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Maher Hammami 1 and Ines Ellouze 2

1

Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences de Sfax

Rte de Soukra Km 3.5, B.1171 - 3000 Sfax-Tunisie

Fax: (216) 74 274 437

2

Departement de Mathematiques, Faculte des Sciences de Sfax

a class of uncertain systems. We construct a robust detector which provides

an approximation of the state of the system. The state trajectory control by

state observation for a class of uncertain systems based on output feedback is

treated, where the nominal system is linear and the uncertainties are bounded.

This work is based on Lyapunov techniques. Furthermore, a numerical example

is given to illustrate the applicability of our main result.

1 Introduction

The problem of state trajectory control for nonlinear systems by output feedback is ad-

dressed by several authors ([1][10]) using several basic methods of studying the stability

and constructing stabilizing output controllers.

In this paper, we treat this problem for a class of uncertain systems. The perturbation

term could result from errors in modeling the nonlinear system, aging of parameters or

uncertainties. In a typical situation, we do not know the uncertainties but we know some

information about it. We can no longer study stability of the origin as an equilibrium

point, nor should we expect the solution of the uncertain systems to approach the origin

as t tends to infinity. The best we can hope that, if the uncertainties are bounded by a

small term in some sense, then the solution will be ultimately bounded by a small bound

Corresponding author: hammami maher@yahoo.fr

350 M. HAMMAMI AND I. ELLOUZE

for sufficiently large t. Under some conditions we construct a robust detector (dynamical

system which is expected to produce an estimation of the state on the hole space except

on a small neighborhood of the origin) as the one introduced by Vidyasager [11]. We

study the state trajectory control for non-linear system by output feedback. We obtain

Global Uniform Ultimate Boundedness (GUUB) trajectory (see [12]) for the state of the

error equation.

Consider the state space model

x = A()x + B()u,

(1)

y = C()x,

(n n), (n q) and (p n) matrices respectively. We shall assume that the dimension

of the state model is finite. We consider throughout this paper specifically perturbations

of the state space from of the plant dynamics (i.e., perturbations of the A(), B() and

C() matrices). Let A0 , B0 and C0 be the linearized nominal model of the plant. The

matrices A(), B() and C() can be factored as follows

A() = A0 + A,

B() = B0 + B,

C() = C0 + C.

We suppose here the exact knowledge of the state space matrices (A0 , B0 , C0 ). The

elements of the matrix A0 are {aij } while the elements of the matrix A() are {aij + ij }.

In the absence of nonlinearities, the problem is reduced to the linear one.

x = A0 x + B0 u,

(2)

y = C0 x.

Uncertain systems are an important class of nonlinear systems, several authors are

interested to study this kind of systems. In [13] and [14], the authors studied this class

of system when the nonlinear part is of the form Ew + , the noise w is described in a

general state space form and it also includes the case of state dependent noise. The Ew

factor may represent a stochastic parameter variation of the system matrix A while

represents an external additive perturbation.

Let consider the system (1) which can be described by the following state equations

x = A0 x + B0 u + Ax + Bu,

(3)

y = C0 x + Cx,

= A0 x

x + B0 u L(C0 x y) + A

x + Bu.

Let e = x

x. The error equation is given locally by

NONLINEAR DYNAMICS AND SYSTEMS THEORY, 8(4) (2008) 349358 351

Since the terms kAxk, kBuk and kCxk are locally bounded, then these dynamics

are locally exponentially stable provided that the pair (A0 , C0 ) is detectable. In [15],

[16] the authors studied this class of systems and constructed a global detector in the

presence of nonlinear perturbation.

In the general case, we consider the perturbed system (3) which can be described by

the following state equations

x = F (t, x, u) = A0 x + B0 u + f (t, x, u),

(4)

y= h(t, x) = C0 x + h(t, x),

where x Rn , u Rq , y Rp , A0 , B0 and C0 are known (n n), (n q), (p n)

constant matrices respectively and f (t, x, u), h(t, x) are locally Lipschitz continuous

represents of the uncertainties in the plant. For our case, in the presence of uncertainties,

we give a definition of detectability, where we introduce the notion of a global detector

and we will study the state observation law for a class of uncertain systems in the GUUB

trajectory sense.

