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V

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20-21 2008

YEARBOOK
OF
THE INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY COLLEGE
Volume V
4 th INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE
EDUCATION AND HUMAN RESOURCES.
E CONOMICS. TOURISM.
2009

YEARBOOK
OF
THE INTERNATIONAL
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE

Volume V

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2008

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This book contains scientific reports,


notes and articles from the Fourth
International
Conference
for
Education and Development of
Human
Resources.
Economics.
Tourism. It includes the scientific
production of the faculty of the
College for 2008 and from the
periodic scientific seminars organized
in it.

EDITORIAL BOARD

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Assoc. Prof. Todor Radev, Ph. D.


Assoc. Prof. Emil Penchev, Ph. D.
Dimitrina Kamenova, Ph. D.


9300 , . , 3
www.vumk.eu

ADDRESS FOR
CORRESPONDENCE
3 Bulgaria Str.
9300 Dobrich, Bulgaria
www.vumk.eu

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Cover design:
Dimitrina Kamenova, Ph. D.
Editor and Proof-reader (Bulgarian)
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9300 , .3
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Publisher: INTERNATIONAL
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ISSN 1312-6539

Vesselin Blagoev and Michael Minkov The new tasks and


challenges of the higner business education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Stanislav Ivanov, Ph. D., International University College


Ego Tourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Rossitza Ohridska-Olson, M.S., Master of Science,


Affiliation: Vizantia Enterprises Inc., USA - Expanding the
geographies of cultural tourism through internet social
networking and the possible economic impact for the
Bulgarian cultural heritage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Nevena Rogashka, Plamena Ivanova, Hospitality


Management, International University College,Dobrich,
Bulgaria - Wine Tourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Georgi Kalchev, PhD, International University College Corporate governance and shareholder litigation . . . . . . . . .

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Dr. Elena Cavagnaro, Stenden University, The Netherlands Gender related issues in service industry entrepreneurship:
The case of Albania . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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THE NEW TASKS AND CHALLENGES OF THE HIGHER BUSINESS
EDUCATION
Vesselin Blagoev1 and Michael Minkov2
As of 2007 Bulgaria is a full member of the EU. Since then our higher
education system should have changed its focus at producing graduates who are
competitive on the common European labor market, although a vast majority of
them will probably continue to find jobs in Bulgaria. In particular, our business
schools should train students who will not have a problem finding a job in
Europe, or will even be preferred when they apply for jobs. This inevitably
brings up the question of higher education quality, also in terms of the fit to the
market needs and conditions, as a major factor for the success of our graduates,
not only in Bulgaria, but also on the common European labor market. The EU
market is very diverse and each of its geographic segments is specific both in
terms of legal and cultural environment which affect the must and wish-to
conditions for finding a job and sustainable professional development.
This paper looks at some essential elements of higher education quality through
the prism of business education, in particular in the Hospitality sectors. We
present the issues in this paper as hypotheses which are analyzed, confirmed, or
rejected. We would like to point out right away that the issues and the solutions
in this paper involve some controversies. If they did not, all educational systems
in the European Union would be identical.
The quality of higher education
Lets first consider the quality of higher education from a general point of view.
There are different views concerning the meaning of the term higher education
quality. Controversial as the issue might be, we can group these views in three
main categories.
The first view is close to the classic concept of the role of higher education,
something like Cardinal Newman's point3 that the true and adequate end of
intellectual training and of University is not Learning or Acquirement, but rather
a Thought or Reason exercised upon Knowledge, or what may be called
Philosophy. The followers of this classical concept tend to view higher
education as an activity which can remain largely the same amidst the rapidly
changing environment. Their main thesis is "Knowledge becomes obsolete but
philosophy remains and helps us analyze and forecast the new reality."

Dr. Vesselin Blagoev is Director of the University of Portsmouth Program at International


University College (IUC) and President of the Bulgarian Marketing Association. Author of
nine textbooks on marketing and management.
2
Michael Minkov is Principal Lecturer at IUC and author of three books on Cross Cultural
Analysis and Cultural Anthropology
3
Newman, Cardinal John Henry (1856), On the Scope & Nature of University Education, in
Relevance and quality of higher education, in http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php, p.1
1

Therefore, the main thing is to learn how to think. A university is at the same
time an intellectual oasis (we think) and an elitist symbol (others need not think
so much). Back in the 70s, a colleague from the Institute of Mechanics at the
Bulgarian Academy of Science summarized this view in a brilliant metaphor. He
defined the Bulgarian Academy of Science as "the genetic code of the nation". "It
is not the outcome of our effort that matters", he would say. "What matters is the
process. Sooner or later it will translate into a scientific product."
The second view reflects a modern concept of the contents and goals of higher
education. As Andrey Zahariev4 puts it, "The quality criteria are based on
academic and market requirements. Quality standards should be based on three
pillars: (a) input, (b) training, and (c) output (the skills and knowledge that the
graduates have acquired)". Similar statements can be found in a number of
Bulgarian and international publications5.
Actually, these three criteria do not contradict the logic of the first view which
recognizes the importance of the input6, training, and output. For example, the
output are people who can reason. The problem is that we often use similar
verbal constructs which mean entirely different things. Conversely, we describe
identical positions in different terminology. This may be an entertaining
intellectual challenge but I fail to see how it helps us solve the task that we are
faced with. This applies to small and independent business schools like IUC, as
well as to schools which are an integral part of a larger structure, like the
business schools of Sofia State University, the Technical University of Sofia or
the New Bulgarian University.
The third view can be defined as a marketing or market approach. We would
define the higher education as a specific economic activity which provides
society with a product (graduates) whose market value is measurable. Society
at large and individual companies and institutions are ready to pay a price for that
value in the form of salaries, investment in new jobs, etc.
This may sound arrogant if one conceives of academia and a university as an
environment which is free of commercial interests and is inherently capable of
functioning well. Even if a university does not produce competent graduates or if
it churns out degree-holders for whom there are no available jobs, it should never

Zahariev, Andrey (2005), Evropeisko izmerenie na vissheto obrazovanie v Bulgaria,


Commission for the Assurance of Quality in Academic Standards (KOKAS) at the D. A.
Tsenov Economic Academy, Svishtov in http://www.unisvishtov.bg/dialog/Discussion/A.Zahariev.htm, c.2
5
See for example, Kontseptsia za sistemata i cachestvoto v NBU in
http://www2.nbu.bg/index.asp?p=about_nbu?Acreditation/conception.htm, c.1; The Quality of
Australian Higher Education: An Overview (2000) in
http://www.dest.gov.au/archive/highered/pubs/quality/overview.htm
6
Many concepts here can cause problems. For example, D. Nenov's main (standard) indicator
is the total number of faculty at the university who have obtained a Nobel prize. For details,
see Nenov, Dimitar (2005), Obrazovanieto - kade e zaroveno kucheto.
http://oshte.info/004/000105/02/0902/02.htm c.2 Here the concept is used in the sense of
Articles 77 and 78 (3) of the Law on Higher Education, State Gazette, 2004
4

be blamed for that. By definition, no one can govern the academic community
better than the academics, therefore things are all right the way they are.
Of course, not all authors agree with such a viewpoint. There are even extreme
views. For example, I. Panchev7 defends the thesis of "educational oligarchy"
which participates in the activities of the state institutions and pursues a policy of
personal and corporative rent-seeking. True, a number of universities in Bulgaria
cannot deal with elementary forms of academic corruption. For example,
students sometimes must buy a lecturer's textbook or handbook, often written
decades ago, because that is The-Only-academic-Source of value for the
particular course and the lecturer declares that the exam will be based on this
book only. Such cases, if they are true, create doubts as to the ability of the
university to work for the interests of students and society at large, because they
clash with the interests of the faculty.
There are exceptions. Some academic domains are relatively shielded from the
dizzying changes that occur in our environment. For example, in philology,
history, and archeology, there are certainly new research methods, but the main
differences in the textbooks are probably in the styles of the different authors;
therefore even if a student is asked to read only one source, that may not have a
tremendous impact on the volume and quality of the knowledge that he will take
to the labor market after graduation. Still, it is hard to believe that even in a slowchanging discipline a student who reads one-book-only per unit and who relies
on only one source can gain enough knowledge and wisdom, no matter how great
that source may be.
Of course, this example, painful as it might be, is absolutely not the main
problem in the assessment of higher education. The question is how to provide
quality for which society is ready to pay us as we play the intellectual game
which is our bread-winner. In other words, will society continue to pay mostly
for the process or ask to see results as well? Will we be able to go on like this,
relying on society's benevolent concept of what academia stands for while
refusing to accept any form of external control?
We must emphasize that none of those three main concepts which have been
presented rules out the possibility that the other two are also right and applicable.
Arguably, the second approach (control of the input, the process, and the output)
makes for better planning and quality assurance. The third one (the marketing
approach) focuses on the result of the activity on which society spends taxpayers
money, whereas students use their personal or family budgets. The result is
viewed as the main quality criterion. This does not mean that there is no need to
control the tools for the achievement of a successful outcome - the input and the
process. Neither of these two approaches contradicts the idea that thinking and
reasoning are useful for the acquisition of knowledge. In other words, the three
concepts combine similar elements but they are not prioritized in the same way

Panchev, Ivan (2005), Obrazovatelnata oligarhia v Bulgaria. Telegraf, 5 July in


http://www.mediatimesreview.com/july05/EducationalOligarchy.php

because different academic authors or heads of academic institutions have


different personal preferences.
As far as business education is concerned, we prefer the third concept, the
marketing one. Lets provide some arguments. We will now examine a couple of
hypotheses.
Hypothesis 1.
Business needs people with a broad knowledge of fundamental disciplines.
Because they know how to think, they will be able to solve any business
problem, despite changes in the environment.
If this hypothesis were true, a curriculum which includes more fundamental
disciplines would create higher demand for such graduates on the labor market.
Most job ads would be for experts in political science and philosophy.
Universities would accept a lot of students for those majors and the best
applicants would compete for them. University curricula would contain a lot of
fundamental subjects, totaling 60-90 hours a semester or more.
If this hypothesis is not true, business schools including those of the large
universities would include in their brochures majors (degrees) mostly in the
modern programs, such as Business Administration, Management, Marketing,
Hospitality Management, Trade, PR, IT for Business, and suchlike, which can
hardly be classified as fundamentals. These modern programs would attract most
of the applicants. Job ads would target mostly people with that kind of label
(knowledge and skills).
The answer to this question is very easy. Almost all business schools, including
many of those of the large universities, accept students primarily or only for the
modern majors8. The labor market has answered the question of what companies
need in no uncertain terms. Business does not need experts in fundamentals. It
needs people who have the appropriate knowledge and skills for a specific
business environment, today and tomorrow. Because of the dynamism of the
current markets in the European Union and beyond, the newly appointed experts
should be able to deliver results right after their appointment with a short term
training organized by the company or even without any other training. Many of
us may not fancy that, but that is how the labor market today looks, and that is
not going to change soon.
We must reiterate that this does not rule out the teaching of fundamentals. Some
large companies frequently advertise for experts who have detailed knowledge of
some fundamental disciplines because they need them for research purposes. But
these jobs account for 2-3 percent of the labor market. Therefore, in most
business schools the teaching of fundamental subjects is not detached from
reality and those subjects represent only a fraction of the whole curriculum.

See for example 8262 slots in 9 universities. 24 chasa, 21 may and 23 May, 2005
10

Thus, Hypothesis 1 does not seem to be confirmed by the analysis of the policies
and market behavior of the business schools in this country. Quite on the
contrary, most business schools accept students for majors which reflect (at least
nominally) market trends.
This hypothesis would also be proved wrong if we analyzed the practice of other
European countries and the United States. The universal solution that the AngloSaxon countries have adopted is the credit system. In the American version,
which represents its purest form, students have the right to choose from different
electives (mathematics, finance, languages, etc.) which provide a number of
credits for the academic year or for the duration of the study. In that way, a
student can gain profound knowledge in a preferred science, for example
mathematics, without focusing too much on another area, for example
accounting. Whether a student will choose to focus on fundamental disciplines is
up to him, but if he is pursuing a business degree, he must acquire knowledge
and skills that give him a chance in a job competition which requires specific
competence. The European countries, including the United Kingdom, use more
restricted credit systems which involve a combination of electives and required
courses, just like in Bulgaria. I believe that the implementation of the credit
system, combined with the students' fundamental right to mobility within the
European Union and outside of it, will gradually result in the adoption of the
American model which gives more options to the student to choose from.
Hypothesis 2
In order to prepare (produce) graduates who are in high demand on the labor
market, a business school must make sure that at least 50 percent of all
lectures cover management issues in cross cultural environment, as well as
team work and leadership related topics.
This hypothesis rests on the assumption that the demand for specialists with
higher education has changed because of two major factors: (a) the need to
export, which leads to the necessity to satisfy customers needs, wants and
expectations in different cultural environments; and (b) the percent of owners
and managers of companies who are foreigners or received their education
abroad has increased above the critical norm, and this influences significantly the
requirements to the performance of the personnel.
If this hypothesis holds true, the extensive coverage of management knowledge
and skills in multicultural environment do a better job in the pursuit of the main
goal of students and higher education as a whole: success on the labor market. It
is assumed that the students who got knowledge and skills in the areas specified
in the Hypothesis 2 know better the business environment and its problems in the
global context and can naturally analyze those issues, propose relevant solutions
and react more appropriate better than any other professional/ job seeker.
It is a well-known fact that Bulgaria is absolutely dependent on the foreign trade.
The need to produce for foreign customers with different cultures and to sell
abroad leads automatically to the need to obtain the necessary knowledge and
11

skills in the higher education. The companies have other focus than to provide
basic education. They have to compete in the international scene and the lack of
competitive human resource makes it difficult if not impossible, thus leading to
hiring only or mostly candidates with appropriate education.
We must once again reiterate that we are talking only about business education
where the market is changing extremely fast. What we are teaching today will
not be relevant in less than five years. The fact that higher education cycle in
Bulgaria is four or more years means that we must prepare graduates who should
be competitive five to seven years down the road. They should be able to win a
job competition at a top-notch company immediately after the graduation but the
problem is that they must remain competitive after 7-10 years. That means that
we need to change almost every two-three years our curricula with relevant
dynamic disciplines some of which might have not even existed until recently.
As a counterpoint to the above suggestions we must always remember that the
education market is not homogeneous. There will always be market segments
where the higher education degree, and the opportunity to pass exam with as
little effort as possible, will be the only consideration. But for the business
schools which are positioned at the higher end, and train graduates for top-notch
companies, it is essential to adopt in their curricula more units that are relevant to
the real business problems and challenges and offer as much state of the art
classes as possible.
In addition, we feel that instead of generating tension between ourselves
(academia) and society, which is expected to subsidize higher education to a
significant extent, for not responding to the companies/market expectations we the business schools should change our curricula to bridge between our students
and the business. We would also have to do more consultation work and business
research which will give us the chance to keep abreast the real market
development which in the end of the day reshapes the labor market. At IUC, we
try to achieve such results partly by using guest lecturers from the business. We
just follow the good practices of the leading business schools, such as Wharton,
Harvard, Kellogg, etc. All agree that those mentioned business schools and
universities provide excellent quality and all companies prefer their graduates to
ours. So we follow their example by boosting quality through using guestlecturers among other things.
Hypothesis 3.
Universities must provide high-quality education. The quality is to be
guaranteed by means of an internal control system9 which is enough for that
purpose.
As a general position, this is correct. We all agree with the law10 which gives the
universities autonomy. This means that they should control the quality of the

Article 77 (2); 1 of Law on Higher Education, State Gazette, 2004


12

education that they provide (education is an academic activity). Of course, there


is also external quality control. It is exercised by the labor market. The question
is what happens if the university likes its quality but the labor market does not?
Should it set up an independent external mechanism in order to have its quality
controlled? Or is quality assurance the exclusive prerogative of the university
itself?
The answer depends on whether society invests in higher education or not. If a
school receives subsidies from the state budget, the answer is yes. External
control is necessary, so that society does not invest in activities which do not
serve its interests. If a school is not subsidized and has a high rating, that is not
necessary. If such a school stops delivering quality, it will disappear because
companies will not hire its graduates.
Is there a way to organize independent external control which serves both the
interests of the school and those of society? Yes, there is. For example, such a
system has been thoroughly developed and implemented by the QAA (The
Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education) in the British educational
system. According to Article 13 of the QAA's statute "All institutions will use
external examiners to help them monitor the academic standards of their awards,
except those granted an honorary basis. External examiners act as independent
and impartial advisers..."11
A similar system, using representatives of professional associations and
organizations, is used in Australia12. Under this system, every university
outsources academics or other experts for a period of two to three years. Their
job is personally to make sure that the procedures and criteria for quality control
are rigorously applied in a particular field of interrelated disciplines. Every
British university outsources tens or even more faculty members from other
universities who serve as external academic auditors. This is a mandatory
practice and it is implemented also by the University of Portsmouth. Each year,
that university sends a Board of Examiners and a Board of Studies to
International University College which always include two external auditors
from two other British universities who control the way that the University of
Portsmouth controls us. They write reports and submit them in the Quality
Assurance Department of the university which has hired them and send a copy to
the QAA.
Let us give an example concerning the scope of control. Every coursework and
exam paper at International University is marked in Sofia and in Portsmouth. If
the Bulgarian and the British assessor do not reach agreement, the paper is sent

For details see Chapter 4, Academic autonomy, Articles 19-22 of the Law on Higher
Education, State Gazette, 2004
11
The Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education (2004) Code of practice for the
assurance of academic quality and standards in higher education, Section 4: External
examining August 2004
12
The quality assurance framework, External validation, in The Quality of Australian Higher
Education: An Overview, http://www.dest.gov.au/archive/highered/pubs/quality/overview.htm
10

13

to an external arbiter for moderation. The procedure may seem clumsy but it is in
the interest of the student, the school, and society. This leads to a standardization
of criteria at all schools. The mark received at International University College is
worth as much as it is at Portsmouth or Cambridge.
We would say that a university should indeed be responsible for the development
and implementation of a quality assurance system. However, in view of the
situation on the labor market in this country and the European Union, we do not
think that we have enough evidence in Bulgaria for attainment of high quality if
we avoid the external control. I think that we would benefit from the adoption of
the British system of external audits.
Conclusion
Bulgaria's accession to the European Union as well as the globalization brought
up the acute question of quality assurance in higher education. This paper looks
at three important problems faced by the business schools in light with the real
business and labour market developments.
The analysis is based on the experience of foreign educational systems and
current practices in Bulgaria. It demonstrates that none of the hypotheses can be
accepted as uncontroversial. Moreover, it appears that business schools should
consider the possibility that the opposite hypotheses may be true.
First, business schools provide programs which reflect labor market conditions.
We think that it is important to change the curricula every two-three years to
make it relevant to the market developments.
Second, we believe that at least half of all classes should give chances to the
students to gain an insight into the problems and practices of leading companies
in a global context which will make them more competitive on the labor market.
Third, external academic auditors provide a better guarantee of high quality in
higher education than self-assessment only and encapsulation. The Anglo-Saxon
experience with standard quality criteria deserves special attention.

14


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17.www.mobi.KARIERI.bg 10/09/2008.
18. www.mobi.KARIERI.bg 23/09/2008.
19. www.mobi.KARIERI.bg 14/11/2008.
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2. Caulcott, E./1993/. Significance tests. London and Boston .
3. Haiek G., Z. Sidak./1997/. Theory of rank tests. Prage, Acad. of
Sciences.
4. Hald, A./2002/. Statistical Theory with Engineering Application. N.
York,

Wiley.

5. Iahn, W., H. Vahle./1990/. Die factoranalise und ihre Annendung.


Berlin, V. die Wirtschaft .
6. Kendall, M. G./1955/. Rank Correlation Methods. London .

38



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Anchaier, D. Managing non-profit organizations: Towards a new


approach. Civil Society Working Paper 1, January, 2000.

Bratton, J. The Nature of Human Resource Management, South


Western College Publishing, Cincinnati, 1990. Hedry, C. Human
Resource Management a strategic approach to employment.
Butterworth Keinemaann Ltd., Oxford, 1995.

Huber, V. Personnel and Human Resource Management, West


Publishing CO, Minneapolis, 1993.

Milkovich, G. Strategic Human Resource Management. IRWIN,


Illinois, 1998.

Mayo, A. The Human Value of the Enterprise, London: Nicholas


Brealey, 2003.

Palacios, M., Human Capital. Instruments for Higher Education,


Cambridge University Press, 2002.

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, 2001.
32. Song M., Dyer B.and Thieme R.(2006) Conflikt Management and
Innovation Performance: An Integrative Contingency Perspective. Journal of the
Akademy of Marketing Science. Vol.34, 3, p. 341-356.
33. Richey, R. C., Fields, D. C., & Foxon, M. (with Roberts, R.C.,
Spannaus, T. & Spector, J. M.,). Instructional design competencies: The
standards (3rd ed.). Syracuse, NY: ERIC Clearinghouse of Information and
Technology. ED 453 803.
34. http://poi-2007.hit.bg/ . .,
.

96


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98

. 2.
: Monsen, E., T. Saxton, H. Patzelt. Motivation and
Participation in Corporate Entrepreneurship: The Moderating Effects of Risk,
Effort, and Reword. Organizational Science, Vol. 4, 1996, pp. 25-43.
, . , . .
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(. . 2.).

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21

Monsen, E., T.
Saxton, H. Patzelt. Motivation and Participation in Corporate
Entrepreneurship: The Moderating Effects of Risk, Effort, and Reword. Organizational
Science, Vol. 4, 1996, pp. 25-43.
99

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Hornsby J., W. Naffziger, D. Kuratko, R. Momtagno, An Interactive Model of a Corporate
Entrepreneurship Process. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice1 1993: 31.

100


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.;
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.3.
: Hornsby J., W. Naffziger, D. Kuratko, R. Momtagno, An
Interactive Model of a Corporate Entrepreneurship Process. Entrepreneurship
Theory and Practice1 1993: 31 (in Kuratko D., R. Hodgetts. . ., . 78.)
3.
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Hornsby J., W. Naffziger, D. Kuratko, R. Momtagno, An Interactive


Model of a Corporate Entrepreneurship Process. Entrepreneurship Theory and
Practice1 1993: 31 (in Kuratko D., R. Hodgetts. . ., . 78.)
Monsen, E., T. Saxton, H. Patzelt. Motivation and Participation in
Corporate Entrepreneurship: The Moderating Effects of Risk, Effort, and
Reword. Organizational Science, Vol. 4, 1996, pp. 25-43.
Thomberry, N., Corporate Entrepreneurship& Teaching Managers to be
Entrepreneurs. The Journal of Management Development. Bradford, 2003, Vol.
22, Iss. 4, 329, 16 pds, pp. 1-25.
Thuresson, J. Implementation of intrapreneuership inside large, mature
Zambian companies A method. Department of Education and Psychological
Research, Lund University, Box 23501, S-200 45 Malmo, 116, April, 1994.
Westhead, P., M. Flores, D. Ucbasaran., Entrepreneurial Optimism and
Experience:
Does
the
Nature
of
Experience
Matter?
http://avikdgreat.tripod.com/business/entrepreneurship.pdf, . 1-22, 01.10.2007
www. pinchot.com/Main pages/Servicas/ServicesIntro.html
http://entrepreneurs.com/commentary/2006/10/19/singapore-considerintrepreneurship.
http://www.emba.pitt.edu/news/saopaulo/intrepreneuship.htm

102

,
,
,
The skills of influence contemporary perspective into business
communications
Desislava Peneva, teacher of Marketing and Management Private school R.
Conchev
Kiril Kamenov - student of Marketing and Management, International
University College
:
,

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4 .
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Abstract:
In the report we are developing the problem of influence, which is directly
related to the problem of power one sensitive aspect of the Bulgarian national
and business psychology. It is proven that when the education in Business
Communications is included in the model of socio-dynamic training, the students
can differentiate between 4 influential types.
Key words: influence, power, quasi-influential type, aggressive type,
charismatic type and power - delegating type.
1.

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, ., 2002.

