A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory Determination Using Pipeline Junctions

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A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory Determination Using Pipeline Junctions

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Article

A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory

Determination Using Pipeline Junctions

Hussein Sahli * and Naser El-Sheimy

MMSS Research Group, Geomatics Engineering Department, University of Calgary,

2500 University Dr. NW. Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada; elsheimy@ucalgary.ca

* Correspondence: hasahli@ucalgary.ca; Tel.: +1-587-891-6494

Received: 27 January 2016; Accepted: 13 April 2016; Published: 21 April 2016

Abstract: Pipeline inspection gauges (pigs) have been used for many years to perform various

maintenance operations in oil and gas pipelines. Different pipeline parameters can be inspected

during the pig journey. Although pigs use many sensors to detect the required pipeline parameters,

matching these data with the corresponding pipeline location is considered a very important

parameter. High-end, tactical-grade inertial measurement units (IMUs) are used in pigging

applications to locate the detected problems of pipeline using other sensors, and to reconstruct

the trajectories of the pig. These IMUs are accurate; however, their high cost and large sizes limit

their use in small diameter pipelines (8 or less). This paper describes a new methodology for

the use of MEMS-based IMUs using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the pipeline junctions

to increase the position parameters accuracy and to reduce the total RMS errors even during the

unavailability of above ground markers (AGMs). The results of this new proposed method using a

micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based IMU revealed that the position RMS errors were

reduced by approximately 85% compared to the standard EKF solution. Therefore, this approach will

enable the mapping of small diameter pipelines, which was not possible before.

Keywords: pipeline junctions; Kalman Filter; inertial measurement unit; PLJ; INS; PIG

1. Introduction

Advances in micro-electromechanical-systems (MEMS) technology combined with the

miniaturization of electronics, have made it possible to produce low cost and lightweight chip-based

inertial sensors. These chips are small, lightweight, reliable and they consume very little power.

They have therefore found a wide spectrum of applications in the automotive sector and other

industrial applications. MEMS technology, therefore, can be used to develop navigation systems that

are inexpensive, small, and consume low (microwatt) power. The attractive advantages of MEMS

technology have led to remarkable research progress in the field of MEMS inertial sensors. However,

on the negative side, the performance currently achieved by these low cost sensors is relatively poor

due to their sensor errors. The goal of this paper is henceforth to introduce new constraints for pipeline

navigation to increase the position parameters accuracy and reduce the total RMS.

Pipelines are the lifelines of a dynamic countrys infrastructure; they provide fuel, water, and

all kinds of other needs that touch millions of lives. In addition, they represent one of the safest

transportation methods available for crude oil, natural gas, and chemical fluids; they provide

a transport medium with speed, efficiency and reliability. Furthermore, they are considered an

eco-friendly option. So-called smart pipeline inspection gauges (pigs, Figure 1) commonly carry out

inspection and fault identification of these pipelines.

Sensors 2016, 16, 567 2 of 17

Sensors 2016, 16, 567 2 of 16

Figure 1. Smart Pipeline Inspection Gauge (Nord Stream AG).

Pigs are devices/tools that can be inserted into the pipeline and travel throughout the length of

the pipeline,

Pigs are devices/tools driven forward that by canthe bedifferential

inserted into pressure across the

the pipeline and tool [1,2].throughout

travel Pigs carry embedded

the length of

computers and sensors, to acquire information and to perform various maintenance operations in a

the pipeline, driven forward by the differential pressure across the tool [1,2]. Pigs carry embedded

pipeline. The piggingFigure procedure 1. Smart Pipelinethe

requires Inspection

pipelineGauge

contents(Nord toStream

be flowing AG). to facilitate the pigs

computers and sensors, to acquire information and to perform various maintenance operations in

movement. In general, the pigs total journey length can vary from hundreds of meters to hundreds

a pipeline. PigsThe

of kilometers arepigging

devices/toolsprocedure

[3]. A varietythat can

of methods

requires

be inserted the pipeline

are usedinto

contents

the pipeline

for pipeline andtotravel

inspection

be flowing

suchthroughout

to facilitate

as ultrasonic the length the

techniques, of pigs

movement.