Consider the system

x = f (t, x),

(5)

y = h(t, x),

where t R+ , x Rn is the state, u Rq is the control and y Rp is the output of

the system. The functions f : [0, +[Rn Rn respectively h : [0, +[Rn Rp are

pieceswise continuous in t and globally Lipschitz in x on [0, +[Rn .

We now introduce the notions of uniform boundedness and uniform ultimate boun-

dedness of a trajectory of (5) (see [12]).

Definition 2.1 The system (5) is uniformly bounded when

for all R1 > 0, there exists a R2 = R2 (R1 ) > 0 such that for all x0 Rn , for all t0

and for all t t0

kx0 k R1 = kx(t)k R2 .

Definition 2.2 The system (5) is uniformly ultimately bounded when

there exists a R > 0 such that for all R1 > 0, there exists a T = T (R1 ) > 0 such

that for all x0 n , for all t0 and for all t t0 + T

kx0 k R1 = kx(t)k R.

The above definition means that we have the ultimately bound of the trajectory uniformly

on t0 . The classical theorem of Lyapunov proves uniform asymptotic stability of the

equilibrium point x = 0 of a dynamical system x(t) = f (x(t), t) when there exists a

positive definite and decrescent Lyapunov function V (x, t) whose derivative V (x, t) along

the solutions of the system is negative definite. When there exists a RV > 0 such that the

derivative V (x, t) along the solutions of the system is negative for x with kxk > RV > 0.

Definition 2.3 The system (5) is GUUB solution if V satisfies the following estima-

tion:

V (x(t)) V (x(t)) + r (6)

with > 0 and r > 0.

352 M. HAMMAMI AND I. ELLOUZE

Remark 2.1 If equation (6) holds then the state of (3) satisfies:

r

k x(t) k k x(t0 ) k e(tt0 ) + , t t0 .

The problem is to design a continuous detector with input y(t) such that the estimates

denoted by x(t) converge to x(t) in the ultimate bounded sense (as in the Definition 2.3).

Definition 2.4 (Robust detector). A system

= G (t, x

x , y, u)

is called a robust detector for (3) if for all input signals u,

r

x(t0 ) x(t0 )k n \B(0, )

k

one has

r

k

x(t) x(t)k 1 k x(t0 ) x(t0 )ke(tt0 ) + , t t0 .

B(0, r ) denotes the ball of radius r > 0 with 1 > 0, r > 0 and > 0. Note that the

state of the error equation converges to the ball B(0, r ) when t goes to infinity.

3 Robust Detector

We now highlight the major assumptions, with regard to the system given by (3) that

are used in the observer stability proof.

(A1 ) The pair (A0 , C0 ) is observable, then there exists a matrix L such that the eigenval-

ues of (A0 LC0 ) are in the open left-half plane [17]. For all definite positive symmetric

matrix Q there exists a definite positive symmetric matrix P such that:

(A0 LC0 )T P + P (A0 LC0 ) = Q.

P f (t, x, u) = C0T (t, x, u),

where P is the unique positive definite solution to the Lyapunov equation which is given

in (A1 ).

(A3 ) There exits a positive scalar function 1 (t) such that

k(t, x, u)k 1 (t),

where k.k denotes the Euclidean norm on Rn .

(A4 ) There exists a function where (., .) : R+ Rn Rp , such that

P Lh(t, x) = C0T (t, x),

where P is the unique positive definite solution to the Lyapunov equation which is given

in (A1 ).

(A5 ) There exists a positive scalar function 2 (t) such that

k(t, x)k 2 (t),

where k.k denotes the Euclidean norm on Rn .

