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1. Given two forces F1 = (7 N)i + (9 N)j and force F2 = (8 N)i + (12 N)j. Find the magnitude and direction of
the resultant R of F1 and F2.
Reference: Mechanics 1, Chapter 1, section 1.4, Example 1.7
Solution:
R = F1 + F 2
R 7 N i 9 N j 8 N i 12 N j
R 15 N i 21N j
R 152 212 666 25.8 N
tan
21
54.50
15
12
12 3
i
j 6i 6 3j
2
2
b 20 cos 300 i 20sin 300 j
20
3
20
i
j 10 3 i 10 j
2
2
a + b 6 i 6 3 j 10 3 i 10 j
6 10 3 i 10 6 3 j
3. Find the vector V of magnitude 8 and having the same direction as vector V1 which has magnitude of 4 on
bearing of 120 degrees.
Reference: Mechanics 1, Chapter 1, section 1.5
Solution:
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v1
v1
i j
2
2
4
but v v .u v
8 3
8
i j
2
2
4 3i 4 j
4. Find the parametric vector equation r of a straight line that passes through A of position vector 5i 6j and
parallel to the vector V = 4 on a bearing of 210 .
Reference: Mechanics 1, Chapter 1, section 1.7
Solution:
v 4 cos 2400 i 4sin 2400 j
2i 2 3 j
r 5i 6 j t 2i 2 3 j
r 2t 5 i 2 3t 6 j
5. A particle P moves along a directed straight line. At t1 = 3.0 s the particle is at a point of position x1 = 8.0 m,
at time t2 = 8.0 s the particles is at position x2 = 2.0 m and at time t3 = 12 s the particle is at a position x3 = 2.0
m.
a) Find the average speed of P.
b) Find the average velocity of P.
Reference: Mechanics 1, Chapter 2, Section 2.2, Exercise 7.
Solution:
A to B:
displacement x1 x2 x1 2 8 10m
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distance d1 = 10 m
B to C:
displacement x2 x3 x2 2 (2) 4 m
distance d2 = 4 cm
Net displacement: x1 x2 10 4 6m
t3 12s
Total time 9s t1 3s
t 12 3 9s
Total distance covered = 10 + 4 = 14 m
(a)
(b)
average speed =
average velocity =
net displacement 6
0.66 m/s
total time taken
9
6. Explain how you can get the value of the average velocity or the instantaneous velocity from the xt graph.
Reference:
Solution:
The average velocity of an object in an xt graph between time intervals [t1, t2] is the slope of the
secant joining the position of the object [x1, x2] at those instants. The instantaneous velocity at a specific instant
in the xt graph is the slope of the tangent to the graph at that instant.
8. A car is moving with a speed of 24 m/s when the driver sees a red light ahead. He applies the brakes and
stops in 3 s.
a) Sketch a speedtime graph.
b) Find the retardation of the car.
Reference: Mechanics 1, Chapter 2, section 2.9
Solution:
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a?
v
a
t
0 m/s 24 m/s
a
3s
a 8 m/s 2
9. What is the acceleration of the particle at 5 s?
10. A car is moving with a speed of 12 m/s when the driver sees a red light ahead. He applies the brakes and
stops in a distance of 36m.
a) Sketch a speedtime graph.
b) Find the time taken to come to rest.
c) Find the retardation of the car.
Reference: Mechanics 1, Chapter 2, Section 2.14, Exercise 23.
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Solution:
V0 12 m/s
x 36 m
V 0
a)
b)
c)
11. A car moving along a straight line track accelerates uniformly from a velocity of 25.0 m/s to a velocity of
45.0 m/s over a period of 30.0 s. It then maintains this velocity for 50.0 s and finally decelerates at a constant
rate, coming to rest in a further 22.5 seconds.
Draw the vt graph.
Reference: Mechanics 1, Chapter 2, section 2.11
Solution:
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12. A particle starts from a point A with velocity 3 m/s and moves with a constant acceleration of 0.5 m/s2
along a straight line AB. It reaches B with a velocity of 5 m/s. Find the displacement AB and the time taken
from A to B.
Reference: Mechanics 1, Chapter 2, Section 2.14, Exercise 22.
Solution:
V0 = 3 m/s
a = 0.5 m/s2
V = 5 m/s
x=?
t=?
To find the distance between A & B,
V 2 V02 2ax
52 32 2 0.5 x
25 9 x
x 25 9 16 m
To find the time taken to travel from A to B,
V V0 at
5 3 0.5 t
2 0.5 t
2
t
4s
0.5
13. A car is accelerating uniformly while traveling along a straight road. Its speed increases from 6 m/s to 20
m/s in 8s. Modeling the car as a particle, find the distance traveled during this time and the acceleration of the
car.
