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Future War Stories


ABlogDevotedtoExploringandExplainingtheWorldofMilitaryScienceFiction.

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16August2013 TERRA

FWSTopics:PoweredArmor

"Deployed"byDerekRestivo

"TheSunhitlow,andcastafearsomeblazinggleamuponthearmorofmyenemy,andI
witnessedthebloodofmyfriendssplatteredcrosstheironplates.Therewasnotfleshofman
exposedinthearmorofmyfoe,whostoodaloneinthefieldoffallenwarriors.AsIdrewmy
sword,andplacedmyhelmetuponmycrown,Irushedtodecoratemyarmorwithhisred
essence."

Armorofalltypesandmaterialshasbeingwornincombatsincenearlythedawnoforganized
warfare.FromtheRomans,totheGreeks,tothearmiesofAlexanderoftheGreat,allthewaytothe
KnightsofEuropeandtheSamurai,allofthesewarriorsdonnedarmorofvariousdesigns.That FWSisNowonFacebook!
changedwhenthegungaineddominanceovertheswordinthe17th/18thcenturies,andarmored
platescouldnotbeforgethickenoughtocounterthebullet.Today,oursoldiersareprotectedfrom
thetraumaofthebulletbyceramicplatesandtightwovenfibers.Whileeffective,itonlyprotectsa
smallportionofthesoldiers'body.Sciencefictionhasimaginedthatfuturesoldierswillbeprotected
fromthehorrorsoffutureweaponsviafullbodyarmorthatalsoincreasesthesoldier'sendurance
andstrength.Thisidea,transformedintooneofthemosticonicelementsofbattlefieldtechnologyin
militarysciencefiction,thepoweredarmorsuit,allowingonesoldiertobecomemany.Afterthe
ideaofthethisfuturisticarmorwasestablishedbyE.E.DocSmithandRobertHeinlein,Japanese
Anime/MangaalongwithAmericanvideogames/comicbookswouldjumpontheconceptand
expandingitthatcontinuestothisday.Inmyownlife,thepoweredarmorseemstohavealways
beenthere,andbecameakeyelementinmyfirstMSFnovelEndangeredSpecies.Theconceptthat
waslaiddowninthe1930's,isstillgoingstrongwiththecurrentreleaseofElysiumthatfeatures
poweredexoarmor.
BTW,Ithinkthereisarathergooddrinkinggameburiedinthetexthere.Drinkeverytimeyouread
FWSisNowonTWITTER!
thewords:StarshipTroopers,RobertHeinlein.orE.E.DocSmith.

Whatis"PoweredArmor"?
Whatseparatesthepoweredcombatexoskeletonsofsciencefictionfromtheclassicprotectivesuits
oftheKnightsofEuropeandtheSamurai?Armoredpowersuitspreformthesameprimaryfunction
asthatancientarmor:protection.However,withtheuseofelectricitytounitizemicromotors,
computers,advancedmaterialscienceforgeonearmoredsoldierintomany,empoweringthebasic
footsoldierintoamachineofbattle.Notonlyisthewearerbetterprotectedfromincomingfire,but,
poweredarmorusesmicromotors,hydraulics,artificialmuscletissue,andcomputerizedcontrolsto
amplifystrength,jumping(evenflightinsome
cases),endurance,visionviasensorsofthe
operatoralongwithinformationalsystems,and
onboardcommunications.Astoform,the
majorityofpoweredarmorissimilartobipedal
anatomytoallowforlogical/intuitiveoperation
forthewearer.Whilecombatisthemostlogical
functionofarmoredpowersuits,theycouldbe
usedforspaceexploration,hospitals,
construction,cargohaulingontheUSSSulaco,
andrescueservices.

SomeTerminology
FWSisAtomicRocketsApproved!

Sincepoweredarmorisextremelypopularinsciencefiction,andeveryauthor/creator(included
me)wantstodifferentiatetheirideaofpoweredarmorfromotherworkscontainthesesupersuits,
theyconjureupotherterms.Inordertomoreclear,theblogpostwillgenerallyrefertoeither
poweredarmororarmoredpowersuit(APS).Hereisalistofothertermsusedinsciencefiction:

PoweredExoskeleton

ManAmplifier

SpaceArmor(earlyterm)

AmplifierExoskeleton
DerekRestivoFreelanceIllustrator
Exoframe
FWSFriend,DerekRestivoopenedhis
Hardskin ownfreelanceillustrationbusinessand
Icanpersonalattesttohismadskill
Hardsuit andprofessionalism.Needanartist?
HirethisMan!
Battlesuit htt://derekrestivo.com/

BattleArmor

PowerSuits RestinPeace,BenjaminCurtis

ArmoredPowerSuit(APS)

PoweredArmor

CombatExoSkeleton

NanoMuscleSuit

HazardSuit

ResourceIntegrationGear
FWSMasterBlogpostIndex
Landmate

PersonalTank Topics
*PoweredArmor
ExoskeletonArmor *SpaceMarines
*ExoskeletonSuits
HazardEnviormentalSuit(HEV) *FemaleSoldiers
*Dropships
PowerArmor *TheTank
*CaselessAmmunition
PoweredArmorSuit *FasterThanLightPropulsion
*SubLightPropulsion
Jacket(fromAllYouNeedIsKill) *MECHA
*BytheNumbers:thesize,
EFrame organization,andlogistics
*SuperSoldiers
ArmoredFightingSuit *TheH&KXM8andScienceFiction
*TIEROneSpecialOperationsUnits
WarSuit *TheFutureofBullets
*TheLightMilitaryUtilityVehicle
*WhyAliensWannaKickOurAss!
CombatSkin *10Thingsthatdidn'thappen
*MyFavoriteBMovie:
SkinSuit SLIPSTREAM(1989)
*DisconnectedbyService:TheLife
EnhancedCombatsuits oftheFutureSoldier
*TheFutureTechnologyofBLACK
heavypoweredcombatarmor(fromStringsonaShadowPuppet)
OPS:II
*FreeForever(LibreAJamais
AcceleratorSuit GraphicNovel
*SpacePirates
HeavyMetalWarrior *TheGrandfatherofTITANFALL
*TheSciFiMythsofSpaceTravel
ManAmplifier *TensYearsLater:ALookBackat
theBSGMiniseries
MiniMech *ProTecHelmetsandSpecialForces
*TheOsirisChronicles
TheClassificationsandSizeofPoweredArmor *WhyIdidnotbuyALIENS:
Giventhepopularityofpoweredarmor ColonialMarines
*FranchiLF57intheMartian
thesedaysacrossalltypesofmedia,there Chronicle
arethousandsofexamples.Frommyyears *GamesWorkshoptrademarks
"SpaceMarine"
ofresearch(i.e.,beingageek),Ihave *AntiqueMallFind!
dividedupthevariousformsofPowered *FutureTechnologiesthatwillNOT
Armorintothreetypes:CLASSI/II/III.All Exist
*SpecialForcesPartI
ofthesefitwithintheumbrathatis *SpecialForcesPartII
poweredarmor.Note,thatthereisa *SpecialForcesPartIII
divisionbetweenmechaandpowered *SpecialForcesPartIV
*COD:AdvancedWarfare3D
armor.Ithinkofmechahasmoreakinto PrinterRifle
theroboticvehiclesseeninBattletech, *TheTop10MythsofMilitary
Gundum,andROBOTECH.Theseare SciFi
*TheVideoGamesofALIENS
morelikewalkingtanksthatareoperated *WhatisGoingOnwiththe
accordingly,withcontrolssimilartoatank FOREVERWARMovie?!
orcombataircraft.Poweredarmorismore *WhyCan'tPeopleAcceptWe
WenttotheMoon?!
personalandintimate,andmostly *AnOdetotheBookstore
controlledviathenaturalappendagesof *WeaponofChoice
theoperator'sbody.ThinkoftheAMPsuit *12GreatestSciFiWarStories
*TroopTransports
fromAVATAR,wherethepilotusedtheir *SizeMatters...Whenitcomesto
legstomovethesuit,andtheirownhands Starships!
andarmstomanipulatethearmsandhandsoftheAMPsuit.Sizealsoisafactorinbreakingupthe *WillWeEverLeaveEarth?
*SpaceCombatWeaponry
threeclassesofpoweredarmor,separatingthemfrommecha.Mostarmoredpowersuitsarecloseto *TheFour"Fs"ofCombat
sizetoanaveragehuman,whilemechaisofthegiantrobotcategory.Somefictionalmilitary *PoweredArmorSoldiersvs.Bug
Aliens
organizationsmakeuseofalltypesofpoweredarmoralongwithmecha.Thiscanbeenseenin
*TheVoicesofaDistantStarAnime
theImperiumofManfromWH40K.Theyfieldnormalinfantry(theImperialGuard),CLASS1 *NuclearWeaponsinSpace
APS(theSpaceMarines),CLASS2APS(TacticalDreadnoughtTerminatorArmor),CLASS3 *HardorSoftScienceFiction?
*FutureWeaponsandFutureGun
(Dreadnoughts),andmecha(Titans).So,hereisthefulldescriptionsandexamplesofthethree ControlLaws
classificationsofpoweredarmor. *TheBrokenElementsofMilitary
SciFi
*SelfGuidedBullets
*TemporalWarfare
TheCLASSONE *CombinedArms
*Dude,Where'sMyBlaster?!
TheCLASS1poweredarmoristhewearableversion
*CombatMartialArts
andmorecloselyrelatedinaspiritualsensetothe *TheHistoryofSpaceWarfare
historicalarmoroftheKnightsofEuropeandthe *TheFutureofArmoredVehicles
*DARPA'sGXV:thefutureofthe
Samurai.UnliketheothertwoclassesofAPS, tank?
CLASS1ismoreintimateandthenormalbiological *MyDefinitionofWAR
inputsfromthewearer'sextremitiesdictatethe *BladeRunnerBlasterStories
*OrbitalBombardment
actionsofthearmor.Thistypeofpoweredarmor *Patrolling
allowsforamplificationoftheoperator'sstrength, *Mercenaries,PMCs,andsecurity
Contractors
survivability,enduranceoverconventionalinfantry.
*TacticalTransports
Thesecanbecompletelyenclosed,likeIronManor *APCsandIFVs
moreofaframework,likeinElysium.Giventhatthis *MildlyMilitary
*TacticsofSpaceCombat
classificationofbattlesuitisbasedonthenormal *SpaceFoodandMilitaryField
rangeoftheoperators,thesizeofthesuitcanbe Rations
variableaswell.Withgeneticallymodifiedsuper *MilitarySpaceStations
*MedalofHonor(2010)
soldiersofWarhammer40KandBattletech,thesize Retrospective
ofsuitincreasedwiththenincreasedsizeofthe *Gunships,AttackHelicopters,
Tiltrotorgunships
operator,makingthemclosertoCLASS2insize
*CloseQuartersWarfare
ratherthanthetypicalCLASS1.Whencomparing *ScienceFictionMartialArts
thistypeofmoreintimatefuturecombatarmortoan *StormtroopersandShocktroopers
*MilitaryRobotsandRobotic
automobile,thelittletwoseater"roadster"type Soldiers
vehiclesliketheepicMazdaMiata,theMiniCooperS,theoldMGroadsters,andtheholyPorsche *MilitaryHelmets
550racerfromthe1950'scometomind. *WhatWilltheNextMSFFranchise
be?
*WhattheHellHappenedto
Examples: HALO?
*Artillery
TheChozoPowerSuitfromtheMetroiduniverse *SpaceParatroopersandDroppods
*NuclearWeaponandWarPt.1
*NuclearWeaponsandWarPt.2
TheElementAPSfrom
Battletech ForgottenClassics
*SPACE:AboveandBeyond(1995
TheMjolnirarmorfrom 96)
HALO *Xenophobe(1987)
*TheLastStarfighter(1984)
*EnemyMine(1985)
IronMan...'nuffsaid
*Aliensvs.PredatorDarkHorse
Comics(1990)
TheAcceleratorSuits *TheNOWComicsTERMINATOR:
fromG.I.Joe:TheRiseof theBurningEarth
COBRA *DarkHorseALIENSComicsSeries
1and2('88'90)
*ROBOTECH
ThePoweredArmorfrom
*ComicoSTARBLAZERSSeries
theStarshipTrooper (1987)
universe *ALIENLEGION
*DYNAMOJOE(1987)
Thepoweredarmor *BattleEngineAquila
*TheForeverWarGraphicNovels
fromArmor (13)
*RAINBOWSIX(1998)
ForeverWarfightingsuits *HEARTBREAKERSComic
*StarWars:RepublicCommando
TheTerranMarinesfrom (2005)
Starcraft *OUTLAND(1981)