2. , ., .
,

, , 2001.
3. , . ,
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4. , . :
, , 1994.

5. , . 21 ,
, ., 2000.
6. , . .
, , , , ,
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7. , . . , 2000.
8. , .
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. , . , .113-118.
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., .152/
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114

12. , . : : . 2,
, , 1995. . 149
13. , . : , .
, ., 2001.
14. Farmer R., B. Richman, Comparative Management and Economic
Progress, Homewood, IL: Irwin Ic., 1965.
15. J. French and B. Raven, The Basis of Social Power, in Studies of
Social Power, ed. D. Cartwright (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press,
16. Hofstede G., Cultures Consequences: International Differences in
Work Related Values, Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1980.
17. Hofstede, G., M. Bond, The Confucius Connection: From Cultural
Roots to Economic Growth, In: Organizational Dynamics, Spring 1988, pp.4-21.
18. Lachman R., A. Nedd, B. Hinings, Analyzing Cross-National
Management and Organizations: A Theoretical Framework, In: Management
Science, v.40, 1994, pp. 40-55.
19. Laurent, A., The Cultural Diversity of Western Conceptions of
Management, In: International Studies of Management and Organizations, Spring
Summer 1983, pp. 75-96.
20. Nedd A., Cultural Bases of Individual Differences in Compliancegaining Strategies, In: Research in Personnel and Human Resource Management,
v.1, 1989.
21. Stiller, R., Influence As Power, 1997.

115





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.
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.
Abstract:
Human resources management is a continuous and focused strategic
approach to selecting the most appropriate staff, their training, motivation,
development and management for the effective implementation of organizational
goals and performance of its social obligations. Realization of the tourist product
is impossible without a human element or more specifically the number and
structure of personnel. Over the last few years Bulgarian tourism organizations
begin to make specific efforts to implement and improve the rules and
mechanisms for human resources management in the hotel sector with a view to
improving the quality, performance and competitiveness of the offered services.
It is necessary a clear concept of objectives and results in the management of
human resources in organizations, and sufficient experience and knowledge to
implement a targeted and effective system for managing human resources.


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www.a-rosa.de
www.transocean.de

122

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:

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Current trends are for higher qualification and skills of all workers during the life (long life learning). University and school education provides an
initial capacity of workers in a field. Developments in technology, changes in
work organization and in its place new requirements for workers in practically all
areas. To meet the need for new skills and capabilities in the company are
developed and implemented various training programs for training, development
of personal skills and qualities and more.
The main benefits of these courses are examining the issues, facilitating
increase capacity and improve the skills and competencies, and application of
knowledge in practice.
Keywords: strategic approach, raising labor productivity, qualified
consultants, designing and organizing training programs, transfer of knowledge.
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Clmence Charras, Le chmage des jeunes dans l`Union europnne,
2007.
Laflamme, Claude, 1996, Inflation des diplmes et insertion
professionnelle des jeunes: situation des diplms dusecondaire professionnel et
du cgep technique sur le march de lemploi, Revue des sciences de
l'ducation, vol. 22, n 1, p. 47-72.
Lazear, Edward P., 1975, Human Wealth and Human Capital (July
1975). NBER Working Paper Series, Vol. w0097.
Spence, A. M., 1973, "Job Market Signaling", Quarterly Journal of
Economics Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 355-374.
, 2008 .
2005-2008,
.2.

139

EGO TOURISM
Stanislav Ivanov, Ph. D.
International University College
Abstract:
The report analyses the concept of ego tourism, as introduced by Wheeller
(1993), and expands the definition of the term to include all types of travel
related to the ego enhancement. The paper proposes how to create and market
successfully ego tourism products.
Key words: ego tourism, needs, travel motives, Maslow, alternative
tourism

:
,
Wheeller (1993),
,
.
.
: , , , ,

Introduction
A business traveller pays 3000 euros per night to stay in an apartment at
Burj Al Arab hotel in Dubai, UAE, ignoring much better prices options for other
luxury hotels in the Emirates or competing destinations; a gentleman takes a
cruise, visits Antarctica and sends postcards to his friends from a post office
located on the icy continent; after her graduation from the university a young
activist joins a foundation fighting poverty in least developed countries and goes
for an 8-month volunteer work in Africa; a group of 40 tourists go on an eco tour
in the mountain, staying in a 3-star hotel in the forest. Technically, these are
different trips and according to current tourism research literature they should be
labelled as different types of special interest tourism: business, adventure,
volunteer and eco tourism, respectively. But isnt there a common ground for all
four examples discussed? Arent the real travel motives covered by the shroud
and the lure of other more socially accepted and popular buzz types of
tourism? Looking at the examples we can think of completely different travel
motives:
9 The business traveller pays 3000 euros for an apartment at Burj Al
Arab in order to impress his trade partners.
9 The gentleman could send the postcards from Ushuaia, for example,
but does this from the Antarctic station, because he wants his friends to talk
about the trip.
140

9 The young activist decides to go to Africa for 8-months and do


volunteer work (thus spending her own money for sustaining herself on spot and
loosing thousands of euros of missed salaries had she worked in her home
country during that time) because of CV building including the volunteer work
in her CV will help her find much better paid job in governmental or, especially,
nongovernmental institutions, therefore offsetting the money spent and salaries
lost during the trip.
9 The forty eco tourists want to distinguished themselves from the
mass tourists by undertaking an eco trip in the mountain, while utilising the
benefits of modern civilisation and mass tourism (3-star hotel, bus travel,
package tour).
The above prosaic travel motives differ from the more sophisticated
motives usually mentioned in tourism research literature and by respondents in
surveys. They show that all four trips discussed have the same ground tourism
related to the ego enhancement.
Ego tourism defined
The ego factor in tourists travel motives has been long recognized. Dann
(1977) identified the ego enhancement as one of the major travel motivators,
which is derived from the need for recognition, obtained through the status
conferred by travel. Therefore, some people will travel to destinations because of
the status they will gain from the trip. MacCannell (2002) states that dominant
way commercially successful destinations have organized touristic experience
has been to model themselves as closely as possible on the ego e.g. the luxury
island destinations, and more recently by the United Arab Emirates. But what in
fact is ego tourism?
The concept of ego tourism was first introduced by Wheeller (1993) as a
reaction to the eco and sustainable tourism research myopia (see also Wheeller,
2007). Wheeller (1993, 1994) denotes as ego-tourists eco tourists that travel
with like-minded companions to previously unspoilt areas where they will not
feel part of the mass tourism or packaged. However, these tourists still use types
of accommodation and means of transport that pollute the environment, which
diverts their trip from the pure theoretical eco and sustainable tourism concepts,
but creates a calm psychological state in ego tourists minds. Therefore, eco
tourism is only a mask hiding other travel and business motives, and a restyling
of the same old tourism model (Munt, 1994), leading Wheeller (2005) to declare
that the eco in eco tourism is the eco in economics, not the eco in ecology (p.
269 italics mine S. I.)
In current theoretical analysis, I go beyond the eco/sustainable tourism
antipode of ego tourism and expand the definition of the latter concept to refer to
tourism directed towards the enhancement of ones ego. People travel, because
they want to be talked about (need of recognition, esteem), because they want to
be associated with a specific group of people (belongingness) or because they
want to prove to themselves that they are capable of doing something or better
than the others (self-actualization). The main motivator is, however, the need of
recognition (see Figure 1).
141

Self
Ego

Estee
Belongingn
Safety
Physiologic

Figure1. Maslowshierarchyofneedsand
Within this definition, ego tourism is associated with eco tourism,
volunteer tourism, adventure tourism, extremely luxurious hotels, unusual
accommodation establishment, exclusive destinations i.e. types of special
interest tourism that are popular and have high status in the society, destinations
and accommodation establishments that are not affordable for the mass public
because of distance, extremely limited capacity or high prices. Tourists to such
places distinguish themselves from the mass and increase their status in their
own eyes and, more importantly, the eyes of their friends, relatives, colleagues.
However, ego tourism does not mean bad tourism. It creates jobs,
incomes, stimulates the development of the economy and host society. Ego
tourism also helps some travellers to become more confident in their own
abilities (e.g. adventure tourism, volunteer tourism).
Creating and marketing ego tourism products
Ego tourism should not be hindered but used by marketers by creating and
marketing successfully tourist products dedicated to ego tourism public:
9 Product directed towards the ego of the potential tourists, i.e.
satisfying the needs of esteem, self-actualisation and belongingness (to a
selected group of travellers). The products should be exclusive and this fact
has to be clearly communicated to the consumer.
9 Price relatively higher compared to competing substitute products. It
should incorporate ego rent, i.e. the price is higher because it reflects the
specialty, the exclusiveness of the products and the group to which the
customer belongs.
9 Place the distribution of ego tourism products involves by default
specialized tour operators, avoiding the mass market. The tour operators/travel
agents use more for more value positioning strategy within niche tourism
market segments.
142

9 Promotion the integrated marketing communications of the tourist


company should emphasize the exclusiveness, high social value/acceptance of
the behaviour and the offered product, the esteem needs of travellers.
Conclusion
The paper showed that there are travel motives hidden behind socially
acceptable labels like adventure/eco/sustainable/volunteer tourism and they relate
to the ego enhancement of travellers. The original concept of ego tourism was
analysed and expanded to include all types of travel that contribute to the ego
enhancement, In this regard, ego tourism cannot be blamed as bad and socially
unacceptable. On the contrary, marketing specialist can and must use the
opportunity to offer products that relate to the ego of the tourists.
References
1. Dann, G. M. S. (1977) Anomie, Ego-Enhancement, and Tourism.
Annals of Tourism Research 4(4), pp. 184-194.
2. MacCannell, D. (2002) The ego factor in tourism. Journal of
Consumer Research, 29(1), pp. 146-151.
3. Munt, I. (1994) Eco-tourism or ego-tourism? Race and Class, 36(1),
pp. 49-59.
4. Wheeller, B. (1993) Sustaining the ego. Journal of Sustainable
Tourism, 1(2), pp. 121-129.
5. Wheeller, B. (1994) Ego tourism, sustainable tourism and the
environment: A symbiotic, symbolic or shambolic relationship? In: Seaton, A.V.
(ed.) (1994) Tourism: The state of the art. Chichester: Wiley, pp. 647654.
6. Wheeller, B. (2005) Ecotourism/egotourism and development. In Hall,
C. M. and S. Boyd (eds.) (2005) Nature-based tourism in peripheral areas.
Channelview publications, pp. 263-272.
7. Wheeller, B. (2007) Sustainable mass tourism: more smudge than
nudge. The canard continues. Tourism Recreation Research, 32(3), pp. 73-75.

143

EXPANDING THE GEOGRAPHIES OF CULTURAL TOURISM


THROUGH INTERNET SOCIAL NETWORKING AND THE POSSIBLE
ECONOMIC IMPACT FOR THE BULGARIAN CULTURAL HERITAGE
Rossitza Ohridska-Olson, M.S., Master of Science, Affiliation: Vizantia
Enterprises Inc., USA, rolson@vizantia.com
Abstract:
The global reach of social networks and Web 2.0 economic models give
enormous possibilities to the stakeholders in the Bulgarian cultural tourism to
expand the geographies of their markets. In this article are analyzed what are the
real possibilities for positive economic impact on the Bulgarian cultural heritage
as main component in the formation of the cultural tourism product.
Keywords:
Cultural tourism, cultural heritage, Bulgaria, Web 2.0, social networking,
geographies of tourism, economy of tourism, economy of culture, tourism
marketing, culture marketing
Introduction and theoretical framework
In the last years, a brand new business model arose from the technological
advances of the Internet the possibility for the users to transform the World
Wide Web from an information source into computing platform [OReily]
[Error! Bookmark not defined.].or Web 2.0.The business model was
established on what was defined as web-based service economy[ISTAG] [2]. One
of the most important elements of Web 2.0 became the virtual social networks or
network-based virtual community.[ Garton at al. ]. They were defined as a set of
people (or organizations or other social entities) connected by a set of social
relationships, such as friendship, co-working or information exchange. .[ Garton
at al. ]
On the other side, cultural tourism is a key driver for economic growth in
Europe (Europa Nostra, 2006, p.20). Cultural heritage sites play significant role
in the product formation of the cultural tourism product. It also should bring
economic benefits to host communities (Du Cross, 2001)
While direct revenue from social networks and other web 2.0. applications
is not yet evident, their role in the buying decision making is already established
in the experience economy.(Pine, Gilmore 1999) through providing a platform
for information exchange and creating new travel product. This is due to the fact
that Web 2.0. and specially online social networks helped tourists to become
value co-creators and product co-producers. (Li, Petrick 2007).
With the advancement in the Internet and communication technologies,
usage of sophisticated tools, such as video, photo, GIS, and mapping, became
available to a vast number of non-professional users worldwide. And while
printed, TV and radio advertising was mostly local or very expensive on a global
scale, Internet information and advertising has the potential to reach more than
1.5 billion of people from the five continents, thus increasing the potential for
information dissemination and leading to brand building for the Bulgarian
144

cultural tourism products. This eventually can lead to the expanding the
geographies of the cultural tourism and increase the economic impact from it to
the Bulgarian cultural heritage.
Increasing the influx of tourists to Bulgaria through cultural tourism,
which has been recognized as an area of significant economic benefit to
museums and heritage sites (Silberberg 1995) can provide additional revenue
and profit to all the Bulgarian cultural heritage stakeholders museums, heritage
sites, live culture events and other intangible cultural heritage.
Definitions:
Cultural tourism
Richards definition
Cultural tourism is defined as 'all movements of persons for essentially
cultural motivations such as study tours, performing arts and cultural tours, travel
to festivals and other cultural events, visits to sites and monuments, travel to
study nature, folklore or art, and pilgrimages because they satisfy the human
need for diversity, tending to raise the cultural level of the individual and giving
rise to new knowledge, experience and encounters. [WTO 1985 and Richards,
Cultural Tourism in Europe, 2000: 23].
Cultural Heritage
''Cultural heritage'' means movable or immovable objects of artistic,
architectural, historical, archaeological, ethnographic, palaeontological and
geological importance and includes information or data relative to cultural
heritage This include archaeological, palaeontological or geological sites and
deposits, landscapes, groups of buildings, as well as scientific collections,
collections of art objects, manuscripts, books, published material, archives,
audio-visual material and reproductions of any of the preceding, or collections of
historical value, as well as intangible cultural assets comprising arts, traditions,
customs and skills employed in the performing arts, in applied arts and in crafts
and other intangible assets which have a historical, artistic or ethnographic value.
[Cultural Heritage Act 2002]
Internet Social Network a social network is a set of people (or
organizations or other social entities) connected by a set of social relationships,
such as friendship, co-working or information exchange. [Garton et al., 2006].
For the purposes of this article, an Internet (or online) Social Network is a social
network, which uses computer networks linked through the Internet to
communicate, interact, exchange information and establish new relationships.
Preliminary assumptions
For the purposes of this study, brand awareness refers to the degree of
name recognition, regardless of product class but based on perceptual frequency
(Oh, 2000).. It is also assumed that brand awareness of a destination or tourism
product/service, results in increase of visitors and therefore, increase of revenue
for the product or /and service.

145

In the information era, vast amount of data is available to the Internet


user and potential tourism product buyer. In order to receive proper name
recognition and not dilute the image of the country, the tourism product
marketing, in this case the marketing of cultural tourism to Bulgaria has to focus
on dissemination of information only on markets with strong potential. This is
also commanded by the law budgets for advertising, which cannot cover
repeatedly large amount of potential clients worldwide, if only based on TV,
radio and print advertising. Thus, a structured information provided to the right
markets at low coast will help Bulgaria to position better its cultural tourism
product.
On the other side, Internet already has a well organized structure for
metadata regarding places, cultural sites, and creative tourism events and venues
(Stvilia, Jrgensen 2009). This is due in part to the fact that most of the
information is provided by Internet users, but structured by open source (wikis)
professionals or into the corporate web architecture visions (tripadvisor.com) of
advertisers.
Since the marketing within social media is not just about telling and
giving a message, rather it is about receiving and exchanging perceptions and
ideas. (Drury 2008), creating brand awareness for the cultural tourism product
first will need to be properly researched and structured, so it can create the
needed impact and lead to travel purchase. On the other side, the participation of
the users in creating content, rating the content, exchanging information and
interacting in interest driven groups, opens the doors to a wealth of destination
information, increasing the scope from imposed status quo about destination and
culture to a real world assessment of the brand values.
Coupled with the worldwide access to this information, a real possibility
to increase the geographical limits of the brand and hence the awareness of the
cultural tourism to Bulgaria gives a larger than any other media platform to
merge the product of cultural tourism (Richards 2001) with creative tourism and
thus expand the revenue geographies of the Bulgarian cultural heritage.
Methodology
An ongoing study of the author beginning October 24, 2008 with interim
results up to January 19, 2009 is the main source of information for the brand
awareness of the cultural tourism to Bulgaria. In the study participated 229
persons, invited exclusively through social networks (linked.com and
flickr.com), as well as unsolicited participants, who found the study on the
authors blog, or the authors pages in facebook.com, flick.com and various
groups in the above mentioned social networks.
Data on tourism, cultural tourism and geographical distribution of
Bulgarias cultural heritage brand awareness was collected from the most popular
media social networks: flick.com, and youtube.com. and it is in press for
publishing in the Proceedings of the II Buditeli Conference, Sofia 2008.
The analysis of the statistics issued by OTTI for U.S. Residents traveling
overseas provided data and insight on the spending habits of the U.S. residents
traveling to Europe, and most specifically to Eastern Europe.
146

The 2008 Reports on Country Branding was used for analysis of brand
theories and applications affecting the international cultural and creative tourism.
Survey results
The survey contained 39 questions aiming to help the author for the fore
coming Ph.D. thesis on the role of the social networks on possibility for the
territorial expansion of the Bulgarian cultural tourism. For the purposes of this
study, only part of the participants answers were analyzed, in order to determine
the brand awareness, the role of information exchange, interest towards the
cultural heritage of the country and intent to visit Bulgaria.
Brand awareness
Most of the participants, independently if they did visit (38%) Bulgaria or
not (60%), rate their knowledge of the country as average or I know little
about Bulgaria.
The participants who didnt visit Bulgaria respond that they have
knowledge mostly about the culture and lifestyle of the country (Religion:
8.55%, Cultural heritage: 11.97%, Traditions, arts and crafts: 8.55%, and
Lifestyle: 7,69%. Total Culture: 37.76). The highest level of awareness,
Bulgaria as a travel destination receives 17%, followed by Cultural heritage:
11.97%.
The participants who did visit Bulgaria respond that their highest
knowledge is about Bulgaria as a travel destination: 18.58% and information
about the Bulgarian cultural heritage: 15.93%.
Most of the participants who didnt visit Bulgaria stated that they received
their information through the social networks (Table 1), followed by Internet in
general (26.54%).

Table 1: Source of Information about Bulgaria and the Social Networks.


The trustworthiness of the brand Bulgaria (38.41%of the participants
147

who didnt visit Bulgaria would trust their social network peers opinion of
Bulgaria, 51.66% will maybe trust their social network peers opinion of
Bulgaria) can be transformed into a real purchase of tourism product, as seen in
Table 2.

Table 2. The role of the Social Networks to influence the travel buying
decision
Potential for cultural tourism to Bulgaria
The potential for increasing the role of the cultural tourism is visualized in
Table 3. More than 30% of the activities in which the participants would
participate, in the event that they visit Bulgaria, will be culture related.

Table 3. Potential for increasing the cultural tourism


Potential expanding of the territorial reach of the cultural tourism to
Bulgaria
The intent of more than a third part of the participants to visit Bulgaria is
very important from the fact that most of them reside permanently outside of the
European Community. Traditionally, after the transition to market economics,
Bulgari is visited mainly from the members of the EU (more than 75%) and the
neighbouring Balkan countries. That is confirmed in Table 4 where is visible that
participants who didn't visit Bulgaria are mostly from countries outside of the
European Community. On the other side, Table 4 also shows that the second
148

biggest segment are permanent residents of EU. From them, only 2 % state that
they don't have any plans to visit Bulgaria. The remaining respondants would
visit Bulgaria, and 35% of those who would visit the country will participate in
some sort of cultural tourism.

Table 3. Potential for increasing the geographies of cultural tourism


While the survey shows that 37% of the participants are from North
America (USA and Canada), the overall tourism visits to Bulgaria from these
country are les than 1.5%. The lack of tourism offices in two of the major
economics in the world is unexplicable, even with the tight govermental budgets
of Bulgaria.
Survey Notes
Internet surveys, specially when they are anonymous present challenges in
several aspects. In the case of this survey, there were several problems from the
design of the survey to data polution. The first part of the survey from 24 of
October 2008 to 28 of October 2008, when 93 individual participated, provoked
the critics of the tourism research scientific community and the survey was
redesigned. Once the second survey was published online, a vast amount of
tourism researchers asked their students to fill out the survey or filled it. This
created unrealiable data regarding education levels of the participants, which for
this reason is not published. Several records are duplicated, and since using the
servers of some universities (Thessaloniki, Greece) cannot be traced to an
individual respondant, the authors does not venture to speculate how much
exactly are the double answers, outside of the participants who declared that they
already have participated in the survey.
Potential Economic Impact on the Bulgarian Cultural Heritage
The potential of income increase from the tourism, and specially from the
creative and cultural tourism is enormous, as seen in Tables 5 and 6. The first
149

table shows the number of tourists who travel of the U.S. residents outside of the
North American continent, including to Eastern Europe. The second table shows
the spending preferences of the U.S. residntes while traveling to destintations
outside of their continent. Bulgaria's share from the travel to Easter Europe
represents
5.5%
of
the
total
1.035.520
travelers.

Table 4. U.S. Residents Travel Characteristics Geography of travel.


Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration,
Office of Travel and Tourism Industries (OTTI).
The average household income of the U.S. residents traveling to
destinations outside of North America surpasses $114,400 and the length of the
stay is more than 17 days per person per trip. (OTTI, 2008). In 2007, the average
U.S. Resident spent more than $ 1,470 for services outside of USA, and
excluding the purchase of airfare. After dining in restaurants, most of the
activities of the U.S. residents abroad are related with the cultural tourism, as
shown in Table 5.

Table 5. U.S. Residents Travel Characteristics Cultural Activities while


traveling abroad. Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, International Trade
Administration, Office of Travel and Tourism Industries (OTTI).
Presence of Brand Bulgaria on the social networks with media
sharing focus
Besides personal recommendations, literature and written content, the
social networks present an enormous possibility to improve the brand image
through rich media. For the moment, the Bulgarian tourism authorities, travel
related associations and local and regional government, are not promoting any
digital initiative regarding the presence of the country through this type of social
networks. Isolated early adopters, such as the Municipality of Veliko Turnovo
and the Regional Museum of History of Stara Zagora, have their presence on
facebook.com, but not on youtube.com, flickr.com, etc. The result is: very poor
presence of the Bulgarian cultural heritage on the social media sharing web, as
150

shown on Tables 6 and 7.


The fact that Youtube.com is free video sharing website annihilates the
arguments of the Bulgarian Agency for Tourism that there is not budget for
advertising. Vide advertising clips were professionally produced and aired
(without too much brand image improvement) on TV in European Union
(Kaneva 2007) , with no focus on the authenticity of the Bulgarian cultural
heritage, and none of them is available through he social networks on
youtube.com as part of a non-existing Bulgaria Travel channel. When
professionally produced videos are available on youtube.com, they are not posted
by any travel authority (local, regional or governmental) or cultural institution
private or public.

Table 6. Comparison between the presence of geotaged videos about


cultural heritage on youtube.com between Bulgaria and the most visited
European countries for cultural tourism.

Table 7. Comparison between the presence of geotaged photos about


cultural heritage on flickr.com between Bulgaria and best established countries
in country branding.
Discussion and Further Research
An analysis of the most successful brands for 2008
(countrybrandindex.com, 2008): performed by Rina Plapler, the author of the
Country Brand Index study, showed that visitors are more focused on a countys
essence: attractions, authenticity, culture, ethos. Both authenticity and ethos
present an enormous potential for Brand Bulgaria to develop the cultural
tourism product and thus to increase the impact on the cultural heritage,
151

especially in geographic areas where authenticity is still preserved.