Reference: Mechanics 1, Chapter 2, section 2.13
Solution:
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20 6 a 8
14 8a
14
a 1.75 m/s 2
8
To find x:
1
x V0t at 2
2
1
6 8 1.75 82
2
1
48 1.75 64
2
x 48 56 104 m
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14. A parachutist is descending vertically at a steady speed of 4 m/s when his watchstrap breaks and the watch
falls. If the watch hits the ground 4 seconds later,
a) At what height was the parachutist when he dropped it?
b) Find the speed with which the watch hits the ground.
Reference: Mechanics 1, Chapter 2, Section 2.15, Exercise 31.
Solution:
At the moment of fall, the watch has the same velocity as the parachutist.
V0 = 4 m/s
t=4s
a = g = 9.8 m/s2
x=?
V=?
a)
1
x V0t at 2
2
1
4 4 9.8 16
2
16 4.9 16
16 78.4 94.4 m
b)
V V0 at
4 9.8 4
4 39.2 43.2 m/s
15. On a long straight road a car accelerates uniformly from rest, reaching a speed of 45 m/s in 20 s. It has to
maintain that speed for 90 s behind a truck. The car then accelerates uniformly to 75 m/s in a further 20 s. After
maintaining that speed for 4 minutes, the car is brought to a halt by a uniform deceleration of 4 m/s2.
Calculate the average speed of the car in the first 130 s.
Reference: Mechanics 1, Chapter 2, Section 2.13, Exercise 21.
Solution:
di
vavg
ti
Stage 1: acceleration
v0 v f
d1
t;
2
0 45
d1
20 450 m
2
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d2 45 90 4,050 m
Stage 3: acceleration
v0 v f
d3
t
2
45 75
d1
20 1, 200 m
2
450 4, 050 1, 200
vavg
43.85 m/s
20 90 20
16. Mira cycles to the East at 20 km/hr with respect to the ground and Zeina cycles to the East at 25 km/hr.
Find the velocity of Zeina with respect to Mira.
Reference: Mechanics 1, Chapter 2, Section 2.16, Exercise 32.
Solution:
Velocity of Mira with respect to (w.r.t.) the ground.
VMg 20 km/h
VZg 25 km/h
VZM ?
We have
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On a windy day,
Distance = 350 km
Time = 2.8 hr
Velocity of plane with respect to wind.
350
VpW
125km/h
2.8
Velocity decreases because wind blows in opposite direction: Wwg is negative
V pw Vwg V pg
V pw Vwg V pg
125 Vwg 140
Vwg 140 125 15 km/h
Vwg 15 km/h
18. What is the relationship between the instantaneous speed v and the period of motion T for a body executing
uniform circular motion of radius r?
Reference: Mechanics 1, Chapter 3, section 3.3
Solution:
Instantaneous speed =
2 r
T
19. Body M moves in a circle of radius 6.0 m at a constant rate of exactly one turn every 12 s. At t = 0.0 s, M is
at point A on the positive yaxis and moving in the clockwise direction.
Find the average velocity in the interval t = 0.0 s to t = 3.0 s.
Reference: Mechanics 1, Chapter 3, section 3.3
Solution:
at t = 0
r1 0i 6 j
at t = 3 s
r2 6i 0 j
r (6 0)i (0 6) j
6i 6 j (m)
v
r 6i 6 j (m)
2i 2 j m/s
t
3 (s)
20. Body M moves in a circle of radius 6.0 m at a constant rate of exactly one turn every 12 s. At t = 0.0 s, M is
at point A on the positive yaxis and moving in the clockwise direction.
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12s
v m/s
Thus velocity vector at t=0 s and t=3 s is shown in the figure above.
v
aav
t
v (0 )i ( 0) j
i j
aav
i j
m/s 2
3
21. The velocities of two particles A and B are (ai 7j) m/s and (5i + bj) m/s respectively. The velocity of A
relative to B is (2i 3j) m/s. Find the values of a and b.
Reference: Mechanics 1, Chapter 3, section 3.4
Solution:
v A ai 7 j vB 5i bj
v AB v A vB 2i 3 j
vx ( A) vx ( B ) vx ( AB )
a 5 2
a7
v y ( A) v y ( B ) v y ( AB )
7 b 3
b 4
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22. At 12:00 p.m. the position vector of ship A with respect to an origin O is (3i) km and that of B with respect
to the origin O is (2i j) km. A moves with a constant velocity (5i 5j) km/h and B with constant velocity (8i
6j) km/h.
Find the velocity of B relative to A.
Find the position vector B relative to A at time t.
At what time are the ships closest together?
Reference: Mechanics 1, Chapter 3, Section 3.5, Exercise 21.