NONLINEAR DYNAMICS AND SYSTEMS THEORY, 8(4) (2008) 349358 353

Theorem 3.1 If the assumption (A1 ), (A2 ), (A3 ), (A4 ) and (A5 ) hold, then the

system

= A0 x

x + B0 u + (t, x, y, u) L(C0 x

y),

where

y)(t)2

P 1 C0T (C0 x

(t, x, y, u) = (7)

kC0 ek(t) + r0

with r0 > 0 and (t) = 1 (t) + 2 (t), is a robust detector for the system (4).

Proof Let consider the following Lyapunov function V (e) = eT P e as in the (A1 ).

The derivative of this function along the trajectory of the closed-loop system by the

output feedback y, or just along the error equation and using equation (4) and (7)

is given by

y)(t)2

P 1 C0T (C0 x

V (e) = eT Qe 2eT C0T (t, x, u) 2eT P

kC0 ek(t) + r0

+2eT C0T (t, x)

eT C0T C0 e(t)2 eT C0T h(t, x)(t)2

= eT Qe 2eT C0T (t, x, u) 2 +2

k C0 e k (t) + r0 k C0 e k (t) + r0

+2eT C0T (t, x).

Since

where min (A) and max (A) denote the minimum and maximum eigenvalues of the

matrix A and using (A3 ) and (A5 ), one gets

V (e) min (Q)kek2 + 2kC0 ek1 (t) 2 +2

kC0 ek(t) + r0 kC0 ek(t) + r0

+2kC0 ek2 (t)

V (e) min (Q)kek2 + 2kC0 ek(t) 2 +2

kC0 ek(t) + r0 kC0 ek(t) + r0

kC0 ek(t) kC0 ek(t)

min (Q)kek2 + 2r0 + 2(t)kh(t, x)k

kC0 ek(t) + r0 kC0 ek(t) + r0

kC0 ek(t)

min (Q)kek2 + (2r0 + 2(t)kh(t, x)k) .

kC0 ek(t) + r0

354 M. HAMMAMI AND I. ELLOUZE

Since,

kC0 ek(t) kC0 k2 (t)

< 1, kh(t, x)k < ,

kC0 ek(t) + r0 kP Lk

we obtain

kC0 k2 (t)

V (e) min (Q)kek2 + 2r0 + 2 (t)

kP Lk

min (Q)

V (e) V (e) + r

max (P )

with

kC0 k2 (t)

r = 2r0 + 2 (t).

kP Lk

So

V (e) V (e) + r

with

min (Q)

= . (9)

max (P )

From the above Remark 2.1 one obtains the following estimation

r

k V (e(t)) k k V (e(t0 )) k e(tt0 ) +

so,

r

min (P )ke(t)k2 max (P )ke(t0 )k2 e(tt0 ) + .

Hence,

s

max (P ) r

r

ke(t)k ke(t0 )ke 2 (tt0 ) + .

min (P ) min (P )

r

q

Therefore, e(t) converges to the ball B(0, ) in the ultimate bounded sense.2

min (P )

Remark 3.1 Note that, if we take r0 = r0 (t) with r0 (t) going to zero when t tends

to infinity and 0 when t +, the trajectory tends to the origin exponentially

when t +.

Next, we consider the system (4) under the condition that the uncertainties are

bounded. When the states are not available the usual technique is to build an observer

which gives an approximation of the state. Many authors studied the problem of the

conception of the observer. For the concept of observer, we aim at simplifying the design

of this system by exploiting the linear form of the nominal system. We first introduce

the following definition as in [18] and [19].

NONLINEAR DYNAMICS AND SYSTEMS THEORY, 8(4) (2008) 349358 355

Definition 3.1 A practical exponential observer for (4) is a dynamical system which

has the following form:

= F (t, x

x , u) L(C x

y), (10)

where L is the gain matrix and the origin of the error equation with e = x

x, which is

given by

e = F (t, x, u) F (t, x, u) LCe + Lh(t, x) (11)

is globally practically exponentially stable, it means that it is globally uniformly practi-

cally asymptotically stable and the following estimation holds:

with 1 , 2 , r > 0.