echo sounding, radiography, and cameras. In the past, the position determination of the pig used to of

the In

pipeline, general,

driven the pigs

forward total

by the journey

differential length can

pressure vary

across fromthe hundreds

tool [1,2]. of

Pigsmeters

carry to hundreds

embedded

computers

kilometers

be achieved[3]. and

Awith sensors,

varietya setof oftomethods

acquire wheels

velocity information

are used and

for

(odometers). to perform

pipeline various

Theseinspection

wheels maintenance

such the

provide operations

as ultrasonic

longitudinal in a

techniques,

speed

pipeline.

echo sounding,

of the pig thatThe pigging

radiography, procedure

can be integrated and cameras. requires

to provide the

Inthe pipeline

thedistance

past, the contents

position

traveled to be flowing

determination

along to

the pipeline. of facilitate

theOptic

Fiber the pigs

pig used

Gyroto be

movement.

achieved(FOG)- with aInset

and/or general,

Ring theGyro

Laser

of velocity pigs total (odometers).

journeyhigh-end

(RLG)-based

wheels length These

can vary

inertial from hundreds

navigation

wheels provide of meters

systems

the has beento hundreds

longitudinal proposed

speed of

of

to kilometers

be included [3].inAthe variety of methods

positioning solution are used[4], for pipeline

which is inspection

currently being such

used as for

ultrasonic

this techniques,

purpose in theGyro

the pig that can be integrated to provide the distance traveled along the pipeline. Fiber Optic

echo

large sounding,

diameter radiography,

inspection tools.and cameras. In the past, the position determination of the pig used to

(FOG)- and/or Ring Laser Gyro (RLG)-based high-end inertial navigation systems has been proposed

be achieved

This work withaddresses

a set of velocity

the issue wheels (odometers).

of providing These wheels

a MEMS-based aided provide

inertial the longitudinal speed

to beofincluded

the pig in the

that can be positioning

integrated solution

to provide [4], which istraveled

currently being usednavigation

for this Optic system

purpose to

in the

replace the current high-end tactical gradethe distance

IMUs. MEMS-based along

inertial the pipeline.

sensors areFiber

characterized Gyro by

large(FOG)-

diameter inspection

and/or Ringand Lasertools.

Gyro (RLG)-based high-end

large uncertainties high noise (i.e., bias, scale factorinertial navigation systemsTherefore,

and non-orthogonality). has been proposed

the errors

This

to be work

included addresses

in the the issue

positioning of providing

solution [4], a

which MEMS-based

is currently

in position, velocity and attitude of the motion pig grow rapidly in standalone mode. Therefore,

aided

being usedinertial

for navigation

this purpose system

in the to

replacelarge the

aiding currentinspection

diameter

navigation high-end

systemstools. tacticalessential

become grade IMUs. to solve MEMS-based

the unpredictable inertial

problems sensors are errors

of sensor characterized

and

by large This work

uncertainties addresses

and the

high issue

noise of providing

(i.e., bias, a MEMS-based

scale factor

noises [1]. The aided information will be derived mainly from odometer sensors, pipeline modeling and aided inertial

non-orthogonality). navigation system

Therefore, to the

errorsreplace

in the

position, current

velocity high-end

and

and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). tactical

attitude grade

of the IMUs.

motion MEMS-based

pig grow inertial

rapidly sensors

in are

standalone characterized

mode. by

Therefore,

aiding large uncertainties

Due

navigation to the systems and high

distance become noiseessential

underwater (i.e.,orbias, scale

underground,

to factor

solve theand

and/ornon-orthogonality).

the material

unpredictable that Therefore,

problems the of

pipeline

sensortheiserrors

made and

errors

in position, velocity and attitude of the motion pig grow rapidly in standalone mode. Therefore,

noisesof,[1].it isThe

not aided

possible for the pig towill

information communicate

be deriveddirectly mainly with

from theodometer

outside world. The collected

sensors, pipelinedata is

modeling

aiding

saved navigation

internally systems

and becomelater

processed essential to solve the unpredictable

(post-processed). The process problemsthat

requires of sensor

extra errors and

navigation

and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS).

