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S.Taufik

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Lambung Mangkurat University, Banjarmasin, Indonesia

Abstract: This paper investigates the behaviour of semi rigid connection with high strength steel by three-dimensional non-

linear numerical modelling. The flush end plate (FEP) connection model is such that end-plate, bolt, beam and column are

represented by solid elements using ANSYS 10.0 software aid. The full interaction between plate and column is simulated by

contact element. The analysis results of the moment- rotation relationship and behaviour characteristic of the connection with

high strength steel are compared and discussed. The moment capacity prediction of flush end plate connections based on EC3

has been shown to be reasonable compared with finite element (FE) modeling. The proposed FE connection model is capable

of predicting the ultimate load capacity and the plastic strain pattern with good accuracy. The model presented gives excellent

results for increasing the connection capacity significantly due to employed higher strength steel section. The four parameter

model is proposed to predict M model through curve fitting for FEP connection with high strength end-plate.

Keywords: Numerical Modelling; Semi-rigid, Flush End Plate; High Strength Steel; Moment Capacity

1. INTRODUCTION modelling. Moze et al. (2005) produced experimental

Numerical modelling by finite element analysis of testing data on high strength steel. Taufik et al. (2011)

beam-column connection has been done by many investigated behaviour of partially restrained

researchers. Three dimensional FE models have been connection with high strength steel with refined four

well verified with experimental results. More recent parameter power model to predict M model through

studies using FE modelling have focused mostly on curve fitting. Taufik et al. (2006) conducted simplified

top-and-seat angle and end plate connections. FE finite element modelling of beam-column bolted

model from Bose et al. (1996), Bursi et al. (1998), connection with shell element. The connection model

Maggie et al. (2005) have been considered by solid is such that end-plates are represented by shell

elements, whilst Bahaari et al. (1996) and elements, and bolts are simulated by link and solid

Shearbourne et al. (1996) have proposed model with elements. Various grades of high strength steel end-

shell elements. Danesh F, et al. (2007) consider a top plates are simulated to investigate the connection

and seat angle without web angle connection under behaviour.

effect of shear force on the initial stiffness. Taufik Taufik et al. (2006) investigated behaviour of

and Xiao (2005) have studied the behaviour of angle flush end plate connection with high strength steel

bolted connection by applying high strength steel with using three-dimensional finite element modelling.

shell element model. There is a very little information The connection model is such that end-plates, beam,

about the beam-column bolted connection with high column and bolts are simulated by solid and link

strength steel, which Puthli et al. (2001) and Moze et elements. Various grades of high strength steel end-

al. (2005) have been only pointed out experiment plates are simulated to investigate the connection

testing on simple bolted connection. behaviour.

connection are performed recognizing contact effects Flush end plate (FEP) connections are designated

and bolt geometry. Since the pretension of the bolts in provision of semi-rigid connection. FEP connection

and slip are most important parameters of connection is able to transfer not only the vertical reaction but

behaviour by Citipitouglu et al. (2002), therefore the also some end moment of the beam to the column.

bolt model and contact element require considered The geometry of the FEP is based on two different

model as accurate as possible. The modelling sizes of beams and columns with all the connection

approach is still required simplifications in order to parts are kept in same size, whilst the end-plates are

reduce the computational effort. Shell elements are clamped on column flanges. The only higher strength

considered in order to eliminate generating various of the end-plate is applied to keep the original

types of detailed 3D geometries. The model of shank connection geometry for improving the moment and

and bolt hole is introduced for refining previous rotational capacity, whilst the other connection

model as conducted by previous finite element members are kept with carbon steel. The The FEP

1

Proceedings of the 4th ASEAN Civil Engineering Conference Yogyakarta, 22-23 November 2011

connection parameter is depicted in Table 1. The linier finite element modelling is illustrated in Figure

configuration detailing of FEP connection in the non- 1.