Note that, the origin x = 0 may not be an equilibrium point of the system (4). We

can no longer study stability of the origin as an equilibrium point nor should we expect

the solution of the system to approach the origin as t . The inequality given in

Remark 2.1 implies that x(t) will be ultimately bounded by a small bound r > 0, that is,

kx(t)k will be small for sufficiently large t. If r can be replaced by a smooth map r(t) as a

function of t which tends to zero as t tends to +, the ultimate bound approaches zero.

This can be viewed as a robustness property of convergence to the origin provided that

F satisfies F (t, 0, 0) = 0, t 0, which is supposed in such a way the origin becomes

an equilibrium point.

We consider the system (4) satisfying the assumption (A1 ) and the following one

(A6 ) There exist positive constants M1 and M2 , such that for all t 0

kf (t, x)k M1 ,

and (12)

kh(t, x)k M2 .

x = A

x + Bu + f (t, x

) L(C x

y), (13)

where L is the gain matrix, x Rn is the state estimate of x(t) in the sense that

e(t) = x

(t) x(t) satisfies the following estimation,

Proposition. Under assumptions (A1 ) and (A6 ) the system (13) is a practical ex-

ponential observer for the system (4).

Indeed, we consider the error equation with e = x x

e = x ) f (t, x) + Lh(t, x) (14)

and the quadratic Lyapunov function candidate V (e) = eT P e as in the proof of the

theorem. Taking into account (A6 ), the derivative of W along the trajectories of system

356 M. HAMMAMI AND I. ELLOUZE

(2) is given by

(t, e) = e T P e + eT P e

W

= eT (A0 LC0 )T P + P (A0 LC0 ) e + 2eT P (f (t, x

) f (t, x))

+ 2eT P Lh(t, x)

= eT Qe + 2eT P (f (t, x

) f (t, x)) + 2eT P Lh(t, x)

eT Qe + 2keT P k kf (t, x

) f (t, x)k + 2keT P Lk kh(t, x)k

eT Qe + 2kP k (kf (t, x

)k + kf (t, x)k) kek + 2kP k kLk kh(t, x)k kek

eT Qe + 4kP k M1 kek + 2kP k kLk M2 kek

eT Qe + (4kP kM1 + 2kP k kLk M2 ) kek

min (Q)kek2 + M kek

with

M = (4kP kM1 + 2kP k kLk M2 ) .

Using (8), we get

min (Q)

V (e) V (e) + M kek

max (P )

Therefore,

M

V (e) V (e) + p

p

V (e). (15)

min (P )

p

Let W (t) = V (t). The derivative with respect time yields

(t) = V (t) .

W

2W (t)

So,

(t) 1 W (t) + 1 p M

W .

2 2 min (P )

Using remark 2.1, one gets

1 M

kW (t)k kW (t0 )ke 2 (tt0 ) + p .

min (P )

p

Since W (t) = eT (t)P e(t), it follows that

s

max (P ) M

ke(t)k ke(t0 )ke 2 (tt0 ) + .

min (P ) min (P )

NONLINEAR DYNAMICS AND SYSTEMS THEORY, 8(4) (2008) 349358 357

Definition 3.1. Hence, we conclude that, the origin of system (10) is a practical expo-

nential observer for the system (4). The solution converges to the ball B(0, M ). 2

min (P )

Note that ke(t)k can be small for sufficiently large t, if we take M = M (t) such that

lim M (t) = 0.

t

4 Numerical Example

x 1 = x1 + x2 + et sin x1 , t 0,

x 2 = 3x2 + 2u, (16)

y = x1 + x2 ,

with x = (x1 , x2 )T R2 ,

1 1 0,

A0 = , B0 = ,

0 3 2 (17)

C0 = 1 1 , f (t, x) = et sin x1 .

This system is observable with

L1 2401

L= = .

L2 2283

We get the following system

x 2400 2400 0 2401

= +

x u+ y + et sin x

1 (18)

2283 2280 2 2283

with

1 0

Q= , min (Q) = max (Q) = 1,

0 1

and P is given in (A1 ):

6, 3458 6, 3456

P = , min (P ) = 0, 0042, max (P ) = 12, 6954.