TheIndex
TheExoSuitsfromElysium
*LiveActionMilitarySciFi
TheMarinearmorfromWarhammer40K ForgottenWeapons
*SR47AssaultRifle
ThehardsuitsfromBubbleCrisis2032 *STG44AssaultRifle
*TheIsraeliGALILAssaultRifle
ThemarinefightingcombatspacesuitsoftheShrapnelcomics
MovieReviews
PowerArmorfromtheFalloutseries *TheEdgeofTomorrow(2014)
*HunterPrey(2010)
BioBoosterArmorfromBioBoosterArmorGuyver *LoneSurvivor(2014)
*SpecialForces(2011)
SkinSuitsfromFallenDragonbyPeterF.Hamiliton *Gravity(2013)
*Ender'sGame(2013)
TheXENONProjectfromXenon:theHeavyMetalWarrior *ZeroDarkThirty(2013)
*TheObjective(2008)
NanoSuitfromCrysisvideogameseries *Battle:LosAngeles(2011)
*HALO:Legends(2011)
*StarshipTroopersIII:Marauder
TheNAVSPECWARS.W.O.R.D.armoredsuitsfromtheanimeOVAVexille (2008)
*StarshipTroopersII:Heroofthe
Thefightingsuitor"Jackets"fromthebookandfilmAllYouNeedisKill Federation(2004)
*Soldier(1998)
TheCLASSTWO *Prometheus(2012)
Sandwichedbetweenthebody *Virtuality(2009)
*StarshipTroopers(1997)
huggingCLASS1andthe *SpaceBattleshipYamato(2010)
mechasizedCLASS3,isthe *PacificRim(2010)
"littlebigman"ofthepowered *Interstellar(2014)
*StarWarsVII:TheForceAwakens
armorworld,theCLASS2.This *13Hours:TheSecretSoldiersof
bridgestheworldofthemecha Benghazi
*ROGUEONE(2016)
andtheworldofthetraditional
IronMantypebattlesuit,andas
benefitsofboth.Typically,the TVReview
*TerraNova(2011)
CLASS2hasmoreofacockpit *Ascension(2014)
design,butstillhasthe *HistoryChannel'sSIX(2017)
operator'sextremityinputsto
BookReviews
dictatetothesuit'sactions.With *TheFIVEEpisodeI:Salvation
theincreaseofthesuit,thereis Curse
*StringsOnAShadowPuppetby
greateramplification,largerpowersupply,andcomplexity.SeveralCLASS2suitshavebeenseen
T.L.Evans
inbigbudgetliveactionfilms,likeAVATAR,twooftheMatrixfilms, *AllYouNeedIsKillbyHiroshi
ALIENS,andDistinct9.WhencomparingtheCLASS2armortoanautomobiletypethancompact Sakurazaka
*SEALS:TheUSNavy'sElite
fourdoorsedansvehiclesliketheBMW3series,ToyotaCorolla,theVolkswagenJettaoreventhe FightingForce
compactSUVs. *KillBinLadenbyDaltonFury
*ARMORbyJohnSteakey
*TheChimeraVectorbyNathanM.
Examples: Farrugia
*OldMan'sWarbyJohnScalzi
TheAMPsuitfromAvatar *EnginesofExtinctionbyChris
Martin
TheAPUfromMartixReloadedandRevolutions *EnduringArmageddonbyBrian
Parker
TheTacticalDreadnoughtArmorfromWarhammer40K *TheLastHerobyNathanielDanes
*SalvageMarinesbySeanMichael
TheMaraderarmorfromStarshipTroopers3 Argo
ComicReviews
TheFujiacomoGhostin
*GearSchoolVolumeOne
theShellManga *TheForeverWarGraphicNovel
VolumeOne
TheTachikomafrom *WorldWarRobotGraphicNovel
GhostintheShell:Stand *UniversalWarOne
*Shrapnel:Vol.IandVol.II
AloneComplex *Drafted:TheEssentialEdition
*RUBICON
ThePrawnPowered
ArmorfromDistict9 VideoGameReviews
*HALO4
ThePowerLoaderfrom *MedalofHonor:Warfighter
*HALOCombatEvolved
ALIENS Anniversary
*MedalofHonor(2010)
TheIronMongerfrom
IronMan(2008)
TheArmory
*CombatShotguns
*AssaultRifles
TheCLASSTHREE *TheCarbine
*CommandoCarbines
*TheSubmachineGun
Oneofthemostraretypesof *PersonalDefenseWeapons
poweredarmorseenscience *TheBattleRifleandtheDMR
*BullpupAssaultRifles
fictionistheCLASS3.Whileit *RotaryCannonsandMiniguns
issimilartothebipedmecha *LightMachineGuns
*Laser:theKillerLight
thatlitterAnimeandManga,the
*TheRailGun
CLASS3differsinthemanner *ParticleBeamWeapons
ofcontrol,notsize.Mostgiant *PlasmaWeaponry
*CombatPistols
robotcombatvehicles,likein *WhatGunKilledOsamaBin
Gundumarejustthat,vehicles. Laden?
Thesearepilotedbyuseof *GaussGun
*TheReturnoftheRevolver!
complexcontrols(thinkSteel *TheReturnoftheBullet!
BattalionfortheXbox),and *TheSniperRifle
*RPGs/GrenadeLaunchers/Rocket
thereisadisconnectbetween
Launchers
manandmachine.TheCLASS *TheMagazinebyYoel
3poweredarmorisaboutthe *BeltFedbyYoel
*FlamethrowersbyYoel
samescaleasthosewalking *UnderwaterFirearmsbyYoel
tanks,butiscontrolledviatheactionsandimpulsesofthepilotmusclesandbrain.Thisallowfor *FirearmsasMeleeWeaponsbyYoel
theCLASS3poweredarmortobefasterandmoreresponsivethantheclassicmecha.Oneofthe *SilencedWeaponsbyYoel
*ModularFirearms
bestexamplesistheBiorodisfromtheROBOTECH:theMasters.IfIwastocomparetheCLASS3 *RocketGunsbyYoel
APStoanautomobilethatIwouldchosethecurrenttrendofthefourdoor"coupes".Thesesleek
MilitarySciFiOddities
carsthatarebothroomy,butresponsiveandfeelmorelikeasportscarthanasalooncar.Some
*TheRevellROBOTECHDefenders
examplesarelikethesexyasfuckPorschePanameraTurbo,theFiskerKarma,theMaserati *STARCOM:TheUSSpaceForce
QuattroporteGTS,thenewBMWM6GranCoupe,andtheAstonMartinRapideS. *CaptainPowerandtheSoldiersof
theFuture
*Operation:ALIENS(1992)
Examples *TheBattletechAnimatedSeries
(1994)
TheJagersfromPacificRim *SeaQuestDSVandSeaQuest:2032
*The1983ForeverWarTheater
TheMasters'BioroidsfromROBOTECH Adaptation

TheInvidWarriorsfromROBOTECH BrokenPromises
*TheDUNEMovies
*The1999WingCommanderMovies
TheMechafromBrainPowered
*TheHALOMovie
*StarshipTroopers
TheEVAMechafromNeonGenesisEvangelion *TheTERMINATORSequels
*TheROBOTECHSequels
TheTracermechafromVoicesfromaDistantStar *TheALIENSSequels

TheGunbustermechfromGunbuster TheFWSTop10
*MyFavoriteAnime
TheImperialDreadnoughtfromWarhammer40k *MyFavortiePoweredArmor
*MyFavoriteBMovies
*SpaceFighters
*SuperSoldiers
*Starships
*LadiesofScienceFiction
*FuturisticVehicles
*SciFiFilms
*WarMovies
*Authors
*TheMostImportantWarFilms
*TheMissedOpportunitiesofMSF
*MilitaryNovels
*VideoGames
*TheMostInterestingWarsinSciFi
NegativesofPoweredArmor
*TheCriticalElementsof"Good"
MilitarySciFi
*TheMostIconicMSFTechnologies
AdditionalComplexity
FlashFictionSerials
GreaterInfieldRepair/Maintenance CUSTOM
*Part11:DeadMan'sTrigger
IncreasedTraining *Part10:HoldOut
*Part9:MadMinute
Terrainhazards *Part8:Overran
*Part7:DartsDownRange
HigherCost *Part6:Triage
*Part5:TimeontheLine
IncreasedFuel/EnergyNeeds *Part4:REM
*Part3:FOB
GreaterinfrastructureNeeds *Part2:"OnYourFeet!"
*Part1:I,Custom
TargetfortheEnemy
HALOFrontlines
*InCaseofGalacticEmergency:
"GodMode"behavior
BreakGlassforSPARTAN
*Part5:DeliverHope
*Part4:P.O.W
*Part3:BioFoam
PositivesofPoweredArmor *Part2:Guilt
*Part1:DarkMirror
IncreasedFirepowercapability
EmptyPlaces
*Part8:CrossingtheRubicon
IncreasedsurvivabilityfortheSoldier *Part9:NoChoice
*Part7:BlackandTan
Increasedendurance *Part6:CASEVAC
*Part5:TheWoods
Increasedstrenght *Part4:TheMeatgrinder
*Part3:"TheCourage
Allweathercapability *Part2:VolunteeringforSuicide
*Part1:TheOffWorlders
Lesssoldiersneededforoperations
TheMasterworksTheBestofMSF
Lessheavysupportneeded *ALIENS
*TheForeverWar
Eliminationofbulkymachines
ShipsoftheLine
*OverviewofSciFiStarshipClasses
NBC/HostileEnvironmental
*TheDreadnought
Protection *TheSpaceCarrier
*BattleshipsandBattlecruisers
Sensors *HeavyCruisers
*LightandMediumCruisers
Cangowheretankscannot *MissileCruisers
*Destroyers
Psychologicaleffect *Frigates

Defensivesystems MilitarySciFiToys
*MatchboxROBOTECHToyline
*HasbroGIJoeStarBrigadeToyline
*LJN1984DUNEToyline
TheHistoryofPoweredArmorinScienceFiction *TheTYCOBattleTechToyline
Talestoldaroundcampfires *TheHasbroAIRRAIDERSToyline
aboutmagicalarmorthatgrants WhatWeWillFightOver
thewearergreaterfighting *TheRobotApocalypse
abilitiessinceancienttimes. *ClimateChange
*PoliticsandReligion
TakethearmorofAchilles *Spacersvs.Terrans
fashionedbytheGodof *HabitablePlanets
*MARS
Blacksmithing,Hephaestusfor
*Asteroids
examplealongthearmorof *InnerColoniesvs.OuterColonies
Beowulfaresuchexamples.
TheWeaponsofSciFi
Thisdesireseemsintrinsicto *TheALIENLaserPistol
humanbehaviorasitcontinues *TheM41A1PulseRifle
tothisverydaywithworkslike *CODBlackOps:IIPeacekeeper
*TheEM33fromStarTrek:
IronManandHALO.These Enterprise
mythicalarmorpiecesallowed *TheBLADERUNNERPKDPistol
*TheMORITARiflefromStarship
thewarriortoamplifytheirstrengthandbraveryonthebattlefield,forginglegends,anditispossible
Troopers
viatechnologythatthisdesirecouldcometofruition. *TheLightsaberfromStarWars
Thisideaofpowerdrivenarmoredsuitswasanaturefitforsciencefiction,andwasfirstexploredin *ThePhaserfromStarTrek
the1930'sbysciencefictionvisionaryandpioneerE.E.DocSmith.Itislikelythat1937'sGalactic OurEnemies
Patrolisthefirstuseofspacepoweredarmor.Throughouthisfoundingspaceoperastoriesofthe *SpaceTigers
braveLensman,theseintergalacticwarriorsthatusephysicpowersalsowalkedaroundinsometype *TheGreyAliens
*Reptilians
ofpoweredarmor.Inthetextofthenovels,thepoweredarmorisoftencalled"lightspacearmor" *Insectiods
composedof"dureum".ThisallowedKimballKinnisonin1947'sChildrenoftheLens,tosurvive
FutureMilitaryProfiles
massiveamountsofincomingenemyfire,andthisspacearmorcouldnotbewornbyanormalman.
*ImperialKnights(WH40K)
WhilethespacearmoroftheLensmanserieswasnotstrictly"poweredarmor"bymoremodern *STARFLEET(STARTREK)
examples,butgiventhematerialitwascomposedof,itisagivenalongwithabilitiesmentioned. *ImperialMilitary(STARWARS)
Withthe Rants
*WhatIHatedaboutTheForce
widespread Awakens
popularityof *MilitarySFandCOD:IW
theE.E.Doc
TheHistoryofMilitary
Smithnovels, ScienceFiction
futuristicfull *COMINGSOON!*
bodycombat
armorentered
the RandomSciFiGoddess

imaginationsof
thereaders.
Anotherearly
taleofpowered
armorcomes
forthemore
pulpsideof
scifi:The
SpiderandSatan'sMurderMachinespublishedin
December1939.Thisfeaturedanevilgangthatdons
"roboticarmor",andtheheroofthesepulpnovelswas
Katniss
"theSpider",aplayboymillionairethatremindsmeofLamontCranstonfromTheShadowand
Batman'sBruceWayne,useshisownrobotsuittofighttheevildoers.JustbeforeFWSpublished
thisblogpost,longtimereaderChristopherPhoenix,mentionedthatJamesBlishCitiesinFlight
INCOMING!
novelsfromthe1950'sfeaturedtheuseofpolicepowerdrivenspacearmor.Frommyresearch,the
spacearmorappearedinthesenovelsasearlyas1957!
Topics:NuclearWeaponsand
Whilethefirstexampleof
War(3parts)
poweredarmorcouldbe
debated,theappearancethat TheMasterworksofMSF:
Comics
definedandcodifiedthetheory
ofpoweredsuitswasRobert Topics:CyberneticandBio
Heinlein's1959militaryscience AugmentedSoldiers

fictionstoryStarshipTroopers. Topics:CyberWarfare
Thisnovelhassincebecomethe
Top10:CancelledSciFiTV
touchstoneformilitaryscience
Series
fictionandpoweredarmor.With
thistypeofpopularity,including ShipsoftheLine:Escorts,
Cutters,PatrolVessels,Scouts
winningabestnovelHugo
awardin1960,Starship Topics:MyHistorywith
Troopersinfluencedgenerations MilitarySF
ofcreatorstoimaginetheirown BrokenPromises:TheStar
versionoftheMobileInfantry WarsPrequels
powersuits.SomebelievethattheM.I.armorinfluencedthedevelopmentoftheJapanese
Topics:SpaceFighter
Anime/MangastapleofMecha.Thisappearanceoffictionalpoweredarmorthatcouldsealasoldier ClassificationsSeriesPreview
awayfromalienenvironmentswasalsobeingexploredbyConstantinPaulLentinhis1956design
forahardshellspacesuitthatwaspatented,butneverledtoanything.
Shortlyafterthe
MobileInfantry
bughuntscametwo
iconiccomicbook RandomMSFImage

charactersthatwere
bornverymuch
moral,butusedtheir
mindsandtechnology
toforgetheirplacein
theworldof
superheroes:Doctor DUNE2000
DoomandIronMan.
Itmaycomeasa
surprisethatthefirst RandomSPACEImages
MarvelComics
charactertodon
poweredarmorwas
notTonyStarkin1963,butVictorVonDoominFantasticFour#5inJulyof1962.IronMan'sfirst
appearancewasinTalesofSuspense#39inMarchof1963.DoctorDoomwasdevelopedbyStan
LeeandJackKirbyasa"supervillain"whotookhisimagefromthecommonWesternidealsabout
thepersonificationsoftheGrimReaperandDeath,alongwiththeinhuman,unmerciful,natureof
steelbodyarmor.Justayearlater,StanLee,LarryLiber,andothersatMarvelwouldcreateanother
characterwrappedinarmor...thistimeitwasamoralmanhero(ofsorts)thatusedhissuperior
intelligencetofoilhisVietnamesecaptorsbycreatedthefirstIronMansuit.AsStanLeetellsit,in
theearly1960's,theyoungreadersofcomicshatedwar,andStanLeegavethemageniusweapons
markerinTonyStarkpatternedsomewhatonHowardHughes.Thistwocharacters,onegood,one
evil,showingustheusesandoriginsofpoweredarmor,alongwiththeeffectofusingthisarmor.
Despitetheirdevelopmentinthe1960's,bothIronManandDoctorDoomarestillactiveinthe
worldofcomics,andhaveexpandedintotheworldoffilm.Thesetwocharactersareinsomeways
theyinandyangofpoweredarmor.WithIronManandDoctorDoompopularitycoupledwithan Anyoneoutthere?
societywideinterestedinsciencedidwascreateconditionsfortheriseofcreatorsusingpowered
armorintheirworks.
BlogArchive
In1967,apoweredexoskeleton
basedontheCornellMan 2017(6)
AmplifierandtheGEHardiman 2016(50)
wasseeninthespycomedyfilm
2015(59)
TheAmbushers.Whilethe
moviewasathrowaway 2014(70)

attemptingtocashinonthe 2013(92)
JamesBondcrazy,itdidfeature December(8)
poweredexoskeletonsthatwere November(4)
designedforliftingwork,not
October(7)
combat.Thisrealisticandnon
combatroleforpowered September(5)
exoskeletonswasalsoseeninthe1968yellowexoskeletontoyfromtheMajorMattMasontoyline August(3)
byMattel.The"supernautpowerlimbs"toywaspackagedwiththeconceptofitbeingusedbythe FWSTopics:Weaponof
astronautstoexploreouterspacewhilehelpingwiththeirworkwiththe"spacestilts".Another Choice
similartoyfortheMajorMattMasontoylinewasreleasedin1969,calledthe"spacepowersuit FWSTopics:Powered
pak".Thisfeaturedaremotecontrolnonelectricsqueezablesystemtoallowthechildtousethe Armor
"powerhammer"and"powerclaw".Onceagainthiswasaimedatspaceexplorationandnotspace FWSNewsFeed:Where
basedwarfare. theFrakIsMy
PoweredArmore...
Between19711973,the
Marvelcomicswould July(9)
featuredseveralpower June(9)
armorwearingcharacters.In
May(8)
1971,wewitnessthe
emergenceofthe April(9)
"Mandroid"designedby March(12)
StarkIndustriesforuseby February(11)
S.H.I.E.L.Dandthe
January(7)
"SovietSuperTroopers"
outfittedinweaponized 2012(93)
mechanicalsuitsthatwould 2011(80)
combattheHulk.Thiswould
2010(39)
establishedatrendofthe
IncredibleHulkfacingoff
withpoweredarmorfoes.
SearchThisBlog
Militarysciencefiction
wouldseeanotherfoundingclassicbepublishedin1974withJoeHaldman'sTheForeverWar. Search
Whenhumanfirstencountershostilealiens,theUnitedNationsbeginstrainingsoldierswithIQ's
over150fortheExpeditionaryForcethatwillengagetheTauranforcesfarfromTerraviauseof
Collapsars.SoldierslikePotterandMandellaareissued"fightingsuits"andchemicallasersto Followers
combattheirevilalienfoe.Thesefightingsuitswereahybridofthecombatspacesuitandthe
poweredarmor.Again,likeStarshipTroopers,theForeverWarwouldbecomeahighlysuccessful Followers(142)Next

scifinovels,winningthemajorawardsforsciencefictionliteratureandfurthersolidifytheconcept
ofpoweredarmorwithinfuturewarfaretales.
OccurringataroundthesametimeasthepublishingofTheForeverWar,wastheemergenceof
militaryscifiwargamesinthemid1970's.GameslikeStarguard!InterstellarInfantry2550AD,
SPI'sStarSoldier:TacticalWarfareinthe25thCentury,andAvalonHill'sStarshipTroopersall
featuredsoldiersinpoweredarmorwagingwaronexoplanets.Thiswasanimportantstepin
introducingfreshlegionstotheconceptofpoweredarmorinuseinmilitaryscifi.Whilethe
Americanswereexploringtheconceptofpoweredarmorviacomics,books,andwargames,the
Japanesewerenoticablyquiet.Thatwouldchangein1979withthecomingofMobileSuit
Gundamandtheintroductionoffuturisticmilitarymechatotheworldofmangaandanime.
Follow
AboutMe

