mr. WAPDA Mr. Ali Mohammad Baloch. Abdul Qadir Qureshi. IPM. Superintendent Engineer.

Special Secretary. Mussaral Khoja. A. Mumtaz Ahmed Sohar. Sadiq Rajper. SIDA Mr. World Bank. Nazim Union Council Badin III Mr. Moula Bux Mirbahar. Research and Development. Left Bank Canal Area Water Board Mr. TTL NDP & WSIP Mr. National Institute of Oceanography Mr. M. Salahuddin Abbasi.R. Nazeer Essani. Moula Bux Mirbahar. S. Qasim Soomro. Raghib Abbas Shah. Mohammad Suleman. Islamabad Office Mr. SIDA Mr. S. H. Nazeer Ahmed Memon. Muhammad Nawaz Memon. FisherFock Badin Mr. Muozzam Ali. SIDA Mr. National Institute of Oceanography Mr. Noor Mohammad Baloch. Mukeem Ahmed Bhambro. XEN. Nazim Union Council Lowari Mr. General Manager.Mr. General Secretary Abadgar Board Badin Mr. GM (Operation). Mohammad Mithal Mallah. Left Bank Canal Area Water Board Mr. EDO Revenue Badin Mr. Badin Mr. SDO. Pir Hamid Shah. World Bank. Riaz Ahmed. SMO South WAPDA Mr. Consultant Mr. Sardar Kamal Khan. Sohag. Mir Abdul Qadir Jilani. Badin Mr.O. Qazi Azmat Isa. Badin Mr. S. Mushtaque Ali Sangi. General Manager. Niaz Rizvi.. SIDA Mr. Musarrat Hussain Khawaja. Principle Scientific Officer. Abadgar Board Badin Mr. WAPDA Mr. Minister Irrigation and Power. Zila Nazim Badin Mr. WAPDA Mr. Manuel Contijoch. Ministry of Water and Power Mr. Director Provincial Coordinator Cell. Chief Engineer Water. Syed Mumtaz Ali Shah. Sardar Nadir Akmal Khan Leghari. SIDA Mr. Mahd Issa Mahad. Mohd Ramzan. GM (Research and Development). Operation. DCO Badin May 2005 47 . WAPDA Mr. Taulka Nazim Badin Mr. Sindh Mr.

Director Coastal Programme of IUCN Sindh Mr. NGO Badin Mr. Member District Council Badin Ms. Samina Kidwai. Mr. Mr. SIDA Mr. Major Abadgar Mr. Retd. Assistant Director Operation. Talpur. National Institute of Oceanography May 2005 48 .Mr. Abadgar Board Badin Ms. Medam Najma Junejo. Vice President. Marine Biologist. Tahir Qureshi. World Bank Islamabad Office. World Bank Office Islamabad. Zaffar Ali Shah. Tufail Ahmed Abro. Umer Farooq. Usman Qamar. Tekola Dejene.

Pre-design study for tidal link and outfall. 2003 IUCN. Comments on Executive Summary Report and Main Report of the Drainage Master Plan. Badin. a presentation at the Pakistan Development Forum. Milliman. Sindh. Stage 1 project. Sukkur Zone. Le Pakistan. 1989 District Badin. Karachi. w/d Jaffrelot. The Dilemma in the Humid Tropics: Conflicts in Drainage Needs for Food Production and the Environment. 2000 May 2005 49 . Terms of Reference for the Formulation of a Drainage Development and Water Management Plan for Kotri Left Bank Drainage Basin ActionAid. Disastrous effects of the Left Bank Outfall Drainage. Marine Geology and Oceanography of Arabian Sea and Coastal Pakistan. presentation. Drainage Master Plan. Islamabad. Islamabad. Sindh Programme Office. December 2004 ICID. Islamabad. Project Completion Report on the LBOD Project (Stage I).A Case Study. w/d Irrigation and Power Department. Irrigation and Power Department. 2000 Delft Hydraulics under assignment by LBOD Consultants. Project Report. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. A. Karachi. 2004 Irrigation and Power Department. M.D.Annex 2. Opinion on the Performance of the Surface Drainage System in Sindh under Extreme Rainfall in July 2003 Asian Development Bank. Tharparkar & Hyderabad Districts. Flood Drainage Project for Sanghar. 2004 Asian Development Bank. H. 2003 Imtiaz. Paris. Fayard.. Contingency Plan to Combat Cyclones and Flood/Rain 2004-2005. Global Climatic Change and Pakistan’s Water Resources. 1984 Hussein. 2004 IUCN Pakistan. Inception Report Scoping Exercise and DiagnosticStudy on Livelihood Improvemients in the Districts of Thatta and Badin in Sindh. Islamabad. Left Bank Outfall Drain. Challenges in the Water Sector. REFERENCES …. National Drainage Program A Curse for Coastal Communities.. Sindh. J. New York.L. Presentation on LBOD. 5. Environmental Degradation and Impacts on Livelihoods – Sea Intrusion. Christophe. 2003 ActionAid.. 2004 Government of West Pakistan. 2004 Arcadis BMB. 1964 Haq. Status Paper on Agriculture in Sindh. 2004 …. B.. Final Report.

