Code of Practice - Highway Bridges 1967

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GOVERNMENT OF WEST '~PAKISTAN

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HIGHWAY DEPARTMENT

LAHORE

CODE OF PRACTICE HJG'HV,fAY BRIDGES 1967

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SAEED AHMAD, T.Pk., P.S.E.- i DIRECTOR GENERAL-HIGHWAYS

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.. . .. . HOWARD, ~~EDLE>, TAMMEN'~ ·ei;~~N~OfF( '~{"i' ",::" ".

, ::;';>;..,: ,'-('JG.I~EHAl HIGH1~ :fN~tl~TA~ID; ." .'

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FO? i',;'J!OR 0

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The purpose of this C"de of Pr ac t.i.c e is to establish minimum standards and un i f o r ..... , pr oc edur e s and pr ac t i ce s far the design of usual tYPEf' c f highway s t r uc t ure s in the Province of West Pakistan. 'I'hr ough such s t audar d Laa t Lon of methods,s much greater degra~ o~ efficiency and economy will be realized in design.

Concrete is and ''''ill r erna i.n for Some time the- most

e conom i ca l bridge c ons t r uc.t i.on ma te r La.l , ~i1ith this in mind this Eirst edi t i on of the Cade 'has been wr Lt t e n to cover primarily reinforced and pr2stres~ed concrete design. Reference has been made to the nritlsh Standard Specifications for those special cases where s t e e I design will be required ..

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Constant adv anc erne n t s 1;1 rc s e ar c h , lessons learned thrdltJ-'

experience and the future av a i l ab i l Lt.y o f more economical and . different s~ruct:ural materials w i Ll dictate the necessity that this Code be revised periodi~nlly. It is expected that all

those r e s pon s ib l e for s t r uc t ur c des igns ~,jill be a I er t to the

need for such revisions. SuggFstions for updating the Cede

along these lines arc encouraged.

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2.1. -Loads

2.2 Dead Load

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2.4 ,_ if_S

-' 2.5 Standard Truck-Train Load i:ng

2.6 Application of Loadings

2.7 Reduction in Load Intensity

2.8 2.9

2.10

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2.12 - 2.13 2.14 2.15

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CONTENTS

SECTION 1 - GENERAL FEATURES Oli' DES IGN

'P.re1 iminary Data

])etermin,ation of Waterway Area

Spacing and Loc.at Lon ,of Piers and Abutments Vertical Clearances

'Restricted Wate<t:ways'

Obstruction and Ri,.ver Training Determination of the Max-imum Depth of: Scour Depth o:f Foundations

Size of eulverts Op~nings Length of Culver-ts

Width of Roadway and Sidf'!;walk .. Clearances

Curbs & Safety Curbs. Railings

Roadway Drainage Superelevation Floor Surfaces Utilities

RoadWay Width-~ Curbs and Clearance fOI:" Tunnels. Roadway Width, Curhs and Clearance for Underpasses (undivided lUgh"IVays)

Roadway Hidth, Curbs and Clearances for depressed Roadway

1-1 1-5 1-8

, 1-8

1-9- 1-9 1~9 1-11 1-13 1-13 1-13 1-13 1-14' 1-14 1-15 1-15 1-15 1-15' 1-16

1-17

1-18

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1~3
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1.7
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1.9
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1.13
1.14
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1.1,6
1.17
1.18
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1.20
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2-1

2-5 2-5

ongitudinal Forces ,Wihd Loads

2-8 2':'9 2-11 2-12 2-12 2-13

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2~14 .<>2-14

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Thermal Forces Uplift

-Force of Stream Current .Bu.oyancy

Earth Pressure " EartMquake Stresses Centtifug~l Forces

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5.1 5~2-

5.3 5.4

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6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6"6

\.." 6(' 7 '6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11

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" 7.1 7.2 7.3 . 1;,.4 . 7.5 -:,-'.706

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SECTION 3 - DISTRIBU?I0N OF, LOADS

Dis trihu'tion of Whe'el- Loads' to Stringers, Lcng Lt ud i na l Beans and Floor Beams

Di&trib~tion of Loads and Design of Concrete Slabs Dist~ibution of Wheel Loads through"Earth Fills

3~1 -3-2 3-6

SECTION 4 - MILITARY LOADING.

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Loading

Horiz~"tal Clearan.ce

DistribLitioM of 'Load to Lcngf.t ud Ina.I Stringers !mpiict

DistJribution cf Loads and Design of Concrete Slabs

4-1 [f--2 ;_

4-2 4-2 '

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SECTION 5 - UNIT STRESSES

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General

Concrete· Stresses Reinforcempnt Steel Stressp.s

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5-1- 5-2 5-3 .: 5-3 -

SECTION 6 - CONCRETE DESIGN

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General Assumptions Span Lorig t hs Expansion

T,.Beans Reinforcement

Compression Reinforcement 1~,Beams Weh Reinforcement

Columns

Concrete Arches

Viaduct Bents and Towers Box Girdc;'s

,'6-1 6-2 6-2. 6~3"_ 6~4 6-6 " ..

6-6 6-9 6-16 6-17 6-18

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SECTION 7 -"PRESTRESSED CO~CRETE

General

No t a t i.on

Design Theory Basic Assumptions Load ing Stages Load Factors Allowable Stresses Loss of Prestress Flexure

7-1 7-1 7 -3 7-3 7-3 7-4 7-4 7-5

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~i3 "'::;i,,14 : ;-<~7 .15 , ,:.,~, .!:::-.".=t~·l(],

1~J7 1 .. 18 .' =:': 7. 19

8.1 8.2 8 . .3

9.1 9,2 9.3 9.4 9.5·

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Ultimata Fl'e~ural' Strength'

MaximUm 'and. Minimum Steel Percentage ~bn~restressed Reinforcement

Sbear,

Co.po~ite Structures'

End' Zone of Concrete I-Beams

cover and Spacing of Prestressing Steel Embedment of Prestressirtg Strand CQncrete Strength at S tr,es s Trans fer Reinforcement in Beams

7-7 7-9 7-9 7";-10

7-11 7-12

'7-12 7-13 7-1~ 7-13

SECTION 8 - PILE LOADS A.ND BEARING POWER OF SOILS

Be.a'r ing Power of Fqundation Soils Angles of Repose

Dearing Value of Pllipg

8-1 8-1 8-2

SECTION 9 - SUBSTR"UCTL"'RES & RETAINING WALtS

Piles

Footings Abutments Retaining Walls Piers

9-1 9-4 9-7 9-8 9-9

SECTION 10 - STEEL DESIGN

De s i gn and Construction

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I S,ECTfOW 1. '':',·GENERA1. FEATURES OF· DESIGN

PRELIHINAR'l DATA

The following information will normally be requt red for the proper or structures:

STREAM CROSS1 NGS

( 1) ,An i ndex map to a 5 u i table· sma 11 sea Le (topc sh elI t ~ sea li,i' one

i (!ch toone mi Ie , .. IQuld do in mos tea 5 e s) showi ng th e pr-opos ed" Loc a t Lon of th e br I dge, the a 1 t er ns t i ve sites invest Lgat cd and re j eci:'ed, the exist Lng communfc a t.Lons, the general t.opogr aph y of the country. and the imporrant towns, etc .• ' in the vicinity.

(2) A contour survey plan of the sr r aam showing all topographical

f eo') t ur e s extending .,to the dis t auce shown below (or such other gres t e r d~stances·~s the e~gineer'reslonsible for the design may direct) upstream and downstream of any of the prcposed sites Bcd to a sufficient distance' On eilber side to give a clear indisation of topographical OJ:" other Ee a t u te s tha tmight influence tile Loc a t Lon and design of the bridge ~nd its alproaches. All sites for crossings worth cons ide1.-a t ion sha 11- be. ah own on the plan.

(~) 300 feet for catchment areR less than one squ~re ~ile (scale ~Dt less than one inch to 100 feet). .

(b) 1000 reet for catt:ilment<1reas of 5 squa r e mi l e s (scale n6t less thRfionc inch to 100 feet).

(c) One mile 'for ca t.chmcn r area's of mace than 5 squa re miles (ficale not less than. one inch to 3)0 -[eE-t).

N:;te:" In d Lf f Lcu Lt country and for crossings o.ver ar t Lf Lc i a'l

c~nnnels the engiQe~r responsible for the deSign may re~mit discretion to be us ed regarding these limits of distance~providedfhat the plans give sufficient information on the coarEe of the stre~m and the ,tapog~aphical features near the bridge site.

(3) It. site plan to a ·suitable' scale showing details of the r;ite selected and extending not l e s s than 300 feet upstream and downat r e am f=om the centre line of the c r o s.s i ng and cove r i ng the app r.oa che.s to

a sufficient distante whi~h in the case of a large bridAe shall be not 1.ess than-.~' quarter of. smile on either side of the s t r aam, The, plan c. siaa Lf include all Ln format ion. that is essent Ia l,' for complete-and p.roper: a.?precia tion of .t ha pi-oj eet • The normal xequt rement.s are -·:give~· below·,:

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·(a) The name of the stream or b r Idge and of the··roa the ~dentification numbe~ allotted to~th~' cid

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te out Hnes': of th,e 'banks, the high . water. different 'from "the ,banks), and the low. water , ,. contours 'at suitable level Lnt e rva Ie in

...... L..;a ... n .. J''''-,: ,"-'bc··eyond the!:: '~aQks' and the 'Hne 0'£ th e d eepes t

; ~long the dry ''',e.ather ch.anne 1;'

,freeHolf of flow at watcot at. maximum d Lach.ange and bss:i,.ble.' the extent of dt'!vi,ation at lower dis~charge;

, alignment· of ex·tsting approaches, and of the proposed

, =c'rosslng' and its approaches;

·The angleaod direct ion 9f skel...r if the crossing i~ I'll ignr:(! on' a SKew;

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,The' name of the nearest I nhab tt ed identifiable locality at either end of the cross i'ng on the roads l eed Lag to the site;

(g) Re'Eerenc,es to the pos it ion (ioJi th de s c r Ip t Lon and reduced level) of the bench mark used as datum;

eh) The lines and identification numbers of the crOS5sections and logitudinal section taken within the scope of the ~~'~ plsn, and the exact loca~ion of their extreme points;

(i) Tha locations of trial pits or ,borings each beiug giVflC an ident if Lca t Lon numbo r;

(j) The location o f all nul lalis. buildings, weUs, outcrops of rocks, and other pos s i.b l e obstructions to a road alignment.

A cr os s+s e c tLon of the stream at the .site of the proposed c r o s sLn.,

~cale not lass than one inch tO,lOO feet hori~ontally ,exagg~rBted rtically to a scale of no,t less t h a n one inch ,to ~O feet) 'and .indicoOlt: the following information:

(.) The name of the stream and the serial· number allotted

I, to the crossi.ng;

/(b) The name of the road Ivith mileage and chainageof the

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~entre of the crossing;

(c) The bed line up to the top of the b anks and the ground line to a SUfficient distance b~,ond the edges of the~~tream, with lev~ls at intervaLs sufficiently close ,to give a clear, outline ~£ markedly uneven feat~res of th~bed or g~ound

shOWing tight and le'n bank and riam.es'.of .villages 'on : >., ,

'each, side; ~' .. : ' ',. >., ,:." .,f,,· .

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f~c~-s~iI i.n bed, banks and approat-o~ bore h~l~ sections showing the

.. f-_ih~ ~arious streta down to hard fo~ndation and the safe intensity

.. ·-louridation soil; (as far as practicable, tr -1 ~its or bore ,holes should be such

a tull,descrtption of all substrata layers wllO.i~ l~ngth and width of the. crossing);

iow water level;

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The ordinary Flood level;

TIle- highest flood level and the years in which it OCC~Il:-' red.- S~ate if the flood level is affected by back-water and if so,' give details;,

The catchment area, maxfmum discharge specified in

Ar t Lc Le 1. Z (A) and corresponding aver-age velocity a t the

site of the crossing;

The asrtmat ed depth of SCO;Jr or, if the scour depth has belin observed, the depth o f scour, \l1ith details of obstructions or of any other special causes responsible

for the scour.

(5) A Long t t ud Lna l sect ion of the stream suow i ng the s He of the

bridge tJith the highest flood level, the ordinary flood level, the low wa t cr level, and thfC bed levels at suitably spaced intervals

along th~ approximate ce~tre line of the deep water chA~nel between the ext.r eme points to wh i ch the. survey map required in Art icle 1. 1A.(2) extends. The horizontal scale not less than one inch to 100 .ie€'t.

(6) A note giving as far as possi,ble the follO\\i'ing particulars

relatirig to the catchment ar ea ;

(a )-
(b)
(c)
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(d)
(e)
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._. the size of the catchment;

The shape of the catchment;

Th e intensity and frequency of rainfall in the catchment;

The slope of the.catchment, both longitudinal and transverse;

The na ture of the catchment. whether under ,forests,·

under cultivation, urban etc;T .. '

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The nature of the.soil.crust, po;~u:s or rocky,

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(g)

The possibility of aub sequent; changes in the catchment like afforestBt_iQn, deforestation, "urban development, exte~t o~ redu~tion in cultivated are~i etc;,

Stora'ge in theca tchment artificial br na.t.ur-a l ,

A chart of the periods of high f Lood levels for as many years a s. relevant data are recorded.

A note giving important details of the br i dge s j- if any, crossing same ~iv~r within a reasonable d1stance of the proposed bridge.

) The minimum permissible vertical,channel clearance and the basis

which it has been determined mentioning any s pe c LaI requirements for tion.

Liability of the site of earthquake disturbances.

A brief description of the reasons for selection of the particular for the cr os s i ng ac ccmparrl ed , 'Lf: necessary • with_ typical C1"OS8- tion of the stream atsu[table alternative crOSSing pl~ces both treamand downs t r eam of the selected site.

) Sub-soil data of the s t r e am at the site of the bridge shou Ld be

ained at four or more points in the 'cr os s sectia,n.

} All other pertinent information af Eec t.Lng the design such as :

(a) Width of roadway curb to cur~

(b) - Vert'Lc a l and ho ri eont.a l a lt gnment

(c) Cross, Slopes

(d) Live Load to be applied

(e) Safety Curb, footpath and/or animal path

(f) Utilities to be carried by the superstructure

(g) Location 'and type of piers and foundations

(h) Freeboard Clearance

In case of s t r e ams having discharge over 50,000 cus e e s , the -} ",,'" ic design should be checked by model- studies;' The fol101~ing.'

shall be required.

(a) A site plan showing the Location of the .b r i dge with

respect to the s tr eam. A stretch at least 5 _miles up stream -.rand 3 miles down stream-or two '5' curves up strea~ and one

" 151 curve down 5 t r eam of br Idge , \"hicheve"r _ is Lcnger , should

be given on the plan. In order tD indicat« its dD~inentcourse. the;·cour:S"e"~:o·f -the"riVer or s t r eam over a five (5) years

-".period should be shown.

The cross sections. of the stream should be observed

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a't' int~rv:als 100'0' it. apart in st~aight 'r e aehe s and 500 ft. apart along curves for proper representation.on the model. ,The location of all crosp sections should be marked on the s Lre plan.

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(c) Gauge di~charge curves and hydrograph of the stream

at the bridge s Lt e ahou l d be co I Le c.t ed (or the last 5 to 10' years. If such data'i8 not available. ~ata pertainiDg to the hydrograpbs and guage discharge of the main str~arn, up stream and down stream of the site may be used.

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i "B.

HlGHWAY AND RAILROAD CROSSINGS

An in<lex map to a '.suitable sma I I scale (copo sheet s scale one - - ioch to one mile would do in mo s t cases) showf.ng the proposed location of

-,-the, bridge,' the existing commun Lc at Lons , the Irnp o r t an'c rt.owns e t c , , in the

vidnity.

