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Name : Tiew Chuan Dong Class : 5 Berlian I/C Number : Teacher : Mr. Tan

CONTENT

Number Contents Page 1

Title

1 2

Preface

2 3

Acknowledgement

3 4

Objectives

4 5

Introduction

5 - 10 6

Moral value

11 7

**Procedure and Findings Part (a)
**

12 - 16

Part (b)

17 - 18 8

**Further exploration Part (a)
**

19 - 25

Part (b)

26 - 29

Part (c)

30 9

Conclusion

31 10

Reflection

32 11

References

33

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all, I would like to say thank you to my parents for providing everything, such as money, to buy anything that are related to this project work, their advise, which is the most needed for this project and facilities such as internet, books, computers and all that. They also supported me and encouraged me to complete this task so that I will not procrastinate in doing it. Then I would like to thank to my teacher, Mr. Tan for guiding me throughout this project. Even I had some difficulties in doing this task, but he taught me patiently until we knew what to do. He tried and tried to teach me until I understand what I m supposed to do with the project work. Besides, my friends who always supporting me. Even this project is individually but we are cooperated doing this project especially in discussion and sharing ideas to ensure our task will finish completely. Last but not least, any party which involved either directly or indirect in completing this project work. Thank you everyone.

OBJECTIVES

The aims of carrying out this project work are:« to apply and adapt a variety of problem-solving strategies to solve problems; to improve thinking skills; to promote effective mathematical communication;

«

«

« to develop mathematical knowledge through problem solving in a way that increases students interest and confidence; to use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas precisely; to provide learning environment that stimulates and enhances effective learning; to develop positive attitude towards mathematics.

8

Arch followed the forces of compression and which was therefore stronger. The semicircular arch can be flattened to make an elliptical arch as in the Ponte Santa Trinita. The parabolic and catenary arches are now known to be the theoretically strongest forms. Parabolic arches were introduced in construction by the Spanish architect Antoni Gaudí, who admired the structural system of Gothic style, but for the buttresses, which he termed architectural crutches . The catenary and parabolic arches carry all horizontal thrust to the foundation and so do not need additional elements.

The horseshoe arch is based on the semicircular arch, but its lower ends are extended further round the circle until they start to converge. The first examples known are carved into rock in India in the first century AD, while the first known built horseshoe arches are known from Aksum (modern day Ethiopia and Eritrea) from around the 3rd 4th century, around the same time as the earliest contemporary examples in Syria, suggesting either an Aksumite or Syrian origin for the type of arch. The segmental arch was first built by the Chinese who realized that an arch in a bridge did not have to be a semicircle. The arch has many usages, for example, in constructions.

A masonry arch

Ana rc h is a structure that spans a space while supporting weight (e.g. a doorway in a stone wall). Arches appeared as early as the 2nd millennium BC in Mesopotamian brick architecture and their systematic use started with the Ancient Romans who were the first to apply the technique to a wide range of structures. The semicircular arch was followed in Europe by the pointed Gothic arch or ogive whose centreline more closely

9

Construction An arch requires all of its elements to hold it together, raising the question of how an arch is constructed. The gallery shows arch forms displayed in roughly the order in which they were developed.

Besides that, the parabolic shaped gate also used the concept of quadratic functions. Introduction to quadratic functions: Polynomial functions are simply the functions withas an input variable, made up of several terms, each term is made up of two factors, the first being a real number coefficient, and the second beingraised to some non-negative integer power. In the term Quadratic function the word quadratic comes from a Latin wordquadratum. A term like 2 is called a square in Algebra, as it represents the area of a square with side. Representation of quadratic functions As discussed above a quadratic function is a polynomial function of maximum exponent ofas 2. As ta ndard form of a quadratic function is given below: where are real numbers and a 0, If a = 0 then the highest exponent ofin the function becomes 1 and the function hence is no more a quadratic function. The other forms by which a quadratic function cab ne represented are: 1. Factored form , where 2. Vertex form The graph of a quadratic function, irrespective of the format, is always apa ra bola.

where are coordinates of the vertex of the parabola represented by the quadratic function Roots of a quadratic function The roots of a quadratic function are represented by the values of for which There will always be two roots of a quadratic function. To learn about the roots, we will first discuss about a termDiscriminant. It is represented by ''. Value of= Roots are represented by, Here we can see that, When, In 2010, I am glad that I have got the opportunity to do this project. First of all, I have learnt a lot of good value throughout the project. I have shown the value of hardworking in completing this project. I have also learnt that we must be patient to do something well especially in Additional Mathematics. Last but not least, I ha

**PROCEDURE AND FINDINGS
**

Part (a)

The diagram below shows the gate of an art gallery. A concrete structure is built at the upper part of the gate and the words µART GALLERY¶ is written on it. The top of the concrete structure is flat whereas the bottom is parabolic in shape. The concrete structure is supported by two vertical pillars at both ends. The distance between the two pillars is4 metres and the height of the pillar is5 metres. The height of the concrete structure is 1 metre. The shortest distance from pointA of the concrete structure to pointB, that is the highest point on the parabolic shape, is 0.5 metres. ve learnt to pick up my responsibility to accomplish this task.

16

(a) The parabolic shape of the concrete structure can be represented by various functions depending on the point of reference. Based on different points of reference, obtain at least three different functions which can be used to represent the curve of this concrete structure.

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