A. Population and Water Resources. Islamabad. Improving Water Resources Management in Pakistan. Spinal Drain and Surface Drainage Network. Agriculture and Livestock. Evaluation of Impacts on the Lower Indus River Basin due to Upstream Water Storage and Diversion. M. w/d Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority.. S. Annual Physical Monitoring Report. KPOD. Left Bank Outfall Drain. Crops Area Production 2000-01 to 2002-03. Drainage. Stage-I Project. w/d Kahlown. 2004 Ministry of Food. Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources. Pakistan Water Sector Strategy. Islamabad. Bed Level Survey of LBOD Tidal Link. Water Resources in Pakistan: Challenges and Future Strategies. et al. Letter to the World Bank Country Director. LBOD Stage 1 Project. Performance of Drainage Systems on the Left Bank of the River Indus during the 1994 Monsoon. 2002 Ministry of Water and Power. January 2004 Primer Minister Secretariat (Public). 1995 Memon. Annexes 9. a presentation at the Pakistan Development Forum. 10 and 11. DPOD and Shah Samando Creek at Outfall of Tidal Link by Eco/Sounding. Islamabad. w/d MacDonald and Partners and Hunting Technical Services (MMP/HTS). 2004 National Institute of Oceanography. LBOD Stage 1 Project. Islamabad. Water Sector Development. Karachi. A. Aifaz.Junejo. 2004 Nizamani. Review of the Morphology of the Tidal Link.. Reparation of Communities Affected by LBOD Project and Suspension of National Drainage Pro gram. 1993 MacDonald and Partners in association with National Engineering Services Pakistan and Associated Consulting Engineers ACE (MMP/NESPAK/ACE). LBOD Stage 1 Project Preparation. A. A. Final Report. Salt Lake City. 2002 National Institute of Oceanography. Mid Term Review. 2004 Ministry of Water and Power. Minutes of President’s Meeting Held at Sindh Governor’s House Karachi on 20th August 2004 Save Coast Action Committee. 1984 MacDonald and Partners in association with National Engineering Services Pakistan and Associated Consulting Engineers ACE (MMP/NESPAK/ACE). Supporting Reports (Volume 2) 6. March 2004 May 2005 50 . 1994 MacDonald and Partners in association with National Engineering Services Pakistan and Associated Consulting Engineers ACE (MMP/NESPAK/ACE). et al.