Increasing the presence of Bulgarian branded cultural tourism products in
the realms of the social networks, Internet in general and travel specific sites, as
well as rich media social networks will provide visual and interactive rich
content, which for the moment lacks. Further research is needed to fully
understand thee professional and media sharing social networks in order to asses
their influence on brand formation, awareness and ultimately, the economic
impact on the cultural heritage of Bulgaria.
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Endnotes:
1
Oreilly, Tim,What is Web 2.0: Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next
Generation of Software. Communications & Strategies, No. 1, p. 17, First Quarter 2007.
Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1008839
2

ISTAG Working Group Report on Web-based Service Industry, February 2008,


ftp://ftp.cordis.europa.eu/pub/ist/docs/web-based-service-industry-istag_en.pdf
3

Laura Garton, Caroline Haythornthwaite, Barry Wellman: Studying Online Social


Networks, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 00, Published Online: 23 Jun 2006. Retrieved on January 17, 2009
4

Europa Nostra (2006c): Position Paper on the Encouragement of Cultural Tourism


and the Mitigation of its Effects. Paris, November 2006,
http://www.europanostra.org/downloads/documents/EN_position_paper_cultural_tour
ism.pdf
5

Du Cross, Hillary: A new model to assist in planning for sustainable cultural


heritage tourism, International Journal of Tourism Research, Volume 3 Issue 2, Pages
165 170, Published Online: 23 Mar 2001, Retrieved on January 11, 2009
6
B. Joseph Pine, James H. Gilmore: The Experience Economy: Work Is Theater &
Every Business a Stage, Harvard Business School Press, 1999
6
Xiang (Robert) Li and James F. Petrick, Tourism Marketing in an Era of Paradigm
Shift, Journal of Travel Research 2008; 46; 235 originally published online Aug 15,
2007
8

Ted Silberberg, Cultural tourism and business opportunities for museums and
heritage sites, Tourism Management, Volume 16, Issue 5, August 1995, Pages 361-365
9
WTO 1985 and Richards, Cultural Tourism in Europe, 2000: 23
10
Haemoon Oh, The Effect of Brand Class, Brand Awareness, and Price on
Customer Value and Behavioral Intentions, Journal of Hospitality & Tourism
Research 2000; 24; 136
11
Besiki Stvilia, Corinne Jrgensen User-generated collection-level metadata in an
online photo-sharing system, Library & Information Science Research xxx (2009) xxx
xxx, Article in Press.
12

Glen Drury, Opinion piece: Social media: Should marketers engage and how can it
be done effectively? Journal of Direct, Data and Digital Marketing Practice (2008) 9,
274 277.
13

G. Richards, Cultural Attractions and European Tourism, CABI publ., 2001


U.S. Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration, Office of
Travel and Tourism Industries (OTTI).
14

15

Kaneva, N. Meet the New Europeans: EU Accession and the Branding of


Bulgaria, Advertising & Society Review, Volume 8, Issue 4, 2007
16

countrybrandindex.com, Country Brand Index, Report, 2008. Published online on


November 8, 2008. Retrieved on January 19, 2009
153




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Abstract: Pointed are the essentials and the elements of the Customer Care
concept; offered is an exemplary research model for preparing criteria for
measurement the level of application of Customer Care in a company.
Key words: Customer Care, criteria for measurement, internal and external
clients, satisfaction, loyalty.
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25
Sarah Cook, Customer Care, Kogan Page, 1992.
26
David Clutterbuck and Susan Kernaghan, Making Customers Count, Mercury Books, 1991.
27
Veronica Canning, Being Successful in Customer Care, Blackhall Publishing, 1999
28
Barbara L. Lewis, Customer Care in Services, in: William J. Glynn, James G. Barnes,
Understanding Services Management. John Wiley and Sons, 1995.

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1. Barbara L. Lewis, Customer Care in Services, in: William J. Glynn,
James G. Barnes, Understanding Services Management. John Wiley and Sons,
1995.
2. David Clutterbuck and Susan Kernaghan, Making Customers Count,
Mercury Books, 1991.
3. Fang Meng, Yodmanee Tepanon and Muzaffer Uysal, Measuring
Tourist Satisfaction my Attribute and Motivation: The Case of a Natural-based
Resort, Journal of Vacation Marketing, Vol. 14, No 1 2007, pp 41-53.
4. I.M. Jawahar, An Investigation of Potential Consequences of
Satisfaction with Appraisal Feedback, Journal of Leadership & Organizational
Studies, 2006, pp 13
5. Jonathan D. Barski and Stephen J. Huxley, A Customer Survey
Tool: Using $Quality Sample$, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration
Quarterly 1993, pp.18
6. Jui Chi Chang, Tourists Satisfaction Judgements: an Investigation of
Emotion, Equty, and Attribution, Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research
2008, pp 108-135.
7. Lovelock, Christopher H., and Ivor P. Morgan, Euro Disney, in
C.H. Lovelock, Services Marketing, 3rd Edition, Prentice-Hall Englewood Cliffs,
1995.
8. Murat Hancer, R. Thomas George, Job Satisfaction of Restaurant
Employees: an Empirical Investigation using the Minnesota Satisfaction
Questionnaire, Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, Vol. 27, No 1,
February 2003, pp. 83-100.
9. Sarah Cook, Customer Care, Kogan Page, 1992
10. Schlesinger, Leonard L. and James L. Heskett, Breaking the Cycle
of Failure in Services, Sloan Management Review, Spring 1991, p. 17-28.
11. Veronica Canning, Being Successful in Customer Care, Blackhall
Publishing, 1999.
163



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The relation between employees satisfaction and the application of the
Customer Care concept is outlined. Theoretical analysis of publications,
revealing the importance of employees satisfaction for companies effectiveness
in services sector and tourism is done. Pointed is the relation between
employees satisfaction and the application of Customer Care concept. Drawn
are the main conclusions on the discussed theme.
Key words: satisfaction, internal and external clients, Customer Care,
marketing, management,
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J.H. and W.R. George (Eds.), Marketing of Services, American Marketing Association,
Chicago, IL, 1981, pp 236-38.
33
Berry, L.L., The Employee as Customer, Journal of Retail Banking, Vol. 3, No.1, 1981,
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35
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Organizational Behaviour Interface, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 20, January, 1990,
pp. 3-11.
36
Gummesson, E., Using Internal Marketing to Develop a New Culture The Case of
Ericsson Quality, Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, Vol. 2, September, 1987, pp.
23-28.
37
Schlesinger, L.A. and J.L. Heskett, Enfranchisement of Service Workers, California
Management Review, Summer, 1991, pp. 83-100.
38
Tansuhaj, P., D. Randall and J. McCullough, A Services Marketing Management Model:
Integrating Internal and External Marketing Functions, Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 2,
Winter, 1988, pp. 31-38.
39
George, W.R., Internal Marketing and Organizational Behavior: A Partnership in
Developing Customer-Conscious Employees at Every Level, Journal of Business Research,
Vol. 20, January, 1990, pp. 63-70.
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Educational, 1994, p. 8.
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Profitability in Todays Service Driven Organization, Kogan Page, 1997, pp 11
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4. Berry, L.L., The Employee as Customer, Journal of Retail Banking,
Vol. 3, No.1, 1981, pp 33-40.
5. Berry, L.L., and Parasuraman. Marketing Services: Competing
Through Quality, The free Press, New York, 1991.
6. Carl Sewell and Paul B. Brown, Customers for Life: How to Turn
That Onetime Buyer into a Lifetime Customer, Pocket Books, 1990.

173

7. David Clutterbuck and Susan Kernaghan, Making Customers Count,


Mercury Books, 1991.
8. George, W.R., Internal Marketing and Organizational Behavior: A
Partnership in Developing Customer-Conscious Employees at Every Level,
Journal of Business Research, Vol. 20, January, 1990, pp. 63-70.
9. Gronroos, C., Internal Marketing an Integral Part of Marketing
Theory, in Donnelly, J.H. and W.R. George (Eds.), Marketing of Services,
American Marketing Association, Chicago, IL, 1981, pp 236-38.
10. Gronroos. C., Relationship Approach to Marketing in Service
Contexts: The Marketing and Organizational Behaviour Interface, Journal of
Business Research, Vol. 20, January, 1990, pp. 3-11.
11. Gummesson, E., Using Internal Marketing to Develop a New
Culture The Case of Ericsson Quality, Journal of Business and Industrial
Marketing, Vol. 2, September, 1987, pp. 23-28.
12. Glynn, W., J. Barnes, Understanding Services Management, New
York, John Willey&Sons, 1996, p. 209.
13. Lockwood, A., P. Jones, People and the Hotel and Catering Industry,
London, Cassel Educational, 1994, p. 8.
14. Riley, M., Human Resource Management: a Guide to Personnel
Practice in the Hotel and Catering Industry. Cassel, 1994, p. 36.
15. Sarah Cook, Customer Care: How to Improve Competitiveness, Staff
Motivation and Profitability in Todays Service Driven Organization, Kogan
Page, 1997, pp 11
16. Schlesinger, L.A. and J.L. Heskett, Enfranchisement of Service
Workers, California Management Review, Summer, 1991, pp. 83-100.
17. Tansuhaj, P., D. Randall and J. McCullough, A Services
Marketing Management Model: Integrating Internal and External Marketing
Functions, Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 2, Winter, 1988, pp. 31-38.

174

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The new tourist product of Dobrich: Dobrich has a new Tourist
Information Centre. The team of the TIC can give information, but also to sale
tickets, excursions and tourist packages. The real role of the TIC can be to have
the function of a tour operator firm.
Key words: Tourism, Tourist product, Tourist Information Centre,
Dobrich, Region Dobrudzha, Bulgaria.


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Tony Rogers, Conferences and Conventions, 2003 Butterworth, Heinemann
Gartrell, Richard B. Destination Marketing for Convetion and Visitor
Bureaus, 1994, Hunt Publishing Company
Meeting Indurstry Clossary, 1993, Joint Industry Council
Shon, Anton, The Business of Conferences, 1998 Butterworth, Heinemann
Swarbrooke, John and Horner Susan, Businesss Travel and Tourism, 2001,
Butterworth, Heinemann
Davidson, Rob and Cope, Beuleh, Business Travel, 2002, Pearson Edition
British Conference Market Trends Survey, 2001
, HoReMag, 2006
Chon, Webber, Convention Tourism, Butterworth Heinemann, 2002
Shon, Parry, Successful Event management, Thomson, 2004
Bowdin, Allen, Harris, McDonnell, Events Management, ButterworthHeinemann, 2004
www.meetpie.com
www.assocmeetings.com
www.cim-publications.de
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www.meeting-conventions.com
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188


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The new tourist product of Dobrich: How to create new tourist
attractions in Dobrich, which can make the new image of Dobrich and to attract
more tourist from the Black sea cost.
Key words: Tourism, Tourist product, tourist attractions, Dobrich, Region
Dobrudzha, Bulgaria.


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MARKETING SERVISES OF TOURIST AGENCY
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206

GOLF TOURISM
Mariya Nikolova, Teodora Stoyanova, Third year students, Hotel
Management in English, International University College, Dobrich, Bulgaria

, ,
,
/ /
Abstract:
From a simple game golf has become one of the biggest world sport
industry, attracting more and more players. Golf, like any other human activity
related to the environment, exerts an impact. These impacts can be related to the
environment, and also to social and economic aspects (Salgon and Tapias, 2006).
Golf tourism can create successful synergies with other tourism products
like conferences and exhibitions, spa and wellness, as well as culture and
heritage. As such, golf tourism is an important revenue generator not only for the
golf courses, but for all connected service providers of a destination.
(Sartori,2008).
The purpose of this paper is to distinguish Golf Tourism from the other
types, emphasize on its importance for the development of tourist destinations
and contributions for the growth and image of the country. The study also
discusses many problems connected with this type of tourism as well as main
impacts on the economy and environment. The development of golf tourism in
BG as a tourism product can lead to positive results for the overall development
of Bulgarian tourism. The paper shows some trends related to the supply and
demand, presenting Bulgaria as very attractive destination for future golf tourism
development.
Keywords: golf tourism characteristics, golf tourism demand, golf
tourism supply, golf impacts.
:
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Introduction
From a simple game golf has become one of the biggest world sport
industry, attracting more and more players. Golf tourism includes trips organized
by one or several travelers who stay at least for one day to play golf. This special
type of tourism can be also defined as a secondary activity when people play golf
during their holiday or business trip .53Golf tourism can be classified as ego
tourism, because of the high number of wealthy and value adding tourists,
spending large amount of money playing the game. Golf tourists are not only
people who go on holiday intentionally to play golf, but also people on business
trips who play golf meanwhile or fans watching the game as spectators.
The interest and participation in this game is growing around the world.
According to International Association of Golfing Tour Operators (IAGTO) 56
million people play golf worldwide: 26.7 million in the United States, 5 million
in Canada, 5.5 million in continental Europe, 14 million in Japan, and 3.8 million
in the United Kingdom. Of this 56 million, between 5% and 10% travel overseas
each year for the main purpose being to play golf (Source in Reference No1) and
therefore turn golf tourism in a successful business.
Golf tourism can create successful synergies with other tourism products
like conferences and exhibitions, spa and wellness, as well as culture and
heritage.
As such, golf tourism is an important revenue generator not only for the
golf courses, but for all connected service providers of a destination. (Sartori,
2008). According to the International Association of Golfing Tour Operators
(IAGTO) the global golf tourism market is worth over $17 billion.
Lots of problems have occurred with the growth of golf tourism. Some are
connected with the environmental and pollution issues, use of pesticide, use of
water recourses, problems with infrastructure, poor marketing and advertising of
some destinations and the fact that golf is time and money consuming game.

53

http://www.onecaribbean.org/content/files/Golf.pdf, Accessed on 09. 02. 2009.

208

The purpose of this paper is to distinguish Golf Tourism from the other
types, emphasize on its importance for the development of tourist destinations
and contributions for the growth and image of the country. The study also
discusses many problems connected with this type of tourism as well as main
impacts on the economy and environment. It shows some trends related to the
supply and demand, presenting Bulgaria as very attractive destination for future
golf tourism development.
Literature Review
With its growing international popularity golf has attracted the attention of
many researchers worldwide. According to Priestley (2006) golf tourism has one
basic requirement which differentiates it from other forms of tourism: namely,
the provision of one or more golf courses. Recent research shows that there are
approximately 32,000 golf courses worldwide. Presently, some 50 million people
play golf throughout the world (KPMG, 2005).Golf courses interact with the
specific area, in which they are located, and also on adjacent areas, the extent of
which depends on several factors which goes from the economic to the social and
environmental (Salgon and Tapias, 2006).
Golf-centered development has gathered both proponents and opponents.
The proponents include tightly connected, globalised sectors, such as real estate,
hoteliers, tour operators, athletics and sports, agro-business, chemical,
construction, automobile and machinery industries and consultancy
firms.(Papatheodorou, 2004; Briassoulis, 2007). Proponents emphasize the
monetary benefits golf-centered development offers to national and local
governments and to mostly international golf-centered development related
businesses (Briassoulis, 2007). Nowadays, golf cannot be considered simply as
sport, because very important economic interests are involved in it (Tapias and
Salgot, 2006). According to the head of KPMGs Golf Advisory Practice in the
Europe, Middle East and Africa - Andrea Sartori (KPMG, 2008), golf, as a
massive driver of high- quality tourism, can add significant value to a
destination. It can create successful synergies with other tourism products like
conferences and exhibitions, spa and wellness, as well as culture and heritage. As
such, golf tourism is an important revenue generator not only for the golf
courses, but for all connected service providers of a destination.
Golf tourism, in its own right, has developed into a significant business.
There are numerous tour operators tailoring their offers to the specific needs of
golfers all over the world. Whether as a primary motivation for a holiday or
simply as a secondary activity, golf attracts millions of holiday makers
worldwide thus contributing to a great extent to the golf economy (KPMG,
2008). Comparing to other leisure tourists, golf tourists spend significantly more,
purchasing numerous and varied goods and services while on their trip,
supporting a wide range of businesses such as hotels, restaurants and retailers (
KPMG, 2008).
Employment is an important indicator of an industrys contribution to a
local, regional, or natural economy because employees earnings stimulate an
economy when they are spent locally in the purchase of good and services
(Hodges and Haydu, 2004). The creation of direct employment from golf comes
209

from the following activities: the installations themselves, restaurants, adjoining


bars, the selling of golf and sporting equipment, the overnight stays if golf
tourists in tourist resorts and the maintenance of the golf courses. (Videira et al,
2006). In addition to the impacts on local employment, golf tourism has also a
positive influence over the local quality of life. Briassoulis (2007) supports these
findings. According to him direct benefits accrue to host regions as personal
income, earned from local jobs, local business revenues and local and regional
taxes and fees.
However, not everyone perceives golf development positively. The
opponents, less visible, less organized and more diverse, comprise nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), professional and scientific associations,
local groups and individuals (Briassoulis, 2007). According to Priestley (2006)
undoubtedly, the development of golf tourism provokes some negative impacts,
as does all tourism development.
Important among the negative golf impacts are consumption and
competition for scarce resources (land, water, soil, energy) between golf-centred
development and other activities, soil and water pollution, ecosystem
degradation, socio- economic inequalities and induced, often unplanned, tourism
and residential development (Briassouls, 2007). However, for reducing to a
minimum any negative environmental impacts and improving the positive ones
appropriate measures like integrated management of all the environmental
characteristics of a golf courses can be taken.(Salgon and Tapias,). These
findings are supported by Priestley (2006), who states that weaknesses can be
transformed into opportunities through adequate control and careful course
design. In recent years, there has been a considerable demand for golf courses to
adopt environmentally sustainable strategies in design, construction, and
management (Tapias and Salgot, 2006).
There are a lot of researches that have been conducted regarding the golf
tourism its development, impacts and consequences. However, there is no
research addressed to golf development in Bulgaria. In this regard the aim of the
current paper is to analyze and discuss current and future trends in golf supply
and demand in Bulgaria.
Characteristics of Golf Tourism
Despite of the evident economic benefits that destinations gain due to the
growing golf popularity, there are concerns about impacts of golf course
developments. Golf, like any other human activity related to the environment,
exerts an impact. These impacts can be related to the environment, and also to
social and economic aspects (Salgon and Tapias, 2006).
Environmental impacts
The environmental impacts of golf tourism are related to the consumption
of water for irrigation, the consumption of chemical pesticides and fertilizers,
energy consumption, waste production ( Videira et al2006), water and soil
pollution, destroying of the landscape and other areas during the construction as
well as depletion of resources. The environmental impacts can take place during
the building of the golf course as well as during its operation and management.
210

Priestly (2006) support this statement. She pointed out that care should be taken
at the design and construction stages in order to limit the initial environmental
and landscape impact while encouraging the introduction of subsequent positive
impacts and reducing maintenance impacts, through the application of an
environmental management system. Improving the environmental performance
of golf courses may be facilitated through the adoption and implementation of
several management systems: Environmental Management Systems (EMS) ISO
14001, Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS); Environmental
Management Programmes (EMP) Audubon Cooperative Sanctuary Programme
(ACSP), Committed to Green, Green Globe 21 (Videira 2006). The tendency is
showing that more and more golf club managers are supporting the fact that in
order to manage successfully and effectively the golf courses, it is essential to
have sufficient environmental knowledge.
Economic impacts
Nowadays, golf cannot be considered simply as a sport, because very
important economic interests are involved in it (Tapias and Salgon, 2006).
Despite of its negative environmental and landscape impacts, golf tourism has
influenced in a positive way the world, national and local economy. The main
positive economic impact is the golf tourism profitability the high average
expenditure per tourist and the multiplier effect. In addition golf tourism has a
positive effect on the growth of the gross domestic product (GDP), on
investments and on employment of the golf destination. The local community is
also positively affected due to visitors spending for accommodation, food and
beverages, transportation, and shopping as wall as for local charities from the
tournaments.
Some of the economic developments are merchandising, sponsoring,
organizing of mega sporting events, the mobile leisure society, sport and the
impact on health, the public-private cooperation in building of sporting
infrastructures.
Socio-cultural impacts
Once built, the golf course should not be considered independent of its
surroundings, but as a part of a region and its landscape and having certain
interactions with both (Salgon and Tapies, 2006).
Land Use
The development of golf tourism requires the provision not only of one or
more golf courses, but also of many other infrastructure and facilities, including
hotels and other forms of property development (Priestley, 2006) .Therefore, the
use of land is vital and key element for the development of golf tourism. Golf
needs lots of space and special facilities to be built. It is essential that golf
courses should be designed, constructed and managed in a way not disturb or
affect the local community wellbeing.
Cultural Exchanges
There is always cultural exchange when people from different cultures
meet. By visiting new destination tourists can learn about its culture and
211

traditions during their holidays, although they travel mainly to play golf, or to
watch the game, but not for cultural purposes.
National Identity
It is a national pride and prestige for one country when an international
tournament is held there or famous golfers come to play. It is a proud feeling
especially when this will be known worldwide. Additional advantage of the golf
tourism development is that it contributes to the prestige and image of the golf
destination as well as improves the overall quality (Gerda K. Priestley, 2006).
Psychological impacts
Sports are also done for recreation and to relax people minds. Golf is a
great opportunity to go away and recharge as well as to avoid stress and feel
more self-confident.
Golf Tourism Resources and Supply in Bulgaria
Resources

Natural

Mountains

Bansko, Borovets, Osogovo, Vitosha ,


Rhodope, Pirin, Central Balkans, Rilla,

Plains and Lowlands

Razgrad, Sliven

The Black Sea Coast

Balchik, Kavarna, Varna, Shabla,


Nessebar, Sozopol, Golden Sands,
Bourgas, Pomorie, Primorsko

With its geographical location and natural resources Bulgaria has the
potential to become famous golf destination.
212

The Country is distinguished with its temperate-continental climate with a


Mediterranean influence that makes it perfect destination for golf tourism
development. Bulgaria is rich in water resources, which is important factor for
the maintenance of a golf course. There are lots of mineral springs, lakes and
reservoirs, rivers that are very attractive for tourists.
Golf tourism covers 1, 9% of the tourist services in Bulgaria. The first golf
course with 18 holes is Air Sofia in Ihtiman, opened in 2000, which is the base
for the Bulgarian golf history.
To categorize the golf supplies in Bulgaria they can be divided into golf
arrangement, golf hotel and golf resort. The golf arrangement includes only golf
course with training grounds, club house and golf school. Almost all of the golf
arrangements in Bulgaria offer lodging directly on the golf ground.
COMPLETED GOLF COURSES AND COMPLEXES IN BULGARIA
Complex

Location

Company

AIR SOFIA

Ihtiman

Air Sofia

ST. SOFIA GOLF


CLUB

Ravno Pole village,


Elin Pelin
municipality

St. Sofia Golf Club

GOLF CLUB SLIVEN

Sliven

Air Sofia

THRACIAN CLIFFS

Kavarna

Tempe, Austria

BLACK SEA RAMA

Balchik

Black Sea Rama JSC.