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. (2) A plan abd elevation of the proposed bridge showing span lengths; ,

cri'tical vertical c l.aa r ance of'superstructure required above r'oadway or r a i I«. I road;' critical horizontal clearance to piers and abutment's; depth of structure t·

from profil e grade. to ho tt om of 8_1: ider; location and number of bore boles; f·

and the profile of the bridge a[~ its approaches. . 'I

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(3) A cross section of the proposed bridge shox ... ing the number J type and spacing of girders; the thickness of slab; the cross slope; width of roadway curb tocurb~ the width of safety walk, footpath and/or animQl path, Dnd the utilities to be carried ,by the superstructure.

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A profile of the h Ighway or 'railroad.

(5)

A cross section-of the highway or railroad.

(6)

Type of pi€r to be used.

(7), Type of footing, to be used, whe th e r rock bearing, soil hearing

or pile bearing and the allowable cnpBcities of cacho

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For the deter!Ilination of the waterway area t{! be provided _for a I

stream crossing at' culvert, a careful study shall be'made of _local ;,,: ',j

ccndt.t tons , including f l ood height, f Iow and frequency, size and 'pe r fc rmance ; ,. of other openings in the vicini t y,. carrying the same stream, _ ch acac t.e'r Ls tic

of the' channel 'and of- the lolaterahed area. available t;ainfall . - s -'.~t -''''·ll'~''''.'''''.'

other 'information pertinent to the.problem and likely to affe '

-, of the st'l;'uct,ure. ' ' -

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(8)

Live load to be applied.

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DETER~UNATION OF HATERWAY AREA

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dis~h~ige 'which :',the stream- crossing or; culvert shall be , sha 11 be .de termin~d by a coris idera t Lori of th e follow! og

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the rainfaH and other characteristics of the c a-t chmen t; from the general formula;, .

n Q = G x A

Q is the maximum flood discharge in cubic feet per second 'A is the area of catchment of the stream in !?,~ua,r~ miles, "n"

, . .' - ~,.-, . --_ .. ,'. --

tA:iI:tlOUent: v'a'ry ing from 0.5 ,to 1.0, and C a vary ing coeff ic ien t

the characteristics 0f the terr:ain. SOme typical

. (a) Dicken's formula
" . " 3/4 ,
•• ,1 Q = c x A . 'lfuere C is equal to 750 for mountainous areas and 500 for

planes

(b) ~yves formula Q ~ c X A2/3

1fuere C is equal to 500 for mountainous' area and 350 for , planes.

Inglis formula 7000 A

Q = V;,_'+ 4

(d)

M.E.S. formula

, . 1/2

Q = 2100 x A '

(2) From the hydraulic char ac t e r Ls t Lcs of the stream such as the cross-sectional area, and slope of the stream a Ll.owf ng for velocity of f~ow. ,In this method the velocity is obtained from ~he formula

( 1.486 2/3 1/2

V= xr x S

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Wb.ere"'~ "

r ::: hydraulic mea.n depth in feet, ," , '

S ;" Slope , " , ,',';!<'

V. =: mean velocity in' feet per secorid " .• ",,; '(. ~,t;,; ':<,

n ::'.co~fficieni: of rugosity of', st:reEUn'b'ed'::';:::'~;;',~':~';',:~;:,

. z - ., . ~.~ ..' . _ I • • ': ~';.~: ~>,:;::'=~~-.i.'$_~~: ~:_;_';. " _

, '{cj_~;; .;;.'.

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'0 ::: 0.020' for e~rth .in good 'order and regiinen, free tram st ones 'and ,weeds

0.025 for earth in fair order and regilJ,l~n, f.reefrom stones and weeds

=" 0.030£0!" earth in bad ,orde:t; with 'occasional stones 'ana weeds

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::: 0.035 for s t re ams in bad order and regimen w.ith'

stones' and weeds

~ 0.050 for torrential rivers in beds'cov.ered with detritus and boulders.

The velocity thus obtained is then multiplied by the crasssectional area Co give the required discharge Q.

(3) 1l'rom the Unit Hyd r og r aph method

The results from the above me fh oda should then h'ec.oropared arid with r,roper judgement,. ar r Lve- ... at the design discharge t~ be used.

(B) Having arrived at an e s t i mate of required discharge 'either by the

calculatio:ls from the preceding sections: .or by flood data secured f r om available reports of gauging stations o rvl.o ca I high l<1a,tet: mar ks , the next step i!!' to design an openfng that wi Tl pas's this amount of ''late).' without damage to the s t ruc r.ur e or to adjacent ,.,ark or properties.

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(1) I·'or ar t Lf i c La l irrigation, navigation, and d r a Lnage channe Ls ,

the pffE'ctive w i.d t u of .. "atp.n.ray shall generally be equal to .the W'idlb of ch anne l at mid-depth, Gut concur.rence sha l t be obtained invariably from the authority conr r o Ll Log the channe L,

If it: i5 prDposed to flume the channel at the site of the br Ldge , the fluming shall he. s ub j ec t, to the consent of the' same authority and in accordance w i t h its essential requirements.

(2) For nonmeandering natural s t r eams not t,;ride than 100 feet in

a Ll uv LaI beds but "tith we Ll+ de t Lned banks and for all natural channels in heds with. rigid inerodible boundries, the width of wa t e rway shall be the distance b e twee n banks (l.t that water surface elevation a t which. the designed discharg~ was determined.

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(3) For large natural 'streams in alluvial beds and having undefined

banks, the. \.;idth of wat e rway shall be determined f r om ·the deSign

d La ch ar ge , us ing some 'accepted rational formula. such as Lacey's formula for B regime flo~·, condition whe r e

1/2 p := 2.67 Q

P being the wetted perimeter'infeet,

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and ~ the discharge in cusecs of ... ~,.·~,tre·a~ cci~~isting' o~·· '~ll~via:; like sand,' 'or c l ay , transported"'-' -deposited by flowin:g-- - . - .. :,:.

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"'r im~ ter- thus 'o''b tained £~~ ,;'~)~ t~~i-gH t ,~~~'ch of' the stream '~y',the effective wid'tIl ',b{'~'aterway ; in' such ca.s e sv.

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LdcATION OF PIERS AND ~UTMENTS

. :cons~deratiqh shall govern the spacing and location of

r8 and abutments shall,be so located as to make the best se, of the fouodation conditions ava Ll abIe,

Subject to (8) above , the ,sui table economical span shall he adopted" modtfied, i~ necessary, to suit navigational and -_aesthetic requirements. The number of pier,s _ sh ou'l d be limited as much as is practicable, t-h~y catch debris and thus the effective ~yaterway could be reduced substantially.

-The alignment of piers and abutments shall. as far as possible, be parallel to- the me an direction of flow in t.h.e s t.r e am but provision shall b~ made aga~nst harmful e~fects on the stabiTity of the bridge stru-cture and on the maintenance of adjacent stream banks caused by any temporary variat.ions in the dil"ect'(on and ... re Lo cLty of the stream CUI.T€!i.1t.

4 .

, CI,EARANCES

ranee shall b a allowed according to navigational or antiFe~uirements or, where the5e condition do not arise, ordinarily

For open Inge of high Lave L br Ldge s , which are approximately rectangular. at" ~.,ith a very tlat curve of the soffit: of super"struC'ture~ as for: instance in, the ca se of beam •. frame., or bows tr ing supers true t ur'es , continuous girders or open

ap and r a l arches wLt.h suspended deck-ing, the minimum _clearance aha 11 be in ac co rdance \vith the Fo L'l owt.ng table:

PISCRA~GE

HIN.;LMUM VERTICAL CLEARANCE

'I,'

In. 6

6

o

o

_0

'-0

--'

Below 10 cusecs '10':'100 cusecs

. ;.," 10.1--1000 cus ecs

.<,' .'" 1001':'10,000 cusecs -"';;':10,001-100,000 cusecs ,": oVer 100, OOOcu~ecs

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-of the .deck st~uc.tur~ .fnc!usive;, of main girders in the ha'if of the clear opening ~

In structures provided with metallic bearings such vertical clearance shall be allowed as will l,revent the subme-rgence of those bearings:

(c)

In the case of artificial channels, evg • , iI:iigation canals having controlled flow and carrying no floating debris, the Engineer-in-Charge may at his discretion provide less ver.tical clearance than cha t specified in sub-clauses (a) and (b) above, ' ....

RESTRICTED WATERWAYS

~.Jhen it is necessary t.o restrict the t ... at e rway to such an extent that, ','.

I. th~' resultant afflux , ... ill caus.e the stream to discharge at erosive velocitie protection against damage hy scour shall be afforded by deep foundations, ;':_, ': curtain or cut-off walls, rip-rap, bearing p l l.e s , or other suitable means.'. tLtkeNise enibanl~ment slopes adjacent to all ~tl;"uct.ures sub j ec t to erosion ' shall be adequately prote~tec1 by pitching, revet[Qent walls or other construction.

1. 6·· OBSTRUCTION A.ND RIVER TRAINING

, . ~

Obstructions in the river ~ed likely to divert the current or cause ,.' undue disturbed flo~ or scour aod thereby endanger the safety of the bridge 5ha'11 be r-emoved as far as practicable for some distance upstream and down .. s t r e am of the bridge. depending on the river ch ar ac t e r Ls t Lqs . Att e'nt i on sha I be given,to river t.r a.Ln I ng and p co t ec t t on of hanks over such lengths of the river ns require it.

1. 7- DETERMINATION orr THE: HAXHIUH DEPTH OFSC:Otm

(A) The maximum depth'of scour in a stream shall be ascertained , ... henever po s s.Lb l e , by actual soundings at or near tih e site pr opos ed Ior, the bridge, dur Lng a flood be f o r e t.h e scour holes have had time, to silt up appreciably. Due allow9nce shall be made in the obse~~ed depth for increase in scour result~ng from:

(

(1)

The des ign d Lscharge being greater than the flood d·ischarge during which the 'Scour WaS obs er ved ;

(2)

The i.ncrease in velocity due to the obstruction in flow, ·caused by constru~tion of the bridge.

.. " . . .' ' >.::: ';:~}\ ~ ( ,: :,.._. ..

, . ' (B) Where thepracti,cal method 'of, determining s court d

. , ,~~ove, is not poss Ib Le , ',tne ·,fp.l!~wing .emperj.cal approach may

I (1)
:(,2)
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"-, .,;;~!" '-r"\'_'.:; ;,~.,,-.sc~~-".!""'T~:"\iJ"";'.£;~':'_;':'~··~:?'t< <~~;'~';;,;,:

. . ,:.._....-~

'~ • ,; ~ • I

with natural' s treamsin alluv.fal be,?s:. conditions in astable channel,

", 1/3

Q.4-',3(f) -

str"icted flpw

, '~:2 1/3

d = k o. 9r--~) f

d ;= Nonpa l' dap th of S cour below H. F • L~ (h igh flood level)

Q == Total design d Ls char ge in cuse c s

q c De s Lgn discharge per foot of width in cusecs

k A f,actor varying from 1 to 3 depending on local cond.LtLons, For a major stream c r ass Lng the fac_ tOl:;, to be used shall be decided on consultation with the Directors of the Bridge and Research 'Directorates.

£- Lacy's silt factor for a representative sample of the bed ~aterial. The silt factor i~.approximat~ly equal to 1. 76 rnls wne're m is the l.rett~d maan df ame tar- in ' milime-ters (mm) of the bed 'rna t e r La L, See table for value of f given by Lacy for vartous grades oE bed material

M'iri m.m;' L
00.233 00.850
00.323, 01.000
OO.,~O5 01. 250
00 .. 723 01.50r'
00.9S8 01.750
01. 2!}0 02.0.00,
02.420 02.750
07.280 04.750 -
2.6 _ 10,0 09.000 .,
50 .,100 12.000 , urn s i 1 t I G8,riges canal dis tr Lbu t o ry rd silt, Punjab data

s~nd

-se sand

Bajri and aarrd , sand

e Dajri and sand se. gravel

l['and bajri

s and Gravel

The max lmum depth of scour shall be taken as follows:

Ip a-straight reach

1. 5 d '-./:

; ~ •• ' _- J. , ";". _'.:.:~j -f - -.

at -lio 'rig~t angle' bend ~:.: < : --:.:. 2~ 0, d ::' Y:_\' - .:

~ ... ,_ - ~ - I _ .-

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(3) (4)

at- noses of piers

2.5 d

at up s trr e am noses of guide banks

.... -

_ Due allowance shall be made For- an increase in concentration of. flow

',_" '_ through a portion of the waterway.

~I' Where the computed depth of scour reaches well into

_ indicated. by boring information, ox relatively scour free and houldel=s) the computed depth o£ scour may be reduced.

layers, as -, " m~terial (i.e.gravel

..'

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:: ... ~

;" "

1.8- DEPTH OF FOUNDATIONS

-,1 -r

-, ,

.. :,-' .

(A) The depth of foundations shall be determined by conSideration _: -r.

of 'the safe bearing c apac Lt.y of thr. soil. after taking into account; the effect of scour.

(ll) In, all doubtful cases, the bearing capacity of the foundation soil- shall be determined by actual Load frsg tests. The adequate thickness of. the f-oundatior:. bearipg 'layer of the_ soil shall be as cerca I ned by- boring!!, or trial pits.

(e) The maximum toe pressure on the fnundat Lor, bearing layer

resul t tng from the wor's t comb Lnat.Lon of d.Lr e.c t; forces and ove r t ur nf.ng moments shal I be caIcu La't.ed for each individual fqundat"iou. In calculat-ing this pressure. -the effec't of pass iVI? res istance 'of the earth of the s Ldes- of,~.t,n'-e-~," JOllndation structure iTU1Y be taken icto account below the maximum depth .o f

the, s cou r only. -The effect of skin friction on the sides of the foundation structure may {;Ie ignored normally except in the case of ,"ell and pil"e

at ruc t ur e s t·'~1~~:e skin fri,'ion may be a I Lorcad : on the portion below the maximum ,; ·,_,1'11 of scour.

, :i}. Where a subs t ant t.a). stratum of solid rock, or other mat.er La L

inerc,dibl .. at: the ant Lc Lpat ed maximum velocity and of adequate safe bearing capac ity, is encountered a t a sha I Low depth" b e Low the surface, the foundation shall be taken into that s t.r'a t.um and .securely bo-ndedor if necessary anchored to it.

(E) Where only erodible strata are ava Ll ab Le , the foundations may be ,-,

r designed -either as "Deep" or as "Sha I'Icw" but in such a manner that in

either case the safe bearing capacity of the ~ub-soil is not exceeded.

'- ,

(1) DEEP, r:Offi'.j1)Al:~O;:S (in ~rodible strat"~), if~" ~ r is tne" antici-pated _ maximum. depth of' scour below the designed highest' flood (eye( iJiciud-:: ing, that, on account of possible' coacentrra tLcn of "f) oW ~ . the ~ mInimUm', <:,':c·',

-deI?J::h- of'foundation below ~.F.L: sha-ll be,1:3_3~ .. ':,The':De·-'-)~~lOw the". acour line shall - in no case~~~' less 'than ·s:f.x-";feet -'for ~i· .. \\'. '- ' 0','

heav~ traffic roads, roadway widths greater than the above tni~ima are recommended,

".,Fo~, all bridges under 50 feet in length. the over-all width shoul.d : _,_'""UL< rm_ as nearly as practicable to the full shoulder~to--sho'ulde:I; width-

the highway. _' . _ ' ,,' ,". . _",.,,(";,_; _ .

. ,recommendations 'as -'to -rOad'iolaY ;idths fo/'the'_va~io~~ ,v~iumes of-

fic . ~ . -.. -- ., ".":_-~" .:': ... " "-, - :_._ ..

_;':.t't.\!:~.:,. ,- see, the Hi.ghway Des t.gn Manual. _ . _ _'".- '." -f -, \..: .. .. ". ,:,,;,,-_:x' ,

.. ,"-' -.' . -- .' -;_.<',': __ -;:~;;;:.\;:_,:: .. : __ '7-- ... :~,:._

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" HORIZONTAL CLEARANCE-

-
w
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0: -'
<t (J)
- w
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U co
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W
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MINIMUM RQABWtiY WIDTH .

AT LEASW;-. GREATER T_HAN

I APPROACH PAVEMENT WIDTH

~'--~~'~~~~-~~-4

BUT NOT LESS THAN 24, FT.