Government of Pakistan. 2003 SIDA.SCARPS Monitoring (South) WAPDA. Islamabad. Sindh. IRC. NDP Project Final Completion Implementation Review Mission-Aide Memoire. 1998 District Census Report of Badin. IRC. Pakistan. 2003 UNDP/Rural Development Policy Institute. Karachi. Physical Monitoring Left Bank Out Fall Drain Stage I Project Under National Drainage Programme. Business Plan SIDA 2003-2004. 2003 SIDA. IRC. 2004 SIDA. Country Assistance Strategy for the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Karachi. Washington. 1999 UNDP. Islamabad. IRC. Karachi. Islamabad. Jamshoro. 3 Vols. National Human Development Report 2003. Area Water Board Brochure. Hyderabad. but Failure!. Karachi. Final Report (Mar 1999 to June 2004). Multistakeholder Workshop on Disaster Preparedness and Management. Patterns of Land Tenure and the Distribution of Land Ownership in the LBOD Project area: Implications for the Distribution of Project Benefits. Islamabad (Undated) Water and Power Development Authority. w/d Sindh Development Studies Centre.. 2005 World Bank. Report and Recommendation on Request for Inspection. Diagnostic Study Water Management Left Bank Canal Area Water Board. Performance of Left Bank Outfall Drain During Monsoon 2003. 2003 SIDA. a presentation at the Pakistan Development Forum. Diagnostic Study and Proposal for Livelihoods Improvements: Badin and Tata Districts. 2002 World Bank. 2005 World Bank Inspection Panel. Physical Monitoring of LBOD Stage I Project under National Drainage Programme. Farmers’ Organization Brochure. Islamabad. Badin. Pakistan. 2003 Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA). LBOD…a Mega Project. 2005 (draft) May 2005 51 . Review of functioning of LBOD Stage-I System. 2003 SIDA. IRC. 2004 SIDA. 2002 SIDA. District Badin. Washington. 2003 SIDA. Performance of the Surface Drainage System in Sindh under Extreme Rainfall in July 2003. Pakistan National Drainage Program Project. Country Director Pakistan. Chief Engineer & Project Director. Karachi. Business Plan SIDA 2002-2003. 2004 Sindh Abadgar Board. 2004 World Bank. 1991 Statistics Division. Islamabad. Karachi. Water Sector Improvement Programme in Sindh. IRC. Islamabad.

Diagnostic Survey and Preparation of Investment Component . Project Appraisal Document. Sindh Water Sector Improvement Project (WSIP). Washington.World Bank. 2005 World Bank/CBNRM Initiative. Toward and Integrated Approach. w/d World Bank. Reforming Governance Systems for Drainage in Pakistan. Pakistan Drainage Master Plan. Community-Based Institutions for Local Management of Water Resources: Results from Initial Efforts in Pakistan. Review Report. Washington. Draft Final Report. Implementation completion report World Bank. Reclaiming Drainage. 2004 World Bank. 2004 World Bank. Washington. Panel Consultation. NDP World Bank. Drainage for Gain. Delft. 1998 World Bank/Netherlands Water Partnership Program. Panel of International and National Experts. 2004 May 2005 52 .

Ashfaq Memon. Tel: 021/9211957 1500 May 2005 Meeting with Brig. Tel: 9202335 1430 Meeting with Mr. Ministry of Water and Power and concerned WAPDA officials (Mr.Annex 3. Islamabad. PROGRAM FOR WORLD BANK MISSION STUDIES IN THE COASTAL AREAS OF SINDH (March 7. Stay at Marriott Hotel. Riaz Ahmed. NDP Coordination Cell and SIDA 53 . Usman Qamar. Venue: Ministry of Water & Power. Islamabad Review of mission program and documents send to the Mission by MCE Monday 7 March. Karachi. Block ‘A’. Initial discussion of the LBOD and the Tidal Link Outfall issues. 2005) Sunday 6 March. Minister and Mr. Ghulam Mustafa Talpur. Meeting with Mr. Special Secretary. Tekola Dejene. NGO (Actionaid) Venue: World Bank Office Wednesday March 9. Internal Meetings and discussions. 2005 – March 20. Abdul Haque. Qazi Azmat Isa. 2005 Mission meets at World Bank Office in Islamabad. Secretary of Irrigation and Power Department Venue: Tughlaq House. Pak Secretariat. Raghib Shah and other concerned with LBOD). 2005 Mission assembles at Serena Hotel. 2005 AM 1330 Mission departs for Karachi. 2005 1030 Meeting with Mr. Tuesday 8 March. Sardar Nadir Akmal Khan Leghari.