LIGHTHOUSE GOLF
RESORT

Balchik

BalkanStroy, Barage
Complect

PIRIN GOLF
HOLIDAYS CLUB

Razlog

BalkanStroy, Barage
Complect

GOLF CLUB IBAR

Dolna Banya

Golf Club Ibar

GOLF CLUB VARNA

Varna

213

GOLF COURSES AND COMPLEXES IN CONSTRUCTION AND IN


PROJECT54
Opening
date

Complex

Location

Company

BLACK SEA
GOLF&COUNTRY
CLUB
KULINOTO SKI &
GOLF
PIRIN GOLF AND
COUNTRY CLUB
COUNTRY GOLF
CLUB&SPA IBAR

Kableshkovo,P
omorie
municipality

Cabland

Razlog

BalkanStroy

2011

Razlog

BalkanStroy

2011

Dolna Banya

Golf Club
Ibar

2011

GOLF CENTRE
KUTTINA

Kuttina
Village,Near
Sofia

Ferry Group

2009-2014

GOLF COURSE
RAZGRAD

Razgrad

Air Sofia

GOLF COURSE
BANSKO

Bansko

Golf Plus

RILA GOLF & SPA


RESORTS

Dobarsko
village,Razlog

WHITE MOUNTAIN
GOLF CLUB

Godlevo
village,Razlog,

RAZLOG GOLF
CLUB

Dolno
Draglishte
village, Razlog

RAZLOG VALLEY
GOLF & SPA

Gorno
Draglishte
village, Razlog

PRAVETS GOLF &


COUNTRY CLUB

Pravets

2010-2011

BalkanStroy+
UK Company
ECPM
Razlog
Municipality
+North
Investment
Austrian
Company
Razlog
Municipality
+Private
investment
fund
Razlog
Municipality
+ The Valley
Company
Terra Tour
Service

54

http://www.visitbulgaria.net/en/media-coverages/20070915/golf_bulgaria.html
214

GOLF COURSE
GORNA BANYA

Sofia

PRIMORSKI GOLF

Primorsko

ALBENA

Albena

IRAKLI

Irakli

KAVARNA

Kavarna

BOROVETS

Borovets

VRATSA
SHABLA
POMORIE

Vratsa
Shabla
Pomorie

Primorski
Golf
Albena
Russalka
Holidays
Albena
Rila Samokov
2004
Air Sofia
-

GORUBLYANE

Gorublyane

Air Sofia

In Bulgaria there are 9 functioning golf courses and other 4 are in


construction, all with 18 holes and area over 1000 decares. About 20 courses are
in projects. Almost all of them are in proximity to mountain and Black sea
resorts. The tree main regions where golf courses are clustered and planned to
become future golf destinations are: the area near Sofia; Razlog near Bansko and
North and Sought Black Sea coast. Bulgaria has 16 mountains ranges that cover
one third of its territory. The most significant components of the mountain areas
are the relief and the climate. The relief of Bulgaria is extremely varied from low
and high mountains to large plains and lovely valley and gorges.
Its mountains offer many opportunities yearly for golf tourism. In this
regard, the region of Razlog and Bansko at this point is the leading golf
destination with the largest number of projects in Bulgaria. Six of the courses
will be in the municipality of Razlog and one in Bansko resort .The first vacation
complex Pirin Golf Holidays Club which is in process of construction is located
also there. Golf Courses are also planned in the regions Pamporovo and Borovec.
A result of the golf tourism development in these areas will be the transforming
of the mountain resorts into year-round destinations.
The North and Sought Black Sea coast is also region where golf courses
are clustered and planned to be developed. The Black Sea coast is very attractive
with its mild climate, sea water, beaches and sand dunes. The summer is cooler
and the winter is warmer with lots of sun which enable the golf season to
continue about 8-9 months. Also the sea water is with lower salt concentration
that makes it the key resource on the Black Sea coast.
The golf courses at the Black Sea coast will put Bulgaria on the golf
map55. In the Northern Black Sea region are concentrated 'Black Sea Rama', 'The

55

http://www.ft.com, Accessed on 14.11.2008

215

Lighthouse'and 'Thracian Cliffs' courses.These three courses clustered together


provide varied options for people searching new golfing experiences.
Golf courses are planned also in the Sought Black Sea region:
concentrated in Kableshkovo , Pomorie and Primorsko.
Bulgarian golf courses have the quality, potential and all facilities like the
worlds golf clubs. Fees, prices of houses and maintenance of the complexes and
courses are lower than the others in Europe, which confirm that Bulgaria is a
perfect destination for international golf tourism development and more investors
will be interested in it. The average fee for one round in 18 holes golf course in
13 BGN during the week and 50 BGN in the weekend. The average annually
membership fee in Bulgaria is around 1450 and 1700 BGN. In comparison to
those prices one round in Europe cots on average 150 EUR and the annual
membership fees in Japan is 150 000 EUR, in France- 50 000 EUR and in United
States where golf has became mass sport the annually fee is between 3000 and
5000 USD (Tanya Karanova, n. Standart).
The close distance of the current and future golf courses will give golfers
the opportunity to benefit from courses diversity in a short amount of time.
Golf Tourism Demand in Bulgaria
The growth of golf tourism in Bulgaria remains significantly low, but the
demand for golf courses is increasing. Tourists who come in Bulgaria are mainly
from Germany, England, Russia and the Balkans.
The potential golf tourists are between 34 and 43 or retired- over 55.
There is an increase in the number of young tourist from Germany and England
and a decrease of the adult tourists from Scandinavian countries. A big part of
the golf tourists is well educated, graduates or undergraduates, mainly males and
professionals. Most of the golf tourists are members of golf clubs. Their stay is
short and continues about 2 or 3 days.
Predominant parts are people with high annual income from the elite that
want to explore new golf courses and meet new challenges. Part of the tourists
combine business trips with golf playing or go with their partner, combining
different activities.
Golf tourists can be those who go on holiday with the main purpose of
golf playing, who play golf during on holidays, business trips- as a secondary
activity or tourists who go just to watch the game. Attending tournaments may
include other activities such as meetings, incentives, or leisure activities like
cruising and skiing.
A golfer is a person who is above 12 years old and plays at least 8 times
per year. The middle age of a golfer is about 40, has an annual income over
50,000 euros and plays 20 times golf per year.

216

CHARACTEERISTICS OF A GOFL TOURIST


VISITING
GOLFERS
STAYING
VISITORS

All tourists coming to Bulgaria for a golfing purpose


Visitors who will stay as part of a trip, rather than a oneoff visit
Groups of individuals, picking an interesting course to
visit;
Three main categories:
- Companies organizing golf day for clients and staff

DAY TRIP
VISITORS

- Golf societies organizing days out for their members


- Large groups of individuals, using the club house
facilities
An average size group of 12 people, mainly single sex
male groups;
Average of 8 golfing trips per year.
- Corporate visitors, attending meetings, conferences,
where the golf is part of the program.

BUSINESS

- Golf can be a core element, integral part of the event.


- Mainly individual business travelers, attracted to
particular hotels by the availability of golf courses

HOLIDAY
VISITORS

Incorporating golf as part of their holiday


- Golf is main part of the holiday
- They are real enthusiasts and take at least one golf
holiday per year

- Golfing
holiday makers

- Large male groups (11 people)


- Travel May/June; September/October
- Lower handicap golfer playing Links, coastal and rural
courses
217

- Stay 4 to 5 nights and play every day


- Use hotels
- Want better packaging of the golf holidays
- Golf is only a part of their holiday
- Mainly smaller , mixed-sex groups (5 people)
- Higher or no handicap golfers
- Play small, remote, new courses
-

Holiday
golfers

- Stay about 8 nights and every second or third day


playing golf
- Use B&B, self catering and friends/relatives
- Want more inexpensive holidays and discounts

Golf Tourists from Europe:

their stay

Lower use of Internet and book far less in advance


Look for high standards and value of money
Play all types of courses and visit different parts of the country during
Perception of Bulgaria as being a new golf destination
Use B&B mainly
Attracted by the beautiful nature and landscape

The golf reputation is rising among Bulgarian golfers, too and demand for
golf playing is rapidly growing. Bulgaria has great possibilities for fast
development of golf tourism. The high quality of the constructing golf courses,
the long game season and suitable weather conditions turn into Bulgaria very
attractive destination for golfers from the countries of Scandinavia, the Great
Britain, the Baltic countries, Russia etc.
Golf tourists prefer destinations where can visit 3 or 4 different golf
courses and to be in close distances. These people look for variety in the game
and want new challenges.
Golf gathers together people with different budgets, itineraries and
expectations. The largest part among them is sportsmen: ex-football and tennis
players and athletes. Trough the game is being developed one united community,
where lots of friendships can be made. They are like one big family, going
together after the game in the club house for a drink and talks56

56

http://big.bg/modules/news03/article.php?storyid=29825, 3-11- 2007 , 10:00:00, Accessed


on 20.11.2008
218

SWOT Analysis
Bulgaria has all the potential, natural, cultural and historical resources for
development of alternative tourism forms. This natural heritage attracts the
interest in Bulgarian and foreign tourists. Meanwhile most of our mountains and
rural regions have no other alternative for development except this type of
tourism. The stable development of Golf tourism can revive most of the
backward regions of the country and turn into worthy place for life. In the recent
years more and more properties have been sold and invested into them. Golf
tourism offers Bulgaria many good opportunities for further development, by
increasing tourist demand.
STRENGHTS

WEAKNESESS

Good geographical location;


Attractive landscape and relief;
Appropriate climatic conditions
that allow 6 to 8 months golf
playing;
Plenty of water resources and
mineral springs that help to keep in
good conditions the golf ground;
Rich in natural resources such as
mountains and beaches, making
Bulgaria very attractive destination
for alternative tourism development;
The membership of Bulgaria in
EU has a positive influence over
tourism development and image of
the country;

BG is the poorest country in the


EU, cannot afford to invest in golf
courses construction and must attract
foreign investors;
Bad infrastructure and conditions
of the road system;
Poor Marketing;
Unqualified personnel and not so
high quality of service;
Image of cheap destination and
low prices and bad service;
Lots
of
negatives
Bulgarians
for
golf
constructions;

OPPORTUNITIES

THREATHS

Development of professional
golf tourism in Bulgaria;
Bulgaria as future international
golf tourism destination;
Increase number of the potential
investors ;
Construction
courses;

of

new

golf

Making of systematic Marketing


researches and trainings, leading to
be formed complete product in the

Economic crisis that can stop


constructing of golf courses;
Intensify of international and
regional conflicts;
Increase the prices of offered
services and decrease of demand;
Environmental
concerns:
inappropriate exploitation of the
natural resources;
Deep changes in the climate and
219

among
courses

alternative tourism;

atmosphere conditions;

Improvement of the national


infrastructure and offering more
qualified services;

Mass building can lead to tourists


low-tide from The Black sea coast
and Bulgaria as a whole;

Further promotion of foreign


investments;

Negative
influences
and
destroying the image of Bulgaria.

Projects and programs, financing


tourism activities;
Investment
in
market
infrastructure and processing will
increase the demand for golf
tourism.
STRATEGIES for future development of golf tourism in Bulgaria:
- quick construction of optimum number golf courses, necessary for
making Bulgaria attractive golf tourism destination;
- effective usage of uncultivated lands and development of the publicprivate partnership in constructing golf courses and improving the infrastructure;
- making and expanding regions in undeveloped municipalities as tourism
destinations, that will lead to significant social benefits;
- integration of the golf tourism with the other alternative tourism
products: Spa & Wellness, yacht, ski, riding, etc, in order to be attracted tourists
with high income;
- developing relationships with local, regional and international marketing
bodies to ensure that the marketing of golf product is effective and co-ordinated
- raising the profile of Golf tourism industry and promote a positive
approach to business and career development;
- improvements in the quality of service;
- improvements in the infrastructure around the current and future golf
courses.
Future Trends
The development of golf tourism in BG as a tourism product can lead to
the following positive results for the overall development of Bulgarian tourism:
Longer summer season on the Black Sea Coast the golf can make
longer summer season up to 7 months;
Developing and improving the infrastructure with the golf tourism
supply;
Transfer the ski resorts into yearly destinations;

220

Attract tourists with higher disposable income and increase the tourism
profit, because of the high quality of golf tourism;
Benefit for the development of the luxurious villas and apartments on
the market;
Stimulating development of the other types of tourism;
Golf as a sport will receive definitely more interest and gain more
popularity in future among Bulgarians.
It is expected sudden growth in the supply of golf courses and more new
implemented projects that will stimulate the demand for golf.
Golf tourism can play a very important role for future development of the
countrys economy as it will lead to more job opportunities and economy growth.
References
1. Briassouls H. (2007), Golf-centered Development in Coastal Mediterranean Europe:
A Soft Sustainability Test, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Vol. 15, No.5,441-462.
2. Correia A. and Pintassilgo P.(2006), The Golf players motivations: The Algarve
case, Tourism and Hospitality Research, Vol. 6 , 3, 227-238.
3. Hodges A.W and Haydu J.J (2004), Golf,Tourism and Amenity-Based Development
in Florida, The Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, 481-448.
4. KMPG (2008), The Value of Golf To Europe, Middle East and Africa- A study on
the Golf Economy.
5. KPMG (2005), Golf Development Cost Survey.
6. KPMG(2008), Golf Travel Insight Europe, Middle East and Africa.
7. Papatheodorou A. (2004), Exploring the evolution of tourism resorts, Annals of
Tourism Research, 31(1), 219-237.
8. Priestley G.K (2006), Planning implications of golf tourism, Tourism and
Hospitality Research, Vol. 6 , 3, 170-178.
9. Salgon M. and Tapias J. C. (2006), Golf courses: Environmental impacts, Tourism
and Hospitality Research, Vol. 6 , 3, 218-226.
10. Sartori A. (2008), KPMG - Golf Travel Insight Europe, Middle East and Africa.
11. Tapias J C. and Salgot M. (2006), Management of soil-water resources in golf
cources, Tourism and Hospitality Research, Vol. 6, 3, 197-203.
12. Videira N, Correia A., Alves I., Ramires C., Subtil R., Martins V. (2006),
Environmental and economic tools to support sustainable golf tourism: The Algarve
experience, Portugal, Tourism and Hospitality Research, Vol. 6, 3, 204-217.
13.http://www.visitbulgaria.net/en/articles/visit_bulgaria.html.
14.http://www.bulgariatravel.org/bg/view_rubric.php?r.tour&id.4.
15.http://www.investor.bg/?cat=5&id=30126
16.http://www.golfexpo.bg/index.php?option.com_content&task.view&id=38&Itemid.
52
17.http://www.teetime.bg/index.php/bg/golfinbg/details/1
18.http://www.dnes.bg/article.php?id.47664
19. http://www.actualno.com, 13.11.2008
20.http://www.bggolfer.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id
=58:2009-01-07-20-02-17&catid.30&Itemid.70,Karanova Tanya, Newspaper Standart,
221

WINE TOURISM
Nevena Rogashka, Plamena Ivanova, Hospitality Management,
International University College,Dobrich, Bulgaria

, ,
,

Abstract
The objective of this article is to identify characteristics of wine tourism
and to present what motivates the wine consumer decision to choose a winery or
wine region. A tourist's decision to visit a specific winery is not only affected by
the willingness to experience wine, but also by the willingness to experience the
region's features and to participate in other activities. Wine tourism has become a
growing area of special-interest tourism in Bulgaria. It represents a major part of
the rural tourism products. Recognising the desire of tourists for involvement in
wine tourism enables tour operators to create diverse wine tourism products,
combined with other attractions and activities. The article also covers an
examination of the potential of wine tourism in Bulgaria addressing current
concerns and issues related to promoting Bulgarian wine tourism on the
international market.
Keywords: wine tourism, wine tourists, characteristics, resources in
Bulgaria, wine tourism product, perspectives
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222

1. Introduction
Tourism is one of the most important elements of economic development
and all countries want to promote their cultural identity. Promoting wine culture
enhance the brand image of wines and contributes to regional development.
The area of wine tourism is growing of importance as a form of special
interest tourism. Many wine regions around the world have found it financially
beneficial to promote such tourism and significant amounts of money have been
and are invested in this area. For example, the revenue generated from Wine
tourism in Italy for 2008 is 2.5 billion euros. Evidence of wine tourism's success
is the fact that of the three million euros in turnover made by 82 of Italy's leading
wine producers, 7.5% comes from direct sales at the vineyards themselves. 57
In countries such as United States, Chile, Australia, South Africa and New
Zealand, wine tourism is an important income source. For example, in 2003, 25%
of the total wine sales in South Africa are generated from the wine tourists
(WOSA, 2005), and Australia had over 4.3 million domestic and 524,000
international wine visitors, who spent about $4.6 billion on their whole trip to
Australia. This contributed about 7% to Australias National Tourism Gross
Value Added .
The idea of combining wine-production with tourism derived from
Australia and California, which imposed on the market new type of tourism
including wine-tastings, tours with lectures, and shadowed the traditional wineproducing countries like France, Italy, Spain, and Germany quite fast. 58
Wine tourism is one of the fastest developing forms of special interest
tourism in Bulgaria. An evidence for this is the growth in the national tourist
product in the last years. Bulgarian wine producers are imposing their production
on the international market more and more successfully. Many of them have
opened wine tasting halls and offer to their guests to taste the quality and the
flavour of Bulgarian red and white wines. The opportunity for the tourists to
combine Wine with beautiful nature, make them experience unforgettable
moments. 59
The aim of this article is to discuss different definitions of what wine
tourism is and its impact on the economic and social environment. This paper
indentifies the factors that influence wine consumers and what motivates them to
take a wine vacation. It is determined that highly motivated, long-distance wine
tourists prefer destinations which offer a wide range of cultural and outdoor
attractions. The paper also draws attention to the growing importance of the wellperforming wineries - service quality and customer satisfaction, and analysis
about Bulgaria.

57

http://www.italymag.co.uk/italy/food-drink/popularity-wine-tourism-grows, Accessed on 2
February 2009
58
http://www.babti.com/index.php?lang=2&cat=36, Accessed on 31 January 2009
59

http://www.kras.net/index.php?md=present&p=7, accessed on 3 February 2009


223

2.
Literature review
Old and New Wine Producing Countries
The wine tourism as a field of researches started to develop in the 1990s in
countries including Australia, Canada, USA, South Africa, New Zealand, which
have entered the market with quality wines and became competitors of the
traditional wine-producing countries like France, Spain, Italy, and Portugal. The
penetration of the New World has been the most imporatnt factor affecting the
wine industry as well as the changing patterns of consumption and the greater
consumer demand for quality. The New World exercised influence on the
expansion of the Wine market during 1998 2003. Although the wines produced
by the traditional countries continuted to be popular because of their image of
high-quality, the unfamiliar to consumers and their desire to try something new
were more powerful.(Cazin, 2004)
According to the words of Francois Lurton, one of the greatest advantages
of the countries of the New World is their flexible hours, which gives them the
ability to organize opening times so people can come when they want. In contrast
to these countries, France, for example, has very rigid 35 hour week and little
working at weekends. (Anson, 2007)
What is Wine Tourism?
The definitions of wine tourism examine different opinions about the
meaning of this special-interest tourism. They stress on the relation to the
travelers motivation and experience. For example, Hall et al. (2000) defines
wine tourism as visitation to vineyards, wineries, wine festivals and wine shows
for which grape wine tasting and/or experiencing the attributes of a grape wine
region are the prime motivating factors for visitors. The definition is oriented
toward the activity. Furthermore wine tourists may not only be interested in
tasting wines but also in its production process. Getz (2000), however,
emphasizes on the wine producing regions and indentifies wine tourism as a
form of special-interest travel based on the desire to visit wine-producing regions
or in which travelers are induced to visit wine-producing regions, and wineries in
particular, while traveling for other reasons. Carlsen and Dowling (2001)
characterize wine tourism as travel for experience of wineries and wine regions
and their link to the Australian lifestyle and encompasses service provision and
destination marketing. Another definition appeares in LEssentiel de
lEconomie Touristique which describes wine tourism as the overall services
offered to tourists during their stay in a wine region: visits to wine cellars,
wineries, wine tasting, accommodation, restaurants and well as annex activities
linked to wine, regional products and traditions (MITRA 2006).
Segmentation of Wine Tourists
Many studies examine different segments of wine tourists. Wine tourists
can be divided into special winery tourists and a more generalist visitor
(Johnson, 1998). The specialist wine tourist is one who visits a vineyard,
winery, wine festival or wine show for the purpose of recreation and whose
primary motivation is a specific interest in grape wine or grape wine-related
224

phenomena, whereas the generalist wine tourist is likely to be primarily


motivated to visit a wine region for other reasons (Johnson, 1998, p. 15). This
has been supported by Carlsen, Dowling, and Cowan (1998), while Mitchell
(2004) suggests that generalist wine tourists account for around three out of
every four visitors to New Zealand wineries. (cited by Galloway, 2006)
Another separation of wine tourists is the segmentation of Wine Lover,
Wine Interested and Curious Tourist (Hall, 1996). Charsters and Ali-Knight
(2002) indentify five segments of winery visitors: Wine Lover, Wine
Interested, Connoisseurs, Wine Novices and Hangers-on. Reasons for
visiting a winery differ for each of the segments. For example, Wine Lovers
desire a learning experience at wineries, tasting and purchasing wines, while the
motivation of Wine Novices include more general tourist activities such as
tours of the winery or vineyard, or eating at a restaurant. The group of
Connoisseurs is much more interested in learning about wine production. The
implication is that wine tourists might seek out destinations that offer the
learning experience they desire.
The market segmentation is effected by socio-economic factors such as
age, gender, income and education. Likewise, psychological features such as
motivations, lifestyle, activities, interests, opinions, values and personality
should also be considered when analysing the differences between wine tourists.
(Gets, 2006)
According to Mansfeld (2008), the consumption of wine represents a
particular lifestyle and social status. Research conducted among general tourists
and wine tourists shows that the wine tourists share a number of similar lifestyle
characteristics and values. For example, Israeli wine tourists have similar sociodemographic characteristics. Most of them live in the center of the country, are
between 25 44 years old with an academic education, and share an outgoing
lifestyle. Besides, it has also been found that people visiting wineries consume
wine on a regular basis and have a good level of knowledge about wine.
Many studies take an approach to measure visitor perceptions. The recent
merger of the wine and tourism sector in the form of wine tourism has driven the
agriculturalists to review the nature of their business and bring it into contact
with tourists. As O'Neill and Palmer(2004) point out, winery operators, being
aware of the benefits provided by the wine tourism, must focus their business
objectives not only on the quality of wines but also on the quality of service
related to the cellar door and other service outlets leading to customer
satisfaction.
Furthermore, wine tourism is considered an essential tourism element that
provides not only revenues, but also investments, foreign-exchange earnings and
creation of both full- and part-time jobs, which is regarded as a significant policy
for generating an economic growth for the region (O'Neill, Palmer, 2004).
In the successful development of wine tourism, marketing plays an
essential role. Wine has been used for a range of marketing strategies to attract
consumers. Many consumers are interested in understanding about origins of
wine products, in which regions wine products are grown or produced. The wine
225

embodies the characteristics of the location where it is produced, as well as


represents the image of that particular winery (Mansfeld, 2008).
This trend aroused an interest in food and wine festivals which provide
awareness of both the product and its destination region (Hall et al., 2000).
Festivals organised within wine producing regions create a unique combination
between wine, special events (Yuan et al., 2005), and different activities such as
wine tasting, food stalls, arts and crafts, entertainment, thus offering diverse
social and cultural experiences (Axelsen, 2006; Litvin and Fetter, 2006) for those
interested in wine and those looking for participation in a unique festival.
According to the same questionnaire mentioned above, 73.2% of the
visitors travelled to wine regions with their partner, friends or both, and only
19.8% travelled with their family. (Sparks, 2006)
According to a research conducted by the Ministry of Tourism in New
Zealand, 41% of international tourists visiting wineries in 2005/2006 were
travelling with their spouse or partner and 30% of the international tourists were
travelling alone or with business associates. 60
Wine Tourism as a Niche Tourism
Many countries concentrate efforts in developing niche product sectors
which provide enticement for travellers. Niche sectors are associated with naturebased tourism; wine & food tourism; heritage tourism; arts & cultural tourism.61
Many of the niche tourism programs, from wine tours and eco-tourism to
agro-tourism and seasonal events, are located in rural areas. Wine tourism allows
rural regions to diversify their economies, to enhance community development,
provde tourist attraction. (Bodalo, 2009)
Food & Wine Tourism
Wine has always been served as complimentary to food. Talking
especially about European cousine, its very common within the Europeans to
have a glass of wine with every meal as the the wine and the food complement
the taste of one another. 62
According to a CENSIS report, wine and food have become the second
most important reason why tourists come to Italy and are considered the treat
which gives the greatest satisfaction to visitors. 63
Accompaning food dishes with wine enhance the dining experience. This
matching between wine and food has evolved over the years and has created the