CLEARANCE DIAGRAM TWO LANE HIGHWAY T~AFFIC

FIGURE I

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abutments supporting other 'types 'of ~uperst~l,1cture .. The f ouudat Lons in .a Ll cases be taken down. to a ~ep.th which will provide proper

to some rational,method~ .

,',

SHALLOW FOUNDATiONS.Un 'erodible~ str,sta).' Fou'nd~tions may be taken down to a compar ac Ive l y shallow d ep th below the bed sur-face provided the foundation bearing stratu~ is p r ac t Lcal Ly incompressible (e,g.sand); is, prevented from lateral movement, and is also protected a'gainst scour.

" 'SIZE OF CULVERT OPENINGS

In general. culverts shall be proportioned to carry the maximum flood " rgc without head. If the maximum flood discharge occurs only at rare ls,culverts may be designed to carry it under slight, head, provided are protected against undermining by means of adequate pav~ment and

on or 'c.ut+off walls and that adjacen,t embankments a"re p r o t e.c t e d from '~""rr.,"ion by rLp= r-ap or ather suitable means.

", ',"

LE'~GTH OF CULVERTS

.:. ,

The 1 eng th of culverts shal l be sufficient to provide the required <,,:

width o f r o adway emhanl~ment. Ibe assumed slope of the embankment shall be .fi-. suitQb1e for the particular filling mat~rial and shall be s~ch as to elimina~~ any t e nd ency "for the embankment slopes to slip' or slide. ' ';

1.11- {HDTH OF ROADI-/AY AND SIDEWALK

'ihe w i dt h of roadway .sha l I be the clear tvidth mea sur ed at rightangles

to the longitudinal ~entre line of the bridge betw~en the bottoms' of cur~R or guard timbers, or, in the case of multiple he Igh.t. curbs, be tween the' bbttClffiS }, of the lower risers. The w i d th of the s Ldewa'Lk shall be the clear ~"id th, .r., measured at right angles to the longitudinal centre line of the hriage, from I

the extreme inside par ti'on of the handrail to top of the face of t.he curb 01: [

guard t Imbe r , except that if, there is a truss, girder, or pa r ape t \0.1811 ;ldj'acent'f

to the roadway curb, the w i.d th shall be measured to its extreme. wa lk side 'f

' portion. I

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1, ,12·~ - CLEARANCES

The horizontal clearance shall be the 'cl-ear Width, and the ve r t.Lc a I <:,le.arBnce the clear he Lght , available for the pass~ge of vehicular tra£fi.c ~s shown on the clearance diagrams.

Unless o t.herwLs e provided; the several parts of the st.ruc t ur e shall ,t.ructed to secure the f o.l l owfng limiting dimensions or cLea r arice s for

af£ic. .

Th~ clea~ances and width of ro~d~ay 'f~~ :2~la~~"~~iaffi~ "shall' be noi '-~ than those shown in Figure 'L 'The'roadWa,y·"_,wiCtth-.'sha11 be', increased. "at' 'fr·.::t and preferably lZfeet foi'ea:';'li"ai:f~idorial lane of traff-£'c • .,,"

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.·'th~ roa'dway curb i~ ,defined a's ';th~ bac t e red or sloping'

adWay s'ide of th~e c'urb.: Preferably vertical curbs shel I not 1 measurements 'of --road~'my 'and curb ,width are given from the

e', . or, in the, case of stepped back curb, from. the bottom of r9adway , ... idth.

.e the roadway curb prefer-ab l-y shall be not less than 12

0' instance' less than ,9 inches 'from that portion of the structure· tioo- of the top of the, curb and nearest the r oadway , In cases

. ch the clear roadway width is aqua I to or' greater than the,

but not 1es5 'than the ,approach pavement width plus 12 feet, 'tted. In urban areas_, the. cur h height shall not he less than lh'~ adjacent finished surface DC 'the roadway, and l.rJ rural areas inches'above the adjacent £ini~hed surface of (he roadway.

£ a curb more than '10 inches above the r oadr ... ~y surface shall he . or .sloped back so that no part of the vehicle except the tires ont~ct with it. Curbs widened to provide for occasional

aine shall be desig,nated "Safety cur ba!", Safety curbs shan than 1 t -6" wide.

Hng shall be provided at; the edge of structures for the protection fic, or for the protection of pedestrians, or both. Where pedestrian

th~ ~re provided adjacent th~ roadwaysJ.a ~rBffic railing may be provided . rhe two with a pedestrian railing outside, Or a comb i na tion traffic-

be 'provided outside.

be provided between roadways and ped~strian footpaths unless c barrier separates the two.

IG RAILING

LLe the primary purpose of traffic TailIng is to contain the average using the. structure, eone fde r-ac Lon shou l d also be given to protection .occupants of a vehicle in collision \vith the tail ing, to .p r o t ec t.Lon of ,ieles near the collision, and to appearance and free40m of view of

.veh t.c Les ,

terial for traffic railing shall be concrete, metal" timber. 01" a

n , Metal materials \ ... ithless than 10 per cent t es t.ed elongation be used. Preference shoul<;l be given to providing n smooth,

, face of 'rail on the traffic 5 ide l ... ith the pas ts se t back from the ,'the rail. Structural continuity in the rail members. including ,

f?f free ends is essentia1.. Where joints are required in the lengths ,"_ 'the construction shall be reinf-orced ~by reduced post spacing, ::"';':.~.:;;;'-'

. terial' in the rails, 'by bolting 'or ~elding. )::,J '_',

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of traffic railing shall be not less than 2' -3" measured the roadway, or curb, to the top of the upper rail membe~.

attention should be given to the treatment of railing at the ends. Exposed rail ends and sharp changes in th~ geometry of the 'shall-be avoided.

shall be conunensurate with t.h e type account of appearance, safety

Materials for pedestrian railing may be concrete, metal, timber, or'a'·combination. The minimum height of p ed e-s t r Lan r a Ll.Lng shall be 3'-0". ~; :preferred height is 3 '_6") measured from the top of the footpath to the rop of the upper rail member.

ROADWAY DRAIl':lAGE

The. transverse drainage of r oadway s shall be secured by means o f- a

, suitable cr own in the r o.adway s ur f a ce iand longitudinal drainage by camber gradient. If necessary, longitudinal drainage shall be secured by meansf scuppers, inlet~ or other suitable means, which shall be of sufficienti2~ and number to drain the gutters adequately. If drainage fixtures and ownspou t s are required, the d own spou t s shall be of rigid corrcision-resistnt material no~ less than 4 inchei in least dimension, provided with

d tab l e c Lean -out; fixtures. The d e t a Ll s of floor drains shall be. such as o prevent the discharge of drainage wa t e r against arty po r t Lc n of the

t r uc r.ur e, Over-hanging pcr t i.ons or conc r e t e f loo r s preferably shall be rovidcd with drIp beads •

. 16- SUPERELEVATION

The superelevation of the floor ~urface of a bridge on a horizontal urve shall be provided in accordance with the geometric design criteria

h i.ghways , except tha t the superelevation shall not exceed .08 foot per oot width of roadway .

. 17- FLOOR SURFACES

(

All bridge floors shall have skid-resistant characteristics.

.18- UTILITIES

Where required, provlSlon shall be made for electric condUits, ~lephone conduits, water pipes and gas pipes.

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CURBS AND CLEARANCES FOR TUNNELS:' .", _ (See Fi.-gur~ 2.)

_ way Width ... The clear width between curbs shal.l be not _ Less at speci.fied for bridges'. _

arance betHcen Walls ,- The minim.urn width becween walls of tunnels sHall be 30 feet.

'Curbs" The width of curbs shall be U?t less' than 18 Lnche s , The of c~rbs shall be as specifi~d for bridges.

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', " Vet t1 ca 1 ,C learance _' The ver t Lca 1 clearance, be tween curbs sha 1,1 . , t less than 161-6"..

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CURs..

ROADWAY WIDTH NOT LESS THAN

_18"MIN.

SPECIFIED FOR BRIDGES

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CLEARANCE DIAGRAM FOR TUNNEL TWO LANE . HIGHWAY TRAFFIC

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FIGURE. 2

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"

ROADWAY W\OTH NOT LESS THAN

SPECIF·IED FOR SRI GES

CLEARANCE DIAGRAM FOR UNDERPASSES TWO LANE HIGHWAY TRAFFIC

FIGURE 3

,2P-

ROADWAY WIDTH) CL~S AND CLEARANCES FOR UNDERPASSES

(UNPIVIDED HIGm~AYS) (S~e Figure 3.)

(A) Widths _- The .c Laar w'idt"h between walls or columns shall be not less th-an 6 feet wider than the approach pavement, but in no case shall the ~vidth be les 5 than 30 feet. .

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'.' ( (B) Vertical Clearance - A vertical -clearance of not less than

: 16' ... 6" eha l l be provided between curbs, o r if cut bs are not used, over the entire width that is available for traffic .

. (C) C.urbs - Curbs shall not be le~s~·th~n 18 Lnches in width. - ::,,';rhe h~ight of curbs shall be as spec Lf Led for bridges.

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CURBS AND -CLEARANCE -'fO'R_- DEPRE~SED ROiJlwAYS' :;

.'

iVidth- The clear width between curbs shall preferably

s th~n that s~ecified for biidges.

ranee Between Walls,.. The minimum widtli between walls for - -road",-,:sys carrying two lanes of traffi~ .sha L], be 30 ,feet~

, . .

- s" The ,width of curbs shall be: not less chan 18 inches.

tof cu-cbs shall be as specified for br Idge s,

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'_- ...

SECTION 2"- LOADS

-LOADS

Structures shall be propm::tioned for the following loads and forces tlley exist:

1-
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1.
t~ _
5.
6_
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
1')'
-.,I.
14.
15. Dead load J~ive load

Tmpact or dynamic effect of the .live load tHad loads-

Horizontal forces dtJ.e to water currents

l.ong':Ftud inal fortes caused by the t r a c t f ve effort of . vehicles or by braking of. vehicles andlor thos'e caused by restraint to movements of free bearin~s. Centrifugal forces

Buoyancy

Earth pressure Thermal forces Shrlnkage stress~s nib shortening SesondaJ.""Y stre.$ses Erection stresses E,.rthq ua ke - stresses.

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l-fem'H:,rs shall 'be pr-oportioned as sPEIc i fied under s t re s s es ~ Section 5

Upon th e s tress sheets a diagram or no ta t ion of the. assumed 1 ive loads_' b~ shown separately.

Hhere req u ired by design corid i tiona, conc r a te placing _sequence shall on the plans.

The dead load carried by a member shall consist of the- po-rtiori of tght of .supers tructure {and the fixed loads carried thereon} ~ which ported - \"hoUy o r in part by the girder or member i~Cl!Jding its: own The follmving· unit weight of materials shall be used in

tHog . loads:

.. 1. A~hlar or Coarse Rubbll'!

Masonry . 150

~iickwork~ 120

Ca's t: I ron - -, _ .' I' _ : 450 '.

• -'" .' ..... - ...•• - . -' j . -'.

• Aspba it Cone-ret'e .":<.' -. .:, . - -. - '140 ~ ".

.. ,Cement c~n~'re!t~. p,i~::~~~t~;~~J}';1;? ' __ :-::./

~~. -, ~:?!~;". '

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].bs ._feu .. Ft. -

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n~'concrete,reinfotced I;:h (Compacted)

, am (binde·r -premix)

eif .st~el -

(loose)

nd (wet cDmpressed) Metal

150, 110 140 490 --

,90 120 100

62.5 50 480

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iron

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CULVERTS

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load oij, culverts will be computed as the weight of slab.

- finite conditions of bedding and backfill. the principles of be applied. The {allowing are recommended formulas for

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. Ct).lvert in trench or u,nyieldin_g subgcade , or culvert on yielding fo'undation.

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untrench€d on uny leld Lng, foundat ion '(such as rock

,P "" W (1.92 H - 0.87B) for H '> L 7_ B; k

P := 2. 59 BloJ (e - 1) f o'r H <: 1. 7 -B

Hhere K '" 0.385 R

B

Where' P = -the unit pressure in pound s ,per square foot due to ear th backfi 11

B ~ width io fe~t of trench, or in case there is no t r ench, the over-all ~..rid th of t.he culvert

H -depth in Toeet of fill over culvert

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W. := E '=

effective· weight 2.718281~!c base number

pe reub i c foot." ~f . f 111- rna tel' ia 1 :, -'"~".' ' -;', " ' of, na ~.utaL:'log~r i.~h~ ,~bs tr-~,c<;:;,;~;.::.:.~:(·-, :':

·-pl •

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SHEAR IN SLABS

r ~.~

The maximum shear in the top and bottom slabs shall be assumed

r .. at a distance out from tho? face of the wall or abutment equal to , eSS of the slab. When ~ches are provided at the corners of 1,s, their effect shall be- excluded from t ha design.

IN SlAB AND WALLS

Tile maximum negative moments shall be taken at the face of the

or the top and bottom slahs and Dt the underside of th6 top slab and t he bottom slab for the walls or abutment. BOT-,d shall be computed section as for moments.

LOkD

The live load shall consist of the weight of th6 appli~d moving i,vehicles, cars and pedestrians.

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HIGll}!AY l.OADINGS

General

i,:-= The high'h'ay live loading or: the !"oadways of bridg€s or incidental

~t~tc_tutes shell consist of a standard t r uck - tr a i c, TI~o s ys t sms of . t~~;Jing 'ar e provided for Class "A" lo<lcling and Class "13" Lo a d t r .. g.

Glass "A" Loadi ng .

The class "A" loading i.s il1ustratf'.d i n figure 4. It consists of r(~,lil_· - ax l e t ruck'.Ji th tim t.tco - PoX 1 e t r [l i lars ,.

Cl&sS "B" Leading

The Class "B" loading shall be identical to Class "All load i ng e x c e p t the axle loads wh i ch shall he 60'Z, of C-lass A Loading.

STANDARD TRUCK - TRAIN LOADING

spacing, h'eight distribution, and clearance of the

sha 11 b e as S110"'1.1 in Figures 4 Hith the fo l Lowi ng conditions:

(1) With in curb to curb '1"id r h of the r oa dway, the s t andar d

veh Lc l e or train shall be a s s umc d LO t r av e L parallel to the Le ng ch

of the .bridge, <mel to occupy ar.y position, ~.::hich H·i.Il pr oduc e rnax i mum stresses, provided that the mi in.mum cle.aranc'.':s b e twe en a v2hicle and

~:,the roadway face of a curb and between two passing or crossing .':- vehicles, as s hown in figure·' 4, a re not encroached upon.

For each standard vehicle or _ train,· all t he axles of a un it r,

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LOADINGS

'of vehicles shall,be c~nsidered as acting simultaneously_ in a -poslti6n causing maximum stresses.

(3) Vehicles in adjacent lanes shall be taken as headed in the direction producing maximum stresses.

(4) The spaces on the carriage way left uncovered by the standard

train or vehicles shall be assumed as not subject to any additional live load ,"

Truck-Train Units

- In computing stresses, each single s t and arjl t ru ck-vt r a In shall be _ de r cd as a unit, and fractional w i drh s or fi-actional trucks shall not

ed.

Number and- Position, ~ruck-Train Loadings

The number of the truck train loadings and position as specified in 2.5 shaLl be such as to produce maximum stress, s ub j e c t to the reduct'specified in Article 2.7.

Continuous Spans

On continuous spans one or both trailors shall be temoved if worst !tions are produced by doing so.

REDUCTION IN LOAD INTENSITY

Where maximum stresses are produced in any member by more than one ltaneous truck"train load, the following percentages of the resultant load stresses shall be used in, v i ew of improbable coincident max i mum

Per cent

't.

One or two truck train Loadings Three truck train loadings

FOllr or more

100 90 75 -

The reduction in infensity of floor beam loads shall be determined>'_', the case of main trusses or girders. using the number of truck tr::;{iri.:::

S _which mus t be 'used to. produce maximum s tresses in the floor, b~a:m.: .:.