Connection Beam End-plate Bolt - grade g (mm) p (mm) r (mm)

FEP-1a IPE240 268x160xtep M20 10.9 98 158 55

FEP-2a 406x178x60UB 460x200xtep M24 8.8 90 286 110

FEP-3a HE320A 360x300xtep M24 8.8 150 160 100

Steel material properties for FE analysis is based on is shown in Figure 2, and the connection parameter is

experimental data. All steel materials for connection detailed in Table 2. Beam and column for FEP-1a are

used are S275, M24 bolts grade 8.8 and M20 bolts designated as IPE240 and HEA240, respectively,

grade 10.1, except for FEP-3a using S355 column whilst 406x178x60UB and 254x254x 73UC are used

and beam, and S690 endplate as shown in Table 2. for FEP-2a, and HE320A and HE300M are used for

The FE analysis results of the FEP connection are FEP-3. Bolt gauge on column flange (g) and bolt

presented in comparison with the test results. spacing (p) are 50.0mm and 89.0mm for FEP-1,

Comparisons are made with experimental results whilst 63mm and 140mm for FEP-2, 150mm and

obtained from Broderick et al. (2000), Bose (1998), 140mm for FEP-3 respectively.

and Coelho et al. (2001). The connection geometry

Bolt

Stiffener

r

Bolt Endplate

Endplate

Column p

Beam

Beam

r Column

Stiffener flange

g

Specimen Steel grade fy (MPa) fu (MPa) fy / fu

column (1-2) S275 340 520 0.654

beam (1-2) S275 360 530 0.679

column (3) S355 450 580 0.776

beam (3) S355 450 580 0.776

bolt (1) Grade10.9 1010 1108 0.912

bolt (2) Grade 8.8 810 900 0.900

bolt (3) Grade 8.8 840 940 0.894

end plate (1-2) S275 380 540 0.704

end plate (3) S690 698 749 0.950

Different thickness of higher strength end-plate (tep) and column are kept to mild carbon steel. Table 3

are applied. The end-plates are determined with shows the configuration of finite element model for

different high strength steel grade, whilst the beam the FEP connections.

Table 3. FEP configuration parameter for FEA

2

Proceedings of the 4th ASEAN Civil Engineering Conference Yogyakarta, 22-23 November 2011

Connection Beam Beam size Stiffener End-plate tep (mm) g (mm) p (mm) r (mm)

destination grade (mm) grade

FEP-1a S275 IPE240 N/A S550 15.0 98.0 158.0 55.0

FEP-1b S275 IPE240 10.0 S550 15.0 98.0 158.0 55.0

FEP-1c S275 IPE240 N/A S690 15.0 98.0 158.0 55.0

FEP-1d S275 IPE240 10.0 S690 15.0 98.0 158.0 55.0

FEP-1d* S355 IPE240 10.0 S690 12.0 98.0 158.0 55.0

FEP-1e* S355 IPE240 10.0 S550 15.0 98.0 158.0 55.0

FEP-1f* S355 IPE240 10.0 S690 15.0 98.0 158.0 55.0

EP-1g* S355 IPE240 10.0 S550 18.0 98.0 158.0 55.0

FEP-2a S355 406x178x60UB N/A S550 15.0 98.0 158.0 110.0

FEP-2b S355 406x178x60UB 10.0 S550 15.0 98.0 158.0 110.0

FEP-2c S355 406x178x60UB N/A S690 15.0 98.0 158.0 110.0

FEP-2d S355 406x178x60UB 10.0 S690 15.0 98.0 158.0 110.0

FEP-3a S355 HE320A N/A S690 10.0 150.0 160.0 100.0

FEP-3b S355 HE320A N/A S690 15.0 150.0 160.0 100.0

FEP-3a* S355 HE320A N/A S690 10.0 150.0 160.0 100.0

FEP-3b* S355 HE320A N/A S690 15.0 150.0 160.0 100.0

Since the bolt is tightened, the head and/or nut stay in

The ANSYS version 10.0 which is a general purpose close contact with their connecting angles and

finite element package is selected to carry out flanges, therefore the bolt share their nodes with the

numerical modelling analysis (ANSYS, 2004). Non plate ones.

linear flush end plate connection model is symmetric

about the centre of the beam web and no lateral Interface element is considered to accommodate the

displacement is assumed, so only one side of the effect of friction and slip. Friction coefficient value is

plane of symmetry is modelled. The geometry of the used to capture experimental response and previous

model now represents one half of the full scale FE modelling. The model of interface element is

connection in the terms of area and moment of designated as a line of 3D node to node contact

inertia, so the capacity of the connection model is element with coincident nodes. The interface

only a half of the actual load capacity. The following elements connect the nodes at the back of the angles

ANSYS element types are used for only one half of to corresponding nodes at the column flange and

an entire flush end plate connection. Plastic shell beam web.

elements, SOLID45, are used to model beam,

column and end-plate. Bolt head and nut are The external monotonic static point load is applied in

idealized using eight-node isoparametric solid increments to obtain a converged solution to a

elements, i.e. SOLID45. Bolt shank is modelled nonlinear analysis. The automatic time stepping is on

using twelve 3D spar element of LINK8 elements. with the minimum time step increment is set for