60
http://www.tourismresearch.govt.nz/Documents/Tourism%20Sector%20Profiles/WineTouris
m%2008-2007.pdf, Accessed on 3 February 2009
61
http://www.tourism.wa.gov.au/Policies_Plans_Strategies/Niche_Tourism_Sectors/Pages/Nic
he_Tourism_Sectors.aspx, Accessed on 3 February 2009
62
http://www.monkeysee.com/play/7552-Wine-Pairing-Rule-1-Match-Weights-of-Food-%26Wine, Accessed on 3 February 2009
63
http://www.italymag.co.uk/italy/food-drink/popularity-wine-tourism-grows, Accessed on 2
February 2009

226

potential for the wine and food tourism industry to be more beneficial and
provide tourists with unique products and experiences. 64
3. Characteristics of wine Tourism
Part of the appeal of the wine is that it is not only a drink, but it also
represents the regions culture and the local environment of the vineyard in
which it was produced.
Wine tourism is not only associated with cellar door wineries, but it also
includes all business that relate to the wine region - accommodation houses, tour
operators, gift shops, national parks etc.
One of the characteristics of wine tourism is the perceptions of the
destination. In order to understand what makes tourists visit a wine destination,
it is necessary to determine the attributes of a wine region, for example: scenery,
open spaces (Getz, 1999, cited by Sparks, 2006), winescapes, which are
characterised by three main elements: the presence of vineyards, the winemaking
activity and the wineries where the wine is produced and stored (Telfer, 2001,
cited by Sparks, 2006).
Demand for wine tourism. The demand can be driven by a desire to
purchase wine, an interest in learning more about wine, opportunities for social
interaction, and, possibly, health reasons (Sparks, 2006).
Getz and Brown (2006) suggest three critical features of wine tourism
experiences for consumers: core wine product, core destination appeal,
and the cultural product.
Wineries are an example of working landscapes as many communities
rely on wine production for their survival, and thus providing economic
incentives for their preservation.
The wine industry covers three sectors of the economy: agriculture,
manufacturing, and trade. This provides opportunity to increase profit margins
while maintaining the vitality of lanscapes. (Bellos, Fox, Upton)
Effect of the wineries on the nature
- Negative impact: Vineyards can cause damages to the environment by
polluting the soil and water with fertilizers, pesticides, and other chemicals used
in grape production. Furthermore the opening of new vineyards can lead to a
clearing of forests or wetlands, which consequently can affect landscape and the
wildlife. (Bellos, Fox, Upton)
- Positive impact: Wine production requires limited water and nutrients
compared to other crops which prevents soil erosion. Wineries also benefits the
environment concerning their suburban sprawl development. (Bellos, Fox,
Upton)

64

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wine_and_food_matching#Matching_weight, Accessed on 3
February 2009
227

The wine industry - on-site processing as a value-added product. The


wine industry offers not only selling of grapes, but also fermenting and bottling
of grapes on- site to produce wine for a higher profit than raw grapes. On-site
processing of wine has been performed for centuries, which is what makes wine
itself a value-added industry.
Community-Specific Branding is an ideal tool to differentiate wine
products on geography. It provides communities with an opportunity to present
their regions distinct priority and create a sense of pride with the wine product
which inevitably makes people recognize the region. Wine regions that utilize
community-specific branding create a variety of jobs, which helps the region to
sustain community livelihood and expand the regional economy. (Bellos, Fox,
Upton)
Length of stay
According to a survey which was conducted in four states of Australia
(South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland), 36.9% of visitors
stayed in wine regions for only one day, 16,1% - an overnight and 23.3% - two
days. (Sparks, 2006)
Another research showed that in New Zealand international tourists who
visit wineries stayed longer on average than all international tourists. In
2005/2006, 36% of international wine tourists stayed in New Zealand for more
than 20 nights. In fact, the probability of visiting a winery increased with length
of stay. Those staying for 17-19 nights had the highest propensity to visit a
winery.
Spending Behaviour
The tourists are seeking for greater experience and something unique.
Such tourists have disposable income and prefer small, exclusive
accommodations. (Deliso, 2003)
Over 60% of the respondents of the questionnaire conducted in Australia,
report purchasing attitude of wine and local food products. The average amount
spent on wine when visiting a wine region was $171. (Sparks, 2006)
In New Zealand international wine tourists spent significantly more on
average per trip ($4,030, 2005/2006) than general tourists ($2,850). When
considered in the context of length of stay, the average daily expenditure of wine
tourists is about $157 per night -higher than that of general tourists - $140 per
night. Therefore wine tourists are higher value tourists on average, staying longer
in the country and spending more.65
4. Tourism Resources
Bulgaria is famous for its grape varieties and production of wine.
According to historic and archeological researches vine growing and making

65

http://www.tourismresearch.govt.nz/Documents/Tourism%20Sector%20Profiles/WineTouris
m%2008-2007.pdf, Accessed on 3 February 2009
228

wines date as far back as the Thracian. As a country of ancient cultures and
civilizations Bulgaria has long traditions in production of wines.
The natural resources are of real richness for the country and if used
properly can offer great opportunities for tourism activities. Bulgaria has natural
resources, tradition and culture for the development of wine tourism.
The potential for wine making in Bulgaria is big. The countrys climate is
moderate - in the northern part of the country it is continental with cool winters
and hot summers, it is milder to the south due to the influence of the Black sea
and the Mediterranean. The average temperatures in Bulgaria are appropriate for
the growth of grapevines. The soils are diverse and varied - there are acidic
(cinnamonic) soils, grey forest soils, rich zonal humus and carbonate soil,
alluvial and mountain meadow soils, including both deep and shallow sandy
soils. They are all exceptionally favorable for vine growing, the proper ripening
of grapes and the production of different wines.
Bulgaria has suitable conditions for growing quality grapes. In the country
unique national sorts of grapes could be found. Traditional sorts for Bulgaria are
Mavrud, red Misket, Pamid, which are used for red wines, Dimyat, Keratsuda
and Tamyanka(Muskat) are also very popular sorts for wine production. (See
Appendix 1 Grape varieties grown in Bulgaria)
According to the soil and the climatic conditions as well as the grape
varieties, five major vine and wine regions can be defined in the country 66,67:
The Danube Plain Region (Northern Bulgaria)
The Thracian Lowlands Region (Southern Bulgaria)
The Black Sea Region (Eastern Bulgaria)
The Struma Valley Region (South-Western Bulgaria)
The Rose Valley Region

The Danube Plain Region


It is also known as Northern Bulgarian Region. The moderate continental
climate is typical for this region with hot summers and a great number of sunny
days. It covers the central and western parts of the Danube Plain, and the
outlying areas. High quality wines, red and white, are produced from a number of
different grapes. The reds are made from the local Gamza as well as from
Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot with rich fruity flavour and fresh taste.

66

http://www.bulgarianwines.org/pages.php?&name=indu_1&ParentName=indu&lng=en,
Accessed on 29 January 2009

67

http://www.bulgariancoast.com/infotips/wine.asp, Accessed on 28 January 2009

229

Chardonnay, Riesling, and Sauvignon Blanc are the most prominent whites. The
areas Pleven, Lovech, Vratsa and Lyaskovets are popular as wine producers.
The Thracian Lowland Region
It is also popular as Southern Bulgarian Region. It has a moderate
continental climate and even distribution of precipitation throughout the entire
growth period of the vines. The region is also well-sheltered from the strong
northern winds. It includes the central parts of the Thracian lowlands and parts of
the Sakar Mountains. Typical grape varieties grown in the region are Mavrud,
Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Red Misket, Pamid, which are used for the
production of rich red wines. The wine from the local Mavrud variety is highly
appreciated as it combines the fragrance and flavour of red berries, spices and
herb. Some of the most famous wineries in this region are around Plovdiv
Bessa Valley Wine Cellar (Sinitovo village), Todorov Wine Cellar (Brestovitsa
village), Zagreus (Popovitsa village), also Pazardjik, Stara Zagora and
Asenovgrad.
The Black Sea Region
The Eastern Bulgarian Region or the so called Black Sea Region covers
the territory along the Black Sea coast between the Northern border with
Romania and the Southern border point on the sea coast with Turkey. The
autumns here are warm and long. This climate is favorable for the sufficient
accumulation of sugars to produce fine semi-dry white wines. The most widely
grown varieties are Muscat Ottonel, Dimyat, Chardonnay, Uni Blanc, Traminer
and Sauvignon Blanc. The region produces dry and semi-dry wines which
combine a pleasant bouquet of fruity flavors, a rich taste and a subtle freshness.
Popular wineries in this region are situated in Ruse, Varna, and near Burgas.
The Struma Valley Region
The south-eastern part of the country or also known as Struma Valley
Region is popular with the local variety Shiroka Melnishka Loza. The region
does not cover a large area but it is characterized with a specific climate which is
close to the climate of the Mediterranean. The valley has suitable conditions for
growing varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot. The wines from these
varieties carry the warm southern flavor and the richness of the general
impression. The wine from Shiroka Melnishka Loza variety is particularly valued
for its full-bodied flavor and ruby-red color. With aging, it acquires a delightfully
exotic flavor. Popular towns which are wine producers are Melnik, Sandanski
and Blagoevgrad.
The Rose Valley Region
The region covers the south of the Balkan mountain.The most widely
grown varieties are Red Misket, Riesling, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot. The
region produces dry and semi-dry white wines, as well as some flavored wines.
The wines have a delightful, full-bodied fruity flavor and fresh, uniformly
harmonious taste. The wine from the variety Red Misket is among the best white
wines produced in the country -they have a deep fruity flavor, exquisite full body

230

and gentle lasting aftertaste. Areas around Karlovo and Kazanlak are popular
with its wine productions and famous wine cellars are Rose Valley and Starosel.
5. Tourism Supply
Wine tourism supply is related to the resources available for developing
this type of special interest tourism. Bulgaria possesses all the resources needed
to arise wine tourism which are linked to wine industry and tourism industry. As
a country with long traditions in wine producing, it has resources such as
winegrowers, wineries, vineyards, festivals and shows. From the tourism point of
view Bulgaria offers to the tourist diversity of accommodation in the wine
producing regions which make the development of wine tourism easier.
Wine tourism in Bulgaria has developed since late 1990s when wine
cellars such as Damyanitsa, Lyaskovets, Todorov, Osmar, Dimyat started to offer
wine tasting and wine tours. Later on, Rose Valley Karlovo, Blue Rock
Sliven, vinprom Chernomorsko Zlato Pomoroe created also wine tours. 68 (See
Appendix 2 Registered wine producers in Bulgaria)
Recently tour operators have started do provide excursions to wine cellars,
wine tasting tours round trip programs.
In spite of the fact that Bulgaria has all the resources to become a world
wine tourism region, it is not popular as a wine tourism destination on the
market. For foreign tourists the country is attractive with its climate, culture and
national heritage but not with the wineries. Most of the wine tours which are
organized by tour operators are just a part of a round trips or one day excursions.
People visiting Bulgria are interested to take part in such a tour because it
presents national habits and traditions.

68

http://www.infobulgaria.info/index.php?lang=2&cat=36&itm=, Accessed on 31 January


2009
231

Figure 1 Vine and wine regions in Bulgaria


Who does organize wine tours?
Wine cellars arrange their own wine tours which include presentations
about grape varieties grown in Bulgaria, wine producing technology, wine
tastings, and some of them combine this with accommodation and food services.
Tour operators have also started to organize wine excursions. Most of
them include wine tours as a part of round trips with an overnight in the winery
or just one day visits to vineyards.
Information about different wine tours can also be found in web sites and
on-line reservation systems (e.g. visitbulgaria.net, vinenturizam.start.bg,
tourismbulgaria.com, touristmedia.info, horemag.bg, journey.bg, infohub.com).
What is offered to the market?
For the people who want to know more about the traditions in wine
production the easiest way is to take part in one of the wine tastings which are
organized in wineries. Almost every wine cellar in Bulgaria offers the
opportunity to visit it and to understand more about grape varieties and wine
making. Wine Lovers who desire a learning experience at wineries, tasting and
purchasing wines are the target market for such a tour. Wine Novices who travel
for more general tourist activities will be interested in a tour of a winery or a
vineyard, or eating at a restaurant. Typical examples of such wineries are
Todorov (Brestovitsa village, Plovdiv), Rumelia (Panagyurishte), Starosel
(Starosel village, Hisarya), Valchanov House (Rodopa Mountain ), Damyanitsa
(Melnik).
Wine tours which are organized in the country are related to the rural
tourism and food and wine tourism because many wine cellars are situated in
village areas and places considered as interest of rural tourism. Eduardo
Miroglio, for example, is a wine cellar situated in the Thracian region, Elenovo
village (15km from Nova Zagora) which offers to its visitors a guest house with a
restaurant and a tasting room. The internal design and furnishing of the guest
house represents unique symbols of typical Bulgaria style. Another place popular
as a wine tourism and rural tourism area is Melnik. Each house in Melnik offers
guest rooms and tavern where the visitors can taste the traditional dishes and
home-made wine.
In the region Damianitsa Wine Cellar has dominated as a wine producer
since it was established in 1940 and provide to the tourists wine tours and wine
tastings guided by professional sommeliers.
Bulgaria is not only a wine producer with long years tradition but also
organizer of wine festivals and exhibitions. Spa and Wine is organized by
municipality Sandanski and Bulgarian Balneology and Spa Union and represents
Bulgarian wine producers and hotels which provide spa facilities.69

69

http://www.horemag.bg/show.php?storyid=404010, Accessed on 29 January 2009


232

Each year at the beginning of December Bulgarian Sommeliers and


Hoteliers Association and restaurant Molerite organize Vinena Zavera in
Bansko. It is a festival where professionals evaluate Bulgarian wine producers
from consumers point of view.70
Another examples of such festivals are Wine tour Varna and
Vinariya Plovdiv.
Development of wine tourism in Bulgaria is supported by tour operators.
They offer to the market different round trips which include visitations of wine
producers, rural regions and areas of Bulgarian historic heritage.
Table 1 Wine tours offered in Bulgaria
Company

Destinations of
the Tours

Via
Ozonica

Bulgaria

Gabi Tour

Alma
Tour

Sofia-MelnikBrestovitsaPlovdivPerperikonIvailovgradHisar-StaroselSofia
Rumelia Wine
Cellar Panagjurishte

Globul
Tour

Bulgaria

Romantic
Holidays

Round trips of
Bulgaria

Tangra
Tour

Wine Tourism
Product
Wine tours, wine
tasting events,
visitation of wine
cellars

Prices
Depending on the
product

A six-day package
for wine and rural
tourism

Wine tours to the


winery

Wine tastings as a
part of Rural tourism
excursions
Packages for seven,
eight and ten days,
which combine
visitation of wine
producers,
presenting the
Bulgarian rural and
heritage regions

Melnik

The wine of Melnik


a two-day package

Lyaskovetc-

The Taste of

For each group of


10 people, the 11th
travel for free

145
euro/person(HB,
transportation,guid
e,entrance
fees,wine tasting)
262 euro/person

70

http://www.horemag.bg/show.php?storyid=448015, Accessed on 29 January 2009


233

Veloko Tarnovo
Plovdiv - Sofia

Bulgaria a threeday package

Round trip of
Bulgaria

The Wines of
Bulgaria a sevenday package

Round trip of
Bulgaria

The Regional Wines


a ten-day package

City Tour

Brestovitsa
village

Wine and Spa Todorov

Premier
Tour

Round trip of
Bulgaria

An eight-day
package

Vegena
Travel

Round trip of
Bulgaria

Li Tour

Bulgaria

Lazarova
Travel
DM
Travel
Magic
Tours
Alexander
Tour

Round trip of
Bulgaria
Round trip of
Bulgaria
Round trip of
Bulgaria
Round trip of
Bulgaria

An eight-day
package
Individual and group
excursions
An eight-day
package
Packages of 8 days

(HB,
transportation,guid
e,entrance
fees,wine tasting)
500
euro/person(HB,
transportation,guid
e,entrance
fees,wine tastings)
785
euro/person(HB,
transportation,guid
e,entrance
fees,wine tastings)
76 euro/dbl room,
100-150 euro/suite
600euro/person(B
B,wine
tastings,guide)
Group discounts,
children discounts
-

Package of 9 days

Depending on the
customers

Compared to the wine tours offered abroad in Bulgaria they are much
cheaper and include food, transport, hotel, guide, sightseeing costs. For example,
travel agencies from the UK offer two-week package deals for about 1000 to
2000 pounds, while Bulgarian companies offer two-week tours for 1500 euro per
person.71
According to the Tourism Investors Union, smaller companies are more
engaged with alternative tourism, especially rural, wine and cultural tourism.
They are often owners of eco-houses in the mountains, away from the typical
tourist areas. However, larger tour operators have also noticed this market niche
and have started to develop their own trips around the mountains and managed to
develop alternative tourism opportunities.

71

http://www.sofiaecho.com/article/increase-in-alternative-tourists-visitingbulgaria/id_31161/catid_67, Accessed on 5 February 2009


234

6. Tourism Demand
More and more people - Bulgarians and foreigners, start realizing that
tourism is not just building of new hotels and clubs. Recently many travellers
would like to feel and understand about the history, local agricultural products
and prefer to visit local monasteries, medieval castles, Thracian heritage.72
An increasing number of tourists choose Bulgaria as a destination where
to experience the drink of Gods. The wineries in Bulgaria are drawing
foreigners attention even more than the beaches, churches or the museums. 73
Thats why in order to attract more visitors, many wineries encourage the
participation of the guests in some phases from the wine-production for
example, picking and squeezing of grapes.
Increse in Alternative Tourists Visiting Bulgaria
According to the words of Lyubomir Popyordanov (2008), chairperson of
the Bulgarian Association for Alternative Tourism, the number of tourists
visiting Bulgaria for other purposes than the Black Sea has raised to 35 000 a
year. Main alternative group tourists come from Europe, but there are also
alternative tourists from Japan, Korea, Australia and the US.
Andrey Ralev from Balkani Wildlife Society (2008) notes that the total
number of alternative tourists visiting Bulgaria is much less than the regular
ones, but the amout they spend is significantly larger.
Alternative tourists often choose mountain biking, horseback riding,
climbing. Others visit Bulgaria to observe endangered birds or rare plants. Many
tourists are interested in visiting
local archaeological sites, some are concerned to learn about traditional
Bulgarian crafts, Bulgarian cuisine and Bulgarian wine.74
Two types of wine tourists groups can be considered target groups:
- People, who like drinking wine, have knowledge about the wine and
want to learn more about wine production process
- People, who are not interested in tasting wines, but are fascinated by the
packaging, labels, product cues or product location.
Examples of type of tourists visiting different wineries
Primary and secondary data is used to demonstrate the wine tourism
demand in Bulgaria. The primary data consists of inquires to Bulgarian wineries
to obtain statistics regarding the type and number of tourists visiting these
wineries. Secondary data includes information from Internet sources.

72

http://international.ibox.bg/news/id_1833143031, Accessed on 28 January 2009


http://paper.standartnews.com/en/article.php?d=2007-10-26&article=7204, Accessed on 29
January 2009
74
http://www.sofiaecho.com/article/increase-in-alternative-tourists-visitingbulgaria/id_31161/catid_67, Accessed on 5 February 2009
73

235

The following table represents the nationality and the type of tourists
visiting Bulgarian wineries.75,76,77
Table 2 Wine tourism demand in Bulgaria
Winery

Location

Guest House
Valchanov

Solishta, Rodopa
Mountain

Via Pontica

on the route from


Bourgas to
Sunny Beach

Nationality of
tourists
France, England,
Germany,
Belgium, Austria,
Turkey
Germany, the
Scandinavian
Peninsula, Russia,
England

Type of visitors
professionalists,
technologists,
collectors, owners
of cellars;
Tourists;

Todoroff
Winery

Brestovitza

Europe, Asia,
America

connoisseurs of
wine, organised
groups from
Bulgarian tour
operators, business
tourists, enologists,
journalists of
worldwide editions
for Wine;

Madara Winery

Shumen

England,
Germany

Tourists;

7. SWOT Analysis
Table 3 SWOT analysis of wine tourism in Bulgaria
STRENGHTS
Rich natural and cultural resources;
Geographical position a bridge
between Europe and Asia;
Climate favourable conditions for
grape-growing;
Recognition of alternative tourism
as a resource for profit making;

WEAKNESSES
Lack of financial resources to
promote agricultural industry (Wine);
Bad infrastructure;

75

http://news.guidebulgaria.com/SE/Bourgas/Pomorie/Pomorie/News.aspx?4527=Via_Pontica_tempts_tourists_w
ith_high-quality_wine, Accessed on 3 February 2009
76

http://www.topnews.name/news-inside.php?id=7990, Accessed on 3 February 2009

77

http://www.bulgarianwines.org/pages.php?name=indu_2_2&ParentName=indu&lng=bg,
Accessed on 3 February 2009

236

Increase in the number of


touroperators in the sphere of special
kinds of tourism;
Traditional Bulgarian hospitality ,
cuisine with delicious quality;
Bulgaria is getting known as a
grape-growing region/Wine-producing
region;
High quality of Bulgarian grapes;
Good wne producers;
OPPORTUNITIES
THREATS
Change of the law frameworks with
accent on special kinds of tourism;
Improving the public and tourist Prices and packages attracting
infrastructure;
tourists create image as cheap and
Emphasis on quality of the services; poor quality destination;
New investments in the wine Disappearing of the traditional
crafts;
industry;
Increased awareness of Wine Chaotic planning of the tourist
development on regional and national
tourism;
Allowing access to more financial level, which is subordinate on the
resources for development of wine private corporate interests;
More wineries are being created,
tourism;
A general increase in wine which leads to bigger competition;
Labor shortage;
consumption;
Age of growers;
Plenty of areas to plant grapes;
Economic leverage that comes from
wineries Bed and Breakfast;
Restaurants;
8. Perspective for future development of wine tourism in Bulgaria
According to research made by Noema Global Dynamics(2008) more and
more foreign tourists visit Bulgaria and all of them are looking for alternative
activities during their stay which is a premise for development of special interest
tourism, especially wine tourism. As a country with long traditions in wine
production Bulgaria has a chance to be one of the so called New World
countries for development of wine tourism.
The reasons why Bulgaria is still not famous as wine tourism region are
related to lack of information, low level of development of wine consumption
culture, lack of national budget for promotion of the wine producing sector, lack
of developed system for marketing and distribution, relatively small number of
wineries providing accommodation and food service.
Low wine culture of people in Bulgaria is due to the fact that most of the
households produce wine and traditional Bulgarian drink rakiya themselves and
do not buy wine from wineries. Although the group of connoisseurs is still small,
the number of people who are interested in wine making traditions and tasting is
increasing. Bacchus magazine facilitates the development of wine culture in
237

Bulgaria. The sector is striving to raise the consumer awareness of the


advantages of the wine in view of the expansion in the field of commerce,
tourism and increasing the quality of life.
But the lack of budgets for advertising and marketing campaigns is a
barrier for the wine tourism to penetrate the world market. Fortunately the
Bulgarian business has an opportunity to receive a financial support from the
European Union. The European Commission has a project proposal as a part of
the EU Support Programme for promotion of EU agricultural products on the
internal market under the funding scheme for Promotion Programmes CoFinanced by the EU (Council Regulation No 3/2008 and Commission
Regulation No 501/2008). The purpose of the programme is to raise awareness
about EU initiatives that guarantee quality of Regional Wines, to countermand
negative consumer and distributor perceptions, to significantly increase
competitiveness of the wines in the markets.
This programme is a great opportunity for Bulgaria to enhance its
popularity as a wine producer and to develop as wine tourism region. The
country also needs to establish a system of marketing strategies and distributional
channels in order to enter the world wine tourism market. Appropriate tools for
increasing awareness of Bulgarian wine production are strong advertising
campaigns and promotions. The investments in the development and marketing
of Bulgarian wine tourism will only make sense, if return on these investments
can be realistically expected. The returns will only be possible when a better
image of the Bulgarian wine is built and therefore the achievement of higher
marketing prices. The success of such investment will depend on focusing the
efforts in the promotion of production and the marketing of high quality wines
produced in Bulgaria.
Bulgarian wine producers should focus on:
Provision of professional consultations on distribution to the enterprises
Increased cooperation with other branch organizations
Facilitating the marketing and distribution of wine on the internal and
external market
Increased access to external markets
Increased export of Bulgarian wines
Increased advertising focused on specific market niches and brands on
specific target markets: Germany, Great Britain, Japan, Russia, the Scandinavian
countries, USA
Encouraging the development of small and medium wineries

A partnership with the government would create favorable conditions for


the development of the wine producing industry and wine tourism for attracting
investments to them.