Ijaz Ahmed. . DCO. Sindh Bureau of Statistics Building. Niaz Rizvi 12:00 Meeting with Additional Secretary IPD Khalid Memmon.Tuesday March 15. Chairman Area Water Board.Venue: National Drainage Program. Room 606.M. Karachi. Union Council Members of the Lower Badin Area. Saturday March 12 . farmers. district Nazim of Badin. Karachi. Tel: 021/9251172-8 Dr. DPOD. Block-VI. Karachi. Seerani Drain. 2005 0930 Meeting with Dr. Abdul Latif Rao. Block-1. Niaz Rizvi Principal Scientific Officer. Director General. Tel: 9205864-65 Thursday March 10. Main Nursery. PECHS. 14:00 Meeting with Mr. Karo Gungro Outfall Drain and Point Zero. NGOs. National Institute of Oceanography. KPOD. Visit to Thatta District Kinjher Lake. Clifton. fishermen and other stakeholders (MD SIDA is requested to kindly arrange) Field visits to the LBOD. Tel: 5861540-3 and Ms Catherine Mackenzie. Friday March 11. Shahra-e-Faisal. Rabbani. Tidal Link. LB AWB. (WAPDA South and SIDA. 2005 10:00 Meeting with NOI. M. Tel: 4544791 & 2 May 2005 54 . Planning & Development Department. SMO. Fortune Center. Khaliquzzaman Road. Block 8. dhands (Ramsar sites) areas. Karachi. and IPD to kindly arrange) Mission returns to Karachi Wednesday March 16 -. Cholri Weir. ST-47. 6th Floor. 1Bath Island. Deputy Director General. Jamshakro Drain and outfall structure. Ch. 1300 Meeting with Dr. Clifton. 2005 AM Mission travels to Hyderabad (transport requested to be arranged by SIDA/IPD and WAPDA) Accommodation: WAPDA Rest house in Hyderabad (GM Water South is requested to kindly book five rooms at the Rest house). Dr. WWF. 2005 Meetings with GM Water South WAPDA. Meeting in Badin with Distric Nazim. IUCN Country Representative. MD SIDA. Ex Eng Left Bank CCA.

May 2005 55 .Thursday March 17. IMTA Initiate the study on Satellite interpretation of the area and hydraulic modeling of the identify alternatives. Additional Chief Secretary (Development). Sardar Nadir Akmal Khan Leghari. DG EPA. GM (Water) South WAPDA. Tel: 021/9211957 Saturday March 19. Friday March 18. Secretary IPD. MD SIDA.2005 Mission prepares its report. and other concerned officials: Mission presents its findings Venue: Tughlaq House. 2005 10:00 Mission works in finalizing its report and pending activities.May 15. 2005 12:00 Joint meeting with Mr. Sunday March 20. Karachi. 2005: Mission departs Pakistan Monday March 21. Minister for Irrigation and Power Department.

Concepts in Tidal Link Design Review of Channel -Design Concept. with a limited hydraulic capacity to prevent a strong tidal intrusion and to reduce the construction costs. Therefore in the design it is considered of primary importance to prevent long-term scouring (and the dander of propagating tidal intrusion). This is affected by a relatively wide channel design with slightly shoaling characteristics. This area has an enormous potential storage volume and has to remain free of tide induced water level variations. A stable channel is alluvial material is on in which scour of banks. In general it is to be preferred to maintain a constant longitudinal channel slope since the sediment transport in stable channels is relatively sensitive to bed slope variations. The main threat for the feasibility of the tidal link is formed by the presence of the northern dhands area. The available water depth should be sufficient to prevent supercritical flow during any flow conditions or tidal phase. Design Approach The proposed channel design is based mainly on the three following criteria: - The tidal link must be designed as narrow as possible. The degree of meandering is related to the ratio of natural May 2005 56 . and changes in alignment do not occur. This concept assures a long-term stable drainage system without the necessity of artificial bottom or bank protection. Initial erosion will enhance tidal motion in the drainage system which results again in increasing tidal velocities. Outfall Location. Longitudinal Section An important criterion for the longitudinal channel slope is the minimum available water depth of the channel entrance in the outfall area near RD-152. - The channel must possess a long-term shoaling tendency to prevent progressive tidal intrusion over a period from years to decades. The proposed outfall location is the Shah Samando Creek near the junction of Jati outfall drain (see also Figure 3). The erosive velocities should be limited to prevent the entrance from extensive widening by erosion. - The tidal link must have sufficient drainage capacity to prevent backing up and raising of upstream water levels. The choice is based on the shortest connection with the KPOD in combination with a relatively large tidal creek having sufficient hydraulic capacity such that the additional tidal volume created by the connection of the tidal link increases the tidal volume of the existing creek only by an order of percents.ANNEX 4.