The interactions between angle and column or beam gaining load sub step result at the last step. The

are simulated by CONTACT178 elements. The bolt convergence criteria is based on the force and

head and nut are modelled as hexagons. The bolt displacement for tracking the maximum plastic strain

shank is modelled using spar element connecting the step. The deformation measurement is based on the

farthest corner nodes of head and nut to each other. deformation of the angle. The relative displacements

The effective area of the bolt is split one twelfth at the locations of the beam tension and compression

equally among the spar elements. The bolt holes are flanges were used to find the rotation of a connection.

modelled as circular in M22 diameter holes. Bolt The rotation of connection is defined as relative

pretension caused by bolt tightening is simulated by horizontal displacement over the depth of the beam

applying equivalent initial strains for bolt shank measured from the centre of top flange to the centre

elements. Initial strain value of bolt pretension is of bottom flange. The most important aspect of semi-

used according to the bolt pretension calibration rigid connection behaviour is the moment-rotation

(M-relationship. Flush end plate connections

4

Proceedings of the 4th ASEAN Civil Engineering Conference Yogyakarta, 22-23 November 2011

moment, is the rotation of the connection, F is

Moment (KN.m)

twice as much as the applied point load, d is the

60

against the recorded load-displacement curves from Experimental F1 (da Silva 2001)

10

the tests.

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Rotation (mRad)

governed by the geometry of the endplate, the non-

linear behaviour is related to material properties. To Figure 2. Validation of FE modelling against test result;

establish the effects of end-plate configurations, plate FEP-1a connection

thickness and strength are selected as two main 200

parameters. Multi-linear elastic-plastic approach is

used to determine the material properties of high

180

strength steel for the FE model, whilst the yield stress 160

140

Experimental Test-3 (Bose 1998)

20

equivalent stress and plastic strain were used to

assess the predicted yield line patterns. 0

0 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60

Rotation (mRad)

Mild carbon steel S275 was used for beams and Figure 3. Validation of FE modelling against test result

column with yield stress of 300 MPa and Young FEP-2a

modulus of 210 GPa. High strength bolt M20 grade

8.8 with yield stress of 800 MPa is applied for all 250

approach is used to determine the material properties 200

Multilinear elastic-plastic approach is used to

Moment (KN.m)

150

determine the material properties of high strength

steel for the FE model, whilst the yield stress is

defined as 0.2% proof stress. Material properties of

100

carbon steel grade S275 and high strength steel grade F2EP-15_2 (Test-Coelho,2007)

460, S550 and S690 are used for the FE model as 50 FE FEP-3a* (tep=14.7mm)

F2EP-10_2 (Test-Coelho,2007)

depicted in Table 2, whilst a Poissons ratio is 0.3. FE FEP-3a (tep=10.2mm)

Rotation (mRad)

close correlation between the model and test was

observed, with a good comparison of the stiffness

Figure 4. Validation of FE modelling against test result

and moment-rotation capacity. The analysis result of FEP-3a

the FEP connections is presented in Figures 2, 3,

and 4. The FE models show ultimate moment of 87.2, Figure 4 shows different shape of M curve

166.5, 130.5 and 210.0 KN.m, respectively. compared with Figures 2 and 3, which it was

considered local softening effect after ultimate

moment reached.

4

Proceedings of the 4th ASEAN Civil Engineering Conference Yogyakarta, 22-23 November 2011

Comparison between the Finite Element Analysis the FEP connections is presented in Figures 2, 3, and

and test results for the FEP connection is presented in 4. The FE models show ultimate moment of 87.2

Table 4. The FEA results are shown in Figures 5 to KN.m, 166.5 KN.m, 130.5 KN.m and 210.0 KN.m,

8. A close correlation between the model and test was respectively. Comparison between the Finite Element

observed, with a good comparison of the stiffness Analysis and test results for the FEP connection is

and moment-rotation capacity. The analysis result of presented in Table 4.

Connection Finite Element Anlysis result Test result

destination Rki Mu Mu Rki Mu Mu

(KN.m/mRad) (KN.m) (mRad) (KN.m/mRad) (KN.m) (mRad)

FEP-1a 7.96 87.2 88.0 7.85 86.5 88.0

FEP-2a 46.38 166.5 49.5 40.0 165.0 50.0

FEP-3a 21.57 130.5 39.0 19.0 140.0 38.0

FEP-3a* 14.39 210.0 32.5 14.00 218.5 34.0

150 120

135

105

120

90

105

Moment (KN.m).