238

The reformed common market organization for wine offers a softer system
of regulating the market than in the past.78
Tour operators as a part of tourism industry can facilitate development of
wine tourism by offering wine tours on the international market. Till now just a
small number of Bulgarian tour operators provide wine tours and packages. We
expect that more and more tour operators will focus their attention to wine tours
because wine tourism is expanding as special interest tourism in Bulgaria.
Relatively small number of wineries which offer accommodation and food
services is also a problem for the wine tourism growth. There are more than 200
wine producers in Bulgaria and only few of them have a restaurant, guest house
or hotel part(e.g. Todoroff , Edoardo Miroglio, Damianitsa, Medovo). Thats
why entrepreneurs invest in wine tourism in Bulgaria because they see the
resources as an opportunity for expanding their businesses. A project of building
a complex situated in Pepelnika region, near Haskovo, including a wine cellar,
a restaurant and a hotel has started in 2008.
Bulgaria has significant advantages in making its reputation as a wine
tourism destination. The country has the potential to become popular in this
industry all over the world because it has the resources needed to develop this
type of special interest tourism. The development of the vine growing and wine
production sector will turn it into a leader sector of the economy and place
Bulgaria on the international wine markets as a competitor.
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240

Appendix 1
Grape Varieties Grown in Bulgaria
No:

Name:

Gamza

Mavrud

Cherven
Misket

Pamid

Dimyat

Shiroka
Melnishka
Loza

Characteristics of the Grape


an old local variety, cultivated in northern Bulgaria, a
comparatively late-ripening variety - its vintage is at the
end of September and at the beginning of October;the
yield from one vine is 4-6 kg;when the variety ripens, it
reaches 19-21.8% sugar content;if the autumn is warm
and dry, the red wines produced from Gamza typically
have a vivid but not very dense ruby colour, a pleasant
taste of small red fruits dominated by raspberry and a
distinct but mild freshness and pleasant tannins.
an old local variety, cultivated only in Bulgaria, a late
ripening variety - in the Plovdiv region the grapes ripen
at the beginning of October;one of the most valuable
local varieties for the production of red wines;the sugar
content is from 17 to 23%;the wines produced from this
variety have a deep ruby colour, enough tannin and acids
in reserve and a typical pleasant flavour in which one
can detect the taste of tendrils and blackberry
cultivated on our territories since ancient times and it is
considered to be an old Bulgarian variety;spread mainly
in the sub-Balkan Valley and Sredna Gora - the
Sungurlare Valley, and the Karlovo and Brezovo
districts;accumulate 18-21% of sugar;the wines have a
straw-yellow colour, a harmonious taste and a pleasant
Misket flavour
very old local variety, which has been cultivated in
Bulgaria since the times of the ancient Thracians;a
middle-ripening variety - the vintage is around the
middle of September;average yield from one vine is
around 4-5 kg;accumulate sufficient sugar - from 18 to
24%;wines are red, light table wines for mass
consumption
an old local variety widely distributed along the Black
Sea coast, in the regions of Shoumen and Stara Zagora;a
late ripening in the second half of September, typically
dessert variety;the wines produced from its grape are
standard white table wines and high-quality material for
brandy distillate
an old local variety that has been cultivated since ancient
times in the region of Melnik;a late ripening variety;has
a satisfactory good sugar level - 20-24% and enough
titratable acids - 6-8 g/dm3;wines are distinguished for
their dense cherry colour, their intense flavour
dominated by cherry, enough density and a typical
piquant tartness

241

Cabernet
Sauvignon

Merlot

Muskat
Ottonel

10

Pinot Noir

11

Riesling

12

Rkatziteli

this variety comes from France and is considered to be


the most prestigious variety for the production of red
wines; the most widespread one for the production of red
wines in Bulgaria;a middle-ripening variety - it ripens in
September;develops its technological qualities - sugar
21-24%, comparatively high acidity 6.5-9g/dm3, a very
good content of colouring substance and extract;the
wines are characterized by an intense flavour of small
red fruits - namely black currants, blackberry and
mulberry, intense dark red colour and good density
comes from France;in Bulgaria it is cultivated in all
vine-growing and wine-producing regions; the grapes
ripen around the middle of September;accumulates
sufficient sugar content - 22-26% and titratable acids
around 6 g/dm3;the flavour of the young wines is
described as dominated by the taste of ripe cherry and
prune;
comes from France; a comparatively mid to early
ripening variety;the vintage is usually in the first half of
September but it often takes place at the end of
August;accumulates enough sugar - from 19.1 to 24.15%
- but the titratable acids are low in hot regions;the white
dry wines produced from this variety are impressive,
with an intense flavour of flowers, reminiscent of violets
and geranium, with a considerable density and a medium
freshness
distinguished for its excellent fertility; typical for this
variety is that it is rarely combined with other
varieties;when the wine is young, it is described as a
wine with a ruby colour, incredible pleasantness and a
flavour composed of the typical nuances of cherry,
mulberry and raspberry and, sometimes, smoke;in
Bulgaria this variety accumulates a considerable sugar
content: 21-27%, and high acidity: 6.24-10.49 g/dm3.
comes from Rhein and Moselle Valley and is one of the
oldest European varieties;a mid-ripening wine variety - it
ripens in the first half of September;when it is well
cultivated the yield is around 8000-10000 kg/hectare;the
dry wines produced from this variety are described as
delicate, with a comparatively low alcohol content and
an intense flavour;in Bulgaria the variety is cultivated in
the colder northeastern regions; accumulates sufficient
sugar - 18-19% and has an excellent acidity content 7.5- 8.39 g/dm3
a Georgian variety that has been cultivated namely in
Kahetia since ancient times;a mid to late-ripening
variety. In the warmer Bulgarian regions (in the Plovdiv,
Haskovo and Pleven districts) it ripens in the second half
of September and in Sungurlare Valley, the Karlovo
district and northeastern Bulgaria - at the beginning of
October;accumulates 18-22% of sugar content and it has
242

a comparatively high level of titratable acids (710g/dm3);gives good wine materials for naturally
sparkling wines;

13

Chardonnay

14

Sauvignon
Blanc

15

Tamianka

16

Traminer

17

Ugni Blanc

comes from France;an early wine variety-hot regions


like the Plovdiv it ripens at the end of August and at the
beginning of September, in colder regions like
northeastern Bulgaria - around the middle of
September;accumulates sugar - 20-24% and preserves a
comparatively high acidity - 7-9 g/dm3;white wines of
extremely good quality are produced from this variety,
usually have an intense flavour, dominated by nuances
of tropical fruit /melon and pineapple/ with fig and citrus
accents
comes from France, in Bulgaria it is cultivated in
Burgas,Razgrad and Targovishte;a mid-early wine
variety - it ripens around the middle of
September;reaches a sugar content of up to 20-24% and
very good titratable acids: 8-9 g/dm3;it is considered to
be one of the most difficult varieties for wine
production;the most typical flavour characteristics of the
wines are the flavour of hay, tropical fruit and
gooseberries
comes from the Near East - Syria, Iraq, Egypt, Iran;a
mid-ripening variety - its vintage is around the middle of
September;considered to be a classic wine variety for the
production of extremely fine sweet wine;the famous
wine "Asti Spumante" is produced from it in
Italy;accumulates a great deal of sugar - 20-26% and
have good levels of titrarable acids - 6-8 g/dm3
comes from Austrian;is a comparatively early to mid
ripening variety-in Bulgaria it ripens at the beginning
and up to the middle of September;dry white wines are
produced from the Traminer variety,which have a strong
flavour with a harmonious fresh taste; the character of
flavour can be described as intense with nuances of
spices as well as flowery fragrance reminiscent of
rose;the best wines from this variety are produced in
northeastern Bulgaria.
an Italian variety, widely spread in France;in Bulgaria it
is cultivated mainly in the Pomorie and Burgas;a late
ripening variety - it ripens at the end of September and at
the beginning of October;accumulates from 18 to 21%
sugar and from 7 to 9.5 g/dm3 titratable acids;the wines
are light and fresh with a fine, tender flavour

243

Appendix 2 Registered wine producers in Bulgaria

Company Name
Loviko - Chirpan JSC.

Dzhiro Trade Ltd.

Wine House Sakar JSC.

Badashte 1894 Ltd.

Vinkom JSC.

Wine House Zashtita

Wine House Vrachanska


Temenuga JSC.

Paldin Winery JSC.

10
11

Vladimir Distillers
Company JSC.
Bouquet Telish JSC.
Krasimira Kostova - Mira

12

Euro - Invest PLC.

13

Alko Ltd.

17

Regional Co-operative
Union
Chernomorsko zlato JSC.
New Industrial Company
JSC.
Osmar Ltd.

18

Domain Boyar JSC.

19

Magoura JSC.

20

Vinprom Svishtov JSC.

21

Viticulture and enology


co-operation "Grozd"

22

Hebros - Vinprom JSC.

23

Starho Plc.

24

KPTU "Veren"

14
15
16

Address
4, Lozarska Str, Chirpan, Bulgaria
3, Trakiya N 3, Plovdiv county,
Bulgaria
2, Shar Planina Str., Lyubimets,
Bulgaria
Sofia, Sport complex Diana - I, floor
4, app 43, Sofia, Bulgaria
9, Yanko Komitov Str., Slaveikov
housing estate, Bourgas, Bulgaria
77, Bacho Kiro Str., Byala cherkva, V.
Tarnovo county, Bulgaria
57, Ledenik Str, Vratsa, Bulgaria
Peroushtitsa, Plovdiv county,
Bulgaria
22, Toutrakan Str., Silistra, Bulgaria
Telish, Plovdiv county, Bulgaria
49, Svoboda Str. Sandanski, Bulgaria
15, Vasil Levski Str., Veliko Tarnovo,
Bulgaria
1, Opalchenska Str., Veliko Tarnovo,
Bulgaria
1, Lozarska Str., Chirpan, Bulgaria
Pomorie, Bourgas, Bulgaria
1, Knyaz Alexander Bataemberg Str.,
Sofia, Bulgaria
Osmar, Shoumen County, Bulgaria
20 - 22, Zlaten rog Str., floor 7,
Lozenets, Sofia, Bulgaria
Darvenitsa housing estate, Bl. 40,
entrance B, app 52, Sofia, Bulgaria
110, 33 Svishtovski polk Str.,
Svishtov, Bulgaria
Karaisen, Veliko Tarnovo county,
Bulgaria
48, Vazrazhdane Str., Septemvri,
Bulgaria
4, Pavlikenska Str., Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Veren village, Stara Zagora county,
Bulgaria
244

25

Vinivel Ltd.

26

Novovselska gamza JSC.

27

Pamexvin Ltd.

28

Vinprom Soumen JSC.

29
30
31

Sole proprietor Elisaveta


Filcheva
Wine House New Life
Sole proprietor Dionisii Emil Dimitrov

32

Vinprom Servis PK JSC.

33
34

Dom Boyar JSC.


Rose Valley Winery JSC.

35

Dionisii Plc.

36

Boyar Ltd.

37

Wine House Mizia JSC.

38
39
40

Sun Valley Winery Ltd.


Wine House Varna Plc.
Melnik Winery

41

Vintehprom JSC.

42

Wine House Strandzha


chateau Rossenovo JSC.

43

Vinprom Damyanitsa JSC.

44

SIS Industries Ltd.


Sole proprietor Ivena
Commerce
Sole proprietor Georgy
Tonev

45
46
47

Vinal JSC.

49

LVK Grozden Winery


Ltd.
Co-operation Alisa -7

50

Vinsan Ltd.

51

Vinicorp Plc.

48

72, Raiko Daskalov Str., Plovdiv,


Bulgaria
1, Panonia Str., Vidin, Bulgaria
Pamidovo, Pazardzhik county,
Bulgaria
71, Veliki Preslav Str. Shoumen,
Bulgaria
3, Gotse Delchev Str., Petrich,
Bulgaria
Brestovitsa, Plovdiv county, Bulgaria
58, Prilep Str., Varna, Bulgaria
Nadarevo, Targovishte county,
Bulgaria
20-22, Zlaten rog Str., Sofia, Bulgaria
1, Besh Bounar Str., Karlovo, Bulgaria
Industrial zone, Popovo, Panayot Hitov
Str., Bulgaria
70, Pop Grouyu Str., Bourgas,
Bulgaria
Storgozia housing estate, block 75,
Pleven, Bulgaria
19, Lavele Str., Sofia, Bulgaria
Priseltsi, Varna county, Bulgaria
Industrial zone, Petrich, Bulgaria
6, Milyo voivoda Str., Pazardzhik,
Bulgaria
Rosenovo, Bourgas county, Bulgaria
Damyanitsa, Blagoevgrad county,
Bulgaria
Venets, Bourgas county, Bulgaria
116, James Baucher Str., Sofia,
Bulgaria
6, Ivan Vazov Str. entrance E, Vratsa,
Bulgaria
37, Alexander Kousev Str. , Lovech,
Bulgaria
80, Hristo Botev Str., Sofia, Bulgaria
11, Dobroudzha Str., Sofia, Bulgaria
41, Nikola Vaptsarov Str., Sandanski,
Bulgaria
3, Svoboda Sq., floor 3, Pleven,
Bulgaria
245

54

Sole proprietor Hrisiem


MilivoeProvich
Sole proprietor Mariika
Georgieva
Vinprom Montana JSC.

55

Vinprom Peshtera JSC.

56

LVK Gamza

57

Dionis JSC.

58

SNS JSC.

59

Aidarevo Ltd.

60

Viticulture and enology


co-operation Dimyat 20

61

Dymiat JSC.

62

Loviko - Bulgaria JSC.

63

Nordix Ltd.

64

Stabex Hold Plc.

52
53

67

Sole proprietor AlcoSuper-Bozhidar Braaulov


Vinprom Taskov distilers
and wine - Vintasproect
Ltd.
Vini JSC.

68

Biotest PLC.

69

Vinzavod JSC.

65
66

70
71

SD - Imeoets - Vasilevi &


co
Viticulture and Enology
Institute

72

Vinprom Lom JSC.

73

Rikom PLC.

74

Chateau Rouko JSC.

75

Inter Sana JSC.

76

Sole proprietor Ayax Gencho Stanev "

3A, Rezbarska Str., Sofia, Bulgaria


7, Rakovski Str., Pazardzhik, Bulgaria
4, Industrialna Str., Montana, Bulgaria
113, 6 September Str., Plovdiv,
Bulgaria
156, Rositsa Str., Souhindol, Bulgaria
28, Alexander Stamboliiski Str.,
Nikopol, Bulgaria
Stamboliiski, Plovdiv county, Bulgaria
83 Bratya Miladinovi Str., Sofia,
Bulgaria
27, Simeon Str. floor 1, Varna,
Bulgaria
281, Vladislav Varnenchik Str., Varna,
Bulgaria
2, Stefan Karadzha Str., Sofia,
Bulgaria
Trud, Plovdiv county, Bulgaria
67B, Postoyanstvo Str., Sofia,
Bulgaria
Novo selo, Vidin county, Bulgaria
20, Angel Kanchev Str., Blagoevgrad,
Bulgaria
51, Tsar Simeon Str. Sliven, Bulgaria
71, Zahari Knyazhevski, Stara Zagora,
Bulgaria
75 Bulgaria Str. Assenovgrad,
Bulgaria
Sredets, Bourgas county, Bulgaria
1. Kala Tepe Str., Pleven, Bulgaria
19, Lavele Str., floor 4, Sofia,
Bulgaria
18, Vassil Kolarov Str, Plovdiv county,
Bulgaria
14 Preslav, entrance B, Yambol,
Bulgaria
63 Tsanko Tserkovski Str., Sofia,
Bulgaria
14, Rila Str., Block B, Svishtov,
Bulgaria
246

77
78
79
80

Sole proprietor Dzhanko Nina Taneva


Sole proprietor Infoguard Roumen Kalchev
Vinex Slaviantsi JSC.
LVK Vinpom Targovishte
JSC.

81

DratsiaPLC.

82

Stara izba 1924 JSC.

83
84

Wine House Vinogradets


JSC.
Agriculture co-operation
Obedinenie

85

Weingut Santa Sara JSC.

86

VIN. S. Industries Ltd.


Cave Chateau du Soleil
SARL
Sole proprietor Zhivomir
Vasilev Milbor - D
Vintrust PLC.
Vinprom Gorna
Dzhoumaya Blagoevgrad Ltd.

87
88
89
90
91

Vinex Commerce PLC.

93

Sole proprietor
Oenologist-Iliyan
Gabrovsky
Center Evxinograd Winery

94

Vinprom Alvina Ltd.

95

Vinex Preslav JSC.

96

Vinkoop JSC.

97

Wine House Trakiya


Estate JSC.

98

Edoard Miroglio

99

Fenix Ltd.

100

Sole proprietor Savil Lyubitsa Alexandrova

92

57, Volov Str. entrance A, Pleven,


Bulgaria
75, Stoyan Angelov Str., Pazardzhik,
Bulgaria
Slavyantsi, Bourgas county, Bulgaria
8, 29 January Blvd., Targovishte,
Bulgaria
Lyulin housing estate, Block 632,
entrance A, Sofia, Bulgaria
75 Matvei valev, Str., Yambol,
Bulgaria
Vinogradets, Pazardzhik county,
Bulgaria
3, Nedelcho Lambov Str., Kameno,
Bulgaria
2, Ivailo Str., Gortsa, Bourgas county,
Bulgaria
Tserkovski, Bourgas county, Bulgaria
Dragoevo, Shoumen county, Bulgaria
9, Karnicheva Str., Blagoevgrad,
Bulgaria
Trastenik, Pleven county, Bulgaria
81, Dimiter Solounsky Str.,
Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria
2, Sveta gora Str., Blagoevgrad,
Bulgaria
54A Cherni vrah Str., Svishtov,
Bulgaria
Evxinograd, Varna, Bulgaria
76, 25 September Str., Dobrich,
Bulgaria
Industrial zone, Veliki Preslav,
Bulgaria
Pavlikeni, Veliko Tarnovo county,
Bulgaria
Trakiya housing estate, block 108,
Plovdiv, Bulgaria
4. Marko Balabanov Str., Sofia,
Bulgaria
1, Lakatnishki skali Str, railway station
Lakatnik, Sofia, Bulgaria
2, 626 Str., Baoyana quarter, Sofia,
Bulgaria
247

101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108

Fama Vin PLC.


Professional Secondary
School Alexander
Stamboliiski
SAS - general strategy
decisions
Sole proprietor ML WINE
- Mladen Dimov
Production co-operation
Gloria SD
Agriculture University Plovdiv
Bachus - 4 Ltd.
Wine Cellear Logodazh
Ltd.

109

Vinprom JSC.

110

VSB - Vini Sliven


Bulgaria JSC.

111

MPI Ltd.

112

Wine cellar Khan Kroum


PLC.

113

Stomar Ltd.

114
115
116

Sole proprietor Bilegama


SAM Group Ltd.
Vinprom Loudogorie Ltd.

117

Black sea cellar PLC.

118
119

Co-operation Trayanova
vrata
Sole proprietor Kiril
Oshinov

120

Wine cellar Kehlibar Ltd.

121

Milvina PLC.

122

Domain Menada PLC.

123

Agrostedi 2000 Ltd.

124

Destila JSC.

125

Total Vini PLC.

Mladost IV housing estate, block 602,


Sofia, Bulgaria
97, Storgozia Str., Pleven, Bulgaria
24 Sevastokrator Kaloyan Str., Sofia,
Bulgaria
18 Vasil Kolarov Str., Brezovo,
Bulgaria
1A Industrialna Str., Yambol, Bulgaria
12 Mendeleev Str., Plovdiv, Bulgaria
3, Okolchitsa Str., Sofia, Bulgaria
41, T. Alexandrov Str., floor 4,
Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria
Dalga laka quarter, Veliko Tarnovo
county, Bulgaria
51, Tsar Simeon Str., Sliven, Bulgaria
34, General Katsarov Str., Karlovo,
Plovdiv county, Bulgaria
Khan Kroum, Shoumen county,
Bulgaria
51, Svoboda Blvd, Sandanski,
Blagoevgrad county, Bulgaria
12 Khan Kroum Str., Byala, Bulgaria
Rouen, Plovdiv county, Bulgaria
Industrial zone, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
281, Vladislav Varnenchik Blvd.,
Varna, Bulgaria
Vetren, Pazardzhik county, Bulgaria
3, Angel Kourkov Str., Blagoevgrad,
Bulgaria
35-37, Angel Voivoda Str., H.Dimiter
quarter, Sofia, Bulgaria
12 Zheravna Str., Pleven, Bulgaria
1, Hadzhi Dimiter Asenov Str., Stara
Zagora, Bulgaria
,
Beli Brezi housing estate, bl. 28, floor
6, Sofia, Bulgaria
73, Varshets Str., Teteven, Lovech
county, Bulgaria
24, Oborishte Str., Lyaskovets, V.
248

126

Varna cellar PLC.

127

Vinprom Byala 2002 Ltd.

128

Prisoe Ltd.

129

Domain Yuvin Ltd.

130

Vinprom Pleven Plc.

131

Kati commerce Ltd.

132

Chateau de ValPLC.

133
134

Bessa Valley winery Ltd.


Ognyanovo winery

135

Vinprom Nikolaev PLC.

136

Chernomorets - 95 Ltd.

137

Polomie Winery PLC.

138

Vin-group Ltd.

139

Vinprom Yambol Plc.

140

Nike group JSC.

141

Starosel Winery PLC.

142

Noviko Nord Ltd.

143

Varna Wine Cellar PLC.

144

Lovico Lozari JSC.

145

Marvin Ltd.

146

Vinex NZ

147

Sineva Ltd.

148

Sole proprietor Family


House Morello 2000

149

Lider - 7 Ltd.

150

Vertical JSC.

151

Gamza JSC.

Tarnovo county, Bulgaria


281, Vladislav Varnenechik Blvd.,
Varna, Bulgaria
1, Lyuben Karavelov Str., Byala,
Bulgaria
Mladost housing estate, bl. 103,
entrance 4, Varna, Bulgaria
Sandanski, Blagoevgrad county,
Bulgaria
2, Razslatitsa Str., Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Tri chouchoura sever quarter, block 77,
Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
Grape-grower house, Gradets, Vidin
county, Bulgaria
13, Slavianska Str., Sofia, Bulgaria
13, Slavyanska Str., Sofia, Bulgaria
91 Osmi primorski polk, Str., Varna,
Bulgaria
5-th kilometer, Bourgas, Bulgaria
13, Belogradchishko shose Str., Lom,
Bulgaria
Dolishte, Varna county, Bulgaria
1, Industrialna zona quarter, Yambol,
Bulgaria
76 G, Lyuben Karavelov Str. Sofia ,
Bulgaria
19, Belomorski prohod Str., Sofia,
Bulgaria
4, Lozarska Str., Chirpan, Bulgaria
29, Prof. Derzhavin Str., Varna,
Bulgaria
41, Skailer Str., Sofia, Bulgaria
51, Tsar Osvoboditel Str., Sliven,
Bulgaria
Industrialen qarter, Nova Zagora,
Bulgaria
29, Dr Atanas Moskov, Gabrovo
county, Bulgaria
38, Grenaderska Str., Pleven, Bulgaria
67, Panagyursko shose Str., Sofia
county, Bulgaria
44 Raiko Daskalov Str., Plovdiv,
Bulgaria
East industrial zone, Pleven, Bulgaria
249

152

Vratsa - Misket BG JSC.

153

Grozd - 98 Ltd.

154
155

Sole proprietor ELPA Angelina Dimitrova


Old Cellar - Parvenets
PLC.