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SAFETY CURB AND RAIL~NG LOADING

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./ loon" stringers, and" their immediate supports, shall he live load of 85 pounds per s que re foot of s Ldewa Lk area.

arches and other members shall _he designed for the f o Ll ow i ng o;ds per square foot of sidewalk area:

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to 25 ft. in length to 100 ft. in length

r 100 ft. in length according

85 lbs. 60 lhs. to the formula

( 55-lv \ 50 I

in wh ich

live load per square foot (maximum, 60 Ibs. per sq.ft) lpaded length of a sidewalk in feet

width of sidewalk in feet

lating stresses in structures which support cantilevered side\"Rlk shall be considered as fully loaded on only one side this condition produces maximum stress.

designed to resist a lateral force,of not lesR than

r linear foot of curb, applied at the top of the curb, or at 10 inches ahove the floor if t he curb is higher than 10 Ln chc , curb and traffic rail form an integral system, the 'traffic shall apply and stresses in curbs computed accordingly.

Loading

curbs, or \"ide< curbs provided [or occasional use of pedest"Y"~

be d e s i gn ed for loads specified in paragraph (A) if the curb (~ _, 2 feet in ~"idth. If 2 feet or Le.s s in Hidth, no live load ~ t,__

members of roadway railings shall be designed to resist

I horizontal force of 150 pounds per linear foot together imultanedus vertical force of 100 pounds per linear foot

at the top of the r a Ll.Lng . Hhen curbs are not less th an 9

~n height, lower rails shall be designed to resist a lateral 'tal force of 300 pounds per linear foot. hlhen curbs are less inches in height, this force shall be increased 40 pounds per oat for each inch the cur b is less than, 9 inches in height 'that -the .ad.Ied increment of horizontal force to be applied _.'

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to the low~r railing shall ndt exceed 200 pounds~ If there is no lmver rail, the web members shall b e+ de s Lg ned to' resist a horizontal force of 300 pounds per 1 inear foot applied no t less than 21 inches

. above the r o adway . For each inch of height of curb above 10 inches this lateral horizontal force may be reduced 15 pounds per linear

foot. but this force shall not be less than 150 poun~s per linear

foot. 111e horizontal forces shall be applied simultaneously. Railing \,]ithout webs and wi t.h s i ng Le rails shall be designed for the forces specified above for lower rails.

(2). Sidewalk R"ilings

Sidev18lk ,ailings shall be designed to resist the same forces as those specified for roarlw~y railings, subject to the same restrictions concernil,::. curb heights. \.Jhere through trusses, girders, or arches s e p a r a t c the sidewalk and r oa dway or wh er e side-walks are protected by c u r b railings> the s i clewa Lk r a i.l ings shall be d e s Lg ned only for the forces specified for the top rail.

IMPACT

Live load stresses p r od uc e d by the standard Tr uc k-Tr e i n loading shall -~~,tie~ncreased for items in Group A by allowance as stated t.he r e i n , for dynamic tory and impact effects. Impact shall not be appli~d to items in Group

Group A

(1) Superstructure. including steel or concrete supporting

columns, steel t owe r s , legs of rigid frames and generally those portions of the structure wh i ch ex t.e nd d own to the main foundation.

(2) The portion above lhe ground line of concrete or steel piles wh i ch are rigidly c.orme.c t ed to the superstructure as in rigid frame' or continuous designs.

"'.c Group B

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5 )

Abutments, retaining , ... a Ll s , piers, piles', except Group A(2) Foundation pressures and footings

Timber structure

'SideHalk loads

Culverts and structures having cover of 3 feet or more

Impact Formula , The amount of live load ,stress

: s . ,

this allowance or increment is expressed as a fraction and shall be determined by the formula:

15

in which

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~ '.;:>01_' •

. , • .: ~'. ,·c.-:

fraction (maximulI! 30 per ceat) of span in feet

uniformity of application the span length "L" shall be especially as follows:

n);"""'~:Y t l oor s , use the dcs i gn s pan length,

t rans'\Jcrse members, such as floor beams, use the <;T1.'n !':n,'>:" e r cent no to centre of sup par ts,

computing truck load moments use the span length, except for tilever arms use the length from moment centre to the farthermost

continuous spans use the length of span under consideration for

t i.ve moment., and use the average of two adjacent Loaded spans for ive moment.

bridges having cantilever arms with susper.ded spans, use the span he cantilever arm plus half the length of the suspended span wheD gn Ing the cantilever and the span length of the suspended span (gning the larter.

shear due to truck loads use the length of the loaded portion pan from t,h~ point under consideration to the far reaction.

culverts w i t.h cover 0' to I' ~. 0" inc •. 1=30%
" if ,. I' I" to 2' ~ 0" inc. I=20}(.
II II \t 2' 1'" to 2 ' -11" inc. 1=1010 ision shall be made for Lo ng it ud i na l ~_'ces arising from any OHe the following causes:

Tractive effort caused through. acceleration of th e driving or braking effort from the applicat.ion of the brakes to t h e ~~'~'A·c~ng -I-Jhee l.s .

This force shall be e q ua l to ,()'::. (-: ,"" v '~;_f.;:!: of the

c l s or any portion of tll(c ""hiel,' on r hc Lo ad cd span, the' truck s in one lane only b ein; considered. rot" mi Li r ar y loading t h i s

sha l l he cq ua l, t,\1 !,:j/ c·, r ho ,.,'ni(lt c'- :; , . ',' ,.'\';, ',"

cent r c of gr-;:~vi ro,;"" o f r.h is long i t t!\.~ina 1. io r cc shall be ':1ssu:1>,d ~ u cater! ,6 tt.'et above the p r o f f Le grad~ o I rh e r o adwav sl.ab .

change in the vertical reaction due to t.lre t.r ans fe r of the itudinal force tu the bearings, shall be accounted for.

,Frictional resistance offered to the movement .o f expansion ings due to change of temperature or any other cause.

This force shall be equal to the dead load reaction multiplied

coefficient of friction as shown be·im·' for the' various .

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types of bearihg:

For roller bearin~s

0.03

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for sliding bearings of hard copper alloy

For sliding bearings of steel on cast iron or steel au steel 0.25 For sliding bcaringsof iteel or ferro asbestos 0.20 for sliding bearings of concrete on elastomeric 0;2(1

0.15

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bearing pads

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",'! .- ... }: .... -'''',_,l~~<_.! ~~.r :.: i~;: :·.r.~ .,1:~~:·_-~·~.:! Ln6~! :·.~i t.h a ~-0[,.1.s.{~~>"J;)le ac cur acy i o r

e r e ;11:',' re r ma nc n c ~C<lture:", o f .t h e terrain wh Lch .nak e such ch ang a s safe and

')15,10110. if ch a ng e in the d es i gn tJind velocity is .. ,ade., th" design

velncity shall he shown on ~hc plans.

SuperstructurR Design

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A mcv i.ng un Lf o rm Lv d i s t r Lb u t e d w i.nd Loud of tht"l f o Ll ow i ng intensity be applied horizontally at right angles to the longitudinal axis of structure in the clE'si~n of the s upc r s t r uc t u r e :

for trusses a nd arches- .. --------~------7:' For girders and beams --·-~----------5:1

pounds

per

square

foot foot

pounds

per

s q ua r e

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T'1C total force sh a l L not be less than JOO p ound s p e r linear foot in ~~'plan~ of the loaded chord and 150 pounds per linear foot iri the plane of t.lie unloaded chord on truss spans and not less t h an :-;00 p ouno s per Li rie ar ~pot on g ir d er spans.

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The above fo r c e s shall be used for Group 11 lcHcing, for G1:'OUp III

~ IO~d~ng there shall be added thereto a load of 100 rounds per ~inear foot ~F'"-=,,-'-;;;o£Fphe(l ,H. r i gh t ang l e s to the longitudinal axis of tl1<?: s t r uc t ur e and 6 feet aoove. the deck as 8 w i nd load on a moving live load. ;·rnen a reinforced Cl-oncrete floor slab or a steel grid deck is keyed to or attached to its

it may be assumed that the deck resists w i.t b i.n its resulting from the wind load on the moving live load.

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.~ Design /

~'tted to the substructure by the s upe r s t r uc t ur e -aud

smL . .

to the substructure by wind loads shall be assumed to

fr6m Superstrueture

transverse and longitudinal forces transmitted by the ure to the substructure for varying angles of wind direct he as set forth in the f o Ll owi.ng table, The skew angle irem the perpendicular to the longitudinal axis. The

r ec on set a t "v e max i mum

. he subs t r uc t ur e be i ug des Lgnad • The tr ans ve r s.e and

I forces shall be applied simultaneously at the elevation gravity of the exposed area of the superst~ucture.

Lateral.Load per Sq , Ft. oE Area (Pounds)

Longitudinal Load per sq. Ft, of Area (Pounds)

La t.e r a I Load per Sq_. Fe of Area (Pounds)

Longitudinal Load per sq, ft. 0 E Area

(Pounds)

75 70 65 lf7 ~ 25

o 12 28 td 50

50 Q
44 .6
41 12
33 16
17 19 above shall be used in Group II loading as given in

Group III loading, these loads may be reduced 70 per cent shall be added thereto, as a Hind load on a moving live

ad per linear foot as given 'in the f o Ll oo i ng tahle:'

Lateral Load pl2r Lin r: Ft. ( Pounds )

Longitudinal Load per Lin.Ft. ( Pounds )

100 88 82 66 34

o 12 24 32 38

be applied at a point 6 .feet above the deck. usual girder and slab bridges having maximum span

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of 125 feet, the following wind loading may be used in lieu precis~ loading specified above.

t H ( t·,inrl load on structure)

50 pounds per square toot, transverse;

12 pounds per square foot, longitudinal. Both forces shall be applied simultaneously.

-

~WL(wind load on live load)

100 pounds per linear foot, transverse;

40 ~ounds per linear foot, longitudinal_ Both forces shall be applied simultaneously.

Forces afplied directly to the substructure

The transverse and longitudinal forces to be applied direct tu the substructure for a 100 mile-per-hour wind shall be calculated from an assllmed w i.nd force of 40 pounds per sq ua r e foot. For w i nd dir~~ction assumed s k ewe d 'to the substructure this- f o r c e shall be

r e so l vcd into c ornp one n t s p e r p e nd icular to the end and front

(~l€:vatioDs of the substructure according to the f unc t Lons of the s k ew a ng l.e . The cornp oue n t p e r p e nd i c u I a r to th£: end e Lev a t i on shall act the exposed s ub s t r uc t ur e a r e a as seen in end elevation and the component perpendicular to the front elev<.ltion shall act on the

cxp o s cd substructure ere.'! Go S('2n i n front". elevation. These loads shall be assumed to act on horiz0~lal Jines at the centres of gravity of lh@ ~xrosed areas and shall be appli~d Simultaneously with the l.o ad s f r orn t h c s up e r s t r .. .ct u r c . Th« i-lb("o':r:~ loads are for Croup II loading a nd \I18.Y be r ed uc cd ;0 p,"r cent f o r Cr cup III Lo ad i ng .

Overturning Forces

The effect of forces t.cnd i.n g to o ve r t ur n s t.r uc t ur e s shall be c a l c.u l a t e Group II and Grour., III of Article 5.1. An upwa r d force shall be appl

he windward quarter point of tho transverse surers~ructure width.This fo 1 b~ 20 pounds per ~quare fout'of deck anrt sidewalk plan ar~a {or Group omb i ns t i on , and 6 p o und s per sq ua r e foot for (;roL1p III combination.

___ • __ .... ~-,"" .. )nd direction shall be a s s urnc d to i)(1 at right angles to the longitudinal of the struct~rc.

THERHAL FORCES

Provision shall be made for stresses or movements resulting from

.iations in temperature. The ris~ and fol1 in temperature shall be ~

for the locality in wh i r-h t h c structure is to be constructed and shall'· ''''''''''.'''-,<;;J,- .. J-igured from an as sumed temperature at the time of erection. Dueideration shall be given to the lag be twe e n air temperature and the

erior temperature of massive concrete members or structures.

2-11

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- --.~-- -~:~ ~ ":",,,--.-'~ .. ' ......

of temperature shall generally be as follow

from Data 1200p

minimum-300 F to 1200 F

Temperature Rise 300 F

~,45 of

Temperature Fall 300F

..... "45"6 F

·shall be made for adequate attachment of the superstructure ure shouid any loading or combination of lo~ding, in:reased ive load plus impact, produce uplift at any support.

and other portions of structures Hhich are subject to the water shall be designed to resist the maximum stress

t of stream flow on piers shall be calculated by the formula:

in pounds per square foot of water in feet per second

having the following valu0s for different shapes

1. 50 0.60

iers or piers with semi-circulSr ends triangular ends Hhere the an81e is or less

triangular ends where the angle is 30 degiees but less than 60 degrees

triangular ends ",here the angle is 60 degrees but less th~n 90 d~grees ,8 of ~quilateral arcs of circles

s of arcs intersecting at 90 dcg~ees

0.50

0.50 - 0.70

0.70 - 0.90 0.45

0.50

v2 in the equation P '" KV2 shall be assumed to vary

era at the point of deepest.scour to the square'of the maximum ~~. The maximum velocity shall be assumed to be equal to 1.4

~';}'J:!I<liX!lrnulfu mean yeloc.i ty of the current. :, ..

~~ :.~ ."-,

pressure P, shall be ~pplied to ~ll pbr~ion~ of

2-12

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._ ..... _'. - _- .~ .,~ ,:"_ --~~ .. -':':-~0:'~'-- ~-~ '"-: _L '; r.:': .,;:-.-~"~~~"~':-"

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ier extending abuve the point of deep~st scour. This will include when a pile foundation is used.

When the current strikes the pier at an angle. the velocity of the

, shail be resolved into t,.JO components, one parallel, and the other the pier. The value of the coefficient K to be applied to the parallel to the pier shall be as per paragraph A of this article. of K to be applied to the component normal to the pier shall be circular piers in which case the value wtll be 0.66.

are designed parallel to flow an allowance of a 20 degree included in the design.

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f.uoyancy shall be considered as it effects the design of either the 1

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ucture, including piling, or of the superstructure. I~

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provision ~eed'be made for buoyan~y if the bridge is founded on j , impermeable strata. For bridges founded on coarse sand or. !

full ~uoyancy shall be allowed. For other foundation conditions. 11

Lrig f'oundat i ons on rock, the calculated effect o f buoyancy may be t aken r

ctien of th0 full buoyancy, at the discretion of the ~ngineer l

ible ior the design. ,

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wllich retain fills shall be proportioned to withstand

by Rankin's formula; provided, h oweve r , that:no s t r uc t ur-e ," [0r less than an ~quivalent fluid pressure of 30 pounds

For rigid fr2~es a ~aximum of one~half of the moment 0aused by essure (lnteral) may be tlsed to reduce the positive moment in ~ri the top slah, or in the top and bottom slab, as the case may

the

be~

Hhen h i ghway traffic can come within a horizontal distance from the the structure equal to one half its' height, the pressure shall· hav~ to it a live load surcharge pressure equal to not less than 2 feet o[

., Where an adequately designed reinforced concrete approach slab .suppor orie end b); the bridge is provided, no live load surcharge need be,

red:

All deSigns sh aLl, provide for the thorough drainage of the ba'ck-:..... :,.,~-"_'rr. lM,-terial by means of weep holes and 'crushed rock, pipe drains;, .

raips. or pe.rforated drains. " . j

. 2-13

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- -. ". ,,,-~ ', ,~'. ~ _. - :'" -: 1"

i" - ~ --:.._ ~r·'-':"· :,., •• : _"'- ... .;~ ". ~ ..... _; •

be ant~cip·ated. provision shall-be earthquakes as follow:

applied horizontally in_an1 direction at centre the weight of. the structure.

of structure

structures founded on spread footings on material -4 tons or more per square foot.

structures founded on spread footings on material le.s than 4 tons per sq~nre foot.

structures founded on piles.

may be neglecte9·

cur~es shall be designed for a horizontal radial force percentage of the ·live load, without impact;. in all

6.68 82 R

ifug~l force in percent of the live load, without impact. gn speed , in miles per hour

of curve

S c:'f the curve, in feet

~orce sha l.I be applied 6 feet: above the roadway

the cent.re line of t.he roadway. The design speed th regard to .the amount'o.f superelevat-ion provided in ffle lanes shall be loaded in accordance ,(vith the

·2.5 and 2.6

,concr.et~ floor slab or a steel grid deck is keyed supporting members; it may be assumed -rh at the deck

J the shear re~ult.ing f~om' the" centrifugal forces_

. -Th~ effects of superelEws,· -', shall be taken into_.-

.. ::~'::. ;~._.r~~:;::~. :/·'i:-i.-·· .. :.::'.~ .- '

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Sect~on 3 - 'DISTRIBlITION OF LOADS

OF ~EEL tOADS TO STRINGRRS,-LONGITUDINAL BEAMS AND FLOOR BEAMS

for Shear'

calculating end shears and end reactions in'transverse floor beams nal beams and stringers, no lateral or longitudinal distribution" 1 load shall lie assumed for the wheel. or B~le.loadadjacent to the: . - /',' the stress is being determined. For loads in other positions on ~.- .... :. the distribution for shear shall be determined by the method. pres-

in Stringers and Longitudinal Beams

culating bending moments in longitudinal beams or stringers no distribution of the wheel load shall be assumed. The lateral

shall be determined as follows: --

ringers and Beams '.' .

live load bending moment for each stringer .aha Fl be determined by <'_ o th« stringer the fraction of a ,~eel load:(both front and rear)

by the following table:

----------------- _- ---_.

