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You are on page 1of 8

1.PROBLEM STATEMENT

2.INTRODUCTION

3.LITERATURE REVIEW

4.PROCEDURE

5.APPARATUS REQIRED

6.CALCULATION

7.SUGGESION

15Mpa at 10 days with air content of 10%

to reduce size, as appose to tensile strength, which withstand loads tending

to elongate. In other words, compressive strength resists compression.

their relative quantities with the objective of producing a concrete of the

required strength, durability, and workability as economically as possible, is

termed as the concrete mix design.

There are

1)

2)

3)

Standard mix

Designed mix

compressive strength of concrete is determined in the laboratory in

controlled conditions. On the basis of this test result we judge the quality of

concrete. But sometimes the strength test results vary so widely that it

becomes difficult to reach at any conclusion.

FACTORS AFFECTING CONCRETE STRENGTH

Concrete strength is effected by many factors, such as quality of raw

materials, water/cement ratio, coarse/fine aggregate ratio, age of concrete,

compaction of concrete, temperature, relative humidity and curing of

concrete.

Cement: Provided the cement conforms with the appropriate standard and it

has been stored correctly (i.e. in dry conditions), it should be suitable for

use in concrete.

Aggregates: Quality of aggregates, its size, shape, texture, strength etc

determines the strength of concrete. The presence of salts (chlorides and

sulphates), silt and clay also reduces the strength of concrete.

Water: frequently the quality of the water is covered by a clause stating

..the water should be fit for drinking... This criterion though is not absolute

and reference should be made to respective codes for testing of water

construction purpose.

PAGE 1

The relation between water cement ratio and strength of concrete is shown

in the plot as shown below:

The higher the water/cement ratio, the greater the initial spacing between

the cement grains and the greater the volume of residual voids not filled by

hydration products.

There is one thing missing on the graph. For a given cement content, the

workability of the concrete is reduced if the water/cement ratio is reduced. A

lower water cement ratio means less water, or more cement and lower

workability.

However if the workability becomes too low the concrete becomes difficult

to compact and the strength reduces. For a given set of materials and

environment conditions, the strength at any age depends only on the watercement ratio, providing full compaction can be achieved.

Following points should be noted for coarse/fine aggregate ratio:

If the proportion of fines is increased in relation to the coarse

aggregate, the overall aggregate surface area will increase.

If the surface area of the aggregate has increased, the water demand

will also increase.

PAGE 2

Assuming the water demand has increased, the water cement ratio will

increase.

Since the water cement ratio has increased, the compressive strength

will decrease.

Following points must be noted for aggregate cement ratio:

If the volume remains the same and the proportion of cement in

relation to that of sand is increased the surface area of the solid will

increase.

If the surface area of the solids has increased, the water demand will

stay the same for the constant workability.

Assuming an increase in cement content for no increase in water

demand, the water cement ratio will decrease.

If the water cement ratio reduces, the strength of the concrete will increase.

The influence of cement content on workability and strength is an important

one

to

remember

and

can

be

summarized

as

follows:

has little effect on the water demand and results in a reduction in the

water/cement ratio.

2. The reduction in water/cement ratio leads to an increase in strength of

concrete.

3. Therefore, for a given workability an increase in the cement content

results in an increase in strength of concrete.

PAGE 3

5. Age of concrete:

The degree of hydration is synonymous with the age of concrete

provided the concrete has not been allowed to dry out or the temperature

is too low.

In theory, provided the concrete is not allowed to dry out, then it wil always

be increasing albeit at an ever reducing rate. For convenience and for most

practical applications, it is generally accepted that the majority of the

strength has been achieved by 28 days.

6. Compaction of concrete:

Any entrapped air resulting from inadequate compaction of the

plastic concrete will lead to a reduction in strength. If there was 10%

trapped air in the concrete, the strength will fall down in the range of 30

to 40%.

7. Temperature:

The rate of hydration reaction is temperature dependent. If the

temperature increases the reaction also increases. This means that the

concrete kept at higher temperature will gain strength more quickly than a

similar concrete kept at a lower temperature.

However, the final strength of the concrete kept at the higher

temperature will be lower. This is because the physical form of the hardened

cement paste is less well structured and more porous when hydration

proceeds at faster rate.

This is an important point to remember because temperature has a

similar but more pronounced detrimental effect on permeability of the

concrete.

PAGE 4

8. Curing:

It should be clear from what has been said above that the detrimental

effects of storage of concrete in a dry environment can be reduced if the

concrete is adequately cured to prevent excessive moisture loss.

2. Trowel

3. Tray

4. Mould (15cm X 15cm X 15cm)

5. Tampering rod

6. Grease oil

7. Compression testing machine

procedure:1.

2.

3.

weighed.

It was then mixed thoroughly in the mechanical mixer until

uniformity of concrete achieved. This material was sufficient for

casting of a cubes of the size 150mm x 150mm x 150mm.

The concrete may be also mixed by hand in such a manner as to

avoid less of water. In mixing by hand the water cement and fine

aggregates shall be mixed dry to uniform colour and then the coarse

PAGE 5

4.

5.

6.

7.

aggregate was added and mixed until the coarse aggregate was

uniformly distributed throughout the batch.

The concrete was poured and prepared in the mould which has been

aided with minimum viscosity oil. The concrete was filled in cube

moulds in three layers.

150mm cube each layer to be tampered more than 35 times.

Trowel the surplus concrete from the top of the cube

Curing of specimen

Volume of cube = 3375 cm cube

1m3 of concrete=2400kg

3375 x 10-3m3 of concrete =3375 x 10-3 x 2400

=8.1kg

Let weight of cement = x

Let weight of sand = 2x

Let weight of aggregate = 4x

Therefore,

=> x + 2x + 4x = 8.1kg

=> x=1.157 kg

17.62N/mm2

PAGE 6

Sugestion:A. Curing.

Ensure that the concrete is hydrated for a minimum of 7 days (or as instructed by the designer).

B. Vibration.

Helps remove an air pockets trapped in the pour. This is done before the concrete sets (as it is

being poured).

C. Ratios.

Ensure the correct ratios cement, sand, Stone and water. Extra cement may equate to extra

strength but is prone to cracking. Extra water and the cement raises while the heavier stone settles

(segregation).

D. Steel

The correct steel and ensuring it's correct placement is essential.

PAGE 7

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