The cross-section from the upstream part of the tidal link (the remodeled KPOD) has a design width/depth ratio of approximately 20.4 ft –SPD) at RD152. The cores of the dike are nearly impervious. To reduce the perimeter of the slip circle it is usual to design a relatively gentle bank slope of 1:3. Furthermore it is essential in the design to link up with the geometrical characteristics of the existing channels up and downstream of the tidal link. a base-width sufficient for protection against destructive foundation seepage and a cross-section sufficiently massive for safety against the massive movement of soil against a slip surface. Regarding the foregoing the choice is made for a continuation of the remodeled KPOD channel slope of 7. Southern Embankment. the design width/depth ratio along the tidal link will gradually change from 20 to 11 in downstream direction. originating from the tidal link dredge spoil. the chance of meandering by scouring banks is negligible and sedimentation processes will prevail.10-5 . In non-monsoon season this top.3 m. Generally the width/depth ratio of a channel is related to the type of bottom material. Along the south side of the tidal link alignment a dike is included in the design with sufficient height to isolate the Kotri drainage system and the northern dhands from high storm flood levels from the Rann of Kutch.18. bank failure occurs as a slip circle prompted by toe erosion. The cross-section of the smaller tidal creeks have a bed width/depth of 10-15 and have remained stable for many years. Channel Cross-section.ground level slope to channel bed slope. In general the essential conditions governing dike construction are: A height adequate to prevent overtopping. a constant bed width of 28m (92ft) and side slopes 1:3. forming cracks in horizontal May 2005 57 .18.SPD (17.layer will dray out. Attention has to be paid to failure of the dike slope caused by weathering of the top layer. If this ratio is less than I. This relatively steep slope is advantageous with respect to tidal damping and necessary to minimize the possibility of meandering. For cohesive banks and berms formed by the deposition of fine material. With a bed slope of 7.10-5 resulting in a bed level of 5. a relatively low width/depth ratio is required. The seepage is minimized by the properties of the basic material of the dike. Since the soil samples of the creek area and the tidal link alignment show a high percentage of silt and clay (70-80%). From the field survey in the tidal creek area it is found that local bank erosion/instability can form a potential threat for the cross-sectional stability.

50m ( 4.35m ( 1. as discuss in paragraph 6.20m ( 0. For a ground level of 0.9 ft) Expected sea level rise 0.and vertical direction. To protect the toe of the embankment against propagating bank erosion. This zone is obviously not impervious.00 SPD. it is recommended to extend the reservation width from the toe of the embankment until the beginning of the channel slope to a distance of about 10 times the dike height above local ground level.3 – 6. For additional protection against the forementioned soil mechanical failures of the north slope of the embankment.2 ft) Consolidation soil beneath dike 0.7 ft) 5. allowing seepage.7 ft +SPD) In the next figure three typical cross-sectional profiles are shown. The cracks form a network in the dike.65m + SPD (+8.3 also requires extra berm width.2 ft) Weathering of top layer of dike 1. an overall berm width of 100 m (328 ft) is expected to be sufficient. May 2005 58 .40m +SPD (17.6 ft). The penetration depth of the depth is 1-2 m (3. The possibility of local channel bank failure.70m ( 2.7 ft) Consolidation dike 0. Due to the seepage local sliding of the slope surface can occur. To minimize chances of local sliding a slope of 1:3 is required. the embankment will be: Design water level of Rann of Kutch 2. This criterion results in a maximum reservation width of 50 m (160 ft) from the lower parts along the tidal link alignment.

Nidal Link Channel—Typical Cross-Sections May 2005 59 .Figure 10.