8ridge DQsigncd for

0110. Traffic l.ane

Hi-il1g;e Ill~':lt;ni.!d for two or more Traffic Lanes

------

I-Beam S/7.0
(a) If S exceeds 10'
see Note (b)
5/5.5
If 5 exceeds 6'
see notc (b)
·S/8~0
If 5 exceeds 12'
see note (b) 5/5.5

If S exceeds 141 see note (b)

5/5.5

If S exceeds 14' see note (b)

5/7 .0

If 5 exceeds 16' see note (b)

dead load considered as supported by the outsid~ roadway beam shall be ~hat portion of the floor slab carried by the

r beam. Curbs, railing and w~aring surface, if placed after the may h,~ l"PIl~:id"I-"d (;[lI:I1! v d"intrihut('d t o all t-\';l:!I-!(l), .i t r Lu-

. l, ".

~"'_ __ "':'~_.'':'';;'_-~'_;':'.'':''.'~"=''';''':'''.:.:' .; ._:_~ _ _:_''~ .. ,:,:",::::.j:::~:::l:::,,_:.::·.,_:i~.~~~~·~.bJ.,::)~~~iLii.'L~~~~~~~~

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S (a),

average stringer spacing in feet.

Design of I-Beam Bridge by N.M. Newmark-Proceedings, ASCE, March 1948.

In this case the load on each stringer shall be the reaction of the wheel loads, assuming the floor Lug between the stringers to act as a simple beam.

Design of Slab and Stringer High~vay Bridges by N.M. Newmark and C.P. Siess-Public Roads. January,-FebruaryMarch, 1953.

The sid~mlk live load (see 2.11) shall be omitted foi interior and exterior box girders designed in accordance with·the wheel load distribution indicated herein .

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Capacity of Stringers

The combined design 'load capacity of all the beams in a span shall less than required to support the total live an~ dead load in the

DiSTRIBUTION OF LOADS AND DESIGN OF CONCRETE SLABS

Lengths (See also Article 6.2)

simple spans the span length shall be the distance centre to supports but not to exceed clear span plus thickness of slab.

following effective span lengths shalt be used in calculating tion of loads and bending moments for slab continuous over more than

with beams or walls (without haunches)

=

Clear Span

supported on steel stringers

=:

distance between edges of flanges plus ~ of the stringer flange width.

Distance of Wheel Load

designing slabs the centre line of wheel load shall be assumed from the face of the curb.

,3-2

,.-< "; :~~~;:::~ .. ,. __ .,' , .. ;J~~~,:~~~i-;J:-',- .. ,,·_.·~,~.:.:.·.;,._' ... )_;, ..... :.~._:_

.• ::..._f· or:'~ ,~·~,:,,;;t.#:~. _ .... 71f:i .... ~ .. ~.... . ~:- <.. ;,:,:~,~,:('1 :~ . .L't", ~c..'

"

. _"·t _

... ~ :~~-';'I'~'}11~~:j1'~~': ."

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Bending Moment'

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Bending moment per foot width of slab shall be calculated accordi~g ethods given under Cases A and B.

III .

Truck train moments for: continuous spans and simple spans, except as shall be determined by suitable analysis and distributed over a width ,2E. The lateral distribution of wheel loads for multi-beam precast concbridges shall not exceed that specified for slAbs~

"~e live-Ioad-moment' per foot width of !;! _'.h for simple spans shall d,etermined by the' following formulas.

1=='-

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In cases A and B:

s

Effective span length in feet, as defined under "Span Lengths" (Art. 3.2 (A) and 6.2).

E

Width of slab in feet over which the load is

P

Load on one wheel of truck

12,500 pounds for ClaBs A loading 7,500 pounds for Class B loading

Case - A Ma'in Reinforcement perpendicular to traffic.

The live load moment per foot width of slab for a ~imple span shall be determined by the following formula (Impact not included)

M' = (S + 2) P/~5.

In slabs continuous over three or more supports a. continuity factor of 0.8 shall be applied to the above f for both positive and negative moment.

Case - B

Main Reinforcement:, Parallel to trafft-c.-For distribution of wheel loads.

E .' ;::

2 + 0.6S.

7.0' x K

Emax

For roadway widths > 28'
K . "" 1
For roadway widths < 28'
Roadway Width
K ; 14 Number
x
i ----- ': " [J~~";,;,::- 3 - 3

"'-./ :.~:~:~, .: .: ~:}~~ ... ''1,~~:#~;.~~i2;Jl~,

For main reinforcement perpendi~ular to traffic: ~-----

I . 220~' ~

!Percentage = vs Maximum} no - 1

" I:ere s ~~v;-.p~n le';h, in feet. ,_.

, ~ F~r main reinforcement perpendicular·to traffic the BPecifi~ amount .If''.t~t.,Jif.",:r.di.8~t'ri.b t Lon reinforcement shall be used in the middle half of the span but Y he reduced by 50% in the end quarters of the span.

\ . Longitudinal reinforcement in the top of slab having the main reinfo

perpendicular to traffic shall not be less than 0.20 square inch

width.

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(

(Impact not included)

For Bim~le spans upto 35'

Use M = 0.9S x K

(Foot Kips)

For simp~e spans 35' to 70'

Use M = (1.35 s - 16) x K

(Foot Kips)

Edge Beams (Longitudinal)

Edge beams shall be provided for all slabs having main reinforcement 11el to traffic. The beam may consist of a slab·seetion additionally orced, a beam integral with and deeper than the:slab, or an 'integral orced section of slab and curb.

It shall he designed to resist a live load moment of

i 0.5 x simple span truck train Moment: !

continuous spans may be reduced 20 per cent unless a grea~ '~. .

resu~ts from a more exact analysis. ~

Distribution 'Reinforcement

Reinforcement shall be placed in the bottoms of all slabs tranve~se the main steel reinfqrcement, to provide for the lateral distribution of

concentrated live lo~ds. except ~hat this specificat~on will not apply on' tULbri.qgUI~b~ when_thE:! depth_~Qf_ till _pv~~'the slab_e~t;:~eds __ two feet amount shall be the percentage of the main reinforcement steel required. positive moment as given by the following formula:

For main reinforcement parallel to t·rafffc:

Percentage

100

-rr:

M.:).ximum 50%

-=

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\.:, : ..... :' .. '" _;' ..... ·t:~~i~~~,~.,tt~:£~;~;JJ:.:· ;;

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(F) Shear and Bond Stress in Slabs

Slabs designed ,for bending moment in accordance with the foregoing shall be considered satistactory in bond and she~r.

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(G)

Unsupported Edges. Transverse

1 .. , ~--

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The design assumptions of this article dornot, provide for the

of load near unsupp~rted edges. Therefore, at the ends of the bridge and at intermediate points whe r a the continuity of the slab is broken, the edges shall be supported by diaphragms or other suitable means. The diaphragms shall be designed to resist the full moment and shear produced by the wheel loads which can come on them.

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Cantilever Slabs

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U~der the following formulas for distribution of loads on cantilevr slabs. the slab is designed to support the load independent of. edge support the end of the cant il·ever

Each' wheel on the element perpendicular to t ra f f ic d Lat r Lbut.ed according to the following formula:

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·Case A. Reinforcement Perpendicular to Traffic

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E '" 0.6 x +2.5
Moment foot of slab PX
per :=
E
in which X ::: distance in·feet I

- ':~i1~~.

.. , .. ~,

from load to point of' support.<::I·;~'~~;' , i'· r,k

Case B. Reinforcement Parallel to Traffic -:.~~~:< ~~t.

_------------~-------- '-"" of"~

_.: ·~,<JL,

·oi"l~'.'t" ..

The distribut ion for each wheel load on the element parallel ~'Sf;:'~

to traffic shall be as follows: :j:::~*

,~:-;YK

Far ra3dW:Y Wi:thS ~ 2 :8~ 1. 6. Em:' ee "1 7.0 x K .1

Roadway Width ·;·:~-.~~t 14xNumber Truck Train ~'~~~~:~f

• • .' ~ , -.:; ~.I

For roadway widths

L.

28'

K

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In .calculating the moments one axle load of 36000 Ibs. may be subs.t i> for the two 25000 lbs. tandem axles of the standard truck train if th~s

~produces a greater stress. .

.,. ...

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-- 3-5

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-.:,::..:-, . . ...: ..

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Slab supported on ,Four Sides

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In the case of slabs supported along four edges and reinforced in rections the proportion of the load carried by the short span of the slab 11 he assumed as given by the following equations:

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For load uniformly distributed, p

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For load concentrated at. centre, p

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= proportion of load carried by short span = length of short span of slab = . length of lo~g span of slab

Where the length of the slab exceeds ll.i times': its width, the entire

shall be assumed to be carried by_J:!"te __ transverse. :re~n_f_9rS~I1l§!l.I;_. .

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The distribution width, E, for the load taken by either span shall ermined as provided for other slabs. Moments obtained shall be used igning the centre half of the short and 'long slabs. The reinforcement in the outer quar t.er of both short and long spans may be reduced 50 per In the design of the supporting beams, consideration shall be given to fact that the loads delivered to the supporting beams are not t1nifonnly

, tr-ibuted along the beams •

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PISTRIBtrrION O~ WHEE,L LOADS THROUGH EARTH FILLS

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When the depth of' fill is 2 feet or ITI~:n~_e, COllcpl1trated loads shall be ' idered as uniformly dist-ributed ovcr a square) rhc sides of which are ~.".'!!Ilulal to ] -:./(. times the depth of fill.

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The ~hear produced by such loads shall be calculated as provided for loads.

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When such areas from several concentrations overlap, the total load be considered as uniformly distributed over the. area defined by the oui- : limits of the individual areas, but the total width of distribution shall exceed the total width of the supporting slab. For single span the effect

live load may be neglected when the depth of fill is more than 8 feet and :r:eds the span length; for multiple spans it 'may be neglected when the depth " . fill exceeds the distance between faces of end supports or abutments. When he depth of fill is less than 2 feet the wheel load shall be distributed as in slabs with concentrated loads. , When the calculated live load and impact moment in ppncrete slabs based on distribution of the wheel load through fills as he out11ned exceeds the live load and impact moment calculated according to Artie then the latter moment shall be used.

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3-6

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Live load stresses shall be increased for items in Group A, referred tQ in Article 2.9 by an allowance as stated herein, for dynamic vibratory

, and impact effects.

Impact shall 'not be applied to items in group B referred to in article 2.9.

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HORIZONTAL CLEARANCE

The minimum clearance between the roadway face of curb and the edge of the track shall be assumed as fol1ow~:

width of roadway

11'-6" to 1:3'-6" 13' -6'" to 18' :'0'1 18' -0" ,

o.~ 0-6 I-':L

1'-0" 2' -0" 4 "-a"

DISTRIBUTION OF LOAD TO LONGITUDINAL STRINGERS

Unless a more exact analysis is made the 70 T Military Load shall distributed to the stringers as indicated below:

Steel or Concrete Stringers

Simple beam reaction

IMPACT

, A. Impact Formula

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(A)

1. Concrete Structures

Spare less than 30 feet -------------Spans 30-150 feet -------------Spans greater than 150 feet -----------

'\/'25%

\...' 10% v/ 8.870

2. Steel Structures

.:

Spa~s less than 30 feet -------------All spans greater than 30 feet --------

DISTRIBUTION OF LOADS AND DESIGN. OF CON8RETE SLABS

\

Span lengths

See Art. 3.2

(b) Edge distance of track

J' In designing slabs the centre

/rntni;um 1'-6" from the face of curb.

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line of track shall be assumed to be

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3-

4-2 (

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continuous spans a suitable analysis ;shall be of distribution, E, shall be computed as ~ollows:

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used~

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(C) Bending Moment

BI!t'!d_ing moment per foot of ~i.dr.h or slab shall be ca l cu l a r ad according to methods given nnder Ca.se.; A and B.

In cases A and D:

s

=

Effe~tivc span length i~ feet, as definAd u~d~r "Span Length {Article 3.2)11

E

Width of slab in feet ovar which a track is distributcci

P Load on one track = 78.4 Kips (35 Lorig tons)

Case A - }b.in Re t nfor e emen t. Pe rpend Icu La'r ·to 'iraffic ~I:~~t for simple spn~ = 1...1 L_ o.~ 1

...- ........ ..,...._-

For spans c ont Lnuous over th r ee or more s uppo r t s use 0 -, 8 x simple moment for both positive and negative moment.

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B Main Re Lnf'o rc ernen t Parallel to Traffic

For simple spans greater than 12 feet~

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...- __ .w _~_,.~._._._ •• ' __ ~_'_-;--'_--:"'"

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M = P(S-6)!4E

For simple spans less than 12 feet M c; PS2!96E

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.45S

+

4.0

E_::: Ll" 4I t -+ 4· ~ () (.\ f)( 1£- 1. + 4 . z: l ': '{<:1'~ 4,.. -;;. ((~ /- j 1(- .

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.~

. ,', '. ··t

·,~.:~G~,;:A~~v~. i';i,~;r;:~i~~~~~~:~~; .~,~, .... ,:~ ~i.·,;.;;,,-:'\)l",~:;Ili

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Seition 5 - UNIT STRESSES

5.1 GENERAL

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Unless otherwise noted the allowable unit stresses indicated herein, are given in pounds per square inch.

.... :

The following groups represent various combinations of loads to which a structure may be subjected. Each part of such structure or the foundation on which it rests, shall be proportioned for all combinations of, ,_ such of these forces as are applicable to the particular site or type, and . at the percentage of the basic unit stress indicated for the various g r oup e;', " except that no increase in allowable unit stresses shall be permitted fo1'.", r members or connections carrying wind loads only .. See article 2.1 to 2.18" -; for loads and forces.

Percentage of Unit Stress

100% 125% 125%

.. -._,- -··12-5%· .. -----, --_ ... _:_

140% 140% 133'%, 14,0% 150%

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1iL~:!2~~~~!l:l' ~': =- .o:o; .. :~,:, ;~"~;;a~':~.~;- '~"'~'-~z::: ..... ,.,;' -",,' =- """",..";.,: -:~.' ... _' ... : ~::..';.."-;':"::~. ",:::~:,::I·:':<·:::'·~~::':'·~2-~:~:':'::l;:~;t'~:::':'~:·~-~J.~;.;;·" -~iii~/. ',-, ,-,,;; :_ - .. ;:-, ,.~s:-,~,~;~ei~!>'

The maximum secti~n required shall be used.