noises

sensors[1]. beTheused aided information

to improve the will be derivedofmainly

performance the pigsfrom odometer sensors, methods.

pipeline modeling

Due

and to the

Global distance

Navigation underwater

Satellite or underground,

System (GNSS). and/orlocationthe material estimation

that the pipeline A wheel

is made of,

odometer, for instance, can measure traveled distances (by counting the number of wheel

it is not possible

Due to the for the pig

distance to communicate

underwater directly with the outside world. The collected data is saved

revolutions) that are translated later or into underground, and/or the material

velocity measurements. that the pipeline

These measurements can isbemade

used

internally

of, it isand

as external

processed

not possible

updates for

later

for the

the pig

(post-processed).

to communicate

navigation algorithms.

The

directly process

Figurewith therequires

outside

2 illustrates

that extra

the world.

main parts The of navigation

collected datasensors

the navigation is

be usedsaved to improve

internally the

and performance

processed later of the pigs

(post-processed). location The estimation

process

sensors of a typical pig tool. Supports are mainly the front and end parts that provide the sealing for methods.

requires that A

extrawheel odometer,

navigation

sensors

for instance,

the main be

can used

measure

parts. to improve

These traveled

supports thehaveperformance

distancesnominal (byof the pigs

counting

diameters thelocation

larger thanestimation

number theofpipewheel methods. toAproduce

revolutions)

diameter wheel

that are

odometer,

translated

efficientlater for instance,

into [2].

sealing velocity

The pig can measure

measurements.

body is contained traveled

These distances

measurements

between (by counting

the two supports. the number

can be used as external updates of wheel for

revolutions)

the navigation that are translated

algorithms. Figure 2later into velocity

illustrates measurements.

the main parts of the These measurements

navigation sensorscan of abetypical

used pig

as external updates for the navigation algorithms. Figure 2 illustrates the main parts of the navigation

tool. Supports are mainly the front and end parts that provide the sealing for the main parts. These

sensors of a typical pig tool. Supports are mainly the front and end parts that provide the sealing for

supports have nominal diameters larger than the pipe diameter to produce efficient sealing [2]. The

the main parts. These supports have nominal diameters larger than the pipe diameter to produce

pig body is contained

efficient sealing [2].betweenThe pig body the two supports.

is contained between the two supports.

Figure 2. Main pig tool components.

Sensors 2016, 16, 567 3 of 17

An above ground marker (AGM) is another device that can be installed on the surface of the

ground above the pipeline. This device detects and records the passage of the pig in the pipeline.

AGMs provide the navigation coordinates of their position (latitude, longitude, and height) along with

the pigs time passage. This information is used as a coordinate update (typically called CUPT) in the

estimation algorithm. The cost of these devices often minimizes their use. Usually, these AGMs are

installed every 13 km [5] when the pig uses high-end tactical grade IMUs.

A nonlinear

Sensors 2016,sensor

16, 567 fusion algorithm has been applied in [6] to estimate the trajectory 3 of 16of pipeline

pigs. IMUs along with odometers and AGMs are the sensors that have been used for navigation

An above ground marker (AGM) is another device that can be installed on the surface of the

purposes.ground

The filterabovestates have been

the pipeline. propagated

This device detects andusing thethe

records IMU withofan

passage theupdate from

pig in the the odometer

pipeline.

while the AGM is not reached.