Moment (KN.m)

75

90

75 60

60

45 FEP-2d (S690-tep=15mm)

FEP-1b (S550-tep=12mm)

45 FEP-2c (S690-tep=15mm)

FEP-1c (S550-tep=15mm)

30 FEP-2b (S550-tep=15mm)

FEP-1d* (S690-tep=12mm)

30

FEP-1e* (S550-tep=15mm) FEP-2a (S550-tep=15mm)

FEP-1f* (S690-tep=15mm) 15

15

FEP-1g* (S550-tep=18mm)

0 0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80

Rotation (mRad) Rotation (mRad)

Figure 5. Moment-rotation relationship of the FEP-1 Figure 7. Moment-rotation relationship of the FEP-2

model; M22 bolts model; M20 bolts

100

240

90

210

80

180

70

Moment (KN.m)

Moment (KN.m)

60 150

50 120

40

90

FE FEP-1a (tep=15mm)

30 FEP-3b* (S690-tep=15mm, M27 bolts)

FE FEP-1b (tep=15mm)

60 FEP-3b (S690-tep=15mm, M24 bolts)

FE FEP-1c (tep=15mm)

20

FE FEP-1d (tep=15mm) FEP-3a* (S690-tep=10mm, M27 bolts)

0 0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60

Rotation (mRad) Rotation (mRad)

Figure 6. Moment-rotation relationship of the FEP-1 Figure 8. Moment-rotation relationship of the FEP-3

model; M20 bolts model; M24 bolts

5

Proceedings of the 4th ASEAN Civil Engineering Conference Yogyakarta, 22-23 November 2011

2

Ft . Rd (1)

and un-stiffened column are also analyzed using m

design equations to modern design codes EC3 (CEN, 2(0.25 eff t y f y / M 0 ) nBt . Rd

2

Ft . Rd (2)

1993). The design tension resistance of the column mn

flange and of the end-plate are given in terms of

Ft . Rd Bt . Rd (3)

equivalent T-stub. The effective length eff of plate

and column flange is based on the yield line patterns Determine the design value of the moment resistance

around bolt holes and should be taken as the height of of the connection MRd based on the bolt-rows in the

the end plate d as shown in Figure 9. The smallest reduced tension zone, from:

value for the three possible modes of the yielding is hi2

chosen from equation 1, 2 and 3 as follows: M Rd Fti. Rd ( ) (4)

h1

Mode (1)

Mode (2)

eff

d d

Mode (3)

`

Figure 9. Effective length eff of equivalent T stub and three possible modes of yielding

Moment connection capacity of the FE result and the unstiffned column (n). Table 5 indicates the observed

EC design prediction for high strength FEP failure moments from the FE analyses, compared

connection has been compared. The comparisons of with the design predictions. Plots of von Mises

the ultimate moment from FEA with diffrenent steel stress contours of the FEP connection with S275 and

grade of end-plates are made within stiffened (s) and S355 column are shown in Figures 10 and 11.

Connection Column End-plate Mult (FE) Mult (EC3) Location and failure

destination (stiffened) (mm), grade (KN.m) (KN.m) mode

FEP-1a S275 (n) 15.0, S550 96.0 80.2 column flange (2)

FEP-1b S275 (s) 15.0, S550 102.3 81.7 column flange (2)

FEP-1c S275 (n) 15.0, S690 103.8 80.2 column flange (2)

FEP-1d S275 (s) 15.0, S690 106.8 81.7 column flange (2)

FEP-1d* S275 (s) 12.0, S690 107.0 91.3 column flange (2)

FEP-1e* S355 (s) 15.0, S550 127.0 95.4 end-plate (2)

FEP-1f* S355 (s) 15.0, S690 130.0 102.7 column flange (2)

FEP-1g* S355 (s) 18.0, S550 131.5 102.7 column flange (2)

FEP-2a S355 (n) 15.0, S550 97.0 80.2 end-plate (1)

FEP-2b S355 (s) 15.0, S550 100.0 95.4 end-plate (2)

FEP-2c S355 (n) 15.0, S690 104.5 95.4 column flange (2)

FEP-2d S355 (s) 15.0, S690 106.8 102.7 column flange (2)

FEP-3a S355 (n) 10.0, S690 132.6 104.8 end-plate (1)

FEP-3b S355 (n) 15.0, S690 205.7 194.1 bolt failure (2)

FEP-3a* S355 (n) 10.0, S690 139.7 104.8 end-plate (1)

FEP-3b* S355 (n) 15.0, S690 227.7 194.1 column flange (2)

6

moment of S690 15.0mm thick end-plate without

column stiffener reached 96.0 KN.m, and it can be

increased by 102.3 KN.m if the column stiffeners

exist. However, a connection with column web

stiffeners is advisable because their presence

increases moment capacity up to 20%.

connection with the 15mm thick S690 end-plate and

S355 column are presented in Figures 12 and 13.