William
Williamexplorestheworld
ofMilitarySciFivia
JapaneseAnime/Manga,
offbeatAmericancomics,
SciFiTVshows(thatmostlyfailed),
mainstreammovies,violentvideo
Games,andMSFbooks.Military,
history,andscifihavebeenpassionsof
hisforentirelifeanditmadesensefor
himtopollutetheinternetwithhis
thoughtsandpoorlyeditedEnglish
skills.BornintheDeepSouth,Raised
inOklahoma,MarriedinTexas,and
liveswithhisWifeof15years,a
Daughter,andatortoiseshellCatin
Dallas.MyXboxLiveGamerTagis:
PackyCSONE
Viewmycompleteprofile
This
concept
would MyDESTINYFaction:FutureWar
catchfire Cult
likea
tossed
cigarettein
adry
national
park.
Mechaof
allshapes
andsizes
wouldpopulateanimeandmanga,andbeglobalexportedto
hungrylittleviewerslikemyselfinthedawnofthe1980's.While
Mechaisaboarddefinitionforadvanceroboticmachines,
poweredarmoroftengetslumpedintothemix,andwiththe
successofMobileSuitGundam,camepoweredarmorintomangaandanime.Withworkslike
GenesisClimberMOSPEADAwiththeircyclones,theZentradipowersuitsfromSuperDimension
FortressMacross,andvariouspoweredarmorwarmachineinMa.KZBV3000andArmored
TrooperVOTOMS.ThisstormofAnimeandMagnaworksfeaturingpoweredarmorwouldalsobe TheGodofWar
supportedbyastrongwargamecultureinNorthAmericawithgameslikeOGRE/GEV,Traveller,
ArmoredAssault,DragonstarRisingthatwereallsupportedwiththeexplosionofcomic/hobby
stores.
Icanstillremembergoing
intomyfavoritecomic
storesinTulsa,and
witnessingwallsof
futuristicwarmachine
modelsandboxedgames
thatIcouldn'tafford.
Behindcloseddoorsin
thesecomic/hobbystores
whereearlytabletopwar
simulationswerebeing
waged.InDecember
1984,anotherclassicof
militarysciencefiction
wasreleasedandbuilton
thetrendofpowered
armoredsoldiercombatingsentientinsectaliensonother
planets.WrittenbyfellowTexanJohnSteakley,whoIactuallymetatascificonventionin2004,
AromorwasadirectresponsetoHeinlein's1959classic.SteakleystatedthatArmorwasbornoutof
lackofcombatinthenovel,andmorefocusedonthestruggleofsoldiersininhumancombat.This
wouldbeanotherfoundingliteraryclassicofmilitarysciencefiction.Sadly,asequelwasinthe
workswhenMr.Steakleypassedawayrecently.
19861987wouldprovetobeapivotalyearsinpoweredarmorhistory.1986wouldseeJames
Cameron'smagnumopusALIENSdisplayingarareliveactionexampleofpoweredarmorinthe
powerloadercreatedoneofthebestambassadorsforinclusionofpoweredexoskeletonsintofuture
sciencefictionworks.In1987,
theharbingerofpoweredarmor
beingastapleofvideogames
arrivewithSamusAran
in1987'sMetroid.Thegenreof
wargamingwouldbeforever
alteredbythecreationofGames
WorkshopsWarhammer
40,000alsoin1987.Thisone
workwouldspawngenerations
offansandadmirers,whowould
useWarhammer40Khas
inspirationalfortheirown
poweredarmor.WhileStarshipTroopersmayhavespreadthegospelofpoweredarmorinmilitary
scifi,Warhammer40kinvadedtheworldofsciencefictionandconvertedmillionstothecauseat
thebarrelofaboltgun.PoweredarmorinsciencefictionwouldberadicallydifferentifGames
Workshopshadneverdeveloped40K.Itwasalsoduring1987,thatoneofmyfavoriteanimeseries,
BubblegumCrisiswasreleased,andproudlydisplayedfemalecombatantsintheirpowered
hardsuits.
Itwasalsoduring
thesebanneryears,
thatFirstComics
wouldpublish
DynamoJoe,an
Americanfarfuture
warstoryfeaturingall
sizesofmechaand
poweredarmor
influencedbyAnime
andManga.Thiswas
theseriesthat
introducedmetothe
term"armoredpower
suit"inissuenumber
seven.From1988to
1990,powered
armoredinsciencefictionwouldseeaboostwiththeJapaneseOVAbasedonStarship
Troopersreleasedin1988alongwithmodelsoftheirinterruptionofthepowersuit.Thiswas
coupledwithMetalSkinPanicMADOX01andtheOVAofMasamuneShirow'sAppleseedmanga
seriesthathadbeenexploringtheurbanwarfareaspectofpoweredarmorsince1986.
Anotherambassador
productofpoweredarmor
was40kuniverse.This
wasjustanotherdelivery
methodforGames
Workshoptopedaltheir
warcracktoyoung
minds,hookingthemfor
lifetothenippleofGWS,
anditwasamightcool
gamethatIsawmany
timesaroundthecomic
shop,andplayedafew
times.
thesimplifiedboardgame
from1989thatpitted
SpaceMarineTerminators
againstmonstrousGenestealerssetinthe
Bythedawnofthe1990's,thepowerofhomevideo
gameconsolesandPCs,allowingforpowered
armortobefeaturedinmainstreamgames.Theiconicpowerhouseofmechacombatgames,
Battletech,forgedtheirownbattlesuit,theElementalswiththe1990TechnicalReadout:3050.This
allowedforpoweredarmortobeusedinoneofthelargestwargamingproducts,andwaslater
filtereddownintofutureBattletechproducts.Theearly1990'swouldseevideogamescarrythe
mantelofMetroidandrunwith:SpaceHulk:VengeanceoftheBloodAngels,XCOM,Crusader:No
Remorse,Dune:II,many,manyothers.Poweredarmorofthelater1990'scouldbebestexemplified
byTribes,Starcraft,HalfLife,andFallout.Poweredarmorwasnotlimitedtovideogames,butalso
wasseeninwesternanimation.TheAmericananimatedTVseriesofBattletech,ExoSquad,and
Roughnecks:StarshipTrooperswouldallfeaturedpoweredarmoronscreenandinspinofftoys.
The1990'swoulddemonstrate
themoveawayfromphysical
wargamesthatusedthe
imaginationandminiaturesfor
theinterconnectedvideogames
thatallowedtheplayertorise
legionsofpoweredarmor
warriorstopunishtheirenemies
with,andthistrendcontinuedin
themillenniumwiththe
explosionincomputergenerated
specialeffectsandpersonal
electronics.Microsoft,who
nearlydominatedthepersonal
computermarket,decidedto
clawoutamarketplacefortheir
newhomegamingsystem,the
Xbox,in2001.Whatsoldmostofustobuytheexpensivebigblackboxwasonegame,andone
gameonly:HALO:CombatEvolved.Foroveradecade,MasterChief,SPARTAN117wouldfound
agamingempirethatexpandedintobooks,TVshows,andtoys,allworth$3billiondollars.The
Chief'spoweredarmorwouldaniconofallpoweredarmor,andstandsasoneofthekeydesigns.
Literaryexamplesofpoweredarmorwouldbeseenin2000'sRevelationSpace,thescoresof
HALOandWarhammer40kbooks,alongwithsomeofTanyaHuff'sbooks.In2007,oneofthe
primeexamplesofnanotechnologybasedpoweredsuitswouldreleasedinCrysis.
Computer
technology
wouldnotonly
allowforthe
MasterChiefto
stormancient
ringshaped
worlds,butalso
formainstream
sciencefiction
filmsto
(finally)include
poweredarmor
thatdidnot
looklike
somethingout
ofRay
Harryhausenfeverdream.2003wouldseetheAPUcombatexoskeletonsinthethirdMatrixfilm,
oneofthefinestexamplesofpoweredarmorinliveactioncinemaatthattime.However,thelevel
wasraisedwiththeliveactionIronManmoviein2008andthesequelsthatfollowed,alongwith
theAMPsuitsfromJamesCameron'sAVATARin2009.Thisoversizedcombatarmorthatwalked
thelinebetweenmechsuitandpoweredarmor,butappearedallbusinesswhentheactionstarted.
2009wasalsotheyearthatNeilBlomkampgiveusethePrawnpoweredarmorinthe
jarringDistrict9andtheacceleratorarmorsuitsfromthefirstliveactionG.I.Joemovie.With
PacificRimandElysiumbothreleasedin2013andEdgeofTomorrowin2014,thetrendofpowered
armorequippedwarriorsappearstobenotslowingdown.Booksfeaturingpoweredarmorarealos
notslowingdown,in2013,BaenBookswouldpublishanentireanthologyofstoriesdevotedto
poweredarmorcalledArmored.Onthehorizonforliveactioncinemapoweredarmoristhereboot
ofStarshipTroopers,moreIronManfilms,apossibleHALOmovie,andthelongdelayedthe
ForeverWar.GamingwillcontinueusingpoweredarmorwiththeupcomingHALO5and
Destiny.AsofthewritingofthisblogpostinAugustof2013,thereseemstobenoslowingdownof
thetrendofincludingpoweredarmorinallmediumofsciencefiction.

RealWorldPoweredArmor
Beforesciencefictionshowedusvisionofsupertroopersdosingoutatomicgrenadesatbugaliens
onotherplanets,theideaofmachinesmakingman'sworkeasierviaenhancingtheworker'sbody
havebeenaroundsince1890andcontinueonwardthroughtoday.Themajorityofrealworld
poweredexoskeletonwerenotdesignedspecificallyforcombatapplications,butmoreforhaving
thestrengthofaWookie.Mostly,poweredexoskeletonarebeingexploredtoreplaceforkliftsvia
slaveandmastersystem,andtotaketheloadoffsoldiers,notdualwieldlightmachinegunsand
jumpingovertallbuildings.Hereisalistofsomeoftheexamplesofrealworldpoweredarmor
suits.

Hardiman(1966)
GeneralElectricinthemid1960's,withfundingforthe
USmilitary,designedasuitofpoweredexoskeletonthat
couldlift1500lbsandbeusedprimarilyonboardaircraft
carrierstoloadordnanceonfighters.However,the
Hardimansuitweightedinat1500lbswith28joints,and
therewereissueswiththepowersupply,butitdidworkas
promised.WhatpreventedtheHardimantobecome
standardnavalequipmentwasthedangeroushabitofthe
jointstobecomeunstableandbehavewithamindoftheir
owntothedegreethatitthreatenedthewearer.Muchof
thephotoswithanoperatorinsidewheredonewiththe
poweroff.GEexploredthepossibilityofasystemthatjust
unitizedthearmsoftheHardimanbutthatendedin1971.

AX5HardShellSpacesuit(1988)
Inthemid1980's,theAMES
researchcenterbeginningwork
onspacesuitthatwouldhavea
metalshellwithmobilityjoints
insteadofthestandardfabric
"softsuit"usedtoday.TheAX5
prototypesachievedaflexibility
ratingof95%,WhywastheAX
5neveronanEVA?Onereason
wasweight,softsuitsweight
lessthanhardsuits.Hardsuits
areunappealingvisualwhen
comparedtothesoftsuit...which
matteredtotheNASAPR
department,andthosejoints
couldlockupinEVA.Ican
rememberNASAfoolingaroundwiththisconcept,anditwasbelievedthatthehardsuitwouldbe
morerigidizedforMartianexploration.
CornellManAmplifier(1961)
Intheearly1960's,CornellAeronauticallabsinBuffalo,
NewYorkworkedonthetheoryanddevelopmentofaman
amplifierexoskeleton...allpriortoIronMan.Theideawasto
usebilateralforcefeedbackwithforcereflectionusing
machinejoints(slave)laiduponbiologicaljoints(master)to
boostthestrenghtofthewear.Itwasbelievedthatthissuit
couldtaketheplaceofbulkyliftingmachinesandallowthe
handicappedtowalk.TheCornellexoskeletononlygotto
themockupstageandelectricjointmotorswerenever
applied.However,theresearchdonebyCornelllabsforthe
ManAmplifierexoskeletondidledtotheGEHardimansuit.

LIFESUIT(1987)
In1986,ArmyRangerMontyReedsufferedabrokenbackduringaparachuteaccident.Duringhis
recovery,hereadStarshipTroopers,andturnedhisenergiestodevelopingapoweredexoskeleton.
By2001,MontyhaddevelopedthefirstgenerationofpneumaticallypoweredLIFESUIT,andthe
systemisinitsfourteenth
generation.Healsoestablisheda
foundationcalledTheyShall
Walkbysellinghisownranchto
starttheworkofusingthe
LIFESUIT,nowcalledthe
RehabSuittohelpphysically
disabledwalk.MontyReedis
developingpowered
exoskeletonsfortheright
reasons,andshouldbe
celebratedforbringhope.

NASAX1LoadBearingExo
Suit(2012)
WhileresearchingthisNASAexoskeleton,Icameacross
anewterm:robonaut.ItseemsthattheX1loadbearing
exosuitbeingdevelopedbyNASAandothercompanies
willbeappliedtomannedandunmannedspacemissions.
This57poundsuitcouldbeusedtopreventmuscleloss
amongastronautsduringlongdurationspacemission.
Anotherapplicationofthetechnologyforfleshyspace
explorerscouldbeoffloadingofcargoduring
expeditionsofMarsandotherworldswithmorenormal
gravitalfieldsandcouldrecycleviasolarpanels.This
woulddecreasetheneedforbulkymachinesandlessen
theriskofinjurytotheastronautmillionsofmilesfrom
home.Fortheroboticspaceexplorers,theX1couldbean
telepresenceinterfaceforabipedspaceprobe.

PowerAssistSuit(1990)

Oneoftheprimaryrealworldapplicationsofpowered
exoskeletonswouldbetoincreasetheoperator'sstrengthtosuper
humanlevels,andallowforliftingtobedoneinaegomaniac
manner.Since1990,severalJapanesefirmsanduniversitieshave
experimentedwiththistypeofpoweredexoskeleton,including
motorbikemanufactureKawasaki.Allseemtoaimedatthesame
market,liftingandpossiblemedicalapplications,especially
importantinJapanwithanagingpopulation.