Solution:
vBA vB vA (8 5)i (6 5) j 3i j km/h
9t 3 1 t 0
10t 2
2 1
60 min
t h
12 min
10 5
5
Ships are closest at 12:12 pm.
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Solution:
In the SI, the newton (N) is the unit of force; Its the force (F = 1 N) that accelerates a unit mass
(m = 1 kg) at a unit rate (a = 1 m/s2).
26. State Newtons third law and give some properties of action and reaction.
Reference:
Mechanics 1, Chapter 4, Section 4.4.
Solution:
Whenever an object M exerts a force F1 on another object N, N exerts on M a force F2 equal to
F1 in magnitude but opposite in direction.
27. A shell is shot with a muzzle velocity of 120 m/s at an angle of 40 above the horizontal.
Find the maximum height above point of projection.
Reference: Mechanics 1, Chapter 4, section 4.7
Solution:
v2
v 2 sin 2
ymax 0 y 0
2g
2g
ymax
1202 sin 2 40
297.5 m
2 10
28. A shell is shot with a muzzle velocity of 120 m/s at an angle of 40 above the horizontal.
Find the time taken by the shell to reach its initial level.
Reference: Mechanics 1, Chapter 4, Section 4.7, Exercise 22(b).
Solution:
y 0;
gt 2
gt 2
v0 sin t
0;
2
2
2v sin
t 0
;
g
2 120 sin 40
t
15.42 s
10
v0 y t
29. A ball is thrown with an initial velocity of 15 m/s at an angle of 50 above the horizontal.
Find the time taken to reach its maximum height.
Reference: Mechanics 1, Chapter 4, section 4.7
Solution:
V0 = 15 m/s
= 50
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t = ?? to reach ymax
at max. height Vy = 0
but Vy gt V0 sin 0
1.15 s
g
10
30. A ball is thrown with a initial velocity of 15 m/s at an angle of 50 above the horizontal.
Find the distance of the ball from its point of projection 2 s after being thrown.
Reference: Mechanics 1, Chapter 4, Section 4.7, Exercise 23(b).
Solution:
d = ?? at t = 2 s
1
y gt 2 V0 sin t
2
y 5(4) 15 sin 500 (2)
20 23 3m
x V0 cos t 15 cos 500 2 19.3m
d x 2 y 2 32 19.32 19.53m
31. A ball is thrown from top of the building, 35 m high, with an initial velocity of 20 m/s making an angle of
30 above the horizontal.
Find the time taken by the ball to reach the ground.
Reference: Mechanics 1, Chapter 4, section 4.7
Solution:
h = 35 m
V0 = 20 m/s
= 30
t = ??
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1
y gt 2 V0 sin t
2
1
35 5t 2 20 t
2
2
5t 10t 35 0
t 2 2t 7 0
(2) 2 4(1)(7) 32
2 32
3.83s
2
2 32
t2
rejected
2
t1
32. A ball is thrown from top of the building, 35 m high, with an initial velocity of 20 m/s making an angle of
30 above the horizontal.
Find the speed with which the ball hits the ground.
Reference: Mechanics 1, Chapter 4, Section 4.7, Exercise 24(b).
Solution:
V = ??
v yf 2 v yo 2 2ay
v yf 2 2 10 m/s 2 35 m 20 m/s sin 30o
v yf 28.3m/s
Vx V0 cos 20
3
10 3 17.3m/s
2
33. A small block of weight 20 N rests on a smooth plane inclined at 30 to the horizontal and is held in
equilibrium by a light string inclined at 30 to the plane.
Find the tension of the string.
Find the normal push of the surface on the particle.
Reference: Mechanics 1, Chapter 5, Section 5.2, Exercise 6.
Solution:
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T cos30 w sin 30 0
T 11.55 N
N T sin 30 w cos30 0
N 11.55 N
34. A trunk of weight 80 N rests in equilibrium on the loading ramp of a movers truck. The ramp is smooth
and has a slope of 25o. How large a force P is necessary to move the trunk with constant velocity up the ramp?
Reference Mechanics 1, Chapter 5, section 5.2
Solution:
35. A small box is suspended in equilibrium from a horizontal rod by two light inextensible strings making an
angle of 90 between them. If the lengths of the strings are 30 cm and 40 cm, find the tension in each string
knowing that the mass of the box is 0.4 kg.
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T2
T1
T1 cos T2 cos
T1 sin T2 sin w
40
cos
sin
0.8
50
50
0.8T1 0.6T2
0.6T1 0.8T2 4
T1 0.75T2
T2
36. A small block of weight 20 N lies on a rough plane inclined at 30 to the horizontal. A horizontal force F,
applied to the block, is on the verge of moving the block up the plane. If the coefficient of friction between the
block and the plane is 0.65, find the magnitude of the normal force between the block and the plane and the
magnitude of the force F.