156

Vintex Ltd.

157

VINI - Boshkilov Ltd.

158

Vinprom Rousse PLC.

159

Granit trade - 94

160

Wine cellar Bansko PLC.

161
162

Sole proprietor Stil Paspal


- Stanislav Paspalev
Sole proprietor TIMS - 48
- Toma Kourtev

163

Pirana - 7 PLC.

164

Balkancom Ltd.

165

Izgrev Ltd.

166

Chateau Polihronovi Ltd.

167

Askoni vin group Ltd.

168

Vinex Korten PLC.

169

Terra invest Ltd.

170

Diana - 7 Ltd.

171

Co-operation Hotovo

172

Pandora 02 Ltd.

173

Monti Agromix JSC.

174

Angos - Angel Ivanov


PLC.

175

Sundial Winery Ltd.

176

Tododrov co Ltd.

15A, Khan Kroum Str., Byala Slatina,


Vratsa county, Bulgaria
2, Vishegrad Str. Oreshak, Haskovo
county, Bulgaria
8, Yordan Yovkov Str., Silistra,
Bulgaria
Trakiya housing estate, bl. 239,
entrance V, floor 5, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
10 Balcho Neikov Str., Iliyantsi
complex, Sofia, Bulgaria
Zapad housing estate, bl. 1,
Blagoevgrad, floor 2, Bulgaria
44, 3-th March, Rousse, Bulgaria
13A, Kiril i Metodii Str., Nova Zagora,
Sliven county, Bulgaria
81, D. Solunski Blvd., Blagoevgrad,
Bulgaria
17, Vasil Mechkouevski Str., floor 4,
Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria
20 Melnik Str., Melnik, Blagoevgrad
county, Bulgaria
H. Dimiter quarter, bl. 200, entrance D,
office 3, Sofia, Bulgaria
Borovtsi, Montana county, Bulgaria
Bulgarka quarter, bl. 7, entrance D,
floor 8, app. 22, Sliven, Bulgaria
4, Mihail Ivanov Str., Byala, Bulgaria
2, Bratya Miladinovi Str., ap. 61,
Sliven, Bulgaria
25, Industrialen quarter, Nova zagora,
Sliven county, Bulgaria
Industrialen quarter - 2, PO Box 375,
Sliven, Bulgaria
22, T. Alexandrov Str., Blagoevgrad,
Bulgaria
24, 774-th Str., Boyana quarter, Sofia,
Bulgaria
15, Dr. K. Stoilov Str., Sliven,
Bulgaria
New Industrial zone, Montana,
Bulgaria
34, Bounaya Str., Sofia, Bulgaria
14, Preslav Str., entrance B, floor 2,
app, 12, Yambol, Bulgaria
44A, Sitnyakovo Str., Sofia, Bulgaria
250

177

Madzharov PLC.

178

Dragiev Family PLC.

179

Sounourlare Winery PLC.

180

Vini 2004 PLC.

181

Wine cellar Dzhiev Ltd.

182

Regional centre for


scientific and applied
service

183

Ekots Sole proprietor Ltd.

184

Lyaskovets Ltd.

185

Sole proprietor "Pegi "

186

Vincom PLC.

187

Wine cellar 2002


Kableshkovo Ltd.

188

Unified destillers Ltd.

189

Universal Penev PLC.

190

Sole proprietor Solani Aneliya Marinova

191

Engeneering 21 JSC.

192
193
194

Sole proprietor Ivan


Moraliev
Delina PLC.
Sole proprietor Tina Hristina Vodenicharova

195

Loposhna JSC.

196

Zagreus JSC.

197

Sole proprietor Rizo Vasil Rizov

198

Sole proprietor Aneta's


Wine - Ana Petkova

199

Vetren commerce PLC.

200

Planimoex Ltd.

15, Nezabravka Str., Bl.59, entrance A,


app. 3, Sofia, Bulgaria
2, Hristo Botev Str., V. Tarnovo
county, Bulgaria
101, Stara Planina Str., Karnobat,
Bourgas county, Bulgaria
1, Tsar Assen Str., floor 1, app. 1.,
Sofia, Bulgaria
Karabounar, Pazardzhik county,
Bulgaria
Vladislav Varnenchik wienry, Varna,
Bulgaria
1, Magistraln Str., V. Tarnovo,
Bulgaria
33, Maxim Raikovich Str., Lyaskovets,
Bulgaria
10, Atanas Sveshtarov Str.,
Assenovgrad, Bulgaria
8, Stara planina Str., Blagoevgrad,
Bulgaria
7, Temenouga Str., Kableshkovo,
Bourgas county, Bulgaria
12A Probouda Str. Voenna rampa
quarter, Sofia, Bulgaria
14, Atanas Hadzhislavchev Str., V.
Tarnovo county, Bulgaria
Ovcha koupel - 2 housing estate, bl.
6,Sofia, Bulgaria
30, Kouklensko shose Str., Plovdiv,
Bulgaria
12 Danube Str., Ivailovgrad, Haskovo
county, Bulgaria
Marinka, Bourgas county, Bulgaria
Melnik, Blagoevgrad county,
Bulgaria
Georgi Damyanovo, Montana county,
Bulgaria
Tatarevo, Plovdiv county, Bulgaria
11, Edelvais Str., Bozhourishte, Sofia
county,
Bulgaria
45, Vastanicheska Str., V. Tarnovo
county, Bulgaria
3, 6-th Str., Vetren, Pazardzhik,
Bulgaria
80, Alexandrovska Str., Rousse,
251

Bulgaria
201

Sinhron invest Ltd.

202

Vinprom Vidin Ltd.

203

Maria Radenkova Ltd.

204

Medi tour PLC.

205

Sole proprietor Stobel Belcho Tsolov

206

Mavrud - tour PLC.

207

M. Bozhikov & sons


. . . Culture of Wine
Ltd.
Balkan tabacco PLC.
Sole proprietor Niko Niko Zangov
Agriculture co-operation
Christo Botev
Sole proprietor Yordan
Moijsev - cartel

208
209
210
211
212
213

Wine Industries JSC.

214

Pandora - Plamena PLC.

215
216
217

Sole proprietor Mitko


Manolev
Sole proprietor
Cherkezov- 45
Sole proprietor S.
Roupelska - Wine House
Roupelsky

218

Chateau Danubiya JSC.

219

Polomie winery 1959 JSC.

220

Terra - G PLC.

221

Wine house Rousse JSC.


Bilgarian Wine Company
PLC.

222
223

Ecotera 2005 Ltd.

224

Chateau Veliko Tarnovo


Ltd.

46-48A, Lerin Str. Sofia, Bulgaria


46, Frederik Kyuri, Str., entr. A, floor
4, app. 7, Sofia, Bulgaria
28, Klokotnitsa Str., Bl. 70, entr. B,
Sofia, Bulgaria
45, Hristo Botev Str., Plovdiv,
Bulgaria
32, Graf Ignatiev Str., Sofia, Bulgaria
3, Edelvais Str., Kouklen, Plovdiv
county, Bulgaria
5, Bogdan Str., Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Hypodrouma housing estate, bl. 26,
entr. V, app. 17, Sofia, Bulgaria
Starosel, Plovdiv county, Bulgaria
9, Bozhour Str., V. Tarnovo county,
Bulgaria
5-th kilometer, Bourgas, Bulgaria
31 General Skobelev Str., Rousse,
Bulgaria
15, Vitosha Blvd., floor 3, office 2,
Sofia, Bulgaria
9, Poltava Str., floor 2, app. 6, V.
Tarnovo, Bulgaria
Melnik, Blagoevgrad county,
Bulgaria
Petrovo, Blagoevgrad county,
Bulgaria
17, 14-th polk Str., Blagoevgrad,
Bulgaria
38, Pirgos Str., Pirgovo, Rousse
county, Bulgaria
13, Belogradchishko shose Str., Lom,
Bulgaria
80, Doiran Str., block Venera, floor 2,
app. 5, Pleven, Bulgaria
73, Borisova Str., Rousse, Bulgaria
116 James Baucher Str., Lozenets
quarter, Sofia, Bulgaria
3, Lyuben karavelov Str., Sofia,
Bulgaria
11, Uzoundzhovska Str., floor 2, Sofia,
Bulgaria
252

226

Sole proprietor Bacchus Atanaska Beleva


Atlas - 99 PLC.

227

Terra Tangra Ltd.

228

Doctors Ltd.

229

Kyosev PLC.

225

230
231

Doulev & Angelov


Winery Ltd.
Sole proprietor Lalov 900 - Valery Lalov

232

Project Trade Ltd.

233

Milezim 2006 PLC.

234

Intelekt 21 JSC.

235

Kovex - 2 PLC.

236

Souhindol Estate PLC.

237

Grifontours PLC.

238

Sole proprietor - Alex 52 Alexi Panchev

60, Patriarh Evtimii Str., Silistra,


Bulgaria
Voivodino, Plovdiv county, Bulgaria
35, Nikola Petkov Str., Harmanli,
Bulgaria
218, Lomsko Shose Blvd., Sofia,
Bulgaria
Ilinden, Blagoevgrad county,
Bulgaria
129, Bulgaria Str., Harmanly,
Bulgaria
Bivolare, Pleven county, Bulgaria
Hadzhi Dimiter housing estate, bl. 67,
Sofia, Bulgaria
4, Danube Str., floor 9, app 45,
Pazardzhik, Bulgaria
30, Kouklensko shosse Str., Plovdiv,
Bulgaria
4, Bratya Deikovi Str., Panagyurishte,
Bulgaria
193, Rositsa Str., Souhindol, Bulgaria
Exarh Yosif Str. bl. 79, entrance B, et.
5, app. 31, Bulgaria
1, Shteryu Pevtichev Str., Varna
county, Bulgaria

253

.
,
. ,
. ,

The new tourist product of Dobrich: How to create a public-private
partnership in Dobrich. How to find the interest of booth sides. How to make the
cultural sector more active and commercial by the market economy.
Key words: Tourism, Tourist product, municipality, Dobrich, Region
Dobrudzha, Bulgaria.

2007
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2007 -
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288

CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND SHAREHOLDER LITIGATION


Georgi Kalchev, PhD,
International University College

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Abstract:
The probability for shareholder litigation is studied and how corporate
governance characteristics and other factors explain it. Shareholder litigation
results from failure of corporate governance. Thus a better quality of corporate
governance is hypothesized to decrease the litigation probability. Corporate
governance index is constructed based on principal components. It is found to be
a significant predictor of shareholder litigation.
I. INTRODUCTION
Many theoretical and empirical papers address the monitoring
mechanisms that shareholders engage in to make sure managers represent their
interests. Some mechanisms to monitor the managers are having large
shareholders (Schleifer and Vishny 1986), effective boards of directors (Fama
and Jensen 1983), executive stock ownership (Jensen and Meckling 1976), etc.
One area that has been studied relatively little, however, is shareholder
litigation. Shareholders can sue managers for breach of their fiduciary duties to
them, inaccurate disclosure, fraud-on-the market, etc. Shareholders resort to
litigation when corporate governance has failed to represent their interests and
resolve their grievances. Thus it represents the ultimate failure of governance and
the ultimate expression of shareholder activism. Shareholders have been suing
with increasing frequency in recent years. Corporate failures have recently
received media attention beginning with the corporate scandal of Enron. The
Sarbanes-Oxley Act passed by Congress in 2002 devised new rules for corporate
governance and litigation.
Shareholder litigation is directly linked to corporate governance. Since
litigation is the ultimate failure of governance, good governance should be
associated with less shareholder litigation and bad governance should be
associated with more litigation. If managers were genuinely representing
shareholders' interests (which is the goal of good governance), shareholders
would not have a reason to sue. It is when managers fail in their duties to
shareholders that they sue. Thus it is an interesting empirical question whether
good corporate governance results in less litigation and vise versa. No study
seems to have sufficiently answered that question in a large representative sample,
to my knowledge.
This study utilizes both the Institutional Shareholder Services (ISS)
securities litigation database and the Investor Responsibility Research Center
(IRRC) governance database to examine the effects of the quality of governance
on the probability of being sued. These two major databases are appropriately
289

matched to be able to obtain governance variables and measure their influence on


the incidence of securities litigation. Recently, there has been an increased
interest in corporate governance. The IRRC database is the same database used
by a successful and well-known study of stock returns and governance by
Gompers et al. (2003).
The question to be answered ultimately is whether better corporate
governance leads to a lower probability of shareholder litigation and a more
successful resolution of the significant agency problems between shareholders
and managers. Gompers et al. (2003) pose that elimination of governance defense
provisions may produce significant gains in equity returns. Perhaps similar
elimination and improvement of corporate governance may lead to less
litigation, making both shareholders and managers beneficiaries and increasing
investor wealth. This paper provides some empirical insights.
The question remains open. Will better governance be the magic fix that
will make managers accountable to shareholders? Does better corporate
governance mechanisms
make shareholders better off? Looking at past relationships between
governance measures and litigation will reveal whether they relieve the agency
problems at all. It also tests whether corporate governance has any predictive
power with regard to securities litigation. This is an opportunity to test the
importance of corporate governance for the overall efficiency of the economic
system. It provides more insight into the corporate form of organization, which
is so dominant in American business. An examination of the state of securities
litigation in the US reveals important insights of interest to both practitioners and
academics.
We construct a governance index based on principal components. While
the Gompers et al. (2003) index assigns equal weights to all variables, the
principal components index assign different weights to the variables. I find some
evidence that the quality of corporate governance affects the probability of
shareholder litigation. Further, I split the governance variables into groups and
study the effects of indices based on groups on shareholder litigation.
II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
The only published study to my knowledge that addresses similar issues
with a small sample of 90 companies is Vafeas (2000). He points out
governance and ownership factors that distinguish corporations that have been
sued and corporations that have not. He finds that outside block ownership plays
a significant monitoring role, suggesting that outside blockholdings and
shareholder lawsuits are substitute mechanisms. Vafeas (2000) reports
that the likelihood of a lawsuit decreases significantly with an increase in
block holdings. External block holders are seen as an additional mechanism that
monitors managers and renders litigation less likely. Firms
that have been sued appear to "have fewer unaffiliated blockholders
holding less stock. . ." (Vafeas 2000).
In his book "The Econometrics of Corporate Governance," Bhagat (2002)
studies takeover activity as a function of takeover defenses and other factors.
His sample contains about 344 companies. His analysis is cross-sectional, but
he suggests that it might be beneficial to use panel data analysis. Notably, he
compares companies that adopted takeover defenses and companies that did
290

not. Bhagat (2002) studies the effect of firm performance, ownership structure
and takeover defenses on takeover activity. The hypothesis is that the presence
of takeover defenses should be associated with a decline in takeover activity. In
the bivariate analysis, he finds support for this hypothesis. A negative relationship
between takeover defenses and takeover activity is observed and it is statistically
significant. After introducing performance variables into the model, the sign of
the relationship between takeover activity and defenses changes. In a model that
allows the relationship between performance and takeover activity to vary with
takeover defenses, takeover defenses are ineffective (Bhagat 2002). Therefore,
Bhagat (2002) argues that the inclusion of additional variables, like performance,
is important. Bhagat's (2002) study might have benefited from a principal
analysis approach.
An important paper in corporate governance is Gompers et al. (2003)
"Equity Returns and Corporate Governance." Gompers et al. (2003) find a
significant relationship between corporate governance and equity returns in
1990-99. As they say, companies range from democracies to dictatorships.
Democracies allow broad shareholder rights, while dictatorships limit
shareholder rights and are more closely controlled by management. Which way is
better to run a company: dictatorship or democracy? Do you
give more rights to shareholders or less? It seems that in a dictatorship,
shareholders will have less say over governance and if not satisfied, they will be
more likely to sue. As far as equity returns are concerned, it appears that
democracies perform better realizing a significant positive abnormal return. In
addition, Gompers et al. (2003) find that companies with broader shareholder
rights saw higher firm value, higher profits, and lower capital expenditures.
Their study, however, is subject to the criticism that during the 1990's some
believe the stock market was overvalued, so some of the companies that realized
high returns may have experienced significant downfalls in the early 2000's.
High returns from the 1990's may produce misleading conclusions, particularly if
they were followed by shareholder litigation in the wake of corporate scandals in
2000 and 2001. Thus it is important to study the effects of corporate governance
on shareholder litigation, as a different measure of corporate success and
shareholder satisfaction.
Some researchers have reviewed securities litigation. Jones (1980)
concludes that larger firms are more likely to be sued by shareholders. Jones
and Weingram (1996) observe that litigation risk is determined by trading
volume, market capitalization and stock price drops in the year prior to
litigation. Johnston et al. (1995) study a sample of high-technology and
pharmaceutical firms and find that greater assets, more actively traded shares,
low prior-year returns and big stock price drops increase the probability of being
sued.
Dechow et al. (1996) study firms that SEC has accused of manipulating
earnings and find that these are more likely to have insider-dominated boards,
CEOs same as chair of the board and/or firm founder, but are less likely to have
audit committees or outside
blockholders. Summers and Sweeney (1998), on the other hand, find
that insiders in companies accused of fraud sell their stock.

291

III.METHODOLOGY
I use an index based on principal components. Logit models are estimated
with the governance index and financial variables as controls. Three models are
estimated; with contemporaneous variables, with lagged variables, and
combined. This is done to distinguish between the contemporaneous and lagged
response effects. Given the nature of litigation, lagged response is expected. The
models are:
yi,t= alndexi;t+ PXU + vi;t
yi,t=aiIndexi,t-2+PiXi,t-2 +vi;t
yi,t= aIndexi;t+aiIndexi;t-2 +PXi;t +pxi;t-2 +vi;t
where y is the outcome variable equal to 1 if the company has been sued
that year and zero otherwise; Index refers to the governance index; X includes the
financial control variables, contemporaneously or lagged.
Those are estimated for each year governance data are available and in a
panel logit including all years. Random effects are chosen, because fixed effects
severely bias and limit the sample. Namely, the fixed effects estimation drops all
companies, for which the outcome variables (existence of litigation) are all
positive or all negative.
Principal components are a common dimension reduction technique. It is
particularly useful when there is large number of explanatory variables and they
are trying to explain the same thing, in this case, corporate governance. In those
cases, the explanatory variables can be reduced to a smaller number of principal
components that yield more stable estimates. Principal components seek to
maximize the variance of a
linear combination of the variables. The first component explains the most
variance. The correlation matrix of the variables is used for the principal
components analysis, because it does not depend on the units of measurement.
I provide three types of estimations: with contemporaneous variables, with
lagged variables, and combined. All these are estimated annually and in panel
analysis for robust results. Please note that for 1993, no lagged estimations are
provided, because we have no lags available.
First, all 24 governance variables are used together in the principal
components analysis. Then I remove those variables whose loadings are
negative. Their signs are not as expected. When variables are equal to one, they
contribute to a worse governance index. I keep only the variables with the
expected a priori signs to have a meaningful interpretation of the governance
index. All these variables are collapsed into one index, which is equal to the first
principal component. (The component of each company is equal to the loadings
(weights in the linear combination) times the observations for that company.)
Since the first component represents the maximal variation of the variables, it is
assumed that the higher the index, the worse the quality of the corporate
governance. Once again, I keep in the index only variables whose loadings have
the a priori expected positive sign. The loadings are shown in Table 4.
Subsequently, I divide the variables into five groups, closely following Gompers
et al. (2003). I remove any variables from the indexes, whose signs are not as
expected. The variables from each group are used to form principal components
resulting into five governance indices. Their loadings are shown in Table 5. The
groups are the following:
292

Delay (provisions designed to slow down a hostile takeover): Blank Check,


Classified Board, Special Meeting, and Written Consent.
Protection (provisions designed to compensate managers following a
termination and protect against job-related liability): Compensation Plans,
Indemnification Contracts, Golden Parachutes, Liability.
Voting (provisions related to shareholder rights in elections or
charter/bylaw amendments): Bylaws, Charter, Supermajority.
State (state takeover laws): Business Combination Law, Cash-out Law,
Directors' Duties Law, Fair Price Law, Control Share Acquisition Law.
Other (remaining firm-level provisions not included in other groups):
Antigreenmail, Directors' Duties, Fair Price, Pension Parachutes, Poison Pill.
IV. DATA AND VARIABLES
The first dataset for this study is securities litigation data, which is
available from the Institutional Shareholder Services (ISS). The ISS database
includes filing dates for litigation of all companies that have been sued, starting
in 1994. Thus it helps identify companies that have been sued. This database are
matched with the corporate governance database.
The organization that has been collecting corporate governance data for the
longest period of time is the Investor Responsibility Research Center (IRRC).
The governance data used in Gompers et al. (2003) is the IRRC Governance
database. It starts in 1990 and proceeds biannually to the present. It provides 24
distinct governance provisions for these companies, such as golden parachutes,
poison pills, indemnification, and so forth.
During the period used in this paper, there are 5 years of observations in
this database (1993, 1995, 1998, 2000, and 2002).
The IRRC Takeover Defenses governance database is particularly suited
for such a study because it focuses on shareholder rights and takeover defenses
and goes back to 1990 and proceeds biannually thereafter. The provisions in it
fall into five groups: delaying hostile bidders, voting rights, director/officer
protection, state laws and others. As takeover defenses have been the focus of
governance debates in some decades, it is particularly appropriate to include
measures of takeover defenses in an analysis that includes the 1990's.
A sample of companies is selected from the IRRC database, all of them
from S&P 500. The sample consists of 334 companies in the panel estimations.
Then for each company in the sample, it is determined whether it has been sued
and in which year, using the ISS litigation database. Since we don't have litigation
data for 1990, the study starts in 1993 and goes to 2003 (we do not have
governance data for 2003).
The governance variables that are used for the principal component
analysis are: Blank Check; Classified Board; Special Meeting; Written Consent;
Compensation Plans; Indemnification Contracts; Golden Parachutes; Liability;
Severance; Bylaws; Charter; Secret Ballot; Supermajority; Anti- greenmail;
Directors' Duties; Fair Price; Pension Parachutes; Poison Pill; Business
Combination Law; (The variables are defined in Appendix 1).
All the variables are (0, 1). One indicates a restriction on shareholder
rights, while 0 indicates the absence of a restriction of shareholder rights. The
control variables are the following: one-year stock returns, change in market
value of equity (MVE), asset size, return on assets, and earnings per share (EPS).
293

MVE is the best predictor of the investor losses due to managerial misconduct.
Asset size is an important size variable. Stock returns, earnings per share and
returns on assets are performance measures. These variables are included based
on previous studies that have found correlation with securities litigation and as
control variables. However, through backward selection, I remove the
insignificant variables and the variables that remain are stock returns and EPS.
For consistency, I use these control variables in all estimations.
V. HYPOTHESIS DEVELOPMENT
After the Gompers et al. (2003) examination of the effects of good
governance on stock returns, it is quite appropriate to study now the effects of
good governance on shareholder litigation. In companies where shareholders
enjoy significant rights, they may be able to better monitor management and
resolve their grievances through internal mechanisms. Thus they should sue their
managers less often. When shareholders have few rights, they may have to
resort more often to litigation to resolve their grievances. The goal will be to find
the effect of governance on the incidence of litigation and study causality, if any.
The main hypothesis to be tested is that good corporate governance leads to a
lower probability of litigation.
Gompers et al. (2003) construct a governance index that is allowed to range
from 0 to 24. All the governance variables in the IRRC governance database are
(0, 1) variables. One represents the presence of a restriction on shareholder rights.
The governance sums up those ones. Thus the higher the index, the lower the
shareholder rights and the quality of corporate governance. The interpretation of
the principal components is similar: the higher the index, the worse the corporate
governance. Therefore, I retain in the index only those variables, whose loadings
have positive sign. It is expected that the lagged index will be significant.
Shareholder litigation may take time to file after an alleged accident. Please note
that here lag means second lag, because the data are available biannually. Thus
the previously available observation is typically two years ago. First and third
lags are not available.
The hypothesis regarding the measures of financial performance is that
better financial performance will be associated with lower probability of
litigation. Thus stock return and EPS are expected to negatively correlate with
litigation probability. The size measures (assets, change in MVE) are expected to
be positively correlated with litigation probability; however, they are not
significant and their coefficients are virtually zero, so they are removed from the
analysis. It may be perceived that larger and well-to-do companies are better
able to pay damages, so they may be the target of litigation.
VI. RESULTS
VI. 1. Contemporaneous analysis.
Unpublished Table 2 contains the cross-section estimations with three
columns: contemporaneous, lagged and combined. In the year by year
estimations, the stock returns and EPS are significant only in the year 1995. The
contemporaneous governance index is not significant. The panel estimations
appear in Table 1. In the panel estimation, the significant variables are stock
returns and EPS. Once again, governance is not significant. This is not
surprising, because we anticipate a lagged response to governance and not
contemporaneous.
294