H.A.LSuit(2002)

ThisisyetanotherJapanesepoweredexoskeletoncalledHALorHybridAssertiveLimb,thatalso
developednotforwarbutforliftingandwalking,alongwithlookingabitlikesuitoutof
TRON.HAL,nowinitsfifthgenerationisbuiltbyCyberdyneofJapanwasoriginaldevelopedfor
medicalapplications,andinMarchof2013,HALsuitswereundertestsintenJapanesehospitals.
TheHALcouldbethefutureofpoweredarmorineverydaylife,beingamedicaldeviceallowing
theliftingofheavypatients,physicaltherapy,andwarehousework.CyberdyneenvisionstheHAL
suitbecomingsimilartothebulkofhospitalequipment,rented,atarateofafewthousanddollarsa
month.
BLEEX(2004)
TheBLEEXortheBerkeley
LowerExtremityExoskeletonSystemwasdevelopedby
BerekeleyUniversity(surprise!)andDARPAfor
militaryapplicationsbeginningintheyear2000.
BLEEXwasonlymountedtothelegsofthesoldierto
preventovertaxingofthesoldierwhilehikingover
roughterrainwhilecarryingheavyloads.In2004,a
workingprototypewastestedfittedtoasmallmotor
thatmadetheBLEEXasstealthyasalawnmower.The
cost?About$50milliondollars,andtheprojectseems
tohaveendedandtheresearchrolledintoanother
DARPAexoskeletonproject.

XOS(2007)
TheUSArmyandDARPAhastwopowered
exoskeletonsunderdevelopment.Onebeingthe
HULCandtheotheristheXOS.Raytheonwith
Sarcoshasbeenworkingonafullbody
poweredexoskeletonsince2007.XOSgrewout
ofvariousotherDARPAexoskeletonprojects,
andSarcosdesignwaschosenbyDARPAfor
continueddevelopmentforacostof$15million
dollars.TheprimarygoalsoftheXOS
exoskeletonwastoincreasethe
operator'sstrength,endurance,
andcouldpreformthelifting
tasksofuptothreesoldiersand
evensomebulkymachines.At
present,thesecondgenerationof
XOSpoweredexoskeletonsis
undertestingwithasmallmotor
toprovidethepower
requirement.Inorderforthe
XOSsystemtobefielded,the
relianceonainternal
combustionmotorwouldhaveto
eliminatedinfavorofafuelcell.

HULC(2000)
TheHumanUniversalLoadCarrierwasdevelopedbyDr.
KazerooniandateamatEksoBionicsbeginningin2000
andtheideaoftheHULCwaslatersoldtoLockheedMartin
in2009.Dr.Kazeroonihadpreviouslybeeninvolvedwith
theBLEEXexoskeleton,andworkedtodevelopalower
extremitysupportsystemthatwouldallowasoldiertocarry
200lbsofgearwithoutfatigueforeighthoursofoperation.
LockheedMartiniscurrentlyworkingonalighterversion
forUSArmytesting.TheprimarypurposeoftheHULCis
notsupersoldieraerokicksofdeath,buttoallowthesoldier
tonotexperiencethelossofcombateffectivenessviathe
carryingof130lbsofcombatgear.Inordertoallowthe
HULCdeploymentonlongermissions,Lockheedistesting
afuellcellpowersupplythatwouldallowfor96hoursof
operationallife.
DARPAWarriorWeb(2012)
DARPA'sWarriorWebprojectistoenhance
thesoldierviaasoft,flexible,butrugged
undergarmentthatwouldlightingtheloadof
soldierincombat.Thisworksbysupporting
thesofttissueoftheknees,ankles,andhips,
reducingthelikelihoodofaninjury.
Augmentationofthesoldier'smusclesisalso
inthewishlistaswellasthedetectionof
injuries.DARPAisalsoaddressingoneof
thekeyissuesofpoweredexoskeleton,
powersupply.AccordingtoDARPA,the
WarriorWebwouldrunoffa100wattpower
sources.

TheRealitiesofPoweredArmorinCombat
Whatwouldbetherealityof
fieldingpoweredarmorsoldiers
incombat?Sciencefictionoften
risesthearmoredpowersuitto
theleveloftheultimatebadass
futureweaponsystem.Butthe
truthisthatanysystemcanbe
destroyedorcountered.Powered
armorwouldbeanicejuicy
target,andgiventheirpresumed
combatabilities,alikelyprimary
targetfortheenemy.Powered
armorcouldeasilybedestroyed
withadirectairstrikeordirect
hitbyatank'smaingun.Also,
withthelayoutofpowered
armorbeinganatomicalsimilartothehumanbody,andthatthereisafleshandbloodoperator
insidethespamcanwouldpresentainterestingtargetdynamic.
Thiswouldmakethehead
sectionafocalpointforantisuit
sniperunitsarmedwithspecial
antimaterialrifles(likethe
COBRAassaultcannon
fromRobocop).Theweakness
ofthehelmetareawouldbe
increaseiftherewasavisor,and
couldbeatargetforanysniper
orblueskinnedhuntresswitha
bowandarrow.Frankly,it
wouldbeaterrifyingthought
thatanGaussriflecouldbeaimedatmyhelmetatanytimeonabattlefield!Alongwiththehead
wouldbethekneejoints.Muchlikethehead,thekneescouldnotbearmoredenoughtobeas
protectiveasthechestportionandstilldotheirjob.IfIwasasuitsniperinthefuture,Iwouldaim
forthefuckingknees.OnegoodcleanshotwithastateoftheartbangbangrailgunorGauss
cannonKEW,andthatkneewouldbegone,andthesuitisimmobile.
Besideenemy'susingantitankcannonsonyou,poweredarmorwouldalsobefacedwiththe
realitiesofterrainandenergy.Terrainonthisplanethasdefinedthetypesofcombatresourcesthat
canbebroughttobear,andpoweredarmoredwouldbealsolimitedbyterrainonthisworldand
others.TakethecurrentcombatzonesofIraqandAfghanistan.Iraqwouldbeabetterenvironment
forpoweredarmordeploymentconsideringthetypesofterrainandurbancombatzones,alongwith
proximitytofriendlyresources.Sandcouldposeanissue,butnotliketheunforgivingterrainof
AfghanistanorevenVietnam.Rough,uneventerraincouldposethreatsfromunstableground,
resultinginfallsordamage.
Attheveryleast,thesetypesof
terraincoulddrainpower
suppliesrapidly,causingthe
needforresupply.Theseissues
onlymultiplywhenyouconsider
densejungles,likethoseseenin
VietnamorPandora,or
completelyunsettledworldslike
Mars.Themorehostilethe
conditions,themorepower
wouldbeneededtosupportthe
operator,evenifthatmeansair
conditioningwhilepatrollingthe
deepdesertsofArrakis.Of
course,thatisoneofthegreat
elementsofpoweredarmor,
sealedenvironment,evenifiteatsuppower.Yoursoldierscouldmarchacrossthearcticwouldrisk
oftheirfingersandtoesfallingoff,andtheextremetollthatthesetypesofenvironmentalconditions
reapontheunarmoredbody.Insomeways,whileweatherconditionsarealwaysimportantfor
combat,poweredarmornegatessomeofthese.Yoursoldiersinbattlesuitscouldniceanddryduring
arainstorm,coolandcomfortableinthemiddleofthedesert,andtoastywarminthedeepcoldofa
Martiandesert.

ThePsychologicalEffectofPoweredArmor
AttheBattleofHydaspesRiver
in326BC,theforcesof
AlexandertheGreatfirst
witnessedthewarelephants,and
refusedtocombatthebeasts.
TheSamuraiwarriordesigned
theirmempo(facemask)and
Kabuto(helmet)tostrikefearin
theheartsoftheir
enemies.Therehavemany
reportsofthepsychological
effectsoftheAC130arehaving
ontheTaliban.Couldpowered
armorholdthesamepsychologicaleffect?Ithinkthatdependsonhowcommonthearmorisinthe
future,andhoweffectiveitisincombat.Afterall,thetanksofWorldWarOnewerebelievedto
holdpsychologicaleffectontheenemytroops,butaftertheinitialshock,mosttrooperswitnesstheir
ineffectiveness.TanksholdmorepsychologicaleffectpostWWIIgiventheirgreater
effectiveness.Anyenemythathadneverbeenexposedtopoweredarmor,wouldsufferfromfear
andpossiblyfleefromtheassaultingarmor.Butthatwouldnotlast,muchlikeAlexanderssoldiers
fightingagainstthewarelephants.Ifpoweredarmorwerehighlyeffectiveincombatsituations,then
thefearlevelforsoldiersbehigher,however,ifthearmorcouldbestoppedwithRPGs,special
cannons,shockcharges,orevenEMPgrenades,thantheywouldbemoreofanannoyancethan
someunstoppablejuggernauttopissyourpantiesover.
Psychologicaleffectsworkbothways.Theoperatorsofpoweredarmorcouldsufferfromagod
modementality,especiallyiftheycamefromcombatinfantry.Considerthis,ifaninfantryman
joinsthearmorcorpsafterservicetheirtimeintheshit,thantheirPOVoncombatwouldbealtered
bythedonningofthesuit.Whentheseoperatorswereintheinfantrywiththeirassinthegrass,a
nearmissbyanRPGoronedirecthitbyanassaultrifleroundcouldresultinatriptoafield
hospitalorworse.Inthearmor,
mostrifleroundswouldbe
ineffective(atfirst),andthe
entireoperatorto(mostly)
ignorethelightincomingfire.
Thiscouldcauseafalsesenseof
securityforthesuit,andcould
ledtotrouble.Soldierswillhave
tobetrainedtobemindfulofthe
godmodeeffectandthe
limitationsofthearmorin
combat.Afterall,nomachineis
withoutaweakness,andifit
bleedswecankillit.

CouldYouFlywithPoweredArmor?
Simplyput,no.Youcouldpull
theBuzzLightyear"fallingwith
style"movewithaidofaglider
apparatus.InStarshiptroopers,
theM.I.intheirpoweredarmor
usedshorthopjumpswith
limitedjumpjetcapability,but
fullonflightlikewewitnessed
inIronManusingplasmabased
rockets(MPD)mountedinyour
bootsisnotpossible.Eventhese
shorthopswithjumpjetswould
bedifficult,especially
consideringCLASSII/IIItypesofpoweredarmor.Thereasonfordoubtlayswithweightandfuel
supply.Withtheadvancementscontinuesaswellasinterestinjetpacks,wecouldseetheuseof
thesedevicesinurbanwarfareandrapidassaultsituationsinthecomingyears.
WithMILSPECjetpacks,wecouldtheemergenceof
speciallytrained,tacticalassault,butlightlyarmoredflight
systemallowingforlimitedflightwithheavyamountsof
training.Thesetrooperswouldusemaneuverabilityinstead
ofballisticprotection.However,trueblueCLASS1
poweredarmorwouldnotbehavelikeTonyShark's
creationorthejumppacksoftheSpaceMarines.Oneof
thekeyrolesofpoweredarmoristoprotectionofthe
operator,nottoaccommodateflight,muchofthearmor
wouldhavetobestrippedtoallowforincreasedfuel
economy,especiallywhentakingofffromtheground.Any
flyingsuitwouldbeatargetforAAA,andwithlessarmor
andnowerenearthedefensivesystemofafightercouldall
ledtodeadtroopers.Thenwehavethefuelsupply.Given
thedesignofpoweredarmor,thereisanobviouslylackof
fuelstoragetanks.JustexaminetheclassicIronMansuit,
notanksorstoragedevicesthatcouldallowforthe
performanceofflightwe'veseeninthefilmsand
comics...nottomentionoutrunningF22Raptors!Onthe
originalgoldandredcomicarmor,theliquidfueltanks
wereinthecuffofthesuit'sboots.Seriously...inthecuff.Therecouldbeanotherway,ifartificial
muscletechnologycontinued,wecouldpropelpoweredarmoronshorthopssimilartoaflea(not
thebassist!).
HereistheMarvelarticleonhowIronMancouldfly:
http://marvel.com/news/story/12132/marvel_science_iron_mans_flight_capabilities

FullBodyArmorvs.CLASS1PoweredArmor
ThereissomeconfusionaboutthedifferencebetweenCLASS1poweredarmorandfullbody
combatarmor.Inmodernwarfare,fullbodyarmorthatcoversnearly100%ofthesoldier'sbodyis
extremelyuncommon.TheonlyexamplethatIknowofistheEODbombsuit.Mostsoldierstoday
onlywearballisticarmorontheheadandcentermassarea,tooallowformaneuverabilityandless
weight.Initpossibleinthefuturethattheneedwillariseforfullbodyarmor(maybeduetoDE
weapons?),butmicroA/Csystemsandflexiblearmorwouldneedtoalsobedeveloped.Full
personalarmordoesnotrequire
motors/artificialmuscletissueto
propelthesuit,nordoesit
increasethewearer'sstrength,
endurance,andlessinabilities
andcomplexityalongwith
requiringlessenergytooperate.

TheWeaponsofPowered
Armor

Thearmoredpowersuitofsciencefictionallows
forawidecanvasforthecreatortomountall
mannerofoffensiveanddefensivesystems.Inthe
original1959StarshipTroopersopeningpages,
capsulelaunchedMIsfromRasczak'sRoughnecks
performa"smashanddestroy"raidaSkinny
worldusingheavyflamers,somethingcalled
"knifebeams"andlessthan2kilotonatomic
rockets.Therewasnomentionofmachineguns,
assaultrifles,norrotarycannons...justthese
weapons.Thiscouldbeduetothemission,but
atomicweaponsandonlyaflamethrowerfor
yourdefensivearmament?Oddchoice.Itwould
taketheJapaneseanimationandAmericanRPGs
toshapethepoweredarmorweaponryfrompulp
eralasers,heatrays,andatomicbombsto
somethingakintotheattackhelicopterandBlain
fromPredator.

TheWeaponsoftheCLASS1
Giventhatthemajorityof
CLASS1suitsuseunmodified
hands,thisallowstheseoperator
toutilizestandardissueinfantry
weapons,liketheSPARTANs
fromHALOandtheCyclones
fromROBOTECH:theNew
Generation.Withtheadded
abilitiesofthearmor,an
operatorcanwieldheavier
weaponry,likelightmachine
gunsandhighercaliberrifles
withoutthepunishingeffects.
Notonlycanthearmorliftmore,itcansupportmore,allowingforagreatercapabilityofgrenades,
ammunition.Someworkscontentthatpoweredarmorcouldallowanoperatortofireweapons
effectiveakimbo.

TheWeaponsoftheCLASS2
WiththeincreasedmassoftheCLASS2suit,comesincreasedabilities,allowingforaCLASS2
operatortomarchintobattlewithgreateroffensiveanddefensiveweaponrythanaCLASS1APS.
ConsidertheAMPsuitfromAVATARfirescrushing30mmroundsfromitshandcannon,insteadof
the7.62mmbulletsfromtheChief'sMA5Brifle.Insideoflightmachineguns,CLASS2suitscan
usethe12.7mmroundfortheirgeneralpurposemachinegun.Also,popularontheCLASS2suit
aregrenadeand/orrocketlaunchers,allowingforgreateroffensivecapabilities.Withtheincreaseof
size,comesanincreaseofpowersupply,thatcouldallowaCLASS2suittocarryGauss,Rail,or
evendirectedenergyweaponrythatwouldbeimpossibleonsmallerarmorsystems.Defensive
systemsgetaboostontheCLASS2platformthatcouldallowformountingofanactive
countermeasuresystemsimilar
totheIsraeliTROPHY.

