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Examples
> with(Physics):
Set the default differentiation variables for dAlembertian and d_, define a spacetime
tensor function A and use the enhanced display scheme of the differential equation
packages
> Setup(differentiationvariables = X);
Systems of spacetime Coordinates are: {X}
Default differentiation variables for d_ and dAlembertian are: [X]
[ differentiationvariables = [ X ] ]
> Define(A);
Defined objects with tensor properties
{ A, εµ, α , β, ν, g_ µ, ν, d_ µ, δµ, ν, γµ, σµ, Xµ }

> PDEtools[declare]((f, A, Phi)(X));


f( x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ) will now be displayed as f
A( x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ) will now be displayed as A
Φ ( x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ) will now be displayed as Φ
The dAlembertian operator is the double application of d_[mu] with the index
contracted:
> d_[mu](d_[mu](f(X)));
(f)
In the default 4 = 3+1 dimensional Minkowski spacetime, the form of dAlembertian as a
sum of diff constructions is
> convert(%, diff);
−fx1 , x1 − fx2 , x2 − fx3 , x3 + fx4 , x4

The dAlembertian deals normally with derivatives expressed using any of the Maple
differential operators including D, diff and d_; it also distributes over sums and products
> d_[mu](f(X) + A[mu](X));
ð µ( f ) + ðµ( Aµ )

> dAlembertian(%);
ð µ( ( f ) ) + ð µ( ( Aµ ) )

> d_[mu](f[mu](X))*A[nu](X);
ð µ( fµ ) Aν

> dAlembertian(%);
ð µ( ( fµ ) ) Aν + 2 ðα ( ðµ( fµ ) ) ð α ( Aν ) + ðµ( fµ ) ( Aν )

Because dAlembertian is a second order differential operator (dAlembertian(f) =


ð[ µ ](ð[ µ ](f))), the differentiation rule, when applied to a product as in above, requires
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decomposing the dAlembertian operation into the sequence of ð[ µ ] operations. Note


also the introduction of a dummy index α which could be any spacetime index - these
indices are chosen after checking that they are not assigned and not already present in the
given expression at the time of introducing them.
Regardless of having set the default differentiation variables to X you can call
dAlembertian or d_ with other coordinates as differentiation variables; for instance, set
one more coordinate system
> Coordinates(Y);
Systems of spacetime Coordinates are: {X, Y}
{ X, Y }
> dAlembertian(f(X));
(f)
> dAlembertian(f(Y), [Y]);
( f( Y ), [ Y ] )
Note the output above displays the differentiation variables [Y]; this is so because they
are not the "default differentiation variables"; if you set them to be [Y]
> Setup(differentiationvariables = Y);
Default differentiation variables for d_ and dAlembertian are: [Y]
[ differentiationvariables = [ Y ] ]
> dAlembertian(f(X)); # now the omitted differentiation
variables are [Y]
0
> dAlembertian(f(X), [X]); # [X] are now displayed
( f, [ X ] )
> dAlembertian(f(Y), [Y]); # [Y] are omitted
( f( Y ) )
The dAlembertian enters the classical field equations in various models; this is the
electromagnetic field tensor
> Setup(differentiationvariables = X);
Default differentiation variables for d_ and dAlembertian are: [X]
[ differentiationvariables = [ X ] ]
> F[mu, nu] := d_[mu](A[nu](X)) - d_[nu](A[mu](X));
Fµ, ν := ð µ( Aν ) − ðν( Aµ )

Maxwell equations result from taking the functional derivative of the Action
> 'Fundiff'( Intc(F[mu,nu]^2, X), A[rho](Y)); # <- delay
evaluation quotes: peformed in the next line
δ ⌠ ∞ ⌠ ∞ ⌠ ∞ ⌠ ∞ 
     ( ð ( A ) − ð ( A ) ) d x1 d x2 dx3 d x4 
2
  
 δ Aρ( Y ) 
       µ ν ν µ 

 ⌡ ⌡ ⌡ ⌡ 
 −∞ −∞ −∞ −∞ 
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> subs(Y = X, %);


( 2 ðµ( ð ν( Aν ) ) − 2 ( Aµ ) ) g_ µ, ρ + ( −2 ( Aν ) + 2 ð µ( ðν( Aµ ) ) ) g_ ν, ρ

To simplify the contracted spacetime indices use Simplify


> Simplify(%);
−4 ( Aρ ) + 4 ð µ( ð ρ( Aµ ) )

The Lagrangean of the λ Φ ^4 model, the corresponding Action and the field equations
> L := 1/2 * d_[mu](Phi(X)) * d_[mu](Phi(X)) - m^2/2 *
Phi(X)^2 + lambda/4*Phi(X)^4;
1 2 m2 Φ 2 λ Φ 4
L := ðµ( Φ ) − +
2 2 4
> 'Fundiff'(Intc(L,X), Phi(Y)); # <- delay evaluation
quotes: peformed in the next line
⌠ ∞ ⌠ ∞ ⌠ ∞ ⌠ ∞ 
δ     1 m2 Φ 2 λ Φ 4 
 
    Φ
2
− + 
 
 δ Φ ( Y )     2 µ ð ( ) d x1 d x2 d x3 d x4 
     2 4 
⌡−∞ ⌡−∞ ⌡−∞ ⌡−∞ 

 
> subs(Y = X, %);
− ( Φ ) + Φ ( −m 2 + λ Φ 2 )
>
>