Reference: Mechanics 1, Chapter 5, Section 5.6, Exercise 22.
Solution:
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cos sin
cos sin
3
1
20
2
2 21.05 38.9 N
0.541
3
1
0.65
2
2
1 20 3
N 38.9
36.45 N
2
2
0.65 20
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37. Let xOy be a rectangular coordinate system where i is the unit vector along the xdirection and j is the unit
vector along the ydirection. Given A (1, 5), B(3, 6) and C (1, 2). Find the parametric vector equation r of a
straight line that passes through A and through the midpoint of BC .
RTF: a parametric equation r of a straight line that passes through A and through the midpoint of BC.
. So all we should do is to find the coordinates of point M and then find the components
(which is

) in terms of i and j and substitute in the equation r = a + tb where a is the
of vector
position vector of point A and b is
.
parallel to vector
3 1
1
2
62
yM
2
2
M * BC xM
r a tb
r i 5 j t OM OA
r i 5 j t 1i 2 j (i 5 j )
r i 5 j t 2i 3 j
r 2t 1 i 3t 5 j
38. A car moving along a straight line track accelerates uniformly from a velocity of 25.0 m/s to a velocity of
45.0 m/s over a period of 30.0 s. Then maintains this velocity for a time of 50.0 s and finally decelerates at a
constant rate coming to rest in a further 22.5 seconds.
(a) Draw the vt graph.
.
(b) Find the average velocity of the car over the whole journey
Given: v1= 25.0m/s; v2 = 45.0m/s for t = 30.0sec.
V = 45.0m/s for 50.0sec then decelerates to come to rest in 22.5sec.
RTF: vt graph and average velocity over the whole journey
Solution
:
Draw the vt graph with labelled axes and units including all the given values.
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average velocity =
total displacement
total time taken
25+45
2
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30 = 1050m
3806.25
102.5
= 37.13m/s
39. The driver of a car travelling on a motorway at 32 m/s suddenly sees that the traffic is stationary at an
estimated distance of 60 m ahead. He immediately applies the brakes, which cause a deceleration of 6 m/s2
.Can a collision be avoided?
Given: V0 = 32 m/s, a = 6 m/s2 (deceleration),
V = 0 (stops the car).
RTF: the distance at which the car stops.
Solution:
V 2 V02 2ax
0 (32) 2 2 6 x
12 x 1024
x 85.33m
The car stops only after a distance of 85.33 m. So he cannot avoid the collision as the traffic is at a distance of
60 m.
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40. At 2 p.m. the position vector, relative to a lighthouse, of a ship A is 10i km and As velocity is (12i + 5j)
km/h. At the same time another ship B, whose velocity is (3i + 4j) km/h, is in a position (20i 4j) km relative
to the same lighthouse.
(a) Find after t hours
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(b)
.....
Given: at 2 p.m.
xAB xA xB 10 15t i t 4 j km
RTF: The time when A is due north of B
Remark: A is due north of B means that A and B are along the same vertical, i.e, the xcomponent of xAB
is equal to zero
10 15t 0
10 1
t h or at 2 : 20 pm.
15 3
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41. A light inextensible string of length 50 cm is fixed to a wall at one end A. A particle of mass 4.0 kg is
attached to the other end B. A horizontal force F applied to the end B holds the particle in equilibrium at a
distance of 30 cm from the wall. Find the tension in the string.
Solution:
Given:
. Light inextensible string fixed to a wall at one end
.Mass is attached to the other end
.Force F is applied to the other end that holds
the particle in equilibrium at a distance of 30 cm
from the wall
m = 4.0 kg
length of the string = 50 cm
x2 = 502  302 , x = 40 cm
cos = adj/hyp = 40/50 = 4/5
(No need to find )
42. A small block of weight 20 N lies on a rough plane inclined at 30 to the horizontal. A horizontal force F,
applied to the block, is on the verge of moving the block up the plane. If the coefficient of friction between the
block and the plane is 0.65, find the magnitude of the normal force between the block and the plane and the
magnitude of the force F.
Solution:
Given:
. A block lies on a rough plane inclined at 30 to the horizontal
. A horizontal force F, applied to the block, is on the verge of moving
the block up the plane
= 0.65
W = 20 N
RTF: F and N
Resolve F and W
Apply
(1) Fx = 0
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and
(2)
Fy = 0
f=N
cos sin
cos sin
3
1
20
2
2 21.05 38.9 N
0.541
3
1
0.65
2
2
1 20 3
N 38.9
36.45 N
2
2
0.65 20
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