6, 3456 6, 3538

Let kP k = max (P ) = 12, 6954. Hence = 0, 0788 and f (t, x) 1, t, x. Here

M1 = 1, M2 = 0 and M = 4 kP k M1 = 50, 7816.

Therefore, system (18) is an observer which can be considered as a robust detector as

the definition 2.4 and the trajectory of the error equation converges to the ball B(0, r)

with r 153498.

Conclusion

This paper deals with the problem of the output stabilisation for a class of uncertains

systems. It is shown that an output controller can be constructed under some sufficient

conditions and a robust detector can be designed which provides an estimation of the

state. A numerical example in the plane is given to illustrate our main result.

358 M. HAMMAMI AND I. ELLOUZE

References

[1] Walcott, B. Nonlinear Output Stabilisation of Uncertain Systems. In: Proc. of American

Controls Conference, 1988, 22532258.

[2] Steinberg, A. and Corless, H. Output Feedback Stabilisation of Uncertain Dynamical Sys-

tems. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control AC-30 (1985) 10251027.

[3] Walcott, B. and Zak, S. Combined Observer-Controller Synthesis for Uncertain Dynamical

Systems with Applications. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man. and Cybernetics 18 (1)

(1988) 4048.

[4] Yostricov, A. Utkin, V. and Frantsuzova, G. Systems with state Vector Derivative in the

Control. Automation and Remote Control (6) (1986) 283286.

[5] Marino, R. High-Gain Feedback Control in Non-Linear Systems. International Journal of

Control 42 (6) (1985) 13691385.

[6] Baumann, V. and Rugh, V. Feedback Control of Nonlinear Systems by Extended Lineariza-

tion. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control AC-31 (1) (1986) 4046.

[7] Dawson, D.M., Qu, Z. and Carroll, J. On the state observation and output feedback prob-

lems for nonlinear uncertain dynamic systems. Systems & Control Letters 18 (2) (1992)

217222.

[8] Qu, Z. Robust Control of Nonlinear Uncertain Systems. New York: Wiley, 1998.

[9] Xu, S., Shi, P., Feng, C., Guo, Y. and Zou, Y. Robust Observers for a Class of Uncertain

Nonlinear Stochastic systems with State Delays. Nonlinear Dynamics and Systems Theory

4 (3) (2004) 369380.

[10] Karimi, H.R. Robust Dynamic Parameter-Dependent Output Feedback Control of Un-

certain Parameter-Dependent State-Delayed Systems. Nonlinear Dynamics and Systems

Theory 6 (2) (2006) 143158.

[11] Vidyasagar, M. Nonlinear systems analysis. New Jersey, Pratice Hall, Englewood Cliffs,

NJ, 1993.

[12] Khalil, H. Nonlinear Systems. New Jersey, Prentice Hall, 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ,

2002.

[13] Bensoussan, D. and Hammami, M. Robust feedforward control under plant dynamic vari-

ation. IMACS-IFAC Symposium Lille. France, 1991.

[14] Bensoussan, D. and Hammami, M. Achieving robustness to plant uncertainty using high

gain state feedback. IEEE Fourth International Multi-Conference on Systems, Signals &

Devices SSD-SAC-1073, 2007, 1922.

[15] Hammami, M. On the detectability of a certain class of perturbed systems. International

Journal of Computational and Numerical Analysis and Applications 3 (3) (2003) 239248.

[16] Liu, B. and Liu, F. Robustly Global Exponential Stability of Time-varying Linear Impulsive

Systems with Uncertainty Nonlinear Dynamics and Systems Theory 7 (2) (2007) 187195.

[17] Kailath, T. Linear Systems. New Jersey, Pentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1980.

[18] Ellouze, I. and Hammami, M.A. A Separation principle of time-varying dynamical systems:

A pratical approach. Mathematical Modelling and Analysis 12 (2) (2007) 116.

[19] A. Ben Abdallah, Ellouze, I. and Hammami, M.A. Practical global uniform exponential

stability of perturbed triagular systems: a separation principle (to appear in International

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