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Group I Group II Group III Group IV Group V Group VI Cr oup VII Group VIII Group IX

D L I E B W WL

t = D+LH:tE+B+SF

= D+E+B+SF+W

= Group I+LF+F+CF+30% W~~L c Group I+R+S+T ----== Group Il+R+S+T

== Group.HI+R+S+T

== D+P.+lHSF+EQ'

= Group I+ICE

;= Group II+ICE

== Dead 'Load

== Live 'Load

""' Live Load Impact = Earth Pressure

, 0::: Buoyancy

0::: Wind.Load on Struct~re

~ Wind Load on Live Load-lOG-poundi'

per linear foot

== Longitudinal Force from Live Load 0::: Centrifugal Force

<= Longitudinal Force due to friction == Rib Shortening

Sh r Lnkage

= Temperature <= Earthquake

== Stream Flow Pressure Yc Ice' pressure

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LF
CF
F
R
S
: T
EQ
SF
ICE 5-1

CONCRETE STRESSES(i)

Notations and Assumptions

= Permissible Extr~me fiber stresi in compression

= Unit ultimate compressive strength of concrete as determined by 6 inch cube tests a~ 28.days.

= Unit ultimate compressive strength of concrete as determined by 6" cylinder tes t at 28 d3YS.

= ratio of modulus of elas~icity of steel to that of concrete.

The -va l ue of n, 'as a function of. the ultimate 50 t.r e ng rh of concrete, shall be aSRumtd as follow~:

r.ube -Cy.Li.nd e r
2600 3100 (f'e) = 2000 - 2400 n==IS
.3200 3700 2500 2900 n=12
3800 5000 3000 - 3900· n=IO
5100 5>900 4000 4900 i n= 8
6000 or more 5000 - or more' n= 6 ,

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for computations of deflections t.he value of n=8 shall be used.

Coefficients:

Thermal Shrinkage

.000006 per OF .0002

Br:re6ses (u)

Clibe

Cylinder Strength 0;40(('c)

(1) l-'.lexuro?

'Extrcmc'fiher in compression. Extreme fiber in tension, . plain concrete, primarily ill

tootings--------------------

Fxtrcme finer in tension,

reinforced concret.e----·---- None None

:lhe ratios and value~ in this s~ction apply t.o concre~e made with convent -ional hard rock aggregate, value~ applicabl~ .to light weight aggregate' Concrete should be established by ad~quate investiga[~on.

C:.trength fc= 0.33 f'c

f,e == 0.0.25

('e

O.03(f'c)

'In no"- case shall the allowable s t r e s s e s be bas ed on an u l t Lru.t t c- ('[,1',:, strength greater than 5800 psi or ultimate cylinder strength greater th.l" 4500 psi except for prestressed concrete.

5-2 ..

\.1 1"

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Shear

Beams without web reinforcement Longitudinal bars n~t anchored or plain conc r et e footings----

Lon$itudinal bars anchored

Reams with web reinforcement

Horizontal shear in shear keys between slab and stem of T beams and box girders

Bond, Deformed bars:

With deformation complying with specifications ASTMA 305 Ptraight or hooked ends,cxclusivc of top bars'

(a) In hearns, slabs, one way footings.

Cube Strength

O,Olfl r'c

0.024 fie

V=O.060 f'(" hjd 0.12 C c

0.08 fie

(b) In two way footings 80%

of one way footings

Top bars- Bars near top of h~amA and girders having more thun 12

inches of conCI'cre under the bars 0.05 f'c

Cylinder. Strength

0.02{f'c) Max 75 psi

O.03(f'c)

Max 90 psi (}.07'i(f·I~)hjd

O.15(f'c)

O.lO(f'c)

0.06 (fIe>

For plain bars the 7alues listpd tor deformed bars shall he decreascd by 50;0

REINFORCEMENT

Mild ~teel conforming to B.S. 785 or AStM A15 Specifications Rteel Reinforcement':

Tension in flexural memhers-----------18.000 Tension in web members- -----------·----18,000 Compression in co1umns---~--~---------13,200 Compression in'beams See Article 6.6

STEEL STRESSES i
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Steel stresses shall conform to' the British DC!sign Standard 153
3 B. Stresses, of the British Standard Institution 1958 Edition. i

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~~~"a:: ':11:" ':;::' 3··A=""!'!:·.::;;;! .... ~;..S!i'''''~~; .• ;;,,'i..,~:l~.;;.;.~~.;.,' ~..,..,= ...... _ .. .;, .. ;".:' . .: .... ~.;....;~.:.:.:.;.:.w:.:.(\:..'. ,.:.;~li:.:.~t~:>;.:.~:,~~:·:· :' :'" ':' ":' .=-"'_:.~.::.. .• -"I=._ :.~""_"-~._. _(-i~, ;~~,~~ , ..... ~ . .,j .,,"~ .... ~ .~·~i'f#;- .. " - ~

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SECTION 6 - CONCRETE DESIGN '/

GENERAL ASSUMPTIONS

The design of reinforced concrete members under these specifications be based on the fo~lowing assumptions:

(1) Calculations ar~ made with reference'to unit working stresses'

safe loads, as elsewhere specified herein, r-a tb c r : t ha n Hi th reference to / timate strength and ult~mate loads.

(2) A plane section h~forn bAnding remai~s plane after bending.

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(3) The modu l us of e l as t t c Lt y of" c'Oncret~ "i"n compression is

nstant within the limits oE working stresses; rhe rlistribution of compressstress in f l exu re is, che reEo re , rectilinear.

(4)

TIle ratio lin" shall he assumed as follows: !

1

Va l.ue o f n

Es

Ec

Ultimate strength

Par c omp ut.a r.Loris of strength

For computtation of deflection

p_f conc_rete, 6 I' cube

s t ~£_!lg_t h

Lps. per s9.in. 6" cy l Lnda r strength

2600 - 3100 200P - 2400
3200 - 3700 2500'- 2900
3800'- 5000 3000 3900
5100 5900 4000 4900
6000 or more 5000 or more 1 ') 12 10

8 6

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In c oroput Lng thl! rrLr Ime r e de f l e c t Lon of slabs and b e arns , rh e va Iue

th e modulus of elasticity should b e assumed as onc-e r h i r t f e t h that of' steel n order r.o allow for till' e Lf c c t: of p La s rl c f Low and shr i nk agc.

(5) Concrete shall be a s s ume d ac; o fLe r i ng 1'10 t e ns Ll e resist _;:'1

(6) ThC'! bond b e twe en conc re r e and me t a I r ei n f or c eme n r; i$!

a·.~sumC'(~ to r oma in unbroken th r'oughout t.he r ange of wo r k ing s t r o s se s . Unde r comprcssio'n the two' materials a r e t ho r e Eor e stressed in p r opo r a t to.n to their moduli of "e La s t.Lc t t y .

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(7) Initial stress in the reinforcement due to contraction

of the concrete, is neglected, cxce p t in the design of columns.

6-1

, ::,;_,'

) The moment of inertia of the entire superstructure section~J

railings or any curbs or sidewalks not placed mono l i th Lcn l l y with the "

ucture before the falsework is released, and th e moment of inerria': t '

full cross section of the pier or hent shall be used t-o-d~ti.r:;;i-;)~·li~~---·!::-' properties of the various spans and supports.

(10) The depth of gird'er or slab to be used in computing moment of at the centerline of ,the support shall be ob t a i ned by c xt eud i ng the f the ·intrados of the member to the centerl t ne ,

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(11) Rigid frames shall Le considered f'r e e to sway: longitudinally t-he applicar:ion of ve rt Lca l dead Load s and vc r tLca Ll.y applied li'fe ept when the structure is restrained from movement; by exr e r na I

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(12) The assumption of no moment restraint at the ~ase oi column

l\...;{'d in the analysis' of rigid i'ramE'E (r:uperst:ructures) u~les~ the known to he- fully f Lxed , Wlle!1 a p i nned CI,d c or.d Lu I on is assumed for lysis of t.h e superstructure, t le t:..3sp. of column, f oo t t ng and piling

he d e s t g nc d 1'.0 reshot t!w moment r e s u LrLng f r om <elf, a s s umod r-e s t r a i n t

from zero 1:0 f u l l fixity. The d('grt·(~ of r e st r a f n t sha l l !.'l!

lIee! !'Y the type of f'oo t: ing and the ch a r ac r c r or lhe f our.d a t ion

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(8) For the determination of external reactions, moments, shears,

flections. moments of in~rtia of rigid frame lind continuous structures be computed for the gross concrete sections, neglecting the effect of .rcinforcement, e xc ep t; that the transformed a r ea of the steel shall he

cd for columns, arches or other compressive members.

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Piers or bcrit.s cons t.ruc r cd integrally w Lt h f o o t i ng s p l ac e-d on exceeding 100 sholl be considered fix~d at the top: of rooting.

SPAN LENCTHS

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span lengths of slabs shall be as s pcc t f t ed in

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effectlve span len~th of freely supported beams shall not exceed span plus the depth of beam.

the analysM of all rigid frames. the span lengths shall be taken distance between the centres of ~eorings at the t.op of the footings.

The span length of continuous or restrained floor slabs and beams be the clear distance between faces of support.

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EXPANSION

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,,In genera I, provision for tempera ture changes sha 1.1 be made in a 11 e spans haVing a clear length in excess of 40 feet.

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Con8t~uction Joints

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When a construction joint is required between the slab and the stem , the beam, the shear-keys shall be designed in accordance \<lith allowable sea given in Article 5.;2(B)(2).

REINFORCEMENT

Spacing

The minimum ~pacing,centre to centre of parallel, bars' shall be 2% times diameter of the 'bar, but in no caseshaU. the clear d Lst.ance betwee~ less than l~ times the maximum size of the coarse aggregate.

Covering.

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The minimum coveri.ng,· measured from the surface ~f the concre ce to rhe of any reinforcemE!nt bar. shall oat be less than_~_~s except in slabs the minimum covering shall be 1 inch at the bottom' and 1%" at the top. an additional' wearing "surface is to be useei' the-ie~-ul~eaC1earance at top of slab may be reduced to I": In the footings o~ abutments and

ining wa_lls' and in pie,rlj' tlle minimum covering shall be 3 inches. In wack

-t'_",··--·· .

, ed to the action of sea water the minimum .cO-'\iie'ring shall be '4 inches

epr, in precas t concrete' pUes, where d minimum 'of 3 thches'may be used. For

rrups in T-beams, th'e minimum cover shall be 1% Lnches , '

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Splicing

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Tensile reinforcement a'hall no t be spliced at points of maximum stress. reinforcement is spliced. the spliced b~r& shall lap suffiCiently to

lop the full' strength in bond.

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End Anchorages and Nooks

End snch'orage may be an ext ens ion of the bar-, eiither straight, bent A properly dimensioned hook i~:(a) one in which the bar ~s bent

8 cam.pletescmi"circular turn wi th a rnd ius of bend on the axf s of the bar not less th~n three b~r diameters, plus an extension ~t the free end of least four bat" diameters, (h) a 900 bend having a radius of not Le s s than diameters plus an extension of twe1v~,bar diameter~.

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Ho'oks havf ng l3 radius of bend of more than six bar d t ame t e r s shall be de red as extensions to the, bars. Hooks shall not be considered eff.ective adding to the compressive resistance of bars .. Any mechanical device capable deve lop i ng the strength <if the bar wi thou t damage to the "concre'te may be

'.~lied in 1 ieu of hooks or extensions.

I

I

Extension of Reinforcement

! /

I

(1) To provide for contingencies arising from unanticipated

d Ls t r Ibutr Ion of loads, yielding of suppoz t s , shifting of points of inflection, or otQ_er lack of agreement wit.h assumed condLt Lons governing the design of elsstic structure. the reinforcement shall

I

6-4

"

__ r~._ ..

I I

I

I,

I

I

I -I

1-

I

I

I

1

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

,-, j. ,-

be ~xtended at the 8upports and at other points betw~en as indicated in (2) to (S) below. These paragraphs relate to ordinary anchorage and are the J!1inimu~ requf rement s under which ,- . norma] working stresses for bond or shear are permitted.

(2) Negat"-fve tensUe reinforcement. at the supported end of a ~ _~f1,~lR

restrained or. cantilever beam or member of • rigid frame shall 'b~:}' extended Lnoe-: through the auppo r t Lng member in such a manner

develop the maximllm tension - in the bar with a bond s tress not "-'

exceed ing t.he norma 1 . work ing stress p rpvided in Art ide 5.2. .•

..

, ,

0) I'etween the supports of continuous or simple beams~ etiery . reinforcement - bar shal I be, extended at leas l 25 diameters but not Ie than 1/20 of the fipan l.engt h , heyond the point at: which c;omput.ations'· indicate it' 1;; no longer needed' to resist stress.A '\_'-lyp.-' h('o(',l;; sha l

hie, (01)S idp.rt-'d t-.q-.,a ttl' 16; and an I', type hook e qua't t c 8". ."

(4) In si~ple beams dnd freely supported ends of continuous '

beams, at least 1/3 of the pos LtLve r e In+or cement shall ext end be rhe face of the .upports a distance sufficient t6 4evelop % the . -

"t

allowable stress in the bars. -'1;1

>;.

(5) 10 restraitled' or eont.Lnuous vbu arns at hast}. of the positlve

reinforcement shall extend be,yond t h e lace o f r h e support'S and the' re.maind('r 1 red ted as prodded i,n en.

, ,

-.1

(6) Dowels and bars carrying little or no theorc~ical stress

should be embedded at Lcaat t'enbar d d ame ters from the cons t ruc t ion'

joint. ,~~~~I-

(F) Maximum Sizes

The maximum size of bar reinforcement sha Ll be l,?;' inc-he.s in diameter, unless the par-t Lcu l zu- cond i t lons wnrranl the ad op r Lon of special

't'l'inforcem('nt design. ._ _ __ , -. ~_~~ .. __ ".

When B t r uc tura 1 s tee 1 shapes are- used for T(' in f orcemen t, me-chan leal' -_' ,

bond shou l d be provided which will effectively. bond the memher to the ' ':

surroundIng,concrete mass.

(G) Pos i"t (on. of Negat i ve Momen t Re in t'o r ceme nr in r .. Hearns

When the floor'shb's or f l ange of a continuous or cantilevered T-beam'is placed af t ee the concrete in the s rem has taken its set, at

least. 10 per cent of ,the negative moment: reinforcing steel shall he ,

placed in the beam stem in order to pr even t cr-acks from fa l.sewcr-k settlement··,. or deflection. This 'reinforcing steel shall. extend, a dis·tauce of one-fourth.the span length aach s ide of the intermediate. supports of cont.fnaous spans. :' one-fifth the span length from the re&trained ends of continuous spans, and enti·re length of cantllevet spans .. I.n li~u of the above- requIrement two number'

6-5

. .

~··,~~.~~~ .. ~~a~;"

I

I,' ,'1'

;0 • I

-,

~' .,

8 bar~ full length' of the, girders may be used_

',. '~1 ~ .

Refnforcement of _Beam Sides I,

,1---

The depth of the haam between the main reinforcement end the flange --top reinforcement shall be reinforced with ho r I aont a l, bars 'in both ' prevent temperature- and shrinkage ctacks. The t:otnl area-of steel face shall not be less than ~ sq, in. per foot of height of - rhe

, ~rced beam side • The spacing of bars £'l1a11 not exceed 2 fe~t.

".,

COMPRESSIO:l REXNFOR'CEMENT IN BEAM~

reinforcement in girders and beams sh~iI'be ~ecured ties or stir~ups adequately anchored i~ theconcrete~ not; more than 16 bar d Lame ters apar r., Where compression

cem£nt is uaed, ~.t1:ec,tivenc-s's i~~ resisting bending may toe taken ic(; the t'alue Lnd Lca ted from the calc,ulations assuming a st.raight-line Ion bct~eeo-str~ss and ~~rain and the modular relati~~ of stress in

("0 fit ress 1.0 concre.rc given in Art:icle 6.1(4). Fowtver. in 110 c a s e

a- sr.r e s s in comp r e s s Lon reint:orcemcnt graater than16,,DOO pound a per inch be a Ll owed ,

WEE: RElrrrORCF.MFNT

, Ce ne r a I

When the allowable unit shearing str~sA' for concrete is exceeded, reinforceme,nt shall be pr ovi ded iJy one of r he r;ollowing me.rhods :

(1) LongLr.ud Ina l bars be:nt lip ir. se r Lcs or ill single p l ano ,

(2} \'l'rtic.;11 s t Lr.rups .