VI.2. Lagged Response Analysis


The lagged governance index is significant for only one year in the annual
estimations: 1998. None of the other variables are significant in the annual
estimations. In the panel estimation, all lagged variables are significant with the
anticipated signs: governance index (positive), stock returns (negative) and EPS
(negative). Thus there is strong evidence for lagged response to those variables.
Remember that lagged variables here are essentially second lag.
VI.3. Comprehensive Analysis.
I provide estimations, including both contemporaneous and lagged
variables. In the year by year estimations, in 1995, stock returns and EPS are
contemporaneously significant with the expected negative signs. In 1998, stock
returns are significant. In the panel estimation, all three lagged variables
(governance index, stock returns and EPS) are significant with the expected signs.
Both the lagged stock returns and EPS show with the expected negative signs: the
better the performance, the lower the probability of lawsuit. The lagged
governance index is significant with a positive sign. Thus the past quality of
corporate governance influences the probability of litigation, while the present
governance index does not. This makes sense for securities litigation, where it
takes time for shareholders to discover wrongdoing and pursue a lawsuit. It is
interesting to observe that the size variables (MVE, assets) are not significant and
show with very small coefficients. Size does not seem to be a driving force behind
securities litigation. People do not sue companies just because they are big.
VI.4. Partitioned Governance Indices.
The partitioned indices results are shown in unpublished Table 6.The year
by year results with 5 partitioned indices indicate that contemporaneously only
the Other index is significant with the expected positive sign. Stock returns and
EPS continue to be significant. The other category includes: Antigreenmail,
Directors' Duties, Fair Price, Pension Parachutes, Poison Pill. The index shows
with a positive sign (while all the other indices show with a negative sign). Thus
the other index contributes positively to a higher litigation probability. Looking
at the provisions in the other index, one can see why this may be the case.
Antigreenmail provisions discourage one shareholder to acquire large blocs of
stock. Directors' duties allow directors to consider the interests of groups other
than shareholders. One can see how this can make shareholders unhappy. Fair
price provisions make acquisitions more expensive. Pension parachutes prevent
an acquirer from using surplus cash in the pension fund of the target company to
finance the acquisition. Poison pills are a delay and defensive strategy against
hostile takeovers. The latter provisions make acquisitions more difficult and
protect managers' positions, even when a takeover may be in the interest of the
shareholders.
Using the partitioned indices, I also report results with lagged independent
variables. This time the lagged Protection index appears to be significant with a
positive sign. The existence of substantial protection provisions for managers
predicts a higher degree of shareholder litigation. Given how common protection
mechanisms are, this is an important result. Lagged stock return and lagged EPS
are significant with the expected negative signs.
In the combined estimation, the lagged Protection index continues to be
significant together with the lagged stock returns and EPS.
295

VII. CONCLUSION
This paper presents an examination of the effects of the quality of
corporate governance on the incidence of shareholder litigation. The quality of
corporate governance is measured by variables from the IRRC governance
database. The contribution of the paper is devising a governance index using
principal components and utilizing many variables to construct a weighted index.
Its lag appears to be a significant predictor of shareholder litigation consistent
with theory. Companies with worse corporate governance experience a higher
probability of securities litigation. This is most evident in the panel estimations.
Two variables that are consistently significant are stock returns and EPS
with negative signs. They demonstrate that financial performance has an
important effect on the probability of being sued. While the governance variables
are significant in their lags, these financial performance measures are significant
both in their lagged and present values. The better the financial performance of
the company, the lower the probability of litigation. These measures of financial
performance are leading predictors of shareholder litigation. Size, however, does
not matter.
Furthermore, I divide the governance variables into groups and construct
five indices from the groups based on principal components. In the
contemporaneous estimations, only one index is significant: Other. It comprises
of variables that make acquisitions more difficult and allow directors to consider
the interest of other constituencies. These variables understandably can lead to
shareholder dissatisfaction and litigation. In the lagged explanatory variables
estimations, another index is significant: Protection. When managers enjoy
significant protections of their income and from liability, they may make
decisions that are not in the best interests of the shareholders. Thus the protection
and other indices seem to be singled out as the most influential governance
provisions. This implies that the managers' tendency to reward themselves with
significant compensation and protection mechanisms may lead to a higher
probability of securities litigation. Thus some governance provisions are
important than others, which underscores the importance of grouping.
Overall, I find evidence that the quality of corporate governance has a
predictive power for shareholder litigation. Different measures of corporate
governance appear to be significant, whether in present or lagged values. Thus
having better corporate governance decreases the probability of litigation and
decreases the risk for managers, and protects shareholder wealth. This paper
reaffirms the importance of good corporate governance practices for the entire
corporation. While Gompers et al. (2003) find that corporate governance is
important for stock returns, this study illustrates its significance in another area of
interest: shareholder litigation.

296

Table 1. Panel Random-effects Logistic Estimations


(significant coefficients
are in
Governance Index
Governance Index
Lagged
Stock Return
Stock
Returns
Lagged
EPS
EPS Lagged
Constant
AIC
BIC
N

0.03
0.11

0.12

-1.65

0.24
-1.37

-0.21
-3.97
316.25
340.07
329

-0.13
-0.18
-3.86
318.06
351.41
329

-1.47

-0.17
-3.95
306.7
332.1
334

Appendix 1. Variable Definitions.


AntigreenmailGreenmail is a transaction between a large shareholder
and a firm by
which the shareholder agrees to sell his stock back to the company, usually
at a premium,
in exchange for the promise not to seek control of the company for a
certain time.
Antigreenmail provisions prevent greenmail unless the same repurchase
offer is made to
all shareholders or approved by a shareholder vote.
Blank Check preferred stock is stock over which the board has broad
authority to
determine voting, dividends, etc.
Business Combination Laws impose a moratorium on certain
transactions (mergers)
between a large shareholder and the firm, unless the transaction is approved
by the board
of directors.
Bylaw and Charter limit the shareholders' ability to amend the governing
documents of
the corporation.
Cash-out Laws enable shareholders to sell their stock to a "controlling"
shareholder at a
price based on the highest price of recently acquired shares.
Classified board has different classes of directors who serve overlapping
terms.

297

Compensation plans allow participants in incentive bonus plans to cash


out options or
accelerate bonuses should there be change in control.
Indemnification Contracts indemnify directors and officers for certain
legal expenses,
settlements and judgments resulting from lawsuits.
Cumulative Voting allows a shareholder to allocate his total votes in any
manner, where
the total number of votes is the product of the number of shares owned and
the number of
directors to elect. Directors' Duties allow directors to consider the
interests of constituencies other than
shareholders when considering a merger.
Directors' Duties Laws allow similar expansions of constituencies.
Fair price provisions limit the range of prices a bidder can pay in two-tier
offers.
Fair price laws work similarly like firm fair price provisions except that
they are
imposed by state law.
Golden Parachutes are severance agreements that provide cash and noncash payments
to senior managers upon termination demotion, etc.
Limitations on Director Liability are charter amendments that limit
directors' personal
liability to the extent permitted by state law.
Pension Parachutes prevent an acquirer from using surplus cash in the
pension fund of
the target to finance an acquisition.
Poison Pills provide their holders with special rights in the case of
triggering event such
as a hostile takeover bid.
Secret Ballot allows either an independent third party or employees sworn
to secrecy to
count proxy votes.
Severance agreements provide high-level executives assurance for their
positions or
compensation upon termination and are not contingent on change in
control (unlike
golden parachutes).
Special Meeting limitations either increase the percent of shareholder
support to call a
special meeting or eliminate the possibility to call one completely.
Supermajority imposes voting requirements for mergers or other business
combinations
higher than what is required by state law. Control-Share Acquisition
Laws require a majority of disinterested shareholders to vote on whether a new
large shareholder has voting rights.

298

Written Consent can take the form of establishing majority thresholds


beyond the level of state law, requiring unanimous consent, or eliminating the
right to take action by written consent.
References
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Press: Cambridge,
.
, P., . and A. , 1996, Causes and Consequences of
Earnings
Manipulation: An Analysis of Firms Subject to Enforcement Actions by
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Contemporary Accounting Research: 1-36.
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Journal of Law and
Economics 26: 301-325.
, P., . and A. , 2003, Corporate
and Equity ,
Quarterly Journal of Economics 118(1): 107-155.
, . and W. , 1976, Theory of the Firm:
, Agency
and Ownership Structure, Journal of Financial Economics 3: 305360.
Jones, ., 1980, An empirical examination of the incidence of shareholder
derivative and lass action , 1971-78, 60 . .. .
Jones, . and S. , 1996, The Determinants of 10-5 Litigation
,
School Working Paper.
, . and R. Vishny, 1986, Large and Corporate
Control, Journal of
Political Economy 94: 461-88.
. and S. , 1998, Fraudulently Financial
and
: An Empirical Analysis, The Accounting Review 73,
. 1: 131-146.
, ., 2000, and Ownership Structure, The
Journal of
Business Research 16:35-50.

299



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2,138

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301

,005

xp(B)

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xp(B)

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Intercept

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7
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ln[y2 / y1]= 3,670+ 0,352x1 0,278x2 0,239x3 0,104x4 ;


302

ln[y3 / y1]= 8,235+ 0,732x1 0,746x2 0,417x3 0,141x4 ;


ln[y4 / y1]= 12,9140,383x1 0,529x2+0,757x3 0,614x4 ;




(n>50)
,

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6,236 0 1,104 ;
1:

0,352 1,96 (0,111) ,

0,134 1 0,570 ;
2:

0,278 1,96 (0,123) ,

0,519 2 0,037 ;
3:

0,239 1,96 (0,082) ,

0,400 3 0,078 ;
4:

0,104 1,96 (0,071) ,

0,243 4 0,035 ;
:

0:

8,235 1,96 (1,764) ,

11,692 0 4,778 ;
1:

0,732 1,96 (0,173) ,

303

0,393 1 1,071 ;
2:

0,746 1,96 (0,173) ,

1,085 2 0,407 ;
3:

0,417 1,96 (0,127) ,

0,666 3 0,168 ;
4:

0,141 1,96 (0,085) ,

0,311 4 0,026 ;
:

0:

12,914 1,96 (3,317) ,


19,415 0 6,413 ;

1:

0,383 1,96 (0,239) ,

0,851 1 0,085 ;
2:

0,529 1,96 (0,262) ,

1,043 2 0,015 ;
3:

0,757 1,96 (0,266) ,

0,236 3 1,278 ;
4:

0,614 1,96 (0,259) ,

1,122 4 0,106;

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1,143 exp(1 ) 1,768

2 :

e-0,278-1,96(0,128) exp(2 ) e-0,278+1,96(0,128)


0,595 exp(2 ) 0,964
304

3 :

e-0,239-1,96(0,082) exp(3 ) e-0,239+1,96(0,082)


0,671 exp(3 ) 0,923

4 :

e-0,104-1,96(0,071) exp(4 ) e-0,104+1,96(0,071)


0,785 exp(4 ) 1,036

exp(2i ) , , :

1 :

e0,731-1,96(0,178) exp(1 ) e0,731+1,96(0,178)


1,481 exp(1 ) 2,921

2 :

e-0,746-1,96(0,178) exp(2 ) e-0,746+1,96(0,178)


0,338 exp(2 ) 0,666

3 :

e-0,417-1,96(0,127) exp(3 ) e-0,417+1,96(0,127)


0,514 exp(3 ) 0,846

4 :

e-0,141-1,96(0,083) exp(4 ) e-0,141+1,96(0,083)


0,735 exp(4 ) 1,025

exp(3i ) :

1 :

e-0,383-1,96(0,289) exp(1 ) e-0,383+1,96(0,289)


0,427 exp(1 ) 1,089

2 :

e-0,629-1,96(0,262) exp(2 ) e-0,629+1,96(0,262)


0,352 exp(2 ) 0,906

3 :

e0,767-1,96(0,266) exp(3 ) e0,767+1,96(0,266)


1,266 exp(3 ) 3,590

4 :

e-0,614-1,96(0,259) exp(4 ) e-0,614+1,96(0,259)


0,326 exp(4 ) 0,900

,
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1,143 1,768 ( 14,3% 76,8%),
305

1,481 2,921 ( 48,1%


192,1%).
,
0,595 0,964 , ..
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0,338 0,666 ( 66,2% -33,4%)
0,352 0,986 ( -64,8% 1,4%).

0,671
0,923 (-32,9% -7,7%) 0,514 0,846 ( 48,6% -15,4%) .
.
1,266
3,590 , .. 26,6% 259%.

0,326
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1:

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2:

Z= 0,278/0,123 = 2,260 ;

3:

Z= 0,239/0,082 = 2,915 ;

4:

Z= 0,104/0,071 = 1,465 ;

:
0:

Z= 8,235/1,764 = 4,668 ;

1:

Z= 0,732/0,173 = 4,231 ;

2:

Z= 0,746/0,173 = 4,312;

3:

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4:

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Z-
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1:

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2:

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357

GENDER RELATED ISSUES IN SERVICE INDUSTRY


ENTREPRENEURSHIP: THE CASE OF ALBANIA
Dr. Elena Cavagnaro, Stenden University, The Netherlands
,
:
INTRODUCTION
The 2nd OECD Conference of Ministers responsible for SMEs (2004)
stipulated the need for attention researchers should address to womens
entrepreneurship in small and medium-sized enterprises. The first important
reason attention should be given to the matter is that womens entrepreneurship
has been identified as an enormous untapped source for economic growth for the
future.
Secondly the participation of women in entrepreneurship has traditionally
been significantly lower than that of men. Social sciences have not been giving
the attention needed to efficiently explore the reasons for this situation.
Sixty to ninety percent of all companies in the tourism industry sectors
hotels and travel agencies can be categorized under SMEs or even micro
enterprises (Keller, 2005). It is therefore fair to say that the issue of women
entrepreneurship in SMEs is very important for the tourism industry and its
further development.
OECD (2004) concluded that better qualitative information, besides better
statistics, is needed to profile women entrepreneurs. Research into the barriers to
start-up and growth will create more awareness of the enormous important role
of women entrepreneurs for the future of worldwide economy and the tourism
industry in specific. Since SMEs are also considered as the major drivers of
economic growth in developing countries it makes it even more interesting to
look at women entrepreneurship in countries like Albania (Europes poorest
country).
The following research question guided the research: To what extend
does gender influence women entrepreneurship participation within the service
industry, in Albania?
METHODOLOGY
For explaining the nature of women entrepreneurship in Albania we
considered a sample of 11 entrepreneurs in the capital Tirana. Because chances
for finding entrepreneurs that would be able and willing to speak to the
researcher could be expected in an urban environment, Tirana was chosen.
The interviews were done by our Albanian female native speaking
research fellow in order to have a trustworthy interview setting in which the
women entrepreneurs would be willing to share their experiences.
Analysis of the interviews was put into the context of interpretative
phenomenological analysis (IPA). Willig (2008) describes IPA as: to provide
respondents with an opportunity to share their personal experience of the
phenomenon under investigation with the researcher. The transcripts of the
interviews were analyzed one by one. Reading and rereading them generated
358

notes. This procedure can be compared to the coding stage in grounded theory
approaches.
After this first stage of taking notes, themes were identified that connected
to the research question. Finally the themes were put into a structure that
identified the meaning and relevance for the research.
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
Findings, The interviews generated six important themes.
1. A strong correlation exists between Albanian womens previous
employment experiences and the decision to become self-employed.
This correlation is derived from the negative atmosphere that the women
faced while being employed. Important and vivid issues such as low salary, long
working hours, and insufficient time dedicated to family and children make it for
the women unpleasant to be employed. Entrepreneurship appears to be more like
a necessity than a completely free choice.
2. Educational background and family inheritance influence womens
motivation and career development.
The women entrepreneurs that were interviewed considered it
indispensable to have at least a university degree in order to obtain the skills
needed to be able to perform independently and successfully in the market.
Secondly, family business- inheritance, guidance and trade tradition, inspire and
motivate the women entrepreneurs in this research. However, more than for just
for inspiration they evaluate their families as an enormous help in their success.
This logic originates from the tradition in Albanian society, in which the
phenomenon of collectivity among family members is visible and strong. On the
other hand, their motivation for being economically independent especially from
their spouse, visualizes and marks the influence and pressure from men part and
the desire and needs of women to minimize this influence in order to live a
harmonious life.
3. There are gender differences in Albania relating to start-up and
operating of businesses.
Arbitrary taxes are imposed by the employees of the Tax Institution in
Tirana, who are mainly men. This is usually done in order just to exploit the
women entrepreneurs by considering them as weak and without protection and it
shows how gender influences the professional development of women
entrepreneurs. The fact that they, as a solution to the problem, try to find a man
figure to get along with the employees in order just to get a fair treatment means
that they find it impossible to fight for the right by them self. The same scenario
applies to the License Institution. In the personal area, women entrepreneurs do
not hesitate to build a family and have children. Most of them have argued with
their spouses, who in the beginning showed skepticism about their abilities to
enter the professional field. These arguments most of the times were the biggest
challenge to face not only in the beginning but also on the long run. Husbands of
women entrepreneurs only after seeing the financial well-being coming from
their wifes business started appreciating them and their professional aptitude.
4. Impact of gender on financial related issues is obvious and vivid.

359

Finance and specifically acquiring the start-up capital is a big challenge


for any entrepreneur starting a new business. In Albania the banks give loans
only through mortgage on owned object like houses, cars etc. Because of being
in a patriarchal society, the properties that a family owns are always registered in
the name of the man of the house meaning in the name of the spouse thereby
leaving starting women entrepreneurs without any financial possibilities.
5. The creation of female networks is not done in the same way as male
networks.
It is important to mark that networks created by women were suggested to
them in most cases by parents or spouse. They usually accepted the suggested
networks and build a strong connection with them because of the trust generated
by the personal support from their source of information. In addition, the
unavailability and non-existence of alternatives most of the times pushed them
into creating connections with male networks as those are the dominant ones in
the market.
6. Women entrepreneurs consider gender to have a negative influence on
their career.
The women entrepreneurs in this research see their position in Albanian
society and in the business environment in general as awkward and under
stressful conditions. Nevertheless, concerning their success they feel changes in
womens position compared to men. This generates greater appreciation for
them. Still in their perception it will take another few years to narrow down the
gap. On the other hand controversially women have been producers themselves
of this aggressive society towards them and their emancipation. In order to
express their force, capability and determination they defined themselves not as
successful women but instead profile more like men. This phenomenon of trying
to resemble the dominant part of society occurs because of the patriarchal nature
and pushes true womens influence in the wrong direction in order to achieve
empowerment. This situation emphasizes the ongoing strong influence of men
within the Albanian society.
Summarizing it can be said that gender is strongly influencing
entrepreneurship participation of women within the Albanian service industry.
There are two major factors: work setting and social/personal factors. Obviously
differences in pay between men and women, discrimination in hiring practices,
lower access to financial and loans services and violence in the work place make
employed women consider other ways to escape the workforce and to build up
their career. Furthermore the major other factors influencing women
entrepreneurs entrance into the market are: the difficult situation in terms of
ownership rights for women and balancing professional with family life.
Educational background (having a degree) and family inheritance are seen as
important drivers for entering the market and success of women entrepreneurs.
Discussion
It is important to mention that the aggressive working environment, unfair
and risky, pushed and sometimes forced Albanian women to think about
alternative ways to develop their career, such as becoming self-employed. The
findings on this issue confirm the phenomenon mentioned by Hisrich and Brush
(1983) where they found that women become involved in their new venture due
360

to the job frustration generated in their previous positions. Hence, the decision to
become self-employed looks like a necessity and a forced choice. On the other
hand, as Fay and Williams (1993) stated, the greater need of women to balance
work and family commitments may make entrepreneurship more appealing than
employed work to some women, is sustained within the findings of this research.
This means that women in many cases feel forced to enter self-employment in
order to escape from unpleasant previous work experiences. Entrepreneurship
then also becomes a mode to balance professional and personal lives.
Secondly, according to INSTAT (2003), women in general have a higher
education level than men, and the sample of this research confirms the earlier
findings. All the eleven interviewees were highly educated and held university
degrees. They acknowledged the importance of education to their career
developments.
The biggest obstacle that the women entrepreneurs had to overcome was
the challenge to get funding for their new enterprises. Mostly parents, friends and
family members were the sources providing them with the starting capital.
Getting funding from the official institutions proofed to be virtually impossible
because of the high interest rates and substantive paperwork needed to get
through the application process.
Thirdly, several authors have referred to the situation that traditionally
men have controlled and dominated the financial incomes of families. Thereby
creating the mentality that property belongs to them which denies womens right
of ownership. This was confirmed by the research, as the majority of women
entrepreneurs did not consider taking loans from banks or were not able to do so.
In general, women interested in becoming entrepreneurs have few possibilities or
none to be able to achieve economic independence.
Choosing networks for the majority of these women is strongly related to
the recommendations coming from parents, friends or important persons in their
lives. This finding confirms what Buttner and Moore (2001) distinguish to be the
main difference between male and female networks.
Overall it can be said that the success and positioning of women
entrepreneurs are strongly influenced by the sum of early experiences relating to
generating awareness, education, work experience and value systems and driving
powers of the particular individual (Gehrels, 2007)
In this research effort to uncover the value systems and driving powers of
service industry entrepreneurs we looked at Albanian women entrepreneurs. The
entrepreneurs in the research were tremendously influenced because of being
women. The challenges faced in employment pushed them to entrepreneurship.
Low salary, long working hours, mistreatment and insufficient time for family
and children were main factors to become self-employed. The transfer was more
a necessity than a choice. All interviewees held university degrees which
allowed them to base their careful decision on balancing pros and cons. Women
in Albania find themselves severely discriminated by men. Becoming
entrepreneur gave women a more independent position in terms of finance and
power in the relationship with spouses who usually resisted their wifes business
intentions. After observing the financial benefits, spouses became more
cooperative. Albanian women entrepreneurs world follows literature and
361

because of the extreme male dominated society in Albania their values and
driving powers are very interesting to research.
The interviews demonstrated the extremely traditional and conservative
values of Albanian men. This pattern is alive in many other countries in the
world. Albanian women who want to start a business have to be resourceful to
get financing because the banks will only sign of against property which
traditionally is owned by men. Entrepreneurs in this research indicated to connect
to women networks suggested by parents and family. In the absence of
alternative (women) networks they entered the male networks that dominate the
market.
RECOMMENDATIONS
Further research is needed to uncover the nature of women
entrepreneurship in other areas than the Albanian capital and most certainly in
many other developing countries.
Because of the predicted positive impact that womens entrepreneurship
will have on the SME sector and particularly in service and tourism industry the
continuation of research efforts like in this case example is needed.
The direct dissemination of the results of this research lies in the providing
of information to potential women entrepreneurs in other (developing) countries.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Buttner, E.H. and Moore, D.P. (2001), Womens Organizational Exodus
to Entrepreneurship: Self-Reported Motivations and Correlates with Success, in:
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362



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The change of the political color in the government of some of the Great
powers usually provokes confusion not only inside her borders, but amongst
other countries, too. This gives an explanation to the mania Obama around the
world. The interest towards the reforms, which hes going to make, the hopes
that hes going to bring back the greatness of the USA, that hes going to find a
resolution to the greatest problem in the world and in the country at this stage
The Financial crisis, which goes faster and faster and soon is expected to
influence Europe, too.


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http://news.expert.bg/?id=193761
www.actualno.com/news_flgr.php?id=193638
392


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