TheWeaponsoftheCLASS3

Hereisthebigboyofpowered
armorfirepower,theCLASS3!
DuetothesizeoftheCLASS3
beingsimilartowalkingtanksof
mecha,theoffensiveand
defensivesystemsincrease
dramatically.Massiverotary
cannonswithdeepstoresof
ammunition,rapidfirecannons,
railguns,largeprojectileGauss
guns,directedenergyand
missilesonaMacrossscale.As
withtheCLASS2APS,the
thirdtypebenefitsgreatlyfroma
evenlargerpowerplant,allowing
forlargescaleenergybased
weaponry.Thisincreaseinsize
alsoallowsforanincreaseofdefensivesystems.

PoweringthePowerArmor
Fuelisnothingnewtomilitary
life.Fromwoodtogenerate
cookingfirestogasolineto
batteries,thebusinessofmodern
warfareconsumesgreatamounts
offuelandenergy.Traditional,
mostinfantryunitsneedjusta
sourceofwater,wood,andfield
rations,but,thiscouldchangeif
poweredarmorbecamestandard
equipment.However,itismore
complicatedthanthat.Powering
thepoweredarmorismostofthe
vexingissueswithfieldingthese
typesoffuturecombatsystems
toourwarfighters.Considerthe
recentprototypeMILSPECXOSExoskeletonbyRaytheon/Sarcos.Itispoweredbyaninternal
combustionengine,ratherthanlithiumionbatteries,becauseitwasfeltthatthosebatteriesposeda
risktotheoperator.Indemonstrations,theXOSwastetheredtoapowersupply,andtheheadofthe
projectforRaytheon/Sarcos,saysthatacompactonboardpoweredsupplythatwouldallowtheXOS
tooperateonthebattlefieldis"morelikeadecadeaway."
Powersupplyisoneofthegreatestroadblockstothefieldingofpoweredarmor.Muchlikethe
electriccar,thepoweronlylastsashortamountoftimeanddistance,andthatoperationaltime
drainsrapidlyunderstress...likecombatconditions.Addingstresstothepowersupplywouldbe
terrain,typesofweaponsystems,andtheweightofthearmorusedtoprotectthesuitfromincoming
fire.Therewouldbeabalancingactbetweenprotection,weaponsystemsandfueleconomy,much
likeamainbattletank.Somescifiworkshavedealtwiththisissue.InArmorbyJohnSteakley,
FelixislockedinbloodyclosecombatonBansheewiththeants,andhisbatteriescannotholdout
underthestress.Felix,inhislighterscoutarmor,isforcedtovampirechargeoffofdownedsuits.In
myownmilitaryscifinovel,EndangeredSpecies,thearmoredAmericanODA229unitisforced
intoaranchcomplexbetween
theirobjectives,duetothefuel
rangeoftheAPS.

Intherealmofsciencefiction
poweredexoskeletons,the
answertothepowerissueisthe
micronizedfusiongenerator.
Withthesemagicallydevices,
supersoldierscangenerateforce
fields,uberstrengthtoallow
tankstobetossed,andbend
lighttoachieveninjaness.While
aportablemicrofusion
generatorwouldsolvethethirsty
needsofthesuit...wherewould
youputit?Onyourback?Near
yourballs?Areyougoingto
traineverypoweredsuit
operatorinnuclearengineering?
Wouldthegeneratorbeabletosurvivethestressesofcombat?Otheroptionsforthepowersupply
include:fuelcells,liquidfuels,batterypacks,internalcombustionengines,smallrotaryengines
(MazdaRX7anyone?),magnetohydrodynamic(MHD)generator,radioisotopethermoelectric
generator(RTG),andmicronizednucleargenerator.
Inmostofsciencefiction,the
CLASS2AMPsuits
fromAVATARispoweredby
monopropellantorfuelcells,
whiletheMJOLNIRCLASS1
armorfromHALOispowered
byamicrofusionreactor,while
othersarepoweredby"power
pack"thatusessuperbatteriesof
thefuture.Somepoweredarmor
actuallydrawspowerfromthe
wearer'sownbody!Thisisseen
inPeterHamilton'sFallen
DragonwiththeSkinSuitsthat
arefueledbythewearer'sblood.
SomeofthesuitswornbyTonyStark(inthecomics),werepoweredbyabatterypackoreven
betavoltaics.Whileintherecentfilms,theArcReactorissomesortofmicrofusiongeneratorthatis
inthefirmHandwaviumandunobtainium...butreallyfuckingcool.AnyonehaveaMr.Fusionor
someprotoculturelayingaround?

TheLineBetweenPoweredArmorandCyborgs
Thereissomedebateand
confusionaboutthedifference
betweenthesetwodifferent
typesoftechnologyamplifying
thehumanbodyinsomescifi
works.Poweredarmor,
exoskeletons,andgeneral
humanamplifiersareallexterior
modifiersthatmostlynot
hookedintotheoperator's
bodies,saveforaplugorsensor
cluster.Cyborgshaveinterior
bodymodificationsthatenabletheamplification,andareoftenpermanentandimplantedvia
surgicalmethods.Therearerareoccasionsinsciencefictioncyborgsusepoweredarmor,likewhat
wasseeninGhostintheShellandMassEffect3.

TheMeatInsidetheMachine
ScienceFictionisdividedon
whowillcommandpowered
armorintobattle.Workslike
HALOandBattletechfeature
speciallytrainedsupersoldiers
withexclusiveusageofthese
machines.Itwasmadevery
clearintheHALOuniverse,that
onlytheSPARTANscoulddon
theMjolnirwithoutsuffering
seriousinjury.Thisconceptis
takenevenfurtherintheWH40k
universewiththeAdeptus
Astartes.Notonlyarethesemarinesforgedbyvastgeneticengineering,buttheyaremuchgreaterin
scalethananormalhuman,andtheirpoweredarmourisalsomuchgreaterinscale,causingthis
armourtobethedomainoftheAdeptusAstartesonly.
Themorepopularconceptuses
therarityofpoweredarmorto
establishthepilotsasmoreelite,
similartoSpecialForcesor
attackjetpilots.Workslikemy
own,Avatar,theAPUcorps
fromTheMatrixuniverse,all
featurepoweredarmorbeing
operatedbyspeciallyselected
andtrainedtroopers.thethird
visionofthemeatinsidethe
machineisthatpoweredarmor
iscommon.Socommon,infact,
thatallinfantryareallissuedpoweredarmor(CLASS1mostly),liketheMobileInfantryofthe
StarshipTroopersnovel,theREFfromROBOTECH,ortheTerranMarinesfromtheStarcraft
universe.

PeelingtheLayersofPoweredArmorAway...
Layersandthemicroscaleof
whichcertainthingsfunctionat
canbetraythecomplexitythat
existsbeneaththesurface,much
likethehumanbrainorsmart
phone.Poweredarmorisno
different,andinsciencefiction,
thebattlesuitisoftendepicted
beingcomposedoflayers,much
liketheancientarmorsuitsof
theKnightsofEuropeandthe
Samurai.Eachoftheselayers
servesboththegreatergoalof
thearmorpurposeanditsown
individualduty,Idecidedwe
shouldpeelthelayersbackofthesuit,anddescribeeachofthemajorlayersofmainlyCLASS1
battlesuits.Itriedtodetailsomeofthehardfuturetechnologythatcomposethelayer.Someofmy
informationcamefromthisarticle:
http://www.dcr.net/~stickmak/JOHT/joht15poweredarmor.htm

TheHelmet:YourBrainBucket
AccordingtothemajorityofCLASS1poweredarmor,thehelmetwillbethemainnervecenterfor
controlandinformationforthesuitoperations.StreamsofinformationwouldberoutedviaaHUD
systemseitherprojectedontothevisorordirectlyintotheeyes.Theoperatorcouldmanagethese
systemsviavoicecommands,eyes,thought,theirtongue,orchin.Whenitcomestothebrain
computerinterfacecontrolofthesuit,besidesdirectmuscleinput,superconductingquantum
interferencedevice(SQUID)couldbeused.SQUIDareverysensitivemagneticfieldsensorsthat
coulddetectchangesinthe
brain'sactivity,allowingfor
nearlyinstantreaction.

Ofcourse,thesuitwouldhavetolearntothe
patternsoftheoperator'sbrain.Ghostinthe
Shellusedplugsinthebackofthehead,to
connectthebrainoftheoperatortothe
computernetworkofthesuit.Otherworks
havedevised"thinkingcaps"toslavethe
brainandthesuitasaninterconnectedunit.
OneofthefearsofanyCLASS1armor
operatoristhattheirheadisthereforthe
entirebattlefieldtoseeandhit,becauseit
wouldbeontheweakpointsonthesuit,like
theknees.Andmuchliketheknees,there
couldonlybesomuchprotectionappliedto
theheadgivethelimitedsurfaceareaandlimitedsloping.

Layer1:BetheJuggernaut
Oneoftheprimaryrolesof
poweredarmoristoallowone
soldiertobecomemany,andthe
outermostlayerofthesuit
allowsforonesoldiertosurvive
anddominatethebattlespace.
Thislayeristhemostdifficultto
strikeabalancebetween
protectionandmobility.Too
much,andthesuitisweighted
down,taxingthemotorsand
powersupply,andcausingtoo
muchbulktobeeffectiveinan
infantrycapability.Toolittle
armor,andthesuitwillbe
pickedapartbyincomingfire.
Mostarmoredpowersuitshave
hardshellplatesfittedoverthenonflexibleportionsofthesuit.Thesehardsurfaceportionscould
beconstructedoutofvariouslaminates,monocrsytallineironfilaments,Graphenetubes,singe
walledcarbonnanotubes,ringcarbon,orgoodoldtitanium.Sciencefictionlovestousetheterm
"plasteel"fortheouterlayerofthesuit.Allofthesewouldbegreaterinprotectivevaluethan
currentrolledhomogenousarmorwhilebeinglighterinweight,andallangled.Thehardplated
armorwouldbemodular,allowingforquickreplacementduringcombat,allowingforquicker
turnaroundtimes.Theflexibleportionswouldbeprotectedsomesortofnanocompositematerial,l.
Theselessregionsurfacescouldbefilledwithmagnetorheologicalfluidthatresponsetomagnetic
fieldbyincreasethedensity,hardeningduringtimesofneed,andreturnedtoafluidstateafter
action.Also,theoutsideplatingcouldbetreatingwithsomethingsimilartothatnew
superhydrophobicspray,tocastoffliquids,ablativearmorfordefenseagainstDEWbeams,and
environmentaladaptivecamouflagepaint.

Layer2:Strong...LikeBull!
SandwichedbetweenthehardarmoredlayerandtheinnersupportivetwolayersfortheAPS
operator,isthecriticalmiddlelayerthatwillbeusedtobridgethegapbetweenmanandmachine.
Packedinabodysuitlikeconstruction,willbethemilesofartificialmuscletissue,micromotors,or
ropesofcarbonnanotubesthatcouldspringintodynamicactionstofliptanksorcrushbodies.Itis
besttothinkofthesecondlayertwohasthepoweredarmorequivalentofthemuscularsystem,but
wouldstillrequiresomeballistic
protection,encaseofcritical
penetrationofthehardshell
layerone.Bytheway,this
pictureisofme,notArnold,
becauseIamstronglikebull.

Layer3:AreYouGellin'?

Thefirstlayerprotectsfromthe
hazardsofthebattlefieldwhile
thesecondlayeramplifyingthe
wearersuperhumanstrength,
andtheabilitytomovethesuit
withthesameeasyasthe
operator'sownlimbs,andthis
thirdlayerispackedwith
impactadsorbingmaterialto
cushiontheoperatorandthe
computersystemthatwouldline
theinsideofthethirdlayerfrom
theshockenergybyhostilefire
impact.Onematerialthatcould
beusedistherecentlydevelopedD30gelmaterialthatgoesrigidwhenimpacted.aerogelcouldbe
usedasaimpactabsorptionmaterialtodecreasedamagetakenfromnearlyexplosionsandimpacts
fromkineticweaponry.Thislayerwouldalsofeaturelifesupportsystems,withredundantsystems.

Layer4:ClothingOptional
Thepoweredarmorofscifiismixedon
whattheoperatorofthearmorwillbe
wearingwhiledonningthesuit.Someworks
believethatfuturearmoredsoldierswould
rideintobattleintheirnormalBDUs,likein
AvatarinsidetheAMPsuits,othersbelieve
thatspecializedinterfacesuitswouldbe
worn,likethoseseeninBattletech,still
othersprojecttheuseofliquidcoolingand
ventilationgarmentlikethosecurrentlyworn
byastronautsduringEVAoperations.Then
lastly,weseesomeworksprojectthatthe
operatorofaAPSwillbeintheirlingerieor
evennaked,aswewitnessedattheendof
someMetroidgames!Someofthiscanbe
attributedtothecarnaldesireofhumansand
geeks,butitcouldbebasedinreality.The
neuronetworkcouldfunctionmoreeffectivelyviainputsdirectlyfromthewearer'smuscles.
Whenitcametimeformynovelwithpoweredarmor,Idecidedthatthecharacterswouldwear
normalcombatgear.Mythoughtprocesswasthatatsomepointduringcombat,thepossibilityofthe
operatorbeingforcedtoabandonthearmorduetodamagewashigh,andwouldyouwanttobe
hangingoutinyourunderwearduringafirefight?Ithoughtnot.Therecouldbeaspecialsuitworn
insteadofBDUsoryourVictoria'sSecretsthatcouldmedicallysupportthewearer.Giventhat
everyoneonthebattlefieldisgoingtotakeashotatyou,thesuitisgoingtotakedamage,andthis
specialfourthlayercouldbepackedwithmedicalgradenanobotsthatcouldrepairwounds,
injectionpainmeds,andevensupportbrokenbonesuntilthesuitcanleavethehotzone.Thistype
ofabilityisseenwiththeHEVsuitfromHalfLifeuniverse.Itiscertainthatanylayerfoursystem
wouldkeeptheoperatorcomfortable,monitortheirhealth,andeliminateanybodilywastes.

Exoplanets:TheAOfortheAPS?
MyfirstattemptatanMSF
novelcontaininganarmored
powersuitunitcamein2010
(TheBattleforShepard's
Moons),andusedhostile
environmentsonexoplanetsto
explainwhypoweredarmor
existed,similartothepowered
armorseenintheRadical
ComicShrapnel.Couldfuture
exoplanetarybattlesitesbethe
naturalareaofoperationforthe
poweredarmor?
Whenweconsidercostof
poweredarmor,theweaknessof
spacesuitsinawarzone,along
withthesupportsystemsneededfortroopersonahostileexoplanet,poweredarmormaybetheway
togo.GiventhesealednatureofpoweredarmorthatallowsforNBCprotection,itisagood
platformtoexpandonforanarmoredhardshellspacessuitforcombatEVA.Also,poweredarmor
couldfillinforotherheaviersupportelements,alongwithinfantry,byuseofdifferentclassesof
armor.APSunitscouldbetherapidresponseforceforancolonizingmilitaryorganization.This
wouldallowfortherightcombinationofmaneuverabilityandfirepowerformosttacticalsituations,
especiallyiftheoperatorsofthearmorarecorrectlytrained.OnecanimageAPScladtroopers
droppedontoalowgravitymoon,weaponsattheready,andhostilesgettingreadyforafight.

PoweredArmororArmoredSpacesuit?
Whenwedoindeedstepoff
world,futurecombatzoneswill
notbelimitedtothegarden
planetsofthegalaxy,butlifeless
moons,andfrozendeserts,
causinginfantrytodon
militarizedEVAsuitstoprotect
theresources.Poweredarmored
makesagoodfitforaMILSPEC
spacesuit,givenitsfullysealed
natureandbeingdesignedfor
combatconditions,which
spacesuitsarenot.Inthepages
ofStarshipTroopers,thisissaid:
"Asuitisn'taspacesuitalthoughitcanserveasone".Andwehaveseenpoweredarmorbeingused
inhazardenvironmentsandspacewarfareinmanyscifiworks,andthelineisoftenblurred,much
likeinTheForeverWarwiththefightingsuits.Itwouldbemoreeconomicalforafuture
governmenttofieldAPSwearinginfantryforthesetypesofoperationsratherthanmarinesin
combatspacesuits.