Plastic deformation of S690 end-plate is shown in

Figure 14. The maximum stress of end-plate and the

ultimate stress of closely reach the ultimate stress

.494816

106.507

212.519

318.531

424.543

530.555

636.567

742.579

848.591

954.603 and also for the column flange stress. The ratio

between maximum stress and the ultimate stress of

Figure 10. Stress contours of the FEP model with the end-plate is 99.0%, whilst the ratio between

S275 column; unit in MPa maximum stress and the ultimate stress of the column

flange is 86.0%.

ANSYS 8.1

.445135

57.913

115.382

172.85

230.318

287.786

345.254

402.723

460.191

517.659

109.103 326.345 543.587 760.829 978.071

S355 column; unit in MPa

Figure 12. Stress contour of the S355 column flange;

From the results in Table 5, it can be seen that the unit in MPa

designs are somewhat conservative despite the

omission of factors of safety. The FE model of the

FEP connection with thin end-plate and low beam 75.709

depth shows significant results close to EC3 167.804

259.898

prediction, and also for connection with thicker end- 351.993

444.088

plate and higher beam depth. Modern design methods 536.183

628.278

such as EC3 use yield line analyses of the end plate 720.373

to predict the capacity of the tensile region. At the 812.468

904.563

ultimate load, the failure mode type (1) which is

complete yielding of the column flange occurred for

almost all of the FEP connection except for thinner

S550 and S690 end-plate of the FEP connection on

the end-plate. The finite element model was used to

confirm the predictions by studying the yielding of

the end-plate and column flange.

because their absence causes premature failure in the

column flange. This consequently leads to a drastic Figure 13. Stress contour of the S690 endplate; unit

drop in moment and rotation capacities. The ultimate in MPa

7

Proceedings of the 4th ASEAN Civil Engineering Conference Yogyakarta, 22-23 November 2011

.286E-03

.001644 where

.003002 Mu = ultimate moment capacity (kN.m)

.004361

.005719 n = rigidity parameter

.007077

.008436 q = rigidity parameter

.009794 Rki = initial connection stiffness (kN.m/rad)

.011152

.012511 0 = reference plastic rotation defined by:

0 = Mu / Rki (6)

FEM connection model developed in previous

section. The M data points obtained from the

analysis were curve fitted to obtain model

parameters. Consequently, regression equations were

developed for the aforementioned parameters of each

equation in terms of geometric variables of the

connection region. In the development of the

prediction equations, the independent variables

(connection geometric variables) are defined as:

Figure 14. Plastic deformation of the S690 end-plate g = the gage distance

db = the nominal bolt diameter

4. ANALYTICAL MODEL FOR MOMENT- pf = the bolt pitch

ROTATION RELATIONSHIP hb = the beam depth

tep = the thickness of end-plate

The stiffness of any semi-rigid connection is tcf = the thickness of column flange

dependant upon the moment-rotation characteristic Fyp = material yield stress of end-plate

associated with the connection. Many attempts have Fyc = material yield stress of column

been made to establish curve-fitting techniques that Unit of independent variables: mm and N/mm2

can be used to provide suitable models for semi-rigid

connections. Abolmaali et.al (2005) have developed Using these results and the multiple regression

momentrotation model equations for flush end-plate technique, a prediction equation was developed for

connections. It was shown that both models predicted each independent parameter using the following

the M plots closely, with the more accurate model general form:

being the Three-Parameter Power model. The Three- m m

j

; M u Ba xjj ;

j 1 j 1

Richard and Abbott (1975) and Chen and Kishi m m

(1989) to predict the momentrotation (M) n Ca ; yj

j q Da zjj (7)