(3) r.ombhlation-of I';emt.-up bars B'1.d ver tLca l s t Lr r ups ,

;

Uhen any of the ahove, met'bods 01_ r,cin forcement a r e used. the concret e

be aS51,lmccl r o carry ex t e r ua I v('CL iCell fohcar 1I0t: to e xc end .02/. ,,' rcube

. c .

th) or . 03 (f~), (cyUnd(er's t.r eng th ) \"'1a~illlum 90 pound s p er squar e inch),

shear being carried by the \"et. r-e Info rcement ,

The wcbs of T .. beams and box g t rde r s Sh.l11 be .rein[orced \.,iuh s tLr r qps ctl~es.

Calculation of Shear and Bond

Diagonal tenSion, shear, and bond in reinforced Cdncre~e-be~mg shall calculated by the fol1owi~g Eormu l as :

.

- ---- ~ - '._"_-_'r' ""r-":"_""-- .,....

-:- ~ ~

A = total area of web reinforcement in tension withIn 8- distaii,ce- "a" v

~ ", --.~ ' .. -:' ;,-,0( 'T

, ,

.; .:~~ ·'_'~~f,!,:,:" ~L -.. -,},-~._-,~ - ::~:. r !

.~:~ "_:

h ... • ..

,...~ - " .

I

b ...

d '"
"
fv ==
j =
s = u =
v =
Vi ;:; 'FORNUlAS :

v

," (measured in a direction parallel to that of the

! "

: main reinforcement), or the total of all bars bent

up in anyone plane.

..~. .

wid th of beam.

effective depth, or depth from compression surface of beam to centroid of tensidn reinforcement.

tensile unit stress in web reinforcement.

ratio of lever arm of resisting couple to depth "dll•

spacing of web reinforcement bars, measured at the neutral axis in a direction parallel to that of the mdin menr,

bonJ stress per unit area of 'the 'surface of the ba r ,

shearing unit stress

'external shear on any section after deducting shear carried by concrete.

sum of perimeters of bars

angle'between web bars and axis of beam

Shearing unit stress, as a measure of diagonal tension

Stress in vertical web reinforcement

Vi S

f v

=

-: jd

When a series ·of web bars of bent-up Lcng t r ud Lna I b a r s are used. reinforcement shall be" designed by the foTfo\;/ing f~rmula:

fv jd ( s i.n<;( + case()

When the web reinforcement consists of bars bent up in a single plane so as to reinforce all sections of the beam whi~h require reinforce-" ment, the bent-up bars shall be designed by the fol~owing formula:

"_, .. _ :.

! .

"0 P' _:"::. ,',:.>'

"_ ' •• _, o_

, .'1 -:"~J .. ~~~.f;~~;:,.l~~!rf-.f·~~·~ . -

VI

A

f sinaC v

111e' bond be tween concrete and r e inforcing computed by the follow.ing formula:

V

;:; ,---

jd ~.o

bars in beams and slabs

u

I

r ----

J

approxima te resul ts II j" in the above formulas may be taken as

Bond -sh a 11 be similarly computed on compressive re inforcement, but used in computing the bond shall be reduced in the ratio of the iveforce assumed in the bars to the total compressive force at the Anchorage shall be provided by'embedment past the ,section to

the assumed compressive force.

Bars

bars used as web reinforcement may be bent at any angle

and 45 degree£ with the longitudinal reinfoicem~nt. The radius shall not be less than 4 diameter~ of the bar.

The spacing of bent~up bars shall be measurtd at the neutr~l axis

the direction of thp longitudinal axis of the beam. This sracing shall ced three-·fourths the effective depth of the beam. The first b a r

e support shall croSs the mid-depth of the beam at a distance from the ,f the sui)port, measured parallel to the longitudinal axis of tb e beam, ter than one-half the effective depth.

Vertical stirrups

Hhcrc stirrups are required to carry shear, the mnximum spncing of

'cal stirrups shall be limited to ~ the depth of the bcam, and ~lerc not red to carry shear, the maximum spacing SFwl1 be '1 Im i t ed to J/4 the depth , beam .. The first stirrup shall be placed at the dJstance from the face support not greater than one-fourth of the effective depth of the

Anchorage

(l) The stress in a ·stirrup or other web reinforcement shall. not ·the capacity of its anchorage in the upper or lower cine-half of the tive depth of the beam.

. (2),- Web reinforcement which is provided by bending into an

ined pos Lt Lon onc or more bars of the main tensile reinforcement where not ired for resistance to positive or negative bending, may be considered etely anchored by.continui~y with the main t~nsile reinforcement, or by .

6-8

) il.~~.;\.~~ :"':';~ .. T;:;~- .-:; ·':'-''';r~:;'i£:i;:;r.,

(3) Stirrups sha 11 be anchored at both ends by one of t.he

following methods or by combination thereof:

·embedment of the requisite length in the upper or lower half of the provided at least one half of such embedment is as close to the upper

or lower surface of the beam as the requirements of fire and rust protect allow. A hook placed close to the upper or lower surface of the beam may be Buhstituted for a portion of such embedment.

..

(a) Rigid attachment, as by welding, to the main longitudinal reinforcement.

(b) Eending round and closely in contact with a bar of ~he longitudinal reinforcement, in the form of a II-stirrup or hook.

(c) A hook placed as close to the upper or lower surface of the beam as- the requirements of fire and rust protection will allow. ' In estimating the capacity of this anchorage the stress developed by bond be twee n midheight of the beam and the centre of bending of t.he hook may, b.1? _C!..dg~_9: __ t:.Q_t;Q~_. __ .. ~".., capac i ty 0 f the hook-:-" --

(d) An adequate length of embedment in the upper or lower one-" half o( the effective depth of the beam, whether straight ~r bent. Anchorage of this type alone should not be reliea on for stirrups in cases whe r e the shearing s tress in the 'ff;';,~!I!:i."l~~ web exc.e eds that reconunendcd for beams wi thout end of the reinforcement.

(See Article 5.2)

6.8- COLUMNS

(A) General

Other provisions of Section 6, Concrete nesign, shall apply in the design of columns unless specially modified hy this article.

In the design of columns the unsupported l~ngth shall be defined clear distance between struts, cross beams, footings or other types of restraint to lateral movement. Where a' braciug member has haunches at junction to a column, the uns~pported column lenith shall be mea.ured from the junction of the haunch with the column provided that. the face of the

.h aunch makes an angle with the face of the column of at least 45. degrE>es.Strut

or cross beams joining columns at angles greater than 30 degrees fro~ the '

plane of symme t.r y of· the column shall not be considered as adequate support.

6-9

. ... ,

. ~: ',: :' .. ,~;\~~':.~i:~ \~~i.~.:~~::

• :-:f! . ',,'

. ,:. :;, : .. :;,~:.~~~JIL,~; t'.~;i;';:.:~;~~~~fi~,; ,;,)~.~i~L~/~~ .. ;-~ ~/,.:::I,~. -"i'i'~~'E~=~~~

later's"l dimension of a co·lumn shall be taken as: (1) for rectangular· the over-sll thickness 410ng a pr~ncipal axis; (2) for apirally columns, the overall diameter incluning the encasement of the

(3) for "T"··shaped columns, the width or depth of rhe T.

a column which, for architectural or other reasons, has a larger tion than required by the load carried. the minimum amount of 10ngiteel hereinafter specified may be reduced provided that in no case longitudinal steel he used than that required by the mf.n Lmum

igncd with one per cent of longitudinal ~teel.

notations used in this article are as follows:

: over-all or gross cross-sectional ar~a of spirally reinforced or tied pier. ped~stal or column in square inch~s.

,

: cross-sectional area of core of spirally reinforced columns measured to the outside diameter of th~ spiral, square inches.

= cross-sectional are. of longitudinal steel

Ao + (rr-L) As
<>
fa
= or
0.30 f'C $. effective area of column

fa

factor used in the design. of members subject to combined axial and bending

stresses

d Le a s t lateral dimension of column, inches

c ('ccentricity of rC'spltant lOCld 011 a column, ml"!asured from a gravity axis.

f'c = crushing strength·of 6" cubes i1t age of 28 days, psi

(flc)= crushing strength of 6"xl211 cylinders at age of 28 days, psi.

fa =

0.175 f~* + fs P

for spiral columns nnd

1 + (n+L) p

80% of that amount for

or

** 0.225(f'c) + fs . P

1 + (n-L) p

tied columns.

fe

maximum allowable compressive stress in members subjected to combined axial and bending stress, psi.

nominal working stress in longitudinal reinforcing steel (see Article 5.3)

fs

c

6-10

cube strength cylinder strength

t 2

f's ~ yield stress of spiral reinforcement (for steel grades not having a-definite yield ~oint) dIe stress causing a 0.2 per cent plastic set). psi

a- factor used in the design of members subje.cted to·combined axial and bending stress.·

L
n =
Pe . :;:
Pp
Ps ::
PsI ::
Pt ::
Ptl ""
p ""
p' ==
r ::
t :: _unsupport.ed le.ngth o.f column, inches.

ratio of mo~ulus of elasticity of steel to that of concrete. a load eccentrically applied .

total load on pier or pedestal. pounds

total load ~n spirally reinforced column, pounds total load on spir~lly reinfor~ed long column, pounds

total loarl on tied colu~n. pounds -~

to tal load ,., on t i ('d long co I Limn. pound s

ratio of longitudinal steel area to gross column area _

ratio area of spiral r~_infQxcement to c.or.e._a.rea_,, . . __ .e;

radius of gyration of secr.ion (r rans Eor med section) in the direction of eccentricity or bending.

over-~ll.dcpth of column in the direction of eccencricity or bending

Piers and Pedestals

.. ,

The ratio of the unsupported length of unre i nfor'ced concrete piers pedes ta Is to the i r I cas t dimens ion sh a 11 no t exc eed 3. 111 c t ota 1 load on any unreinforced concrete pier or pedestal shall n~t exceed that given by the following formula:

,-

Pp "" 0.20 Ag f'c*
or 0 .. 25 Ag (fIC)** (e) Spirally Reinforced Columns

(1) Longitudinal Reinforcement

Longitudinal reinforcement shall be placpd within the area cont af ned by the spiral reinforcement. 11H~ r at I o be twe en the area of longitudinal reinforcem<2nt and the gross a~e-a of the column, including the encasement outside the spiral r~inforcement. shall be not less than 0.01 nor more than 0.08. There shall be a minimum of six longitudinal bars evenly spaced ·around:the periphery of tile co Lumn core. The clear s pac i ng b e twe-e n i nd i v id ua I bo r s or pa i r s

of bars a t lapped splices sha 11 be not less than l!:l inches or l~ times the maximum size of the coarse aggregate used, subject to the further requirement that the centre-to-centre spacing shall be not less than 21.i times the diameter of bnrs. The'diamcter of bars shall b~ not less than five-eighths inch. For columns with a

6-11

'* 6" cube strength

** 6" cylinder s t.r eng th . _'.,>,!..-:!;.~

.... "' .. ~.:'~:":'4;:.~~-k~,:~);,:,;~':~~:~;:~:~~0~~~~~.L:;;;:: s: ·.;.;~,)k-··""·~:R-+-·;, r;,!.~~~~~

~' ~,

circular spirally reinforced core having excessive size or oth~r utside shapes, the gross area to be used in determining percentage

~O 1

of reinforcement sha I be a circle with a diameter equal to the

lnimum core required for structural design plus the specified tside cover.

Spiral Reinforcement

Spiral reinforcement shall consist of unifor~ spirals held

in position by attachment to the l~ngitudinal reinforcem~nt. iral reinforcement rna, be plain or deformed reinforcing hars or

Id draw~ wire. Splie~s in spiral hars Rhould be avoided if

actical and, if n~cuRsary, .shall he made hy welding or hy lap of

Thp. pitch of spirals shall not exceed 1/6' of the core lameter. The clear d Ls t ance hetween individual t urns of the spiral shall not exceed 3 inches or he les~ than 1-3/8 inches or l~ times

lb~ maximum size aggr egn t e used , Sp t r a I r e Ln Fo r c emon t shall ex t erid from the footing or other support to the level of the lowest horizontal reinforcement of members supported by the column.

The ratio of the volume of spiral reinforcement to the

of core of Lhc column, out to out of spirnls, shall be not less

*
(2 -1 ) f'e
p' 0.35
Ac f's (2)
*,,:
( A? -1 ). (fl c)
or 0.45
Ac f's The yield strength for design a s sump t i.ori , f I s aha l l not be taken higher than 60,000 p.s.i.

(3) Allowable Load . Short Columns

The provision of this subarticle shall apply only to columns having ratios of uusup por t od height to least lateral dimension of not more than 10. The total axial land on a column shall not oxcaod that,given by the following formilla.

*
p = 0.175 fie Ag +As fs -_.
s **
or 0.225 (f'c) Ag + As fs
(4) Long Columns (3)

The- total axial, load on a column having a ratio of unsupported height to least lateral dimension greater than l O', :but not greaterthan

6"eube 8 trength

6" cylinder 8ti~ng:i:.h

.-,~ .

~ .' -: : ~ -~ ... ,(~."

-. ,', _+ '_' .. -

• f ... ~. _ __ ~ ''''.~.~)' ...

,

20, shall be not greater than given by the following formula:

p = P (1.3-0,03I./d)

51 5

(4)

If Lid ratio of columns exceeds 20, the column shall be investigated for elastic stability.

Tied Columns

(1)

Longitudinal Reinforcement

i •

The longitudinal reinforcement shall: cons i s c of at.

least four bars, and when only four ha r s a r e used, they shall he placed at the corners- of the s€ction. Harsl shall ~~ place~ at each intersection of column faces. The ~ars shall he not l~ss than ii?eeighths inch in d i ame t e r . The ratio of the co t a I c r o s s e se.c r Lona I area of the bars to the total cros::l-sectional area of thf' colum{l shall be not InSR th~n 0.01 nor more than 0.04 .

. (2) Hoops arid La t e r a I Ti es

Hoops sh a 11 sur r ound th t;' long i tud I na 1 rc in f o r cernsnt., Th ey shall be- not Le s s th au oHP-fourth Inch in diameter and sh a l I he spacer! nor more t h an 12 i nch e s apar t CXC0pt:' r h.ir: rh Ls spacing may be increased in the cnse of pLer shafts or columns havi~g a larger cro~5 St!C t i.on than rcq u I r cd hy c and i r. t.ons 0 f' load ing. A!1eq u-i t.e <lUX i 1·1 ar y . ties shal l be p'r o v Lde d r o suppo r r i~H('r'll'?diace' Long i t ud i na I har s

wh o s e distance from any tied bar excef'od" 2 f~<:t,

(3)

Allow:lb Le Load

Short Columns

Tbe p r ov i s I ons 01 this subarticl., sb a 11 app l v o n l.y to columns having r a r.Lo s of un suppor r.cd h':'ighc to least 1at:E'T.11 d Lme n s t o n of Clot more than 10. Th e t ota l ax La I l oad on :J. c o l umu shall he not.

g r e a rc r th<ln 0.8 of thaI: gi\:f!n hy equation J, wh i c h r es u l r s 111

'k
P = 0.8 (0. 175 f' A + As is)
t . C g (5)
or 0 •. 8 (0.225 I _, ) ';~"k Ag + A" f s)
•. 1 c .
(4) Long Columns The total axial load on a column h av Lng a ratio of unsupported height. to l~ast lateral dimension greater tharl 10 but not greater than 20 shall he not greater than g i ven by t h e following formula

-- .( 6) - .- .--- --- ,- -- - ... _ .. _ ._-

6-13

6" b h

cu e strengt

6" Cylinder strength

, ... :

.' ,:; .-: •• ;<'1""

I

.