CouldPoweredArmorbeStandardEquipmentforallInfantry?
Onepopularconceptinsciencefictionisthat
futuregovernmentswillbuyandfield
CLASS1poweredarmorforalloftheir
infantry,muchliketheFederationinStarship
Troopers.Isthisevenpossible?Ithinknot.
First,thereisthemassivecostofoutfitting
millionsofinfantrywiththeirownsuits,and
thestafftomaintainandservicethearmor.
Thenwehaveanincreaseininfrastructureto
handlethegreaterdemandforenergy/fueland
spareparts.Therewouldalsobeamore
involvedtrainingprocessandselectionfor
soldiersthatcouldhandlethedemandsof
operatingpoweredarmor.Ofcourse,ifall
infantryofthisfuturegovernmentwere
outfittedinsuits,thentherewouldbeless
infantry.AfterrereadingStarshipTroopers
andArmorforthisblogpost,Igettheimpressionthattheinfantryinthosenovelsissmallerthan
currentstandingarmies.

BioArmor?
Organictechnologyisthe
combinationofscienceand
engineeringutilizingbiological
systemsforusewithhard
technology.Giventhatthereare
thousandsofTerranspeciesthat
makeuseoforganicarmor,
couldthesameideabeapplied
topoweredarmor?Science
fictionseemstothinkso.While
moresciencetakesqueuesfrom
organicmodels,itisnotyet
quietuptotheleveloforganic
technologyseeninsciencefiction,butsyntheticbiologyisonthehorizon.Bioarmorororganic
armorwouldbeaninterestinganswertosomeofthebasicproblemsofhardtechnologyAPS
systems.Bioarmorcouldhealitself,bepoweredbyATPproducingMitochondrionpowercells,like
ourownbodies,andevenbecombinedwithnanobasedtechnology.Whileallofthissoundsgreat
foralltypesofAPS,itdoesrisesomequestions.Couldthebioarmorberemoved?Wouldthebio
armorbemoresusceptibletobiologicalorchemicalweaponsthantraditionalarmor?Howwouldthe
operator'sownbodyandthebioarmorinteract?

CouldPoweredArmorBenefitCombatFemaleSoldiersMore?
Withthedustuprecentlyoverthewomenbeing
allowedintothespecialforcesandothercombat
branchesoftheUSMilitary,couldarmoredpowersuits
benefitfemalesoldiers?Thosethatareagainstfemales
incombatroles,arguethatbecausewomenareshorter,
smaller,haslessenduranceforaerobicactivities,and
lessthanhalfoftheupperbodystrengthofmen,all
addinguptheycouldbeahazardtoaunitratherthana
benefit.
Thereisalsoconcernoverwhatwillhappenwhen
femalesoldiersarewoundedincombatonunitmorale.I
exploredthispossibilityinmyownnovelEndangered
Species,viamymaincharacter,JorjaLeeds.She
reflectsonherDragoonAPSallowedhertobeonequal
footing,unlikeherdaysintheinfantry,withbothfriend
andfoe.Iamcertainthatpoweredarmorcoulddismiss
someoftheargumentsagainstwomenincombat,
especiallythephysicaldifferencesbetweenthesexes,
andlevelingthebattlefield.Evenintheexamples
currentlybeingexperimentingwith,originalphysical
strengthmatterlittleintheoverallperformanceofthesuit.Somemayarguethatifthefemale
operatorhadtoabandontheAPSinacombatzone,thantheoldissueswithwomenincombatwould
cropbackup.Mypersonalopinionisthatwomenshouldserveincombat.FWSwillexploringthis
topicingreaterdetailinaupcomingblogpost.

WillPoweredArmorbeaReality?

Yes...butinwhatform?Ibelieve
thatpoweredexoskeletonsthat
arecurrentlyunderdevelopment
tolightlythewargearloadout
ofsoldierswillbedeployedby
2025,andcommercial
exoskeletonsdesignedforthe
strengthamplificationwillbe
usedinthewarehouseand
medicalfieldspossibleearlier.
WhatwehaveseeninElysium
willbeabattlefieldreality.The
fullbodyenclosedpowered
armorofStarshipTrooperswill
dependontheneed.Ifthese
typesofpoweredarmoraretobe
developed,theneedandmoney
willhavetobethere.Myguessisthatoncewebegintocolonize,thelinebetweenpoweredarmor
andballisticMILSPECspacesuitwillblur.Ialsobelievethatthecontinuedpopulationgrowth
coupledwiththeincreaseinurbanizecouldledtoCLASS2poweredarmorsystems.Ofcourse,
CLASS2couldbeanoutgrowthofoffworldsealedpoweredworkexoskeletons,liketheAMP
suitsfromAVATARforexample.

TheDifferentInterpretationofthePoweredArmorfromStarshipTroopers
Since1959,therehavevastarrayofinterpretationsofthepoweredarmorseenintheoriginalRobert
Heinleintext.Someweresimplycoverartistsmakingtheirmarkonthebook,andmostbaredlittle
similaritytothesuitsmentionedinthebook.

TheOriginalText(1959)
Threedifferenttypesofpoweredarmorexistedinthe1959
text:Marauder,Scout,andCommand,allthese"steel
gorillas"withdifferentfunctions,abilities,andarmaments.
TheMarauderwasthestandardassaultsuit,andcouldbe
tailoredtotheoperator'stasteandthemissionprofile,and
wastheevenofalltheothersuits'abilities.Duringthe
raidingmissionontheSkinnyworld,theMaraudersuits
wereseenhoppingfromobjectivetoobjective,while
tossingatomicgrenadesandbakingSkinnieswithhand
flamers.Theweakestintermsofarmsandarmorwasthe
scoutsuit,butcouldtravelfurtherwithgreaterjump
capabilities.Commandsuitswereissuedtothefield
commanders,andfeaturedgreatercommunications,
informationalfeedsfortheothersuitsundertheofficer's
command,increasedpower,andjumpjets.Itisunknown
oftheCommandsuithadgreaterarmamentsthanthe
Maraudersuit.OneofthemaindescriptoroftheMobile
Infantrysuitwasthat:"suitedup,youlooklikeabigsteelgorilla,armedwithgorillasizedweapons.
Butthesuitsareconsiderablystrongerthanagorilla.IfaMobileInfantrymaninasuitswapped
hugswithagorilla,thegorillawouldbedead,crushedthemanandsuitwouldn'tbemussed."
TheAvalonHillBoardGame(1976)
Oneofthefirstworksoutsideofthe
originalStarshipTroopernovelwasthe
1976AvalonHillboardgamethat
pittedtheMobileInfantryagainstthe
SkinniesandtheArachnids.Alltypes
ofthepoweredarmoroftheM.I.is
featuredhere,alongwithhostilealien
units.Icameacrosstheoriginal1976
manualonline,andthereisnothing
mentionedaboutthetypesofweapons
usedbytheM.I.troopers,howeverthe
armorisfeaturedinseveralblack&
whitedrawings.Ontheboxandinthe
gamingmanual,thearmorisdepicted
asacrossbetweenIronMan'soriginal
greyarmorfittedwithadivehelmet.In
thehandsofthedroppinginM.I.
troopersisaraygunrifleindicativeof
the1960'sscififilms.Whilethegame
didforwardmilitaryscifigaming,and
keptSSTinthemindsofanothergeneration,thereisnothingmuchaboutpoweredarmorhere.

TheUchuNoSenshiAnimeOVA(1988)
In1988,UchuNoSenshior"Space
Soldiers"wasreleaseinJapanandtoldthe
storyofJohnnyRicooversixparts.This
LaserDiscfilmwasneverformallyreleased
intheUnitedStates,butfanshavebeen
dubbingitandsellingitforyears.UchuNo
Senshiisclosertothe1959novelthanthe
moviesorAmericananimatedseries.The
poweredarmorfeaturedinthesixpartOVA
werecalledPawadoSutsuandalsocalled
"EnhancedCombatsuits".Unlikethenovel,
theseCLASS2poweredarmorwould
featuremoreconventionalarmaments,like
assaultriflesandmachineguns,alongwithgrenadelaunchers.Muchlikethenovel,theJapanese
suitsusejetpacks,somesortofatomicrocket,anddifferentclassesofthebasicsuit,like
commander,scout,flamer,andheavygunner.Therewasalsoanumberofsimilaritiestothenovel
poweredarmor,likeaHUDsystemcontrolledbyinputsfromthechin,andsomeoftheYrack
conceptlistedinthenovel.Ipersonallylovethedesignofthesepoweredarmor.

TheRoughnecksAnimatedSeries(1999)
Whilethe1997liveaction
moviewasvoidofanythinglike
poweredarmor,thisanimated
seriesthatwastiedtothemovie,
didfeaturepowered
armorAccordingtotheofficial
Roughnecksseriesoutline,the
MobileInfantrywearsCLASS1
typeofpoweredarmor.This
allowsforgreaterspeed,
reactiontime,increasedstrength,
full
hostileenvironmentalprotection,
andgreateroffensiveand
defensivecapabilities.Inthe
seriesitself,thepoweredarmor
effectisnotwelldone,makingthese"powersuits"astheyarecalled,tomoreakintoarmored
MILSPECcombatspacesuitscompletewithfancyheadlampsandembeddedsensortechnologyin
visor.Onecoolelementintheserieswasthepowersuitsdidnotfloat,andthattheFederation's
allies,theSkinniesdontheirown"alien"poweredarmor.
TheStarshipTroopersComics(19972006)
Overtheyears,severalcompaniesheldtherightsto
publishcomicsbasedonStarshipTroopers.When
theserightswereheld,causedthearmorSSTuniverse
toconformtothatparticularvision.Thefirstrashof
comicsfromDarkHorsewerebasedonthe1997film,
andtheartonthearmoroftheMobileInfantrywas
reflected.Thatmeaning,therewasnopoweredarmor
inthesecomics,onlythebluegreypartialbodyarmor
ofthefilm.Thenextwaveofcomicsthatcamearound
thetimeoftheanimatedRoughneckseries.Inturn,
thesecomicsbyasmallerpress,usedtheseries'
CLASS1typeofpoweredarmorandeventhe
CLASS2"Marauder"type.Anothertypeofheavier
CLASS2APSwasseeninthepagesofSST:
DominantSpecies,thatwasdevelopedandusedinthe
invasionoftheBugs'homeworld.Thisappearsto
heavilyarmorandarmedtodealwiththemassive
numbersofbugs.Thesecomicsdiedoutin2006,and
sofar,nonewSSTcomicshaveemerged,whichcould
bebasedonthenewanimatedmovie,Invasion.

StarshipTroopersVideoGames
Severalvideogameshave
designedaroundtheSST
universe,andmostofthesehave
followedinthefootstepsofthe
1997film.The2000realtime
strategygameSST:Terran
Ascendancyfeaturedseveral
classesofpoweredarmorthat
werebasedofftermsusedinthe
1959text.Fromscout,to
commander,tomarauder,there
weremanychoices,butallwere
ontheuglyside,giventhelimits
ofgraphictechnologyin2000.
Thesesuitsseemmoreheavier
construction,likeapiece
constructionequipmentthannotanCLASS2combatsuit.Itseemsforthegameplayonline,thata
majorityoftheheaviersuitacthasheavyweaponssupport.Inthe2005computershooter,theplayer
takescontrolofanadvancedCLASS1poweredarmorcalled"marauder"thatwasintheprototype
phase,andyoufightinthe1997universe.Thesuitwasbarelyseeninthegame,andlooksandacts
typicalofaCLASS1suitinavideogamesetting.

StarshipTroopers:3Marauder(2008)
Aftertwoliveactionfilms,fansofSSTfinallyreceivedourreward:heavilyarmedpoweredarmor
inthethirddirecttoDVDfilm.Asseeninthefilm,underaFederationtopsecretproject,knownas
Marauder,CLASS2combatarmorwasdevelopedbytheofficialnameoftheM11Marauder,but
nicknamed"Babar"afterthebelovedElephant.Accordingtotheofficialmodel/toydatacard,the
ArmoredBipedalVehiclewas3.65metersandweightedinat10.3tons,allpoweredbyafission
driverthatgeneratedenoughpowerfora638milerangeat8MPH.Thevarietyofweaponsvaried
greatly,fromrotarycannons,155mmcannons,15.6mmfourbarreledmachineguns,41mm
grenades,flamethrowers,andtwinbarreledsmoothbore40.4mmcannons.Inthefilm,ateamof
theseheavilyCGIprototypevehiclesappearonthescene,andraketheincomingbugswithhellish
outgoingfire.Priortotheirkickingass,theentireteamhadbefullbodyscannedinthenude...and
theentirecaststeppedup,gotnude,andletthebrightyellowrunoverthem.Totallyunneeded.Iwill
givethethirdfilmcredit,theBabarAPSisanicedesign.

StarshipTroopers:Invasion(2013)
Inthe2013Americananimation
thattookplaceinthe1997film
universe,theRoughnecksuse
powersuitsthatarefirmly
CLASS1.Thesearecalled
PowerSuits,andfeaturetwo
layers.Theinnermostlayeris
calleda"musclesuit",which
increasesthewearer'sstrength,
whiletheouterlayer,calledthe
mainpoweredsuitisdesignedto
bethebodyarmor.

StarshipTroopersRemakePoweredArmor(20XX)
IfandwhentheSSTremakesgetsoffofthe
ground,ithasbeenconfirmed,in2012,by
producerTonyJaffeethatwewillsee
poweredarmorinthenewmovie.The
questioniswhatwilltheMobileInfantrybe
wearing...CLASS1orCLASS2?

TheMilitaryScienceFictionandPoweredArmorConnection
Therelationshipofmilitarysciencefictionandpowered
armorrunsdeep,andsincenearlythebeginningofthe
subgenreofMSF,poweredarmoredinfantryhasbeen
there.Partofthisrelationshipisduetothefounding
classicofmilitaryscifialsofeaturedoneofthemost
iconictalesofpoweredarmorinfuturecombat,Starship
Troopersin1959.But,whatisaboutpoweredarmorthat
allowsitsoeasilytobeaniconicelementoffuturistic
warfare?Myguessisthatsincefullbodyarmor
disappearedafterthespreadoffirearmstothe
battlefield,it'sreemergencewouldbeviaagreatleapin
technology,especiallygiventheworldofmodern
warfare.Poweredarmoritselfisradicallydifferentthat
anytechnologyusedforcurrentinfantryandtheimage
aloneoffuturesoldiersinfullonbodyarmorthat
increasestheirstrengthandallowsthemtoseparated
fromthelocalenvironmentwhilewieldingmassive
weaponryispurelyfuturistic,andisapowerfultoolfor
thecreatorandaudience.Ithinkpoweredarmorisa
symbol,likeFTLspacetravel,laserblastersthatbest
demonstratestheabilitiesofthefuturecivilizationseeninthefictionalwork.

TheMostInfluentialPoweredArmorinScienceFiction

ThePoweredArmorfromStarshipTroopers(1959)
FWSstatesitmanytimes,butitbearsrepeatingherte:
StarshipTroopersisthefoundingclassicofmilitary
sciencefiction,andtheusageofpoweredarmorin
futurewars.WhileE.E.DocSmithbasicallyinvented
poweredarmorforLensmanseriesofnovels,Robert
Heinleinrefinedtheconcept,forgingthetraditions
thatauthors/creatorsofscificontinuetohonoreven
today.Supportingtheinfluenceofthe1959novelis
thattwooftheotherfoundingclassicsofmilitarysci
filiteratureArmorandtheForeverWarareeither
responsetotheHeinlein'sbookorinspiritedbyit.
Evenafter54years,Heinlein'slittlepolitical/military
novelwithsoldiersinarmorfightingbugsonother
planetsisstillread,discussed,andattemptedtobe
translatedintodifferenttypesofmedia.