characteristics of PR connections. j 1 j 1

The M data points obtained from these analyses

the jth independent parameter, wj, xj, yj, and zj are the

were curve fitted to Equations 5 and 6 by minimizing

exponents to be determined through regression, and

their error-square to obtain model parameters Mu, n,

m is the number of independent parameters

q, and 0. Consequently, regression equations were

considered. Taking logarithms of both sides of the

developed for the aforementioned parameters of each

formulae in Equation (3), linear forms of these

equation in terms of geometric variables of the

formulae are obtained as:

connection region. The three parameter is expanded

into a proposed equation to accommodate change in m

ln R ki ln A w j ln a j (8)

the curve shape due to non-linear behaviour of j 1

different steel grade of each member of the m

connection as defined by Taufik et al. (2011). The ln M u ln B x j ln a j (9)

rigidity parameter n is be exploded into parameter q, j 1

m

with the dependent variables are considered, the

ln n ln C y j ln a j (10)

prediction equations is defined as: j 1

Rki m

M (5) ln q ln D z j ln a j (11)

1 /

1

n q j 1

0

8

Proceedings of the 4th ASEAN Civil Engineering Conference Yogyakarta, 22-23 November 2011

Multiple regression using spreadsheet software is The design equations for the four dependant

applied to each formula in Equations 8 to 11 to parameters of the flush end plate connection based on

determine the coefficients A, B, C, D, wj, xj, yj, and zj. Taufik et al. (2011) are obtained as:

From regression analyses, Equations 12 to 15

Rki = 162.02 g0.77 pf1.28 db0.34 tep1.71 (N.mm/rad) (12)

represent independent parameters of the design 0.76 0.82 0.37 1.25 0.85

equation for ultimate moment, reference plastic Mu = 3.57 db tep hb tep Fya (N.mm) (13)

rotation, and rigidity parameter. Sensitivity and error n = 21.22db0.25pf0.64 hb-0.82tep0.28 tcf-0.77Fyp0.25 Fyc-0.24 (14)

band analyses were conducted to validate the q = 23.01db0.25pf0.64 hb-0.82tep0.27tcf-0.078Fyp0.29 Fyc-0.28 (15)

behaviour of each equation to the variation of

independent variables and the error associated with Table 4 below presented the parameter values for

each equation, respectively. power model obtained through curve fitting for high

strength FEP connection.

Table 4. Parameters values for power model obtained through curve fitting

Connection Rki Muc Rigidity parameter Rigidity parameter Correlation coefficient

destination (kNm/mrad) (kN.m) (n) (q) (r)

FEP-1c 12.10 103.80 1.56 1.59 0.9995

FEP-1g* 18.50 133.62 1.60 1.62 0.9994

FEP-1d* 12.73 118.80 1.74 1.76 0.9992

FEP-2a 11.50 97.00 1.38 1.41 0.9993

FEP-2b 12.60 100.00 1.38 1.41 0.9992

FEP-2c 14.30 104.50 1.38 1.41 0.9991

FEP-2d 16.20 106.80 1.38 1.41 0.9992

FEP-3a 14.30 132.60 1.12 1.25 0.9991

FEP-3b 21.00 205.70 1.24 1.42 0.9992

FEP-3a* 14.88 139.70 1.18 1.28 0.9941

FEP-3b* 22.80 227.50 1.20 1.32 0.9885

Figure 15 shows comparisons between typical FEM can be seen from these figures that the predicted

M results and the predicted proposed M model curves give very close correlation with FEA results.

values for each connection obtained from Table 4. It

150

Moment(kN.m)

140

130

120

110

100

90

80

70

FEMResult(FEP1d*)

60

50 ProposedEquation(FEP1d*)

40

FEMResult(FEP1b)

30

20 Proposedequation(FEP1b)

10

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Rotation(mRad)

Figure 15. Comparison of FEM results with proposed equations; FEP-1 model

9

5. CONCLUSION REFERENCES

A three-dimensional finite element model of a flush Bose B, Sarkar S, and Bahrami M. (1996), Extended

end plate connection is presented. Four different steel endplate connections: comparison between three-

grades of end-plate properties are investigated. dimensional nonlinear finite-element analysis and

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rotation capacities. However, connection with bolted end plate connections using finite element

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d) It can be observed that, if thickness of end-plate Bahaari M.R. and Sherbourne A.N. (1996), 3D

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Stirlingshire, UK, Paper 118, 2006

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finite element modelling of flush end plate

connection with high strength steel, Proc. of the 8th

Int. Conf. on Comp. Struc. Techn., Civil-Comp

Press, Stirlingshire, UK, Paper 119, 2006

testing of flush end-plate semi-rigid steel

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11

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