.i "

"'. :,

A. r e i nfor ced conc r e te column wh ic,r, Ta-""sym:ne t. r i Cd 1 abou"E -~ r:wo";jiJTu.~l (~~----"~,diculsr plan&s through it~ axis _and w~ich j~ ~uhjected ~o an axial Po", (. ornb tr-ed with bend ing in one orro t:h 0'; thE. planes of - sym.1\e t ry . r-e nes,igrl,l;'J on the hd<'ls o'f uncr acked s.e c t rons pr ovf'de d the r e rLc of tricit;y 1:0 depth e/t, is, not gre<lter rh an 0.5 iv -cirr,er p l ane , !h.:! ~:iilF.r s t r e s s 11:' c ornp r e a s Lon i., gi~;·p>:! t-y th", i.o l Iowi i-g r'o rrnu l a :

If the LId ratio exceeds 20, the column shall be Lnve st tg at.cd for elastic stability"

Bending Moments in Columns

Whe:') heams or slab s are coune c t.e d t;o co Lumna , the momen 1:" Lnduc e d

co Lumus f-y such be ams or s lar. £, -5f~i:lli bE- p r cv i.de d for rn the (,0 lump.

Comb Lried A->:ial and Jiendiog f'r:ress

1(",:,.
( I + ;
f' ) ';,
"e t
1:e '" P)
Ag I +·{n-l)p 'l'hf' c o Lurnn metj he (h:signed for <1., equh"-llt:>nt axial' load P5 or I't a s

r.he following form!lla:.

l:'

r::~e )

t

Th ... maximum sl l.owab Le c orup r e s s Lve s r r e s s in the c or.c r e t e , fE'. in subjected to combined axial and hending str~ss dS descrihed nlove t ha t g i.ve n by the following f'o'rmul a t

K.(:

1 +--

(

t )

K~e . 1 + G

Ie

f a

t

In th e ca se of sq uar e or r ec tangu 1 ar col umns sub j ec ted to bend ing in planes of symmetry the column-shall be de5igned on the basis of uncracked tions quly when the sum of the elt ratios about both axis does not exceed In this c as e f o rrnu l as (7), (8) and (9) may be used by substituting for the sum of the Kelt ratios in both planes of bending.

In forrnu las (7), (8) and (9) for an a pp r ox i rna te or trial design K may taken as 8 for a circular spiral column and as 5 for a rectangular, tied

6-14

A me t hod of d€!termiuing th"', 10~iiti l)~' a.l,d d i r ec r Lou of 1·!1p neutr~l axis is 8G follo~s:

or spiral column. The assumed value of K shall be checked for the ddopted section.

Reinforced concrete columnsJ in which the ell: ratio is

greAter than 0.5 in the Case of hending in one plane or ilL which the sum of the ~/t ratios is greater than 0.5 in the c as e of banding i.n bo th pl,liIcS of symmetry, sha11.be designed on the basis of t h e r= cog nt a e d

rhe o ry for cracked 8(H~tions, hn s cd on the a s s umpr.Lon that no t.ens Lon

i.o; r e s i s t e d !-Iy the c oncr e t e , :

In such cas es the modular _r:ttio, n, for ttH' compr e s s rve reinforct:!mcnt may hE:: as sumed HS rw l ce r he va l ue g i.ve,n in Ar r.r c Le 5-2(A};

hmv • evc r , the stress in th a comp r e s n Lve 'r e t n Eor c ement, whep ca l r u l a te d 0,1 f_hi.:. b s s I s , shn Ll not: he grc.-tt: .... r than rio .. •. a Ll owab l o "tress in t.en s i ou .

Whl-'TI t.h e p Lmc o f p~nui!:g d o e s r.o r lie 0:-\ p r I nc Ipat i\xi" o-. IJ,t;! c o l umn s e-ctLo u or wr.e., t h e point: of app l r c e r.t o i: ot rhf:'.rlO".:..ulr:il:'t Io ad doe s not itf. witt-in tho:! kerr: a r e.i 0: ~h ... ~ro,-;.: l.rd:·I.;!orrnd.i ;-'··CC·Hl'l; r he. po s Lt ion <1:1() d t r c c t Lon of the ne ut r .. s.l n x i s 'T!Hy h~ d e t crru l nc-d by t he fo110w1'"1S formula:

r ~~ . MI!, } . ......
+ Xo±--- . , ::: 0
_0
A I' I'
x y A '" t.r a ns f'o rrned area of cracked so c r Lon in s q ua r e t nch e s

M' Hx .. ~~ty;: M H'y r~_- Ixy Hx
::: - -
X Y
Iy Ix
)2 ' ?
(I X (Ix,}) -
I' Ix y I'y Iy- _. -
x Iy Ix ~ c Moment of external forces about Y axis MY '" Moment of external forces l1bout X axis

X Y '" coo rd Lna t e referred- to axes passing through the o a centroid of the section.

~I,: ~ t . i~' ." • ~ •

Ix c moment of inertia about the Y axis

Iy = moment of inertia about the X axis Ixy'" Product of inertia about axis, X and Y

In solving th~ above formula it is necessary to assume a value for either Xo or Yo"

FOR STRESSES

With the position and .direction the neutral ax I s de t e rmt ne d , the unit stress in the concrete shall be computed with the formula,

M' MI
Y x
f 0; Yn' or f -- Xii in wh ieh
I' I'
Y x ~n ::;

distance from the neutral axis to the extremp fiber in compression measured parallel to the Y axis.

X n

distaqcc from the UGutral axis to the extreme fiher -in ~ompres8~oa measured parallel to the X axis.

'£hl:: Lf mf t Lr.g steel ra t t o of 0.04 prodded in Ar t i c l e 6.8{T!} (1)

. may he increa&ed to 0.08 iei tied columns de~igned to wit~stand ~om~in~d

ax In l upd bc-ud Lug o;tr(>5SCS p r o v i.d ad t.h a t: d-,e amo un t of steel s p Lf c ad by tripping in arry 3 font length of column sh a l I not: oxcr-ed a .:>t:C'cl r a t.i o of O.ot.. Till' s i z e or. ch e column Sh.1U_ b o no i: less t.h a n th~t r-cq u i r e d by axf n l alone.

6,9- CONCRFTE ARCHF.S

(A) Shape of Arch Rings

Ar~h rings shall he selecterl as tq shapR in ~uch manner that the axiR of th~ ring ~hall conform, as nearly a~ pra~ticahI2, to eictler th~ eqUilIbrium polygon for full de ad load or to the cqu I 1 ihrillm polygon for full dt~[td p l us cne=ha Lf live load over the full span, \.,rhichE\\·er p r oduc e s tfie-~·tn-al'1:"C:SL-··'·-----":-· - ben..Jing stre.:;ses under comhined loads.

(B) Spa~drel Walls

:' When the spandrel walls or filled spand r e I a r ch as exceed 8 feet in height above the extrados they shall be designed as vertical slabs s uppo r t ed by transverse diaphragm walls or deep counterforts. Vertical cantilever walls over 8 feet in height4 or counter forts having a back slope of less than 45 degrees with the vertical, shall not be used, on account of the

6-16

. I

I· "_"

'-_:.'

I ' ..... _- :~

(c)

.' .

Expan~ion Joints

. excessive and indeterminate stresses set up in the arch ring by torsion.

Vertical expansion joints sha11 be placed in the spandrel .walls of arches to provide for movement: due (:0 tempe.rature change and arch deflect:ion. These joints shall he p Laced at the ends of spans and at

I nt e rmed Lar;e po t nt s , genera lly· not more than 50 ff' .• e t, ap a r r ,

(n). Rc Lnf'o r ceme nt;

Arch ribs in reinforced concrete c ons t.ruc t i on sh311 be reinforced with a compl~te double l1rie of longitudinal reinforcement con~isting of an: in~rad08al system and an extradosal syacem connect€d by a series of ~tirrUp6 or tie rods.

}'or barr!': 1 arches J a s ys t e-rn of t r ansve r s e r e inforceml=.:nt:, tho'roughly ancho r ed to the longit.udinal reiniorcem.L1Ilt., s h a L], be used in both int.rados and extrados. 'I'he t r an s vc r s e r e i 11 [orcem~nt· "hd 11 be p r opo r t: i011.;;.d r.o res is t the bending s tr'e s s due to any ova r r.u r n i ug ac i: . .iOll of the s p and r e l wa l l .

For rib arches, .hoop s or tie bar s s ha Tl l.e used ill c onnccr t on with the Long Lr.ud Lna I rib r e Lufo rc-erm nr: J d" i'1 r·h(:., c..i:1.,(." o f r e r n fo r c ad concr e t e column:>.

(E) W~t~rproofing

Pr e f'o r ab Ly , the top of r he a r.ch ring -md f he Irrr o r-Lo r f'a c o s of the s p and r e I walls 0 full (111L'd sp and r cI a r chr s sh a l I h c watcrprooJ'ec toli th a mcmhran~ waterproofing.

(F) Drainag~ of Spandrel Yill

')11(' filh, of filled s pa nd r e I a r ch e s s h n l I hf._ e Lf e c ti vr-Ly d r a I r.ed

by a SY!'iI.Em of the I:iledrai.n~ or Fr e-nch drail.:,.; 1:1 id along i.he i nr e r sec t ton of the s pa nd r e I walls and arch r i ngs ""Tid oiischnrgiI,g t.h r cugh su Lr.ab Le ourl e t s in the piers and ahur.men t s . l.'hc l oc n t.Lo n and d er a i l of r h e- d r a Lnage outlets shall he such as to e I i mt na t e , a s far a<; po ss Lb l e , t".he d r s c o l o r o t i o n bv drainage water of the cipo~cd ma&onary facas.

6.10-

VIADUCT BENTS AND TOWER,;

When concrete columns ar e used in viaduct c on s t r uc r i on , bents and towers shall be e f Eec t Lve Iy braced by me an s of longitudinal and transverse strdts. For height greater than 40 feer, both longitudinal and transverse cross or diagonal bracing, p r e f'cr ab Iy , s h a Lk ne us ad , and the f co ti.ng s :for the columns, forming n single bent, shall be thoroughly tied together.

6-17

.... -: ... ~. - "

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=.;.'i_:H; ...... ..,

-...... .. ,'';. "'

BOX GIRDERS

Effective r.ompression Flange Width

In girder and flange construction, consisting of a girder stem with and bottom slab, effective and adequate bond and shear re::;istancC! shall

ovid8d at t he junction of _1;h0 girder and slab. '1'11e slab m-3.Y t-b€n be

ide red an integral part of the girder, but its efCec:tive width -'13 a flange shall not: exceed the follmving:

(1) One fourth of the span length of the ~irder

(2) The distance centre to c en t r e of girder

(3) Twelve'times the least thickness of the slab plus t.he

width of the girder stem _-.- --. . .- ---.--- .. ------.-------

For girder~ having flanges on o~e side only, ~he effecti~c ov~rflange width shall nor.v excced the !ollowing:

(1) One twelfth of the span length of the girdei

(2) One-half the cl~ar-distanc~ to the next girder

(3) Six times the least thickness of the slabw

Flange Thickness

; ... - ..

(1)

Top Flange

The minimum flange thickness shall be 1/16 the clear distance between girders, or 6 inches, whichever is g r-aa to r ,'

(2) Bottom Flange

The minimum th ickness of the bot tom f l ange sb a 11 be de t:ermined by maximum allowable unit stresses a; specified in (C) and (D) but in np case shall be less than 1/16 of the clear span ~etween girders or

5\ inches, whichever is the greater. Adequate fillets shall be provided at the intersectio~ of all surfaces within the cell of a box girder.

Flexure

(1) Parallel to Girder

The compressive unit stress in extreme fiber of concrete in both girder stem and flange shall not exceed that given in Article 5.2(B)

.. " /

,! .

6·,18

(2) . 'Norma 1 'to Girder

. i

The compressive' unit stress in·f'.xtreme. fiber of concrete' in the girder flange shall not exceed that given in Article S.2(B).

(D) ~hear

The flange shall not be considered as effective in computing the shear arid diagonal t.cn s Lon r e s is r anc e of girder s t erns , exc ep t in the

de r e rmt na t Lor. of the value of j.

The horizontal ah .. arlng unit s t.r e-s s at. rhe jllnction of the flange. and the mopolithic tillet joiniqg it to th~ gird~r ~t~m shall not exce~d that given in Article 5.2(B). sh e.a r=-b e ams w i.r.h w('to reinforcement.

r.hauges in girder st~ffi thickness Rhall be L'lpt::red tor a minimum d Ls t anc e, of 12 c Ime s tbe differpnc~ i n s rem t.b i ckne s s .

(E) Re.inforcemP.nt.

The unit s t.r e s s In sLN-.l tor toot},. girder stem and ila!lgE:" shall not: e"cC-f!d r nat; gi v en i n Article 5 • .3.

(F) FLange Re t n i'or'c eme nt;

(1)

Parallel to Girder

~ -. ' ..

Mi~imum reinforc~mcnt of 0.6 r~r r~nt of the flange section. cur In no c a s e l cs s 1.11<1'1 r eq u i r c-d by "rf'icle 3.2(F: shall t-e place-d

ill f.ot!. t.op and b o t t om (-!.11Ig~'~', d i s t r ] i>lltl'd OVI~r 1'0111 s ur Fa ce s ..

Wl,llrE ne co s s.rr y , D s i ng l e Lave r of t':lr~ lila:; be c c nr r e d {('I t:ht: b o r+

slab. "fIFtr s p ac inp. .c;h:111 nor ~'xc",::d 18 i nr l: ":'!.

(2) No rrna I: to CirJ<;>r

Minimum rei n fo rc ern=rrr of 0.5 p er c e nr 0 f r l.e fLarige- s e c+Lon shall bt" p l ace d in r b c- :;1,11>, di s r r l b u t.i-rl over both -r u r fac e s, Sal" sp ac i ng shnll")ot C:hcC'''.d 18 'ir.chei-. 7IH~;e i-a r s shill 1 b c hen! up int.o th e Exterior g i r d e r "tern <'It l.e a s t 10 bar d iume t.i- r s .

&f"!inforcement in the. top flang.:- in a d Lr e c rLo r. t r ans ve r se co the g t rde r a shall e x t e nd r o thn e.x t e r Lo r fa.::f'. of .,11 outside g I r de r s , and a minimum of 1/3 of such r e i n Fo r c e num r; s h a Ll, f.. 1 r h c r he anch or e d with 900 he ncl s or <'xtt""qdf'd b e yo nd the girder f..lc€' ~~ suffi.cic'!t distance to develop the s r r e ng t.h of the bu r in bond provided t he fLar-ge projects beyond the girder f ac e a sufficient d i s r an c.e to provide this ~ond le'1gth_

(G) Diaphragms

Diaphragms or spreaders sh~_!.1. be placed between t:.~_e_g!~de_rs

----,;_-- .. --- -r ~'

. .;

... _ .....

not to exceed 40 feet.

Flanges Supporting Pipes and Conduits,

Flanges supporting both vehicle live load and pipes or conduits shall designed-using unit stresses set forth in Article 5.2 and 5.3.

Flanges supporting only dead load of structure and pipes or conduits 11 be designed in th~ direction normal to the girder using unit stresses exceed~ng 75 per cent of those set forth in Article 5.2 and 5.3.

Position of Negative Moment Reinforcement.

~len the floor slab of a box girder is placed after the web walls

ave t:ilkEm their set, at least 10 per cent of the negative moment r('.jnforc-

llg steel shall be placed in the web \l1a11s-;-- TIre reinforcing·-sn.F."I-'Sn~tl"---e nd a distance of one-fourth the span length each side of the

d La t e supports of conrLnuous spans, one-fifth the span length from the restrained ends 'of continuous Sp;1nS, and tho? entire length 0'£ C.1:-!.tilever spans. In lieu of the above r equ i r eme nt two numb e r 8 bars full length of the webs may be us~d.

Reinforcement of Web Wall Sides

The web wBlls between the top and bottom slabs shall have reillf~rcing placed horizontally in both faces to prevent tempcr~ture and shrinkage cracks. The total area of steel shall not be less than 1/8 sq. in. per root of height of the unreinforced' web walls. The spac'Lng of .bar s shall not exceed 2 feet.

",

I

I

,'. .'!_ '. ~:'1 { .... ~.

6-20 '.: ';

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