TheMJOLNIRPoweredArmorFromtheHALOUniverse(2001)
IcreditHALOwithreinventing
tiredscifigenres,especiallythe
supersoldierandpowered
armor.Formanyofus,powered
armorwasusedbyTonyStarkin
thecomics,andcharactersin
Japanesecartoons,andRPGwar
games,butin2001,HALO:
CombatEvolvedwouldgiveuse
theSPARTANsandtheirbadass
MJOLNIRpoweredarmor.
Unlikemanyworksprevious
thatfeaturedpoweredarmor
hero,HALOwaswellcraftedgamethatallowfortheplayertobeimmersedinthegame,andthe
armorbecameakeycomponentfortheplayer'ssurvivalandidentity.ItalsohelpedthattheChief
wasnotaunstoppablespacemarinewithgodlikepowers,butafleshandbloodsupersoldiersthat
coulddominateifsmart.Inadditionaltothegames,severalwellwrittenMSFnovelsandcomics
expandedtheworldoftheSPARTANS,cemetingthedomianceofFormanygamersandscifi
geeks,HALO'sSPARTANcladintheirMJOLNIRarmorisoneofmosticonicpoweredarmorsuits
ofalltime.WiththeextremepopularityoftheHALOgamesandbooks,theMJOLNIRtransformed
intooneofthemostwellknownexamplesofCLASS1.

IronManSuitsfromIronMan(1963)
Inthe1963TalesofSuspense
#39,StanLeedevelopedthe
mostinfluentialpoweredarmor
inpopularmediawiththe
characterofTonyStarkandhis
armoredsuitjustfouryearsafter
StarshipTroopers.From1968
withthefirstissueofthe
originalseriestoallthewayto
2013,IronManhascontinuedto
forgenewfansandreinvigorateoldfans,likeme,withawesometacularmovies,comics,andtoys.
Forsomereason,IronManisjustoneofthoseeasilyaccessiblepropertiesthatspeakssomepart
withinusthatlovessweetfuckingarmor.ThispowerofIronMantomintnewfans,allowsthissuit
tobethemosticonicandrecognizedpoweredarmorintheworldandcontinuestobeaninfluence
onthenextgenerationsofpoweredarmorinsciencefiction.

TheSpaceMarinePowerArmourfromWarhammer40K(1987)
Howcouldwehaveany
discussionofpoweredarmor
withoutmentioningtheSpace
MarinesfromWH40K?Thisis
theiridentity,whatsetsthe
SpaceMarinesapartfromthe
restoftheunwashedmassesof
humanity,anditboththeir
protectionandtheirprison.
GamesWorkshopdevelopedan
insanefutureworldofviolent,
guns,evil,andmassivebattles
withthesearmoredwarriorsin
themiddleofallit,tocaptured
CallmeChad,MotherFucker! ourimaginationsoftheglory
andpowerofbloodycombatin
the41stmillennium.Cominginthemid1980's,thedarkworldof40Kcreatedlegionsoffanstothe
poweredarmorviatheimpressivevisualsassociatedwiththeseriesandofferedadarker,twisted
visionofthefutureandwarfare.Forme,WH40K,createdsomeofthemodernmilitaryscifiideas
abouttheabilitiesandusesofpoweredarmorinfuturewars.

TheCaterpillarP5000WorkLoaderfromALIENS(1986)
Liveactionpoweredarmoris
rare,eventodaywiththelevelof
specialeffectsthatispossible.
Howeveroneofthemosticonic
liveactioncimemaexamplesof
poweredarmorcamein1986,
withJamesCameron'slegendary
filmALIENS.Duetotheskillof
thedirector,thematerial,the
successofthefilm,andthe
SFXassociatedwiththe
powerloder,itbecameoneofthe
mostinfluentialpoweredarmor
designs,spawningcopiesfordecades.Speakingtothepowerofthisdesign,companiesactually
lookedatfieldingrealworldexamplesforuseinfactoriesandwarehousesasareplacementfor
conventionalforklifts.Afewprototypeswereshoppedaroundatfactory/foundrytradeshowsinthe
late1980'sandearly1990'saspossibilitiesforaproductionmodel.Myfather,whoownedseveral
greyductileironfoundries,witnessedtheseprototypesandtoldmybrotherandIthathewouldbuy
oneofthefoundry.IhaddreamsofdonningALIENSstylepoweredarmorforyearsafter
that...damnedbrokenpromises!OneofthecoolelementsabouttheALIENSpowerloaderisthatit's
primarypurposewasnotastrictlymilitaryapplication.ThepowerloaderwasonboardtheSulacoas
afuturisticforklift,andwasonlyusedinamilitary(andkickass)waydueadesperatesituation.

DoctorDoom'sArmorfromtheMarvelUniverse(1962)
Whilemostpeoplebelievethatthefirstmajorcomicbookcharacterwhoisusedpoweredarmorto
achievesuperstatuswasTonyStarkwithhisIronManarmorin1963.However,DoctorDoomwas
firstseeninFantasticFour#5inJulyof1962.UnlikeTonyStark'sinvention,Doom'sarmorwas
originallymagicallyforgedbyTibetanMonks,andenhancedbyDoom'ssuperiorintelligence.With
theseenhancements,Doomwasgiftedwithonboardcomputers,flight,increasedstrength,enhanced
vision,supportsystems.DoctorDoomhasbecomeaniconofevilcharactersincomics,alongwith
haveoneofthemostfamiliarpoweredarmordesigns.
TheFightingSuitsfromTheForeverWar(1975)
TheForeverWartooktheconceptsofthepoweredsuit
fromStarshipTroopersandtookseveralstepsfurtherdown
theroad:"thesuitwasfairlycomfortable,butitgaveyou
theoddfeelingofsimultaneouslybeingamarionetteanda
puppeteer.Youapplytheimpulsetomoveyourlegandthe
suitpicksitupandmagnifiesitandmoveyourlegfor
you."WhileSSTmayhavesetdownthetraditionsof
poweredarmorinscifi,ForeverWarsetthepowered
armormoreintothecontextofspacebasedcombat,very
longtermusage,andevolutionofthesystemoverthe
courseofthewar.Iespeciallyenjoyedhowtheexhaustfins
ofthesuitcouldeffecttheenvironmentofthedeepspace
trainingplanet.Inthebook,thehotexhaustcouldmelt
frozengaspocketscausingdeath.Withthesuccessofthe
ForeverWarandthehighregardthatthenovelisheldin,it
becameawidelyreadnovelthatcontainedpoweredarmor.
IpersonallyenjoythisnovelmuchmorethanSST.

TheChozoPowerSuitfromtheMetroidUniverse(1986)
Over17milliongamessold,and
rankedwithapositiveratingof
85%isoneofthemosticonic
poweredarmoredcladcharacters
inscifivideogaming,Samus
AranandherChozodeveloped
powersuit.Italsohelpedthat
theoriginalMetroidgameswas
exclusivelyreleasedonthe
originalNintendoEntertainment
System,whichformanygamers
alivetoday,wastheirfirst
exposuretohomeconsolevideo
gaming(minewastheoriginal
woodandplasticATARI
2600...OGbaby,OG).In1987,
MetroidwouldbecomeofthemostsuccessfulnonarcadeportgamesontheNESinNorthAmerica.
EveryoneIknewin1987hadtheNESandMetroid.Metroidwasatriplethreat,notonlywasagreat
fluidanddynamicgame,ithadthefirstfemalecharacter,andshedonnedonehellofacoolpowered
armorthatSamuswouldwearthoughoutthegame.Thiswasnotlostonusgamersatthetime.Many
ofustalkedabouthowcoolthearmorwasinthelunchroomsofmyyouth,andIknowthatSamus'
armorhadeffectonmyPOVonpoweredarmor.Tothisday,whenyougoogle"poweredarmor",the
Metroidheroineiseasilyinthetoptieroftheentries.

TheTerranMarinePoweredArmorfromStarcraftUniverse(1998)
MuchlikeIronManandMetroid,sales
successandexcellenceingamedevelopment
ledtoyouringamepoweredarmorto
becomeainfluentialdesign.TheStarcraft
gamessoldnearly10millioncopies,
spawnedtoys,books,manga,andalternated
youthcultureinSouthKorea.Withthis
successandwidespreaddisruption,camethe
popularityoftheTerranMarinepowered
armor.Thisonlyincreasedwhentheteaser
trailerpremieredin2007,fullydetailing
TychusFindlay'sreleasefromprisonand
backintohisarmor.Truly,thisgivesmegeek
chillseverytime.

T51bPoweredInfantryArmorfromtheFalloutgames(1997)
Whenyougoogletheterm
poweredarmor,theT51b
poweredinfantryarmorfromthe
Falloutgamescomesupmany
times,nearlyasmanyasIron
ManandtheMasterChief.
Why?Thepopularityofthe
Falloutgamesisone
factory,alongwiththedesignof
thearmoritselfisverycooland
postnuclearholocaustsetting
thatworksinconjunctionwith
thepopularityofthesuit.Allof
thesefactorshavecausedthe
FalloutT51bsuittobecometoaninfluentialdesign.IguessIneedtoplayFallout3.

TheCryNetNanosuitfromtheCrysisUniverse(2007)
Themajorityofpoweredarmor
seeninscifiiscomposedof
"hardtechnology"thatcreated
futuristicbattlesuittoresemble
theKnightsofEurope.In2007,
thevideogameCrysiswould
changethat,andintroducethe
useofnanotechnologyin
conjunctionwithpowered
armor.Nanotechisnothingnew
intherealmofscifi,butthe
waythattheCrysisgames
incorporatedthetechnologyinto
thegameplay,thestory,andeventhealieninvasionisprettyamazing.Alsoamazingwasthatthe
gameanditsportrayalofpoweredarmorstartedamovementinscifitoincludenanotechin
poweredarmordesigns.

Links

Averygoodanindpetharticleonthehardtechnologyofpoweredarmor
http://www.dcr.net/~stickmak/JOHT/joht15poweredarmor.htm

PossibletechnologicalelementsoftheNanosuitfromCrysis
http://kotaku.com/5985111/thereal+lifesciencebehindcrysisnanosuit

TherealityoftheexosuitfromElysium
http://gizmodo.com/howclosearewetoelysiumstyleexosuits993706204

Thehistoryofrealworldpoweredarmor
http://www.popsci.com/node/20670

15mmminaturepoweredarmortroopers
http://dropshiphorizon.blogspot.com/p/cataloginghumanpowerarmorin15mm.html
PostedbyWilliamat15:43
+9 Recommend this on Google

42comments:

Nyrath August18,2013at11:45AM
Rockingcoolandwellresearchedarticle,asalways.
Oneminornit:itisspelled"OGRE/GEV"not"ORGE/GEV"
OrdinarilyIwouldnotcare,exceptIdidtheartworkfortheoriginalgame.)
Reply

William August18,2013at3:11PM
Corrected!Thanksfortheheadsup...andthatisfuckingcoolthatyoudidtheartworkforthe
originalgame,andwassomenicework.Didyoudesignthepoweredarmor?
Reply

Thomas August18,2013at5:44PM
Greatpost,twonotes
First, the military historian in me forces me to say that armoured plate was dropped for
reasonsofmanoeuvrabilityandcomfort,notthatitcouldntbemadetostopabullet(French
cavalry at Waterloo wore metal breast plates that could stop most bullets,) much as US
troops in Vietnam, Iraq and Afghanistan sometimes ditch their body armour because its
heavyandtemperatureishot,theymaketheirownriskvrewardassessments(butthenthese
are people who volunteer to be sent to a war zone so their risk v reward assessments are
probablynottobetrusted)
Second,mypersonalpreferenceinmystories/worldhasbeenforasortofexoskeleton/future
combatsystems/NBChybrid,andtheyarentreallyinfantrytheyremoreproperlydragoons,
livingintheirAPCsuntilitsappropriate/requiredforthemtogetout,andIthinkthesome
oftheissuesyouhighlightinyourpostareimportant,ifyougotooadvancedinyourpower
armouryoumightaswelljustusetanks,thinkingofwarhammer40kherethosesuitsmust
have little applicability in urban environments unless there is an imperial edict requiring
dwellingstobebuilttobeabletoaccommodatespacemarines
Reply

Nyrath August18,2013at7:32PM
William,yesIdidindeeddesignthepoweredarmoryouseeinOGREandGEV,butnotin
Battlesuit.
The Ogre designs were based on the "Super Trooper" featured in the comic book The
Incredible Hulk vol 163, with the addition of ball joints at the hip and shoulders and TV
scannereyes("Orthicongoggles")insteadofatransparentfaceplate.
Reply

William August19,2013at8:32AM
The ditching of those of godawful turtle vests was common in Vietnam, and the for the
reasonsyoustated.I'vetriedonmilitaryballisticarmorafewtimeovertheyears,anditis
amazing how heavy it is. I've added your comments to my upcoming blogpost on body
armor!
Icouldn'timaginehumpingthatthingthroughthebushandsand.
IagreewithyouontheapplicationofpoweredarmorinCQBsituationsthatplagueurban
environments.I'veimaginedurbanwarfareappliedtotheregionofAmericawhereIliveand
FWSisbased:DallasFortWorthMetroplex,andthisregionisunique.Urbanwarfarehere
wouldbedifferentforurbancombatinregionslikeNewYorkCity,Tokyo,andLondon.I
couldonlypictureWH40KspacemarinechargingdownTime'sSquare!
NYRATHI'vegotaForgottenClassicsblogpostonOGRE/GEVcomingup,andIthinkwe
shoulddoaninterview.
ThankstoallforreadingandcommentingandIhopethisblogpostliveduptothewait!
Reply

Heloriorn August19,2013at9:01AM
HiWill,
justsomeremarksasabigfanofW40k..

IthinkthatTacticalDreadnoughtArmorwouldbemorelikeheavyClass1poweredarmor,
as it is same in concept as normal Power armor, just with heavier armor plates, stronger
cyberneticmusclesandpowersource,sonomorecopckitlike....

RegardingthejumppacksofSpacemarines...they'rebigandthey'reusedformostlyforshort
hops similar to Starship Troopers powered armor, so I think that could be in some way
managable....buttherewouldstillbetheproblemwithpowersource...

And the last rermark: Power armor from W40k isn't only for Adeptus Astartes. Some
inquisitorsandSistersofBattleuseitandthey'renormalhumans)

Anywayyououtdidyourselfagain...Ididn'texpectsuchamassiveposteventhoughthetopic
isrichinMSF.Youhavemygreatestrespect*BOW*
Reply

Nyrath August19,2013at10:19AM
William,aninterview?Certainly.Youcancontactmethroughmywebsite,orviaGoogle+
Reply

William August19,2013at12:11PM
I will modify the section on WH40K, I should have caught that since I have every single
GWS Codex...dumb of me. Thanks for the kind words! This was the blogpost I've been
dwelling on since the founding of FWS, and it became much easier after I researched the
topicofPoweredArmorformynovel.
There will not be a blogpost this large for another month...need to recharge. I think that
blogpostwillbetheoneonFTLdrivesystems.
Again,thanksfortheread!
Reply

Anonymous September2,2013at6:33AM
Greatpostasalways!Bytheway,Ithinktheremaybeanothergoodreasonforasoldierto
benudeintheirarmor(atleasttheclassonevariant).Ifyou'regoingtobeinthatarmorfor
anyamountoftime,soonerorlateryou'regoingtohavetakeapissoracrapandtherearen't
anybathroomsaroundespeciallyifyouronahostileplanet.So,yoursuitcouldrecycleyour
urine for drinking water and either simply remove the other waste, or take the WH40K
approach of turning it into food. But relieving yourself in clothes (at least for number 2)
would sort of hold it in place and not let it be recycled. Just something to consider. I love
yourcontent,pleasekeepupthegoodwork!
Reply

William September2,2013at1:56PM
I do believe you are right, any longterm powered armor, especially those on hostile
atmosphere exoplanets without any Starbuck's would need to be similar to a Stillsuit from
DUNE...afterall,noonelikestocrapintheirboxers.
Thanksforthekindwords!FWSwillcontinueonwards,Icouldn'timaginingstoppingwork
onFWS,especiallywithitsincreasedpopularity.
Reply

Anonymous September6,2013at6:41PM
Hey William, just another fan of FWS. I love your content and I'd to get your opinion on
something. I'm writing a MSF story and I want my power armor to be as practical as
possible.Iwasconcernedaboutthepotentialproblemswiththestandardhelmetusedinmost
scifi,suchastheweightofthehelt(aconcernspawnedbyJohnSteakleysArmor,inwhich
Felixcommentsatonepointthatfallingwithoutpowerwillcausethehelmetofhissuitto
breakhisneck),andthevulnerabilityoftheneckarea.Mysolutionwastoinsteadextendthe
torsotocovertheheadareaaswell,sortofgivingthesuitaroundedtop.I'dliketoknowif
youthinkthiswouldbemoreeffectiveorifthestandardhelmetisbetter.Iloveyourcontent
keepupthegreatworkandthankyouforinspiringmethewriteMSF!
Reply

William September9,2013at11:37AM
YouarethereasonthatIfoundedFWSthreeyearsago...tobearesourceforMSFfansand
creators.
Iranintothesameissuewithmyownpoweredarmorinmyfirstbook,andtheonlywayto
solvetheissueiswhatyouhavecomeupwith...extendingthetorso.JustlookattheAMP
suit from AVATAR...where did the arrow go? Right to the face, where the armor is the
weakest.Theonlydrawbacktothetorso,ismoreofalackofnaturalvisibility.Muchlikea
supercar,youcanseeoutthefrontarchofthesuit,butthesidesandreararedependenton
sensors.Ifthesensorsgoout,theoperatorisatmoreofaloss...justlookattheRiotMechs
fromtheRiddickgames.Thus,isthenatureofdesigningmilitaryequipment,prosandcons,
butthatgivesfictionalmachineryanicerealisticedge.
Hopethathelps...keeponwriting,andletmeknowifyouneedanymorehelpfromFWS.
Reply

Replies

Anonymous August7,2014at3:50AM
Ithink,theproblemwiththeheadprotectioniswellsolvedintheDesignofthe
LandmatesfromAPPLESEEDortheCIDintheDaleBrownNovels.Therethe
operators head is proected within the APS torso, and the sensors are mounted
externilywithinathickarmor(withoutacavityforaheadtheresmorespacefor
armor and sensors without extra volume). This design you can pursue troughout
all Classes, even CLASS1 (there's a cool artist on DeviantArt:
http://sttheo.deviantart.com/). Most of his combat suits have the head within the
torsoarmor.Forprotection:Basiclydon'tremocethefacearmorlikeQuaritchdid
in AVATAR (he dropped the canopy and by thus his protection against Na'Vi
arrows after Jack damaged it beyond transparency) and you should be fine. At
least until someone aims a Sensor Dazzler at your head or blows it off with a
HighcaliberroundofRPG.

Reply

Anonymous October25,2013at7:16PM
WarriorSuitStandardforinterstellardefensetroopers,anddesignedtoabletofunctionina
varietyofsituations,thoughcombatisstilltheprimaryone.
ScoutSuitAlightervariantofthewarriorsuit,thoughnotaswellarmored,itcanmoveat
threetimesthespeedandisequippedwithacloakingfield.Idealforreconforces.
Support Suit V1 A variation of the Warrior suit, the Support Suit sacrifices some of the
extra armor and weapons of the standard warrior suit to make room for extra ammo and
sparefuelcells.Thisallowsittoresupplyfriendlyforcesinfieldwithbothammunitionand
energy.Anidealsquadhasatleasttwosupportsuits.
SupportsuitV2Anotherversionofthesupportsuit,thesecondversionhasthesamearmor
andweaponsystems,butinsteadmakesroomforextracommunicationequipment.Although
notusedoften,troopersinthissuitcanprovevitalonworldswherecommunicationbetween
shipandgroundforcesislimitedbymagneticfieldsorweather.
CommandSuitAnimprovedversionofthewarriorsuit,boastingsuperiorenergysupply
andsensors.Thoughbecauseofthegreatercostitisonlyissuedtoofficers.
M.A.W Armor The Mechanized Assault Warrior Armor is an extremely powerful armor
deployedonlyforthemostdireoperationsthatrequiremaximumfirepower.It'sarmorand
weaponstrumpthatofstandardarmor,anditissurprisinglynimble.Despiteit'sincredible
effectiveness in field, the great cost of manufacturing and maintaining them makes them a
raresight.Mostshipswillonlycarrythreeinreserveincaseofunforeseenproblems.
IjustfeltlikesharingthisXD
Reply

William October26,2013at7:51AM
Noworries!Pleaseshare!FWSisallaboutwritersandcreatorsofMSFbringnewideasto
thegenre.Ilikethelabelsforthepoweredarmor
Reply

Anonymous October27,2013at4:24PM
HeyWilliam,Iwaswondering,whichAPSdoyouthinkismorelikelytobebuilt?TypeOne
or Type Two? I'm writing two different stories and I wanted to decide by which armor is
morelikelytoexist.AndincaseyouaskIamtoostubborntoflipacoin,andIjustwanted
youropinionbecauseIloveyourcontent.
Reply

William October27,2013at5:25PM
Hey, thanks! FWS is here to serve. I went with TypeII for my story based on the
environment and imageI wanted to project, which was based in the 27th century. I think,
based on the research done thus far, that the TypeI, like what was seen Elysium is more
likelythanTypeII.Ithinkthatwillchangewiththeadvancementofrobotics.TypeIcould
alsobehelped,inthenearfuture,withthedevelopmentofcybernetics.Ifyourstoryissetin
thenearfuture,thanTypeIisyourbestbet
Hopethathelps!
Reply

Anonymous January21,2014at4:49PM
Poweredarmourshouldbeviewedasaforcemultiplier.
Itwon'tmakeyouundisputedmasterofwarbutwithadequatetrainingwillmakeyousurely
muchmorehardertokill.Itwillalwayshaveseverepsychologicalimpactontheenemyat
first, mainly becouse CLASS 2, wich has more sense, can wield several different weapon
systems and with skilled operator (optionally with neural interface) can deliver equivalent
firepowerofafireteamatleastandcan'tbeputoutofactionwithoutuseofspecialpurpouse
weapons. CLASS 1 in most cases are to complicated and overenginered, especially when
theirdesignclearlysuggeststheyshouldbestandardissue.Someexoskeletonwithmodular
addons,neuralinterfaceforbettercontrol/sit.awarnessanddone.ForyourtypicalfutureG.I.
Soenemyisboundtotakeseriuoscasualitieseachtimewhenfacingpowercladsoldiersin
situationwhenhedoesn'thaveany.
WhyconceptispopularinMSF,it'sbecouseofweightlimitofyourdropships.Tankisheavy
andcanbeinoneplaceatatime,inspaceofonetankyoucanhaveseveralPAequipped
soldierswhoaremoreeffectiveinlowintesitywarfarethanconventionaltanks.Duetosheer
price od such PAs they will be fielded in smaller number, perheaps in support of
conventional mech./motor./airmobile infantry. Units would be composed of highly skilled
veteransandusedforquickflankingmanouversorcreatingbreachesinenemyslinestobe
quicklyusedbyfollowupforces.PAswillbeverydependantonsupplychainsthough.Will
be effective in open warfare but only short periods of time, then will become multimillon
worth pices of junk when run out of juice. The best example on how logistics would
influence their operational capability is shown in "Leagacy of Aldaneta" series by John
Ringo,calledalso"ThePossleenWar".
AndremeberthatPoweredArmourisonlyagamechangerwhenfightingwithenemywho
doesn't posses enough weapons and skills to compete on 1:1 basis in open combat.
Otherwise,onlyyourskillsandexperiencewouldmatter.
Reply
Reply

William January21,2014at7:33PM
I need to read John Ringo's Possleen War novels, that is third mention of the novels this
week along! Your theory is correct about APS being a force multiplier, and who and how
theycouldbepiloted.Excellentcomment!
Reply

shanehutchins January28,2014at2:08AM
thankyoufortheinformation.
http://www.affordableskidsteers.com/
Reply

Anonymous February1,2014at7:57AM
I'dhatetoburstabubblebut,thatimageatthetopisn'tpowerarmor.That'sanEXO,oneof
theracesfromDestiny,andit'sarobot.Otherthanthat,excellentpost!
Reply

William February1,2014at8:52AM
Damn! You're right! At the time of the writing of this blogpost, Bungie had released the
image, but no information, and I thought it was a cool picture for the title image...I may
changeit
Reply

BrandonBrown February6,2014at4:18PM
Thiscommenthasbeenremovedbytheauthor.
Reply

BrandonBrown February6,2014at6:02PM
Reading most of this, it is safe to assume that for the most part, the CLASSI Powered
Armor would fall under what TVTropes would call "Awesome but impractical" whereas
CLASSIIandIIIwouldbemorepractical.Althoughforthemostpart,asyoupointedout,it
seemsmostlytojustbeapsychologicaldeterrent,unlessyouhappenedtogetsomethinglike
aPTS(PointDefenseSystem)todealwithrocketsandthelikeforCLASSIIandIII.Just
howIviewit,anyways.
Reply

Replies

BrandonBrown February6,2014at7:48PM
PDS* No idea where or why I got PTS. And what I am referring to by PDS is
somethingliketheTROPHYsystem.

Reply

William February11,2014at2:41PM
ClassIIandClassIIIaremorepossiblewhenconsideringthetechnicalchallengesassociated
withdeployingMILSPECAPS.Forsomereason,pointdefensesystemsinterestme...thanks
forreadingandcommenting!
Reply

Vipguildwars2gold April21,2014at3:15AM
This idea, transformed into one of the most iconic elements of battlefield technology in
militarysciencefiction,thepoweredarmorsuit,allowingonesoldiertobecomemany.After
theideaofthethisfuturisticarmorwasestablishedbyE.E.DocSmithandRobertHeinlein,
JapaneseAnime/MangaalongwithAmericanvideogames/comicbookswouldjumponthe
conceptandexpandingitthatcontinuestothisday.

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jyotisoni May9,2014at11:59PM
Thank you for sharing valuable information. Nice post. I enjoyed reading this post. The
wholeblogisverynicefoundsomegoodstuffandgoodinformationhereThanks..Alsovisit
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Reply

Niklas September11,2014at8:15AM
ExcellentpostIwasgooglingfuturesoldierandpoweredarmourandexoskeletonforbattle
andgottoyourpage!Goodwork!
Reply

William September11,2014at12:48PM
Glad you enjoyed it and thanks for the kind words! Pull up a chair, grab a beer, and stay
awhile.
Reply

MarineKopp October24,2014at11:16AM
ExcellentpublishIwassearchingupcomingknightandoperatedshieldandexoskeletonfor
fightandgottoyourpage!Greatwork!ClaraBush
Reply

JamesBuckley November30,2014at5:14AM
Will,againyouhaveoutdoneyourselfwithresearch.Ilovewhatyouhaveputtogether.
Reply

Anonymous September17,2015at11:25PM
Excellent Article! of course robonaut is wrong and to the people who coined that term it
shouldbeastrobot.
Keepupthegoodwork.
Reply

Henry May9,2016at12:02PM
it'slookingjustamazingpost,
ArmoredVehicles
Reply

MWatson May14,2016at10:29AM
HaveyoueverreadtheshortstoryWarbotsbyLarryTodd.Iactuallycameacrossyourblog
whilelookingforthestory.Ireaditlike25yearsago,andaredditorrecentlyhelpedmefind
it. It was my first exposure to powered armor. Here's a link to it.
http://documents.mx/documents/thewarbotsbylarrytodd.html
Reply

IsabelBent June13,2016at12:37AM
Thanks for the information and links you shared this is so should be a useful and quite
informative.
Bulletproof
Reply

TwiggyShei June13,2016at9:39PM
William: Wouldn't it be more realistic in writing (I say this out of a need for advice, for
normal soldiers to be supplied with pressurized combat armor, while only a select few,
speciallytrainedagentsreceivethemoreexpensiveandhardertobuildSMARTarmors?My
ownfictionalworldinvolvesmoreofacorporateespionageconflictthanaflatoutwar,at
leastatfirst,andI'mjustwonderingifitwouldbeagoodideatotakecostsofsomethingso
complexintoaccount,orifthat'soverthinkingthings.Ilovedreadingthisblogpost,andam
reallyimpressedwithehresearchyou'veputin.
Reply

William June13,2016at10:46PM
Thanks for the kind words. I think it would be realistic that only a few get the SMART
armor,butyoutosellthistotheaudiencetojustifyit.Idothinkitagoodangletotakeon
including cost on items like this, especially considering that you are dealing with
corporations.TheCLASSIIAPSarmorinmynovelwasthemarkofeliteoperators.
Goodluckonyourbook!
Reply

SumanPatel June21,2016at2:31AM
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JimCulp August8,2016at7:36PM
AwesomeSite!!!!
Reply

wendaonocheng September20,2016at2:16AM
great site, and awesome explanation! no less to say, maybe some opinion about powered
armorinparacticalfuture:
exoskeleton,massproducedforspecializedfootsoldier,asidefromenchancinguserability,
someattachmentlikeopticalsightallowedforIFFdetection,thermal(detectinglivingthings
),infraredvision,andrangefinder(seriously,estimatingrangearetheonebigproblem),life
supportmodule(assumetheoneusedthisgethit,hegotchancetofight/retreat)andsome
bodyarmorandballisticshield(shieldareusedforopenterrain,incasenoprotectionfrom
environmentatall)
exoskeleton are great, cause do not hinder mobility (allowing to prone, roll, etc). but the
most important aspect are durability, that's mean this machine will work even treated as
badlyasak'srifle. this one need to be as cheap as possible,neither to replaced or repaired.
modularwillbegoodoptionifpossible.

classonepoweredarmorlooksbestforEODjob,sincethisoneprotectentirebodies,orused
for rescue operation from combat zone. assume there are some individual need to be
extracted,theysimplyputhim/herinsidethismachine,andcomputerbasedclassoneallow
thisarmortoberemotecontrolled,sotheuserdon'tneedtooperatemanually.andincaseof
emergency,hecanescapeasfastaspossiblefromthismachine

classtwomaybewidespreadforsupportrole,butdidn'treplacetanksfrombattlefield.size
smallerfromaveragetanks.theydidn'tneedtowalktotarget,airliftfromhelicopter/airdrop
fromplanewillworkstoo

classthreemaybelessused,sincebigsillohuetteofferbigtarget,butifthisoneused,the
thing this machine will looks like transformers robot (can shift from oridinary vehicle for
speed and robot version for difficult terrain use).this machine will carry large artillery/
ballisticmissile

welljustsomeopinionthough
Reply

Replies

wendaonocheng September20,2016at2:24AM
oya, forgot to add, this powered armor thing not a standard infantry carry, but
moreoptionalequipmentforspecificpurpose

Reply

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