AGMs provide The coordinates

the navigation AGM performs of theirposition updateslongitude,

position (latitude, when the andpig passes

height) along underneath.

with the pigs time passage. This information is used as a coordinate update

Similarly, in [7], an IMU along with an odometer and reference GPS have been used to simulate (typically called CUPT)

in the estimation algorithm. The cost of these devices often minimizes their use. Usually, these AGMs

pig data. The results shows that by decreasing the position reference updates, the accuracy increased

are installed every 13 km [5] when the pig uses high-end tactical grade IMUs.

due to the propagation

A nonlinear of IMU

sensor errors.

fusion algorithm has been applied in [6] to estimate the trajectory of pipeline

To allow proper

pigs. IMUs alongmaintenance

with odometers operations

and AGMs and to sensors

are the reconstruct thebeen

that have pipeline

used fortrajectory

navigation in certain

projects, apurposes.

positionThe filter statestechnique

referencing have been propagated

is required using the IMU

to find the with

exactancoordinates

update from the odometer

of the defective parts

while the AGM is not reached. The AGM performs position updates when the pig passes underneath.

detected by the pigs sensors. The core of this work, therefore, is to improve the accuracy of the final

Similarly, in [7], an IMU along with an odometer and reference GPS have been used to simulate

reconstructed trajectories

pig data. The resultsby introducing

shows new sources

that by decreasing the positionof reference

information and

updates, theadding

accuracynew constraints to

increased

the estimation

due totechnique.

the propagation of IMU errors.

Generally, To the

allow pigproper maintenance

carries inertialoperations

sensors and to reconstruct the

(accelerometers andpipeline trajectory inalong

gyroscopes), certainwith other

projects, a position referencing technique is required to find the exact coordinates of the defective

sensors, to assess its position coordinates. To minimize possible cumulative errors arising from the

parts detected by the pigs sensors. The core of this work, therefore, is to improve the accuracy of the

MEMS-IMU, final the sensor fusion

reconstructed technique,

trajectories which involves

by introducing new sources pairing inertial sensors

of information and addingwithnew non-inertial

sensors, isconstraints

implemented. An odometer

to the estimation and AGM, employed as non-inertial sensors, are used to update

technique.

the algorithm.Generally, the pig carries inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyroscopes), along with other

sensors, to assess its position coordinates. To minimize possible cumulative errors arising from the

Different estimation techniques can be used in such applications. The Extended Kalman Filter

MEMS-IMU, the sensor fusion technique, which involves pairing inertial sensors with non-inertial

(EKF) [8,9] is commonly

sensors, is implemented.used An forodometer

sensor andfusion

AGM, integration

employed asinnon-inertial

navigation applications,

sensors, are used to especially

for nonlinear

updatedynamic models. It has been selected to demonstrate the newly proposed algorithm

the algorithm.

in this paper.Different

In Sectionestimation

2, the techniques

idea ofcan thebenew

used in such applications.

algorithm will beThe Extended Kalman

introduced. TheFilter

Methodology

(EKF) [8,9] is commonly used for sensor fusion integration in navigation applications, especially for

section (Section 3) will demonstrate the algorithm implementation, and the results

nonlinear dynamic models. It has been selected to demonstrate the newly proposed algorithm in this

will be discussed in

Section 4. paper. In Section 2, the idea of the new algorithm will be introduced. The Methodology section

(Section 3) will demonstrate the algorithm implementation, and the results will be discussed in

2. New Information

Section 4.

2. New

2.1. Pipeline Information

Junctions

2.1. Pipeline

Pipelines consist of multiple pieces of pipeline and fittings (bends, T-connections, valves . . . etc.).

Junctions

The pipeline pieces are fabricated

Pipelines consist inpieces

of multiple straight-line

of pipelineshapes. Different

and fittings methods can

(bends, T-connections, be

valves used

etc.).to connect

The pipeline pieces are fabricated in straight-line shapes. Different methods can be used

these pipeline pieces with each other, such as push on, flanges, and welding techniques, as shown in to connect

these pipeline pieces with each other, such as push on, flanges, and welding techniques, as shown in

Figure 3. In all cases, a small gap tolerance will appear between two pieces.

Figure 3. In all cases, a small gap tolerance will appear between two pieces.

(a) (b)

(c)

Figure 3. Pipeline joints: (a) flange type; (b) push-on type; (c) welding type.

Figure 3. Pipeline joints: (a) flange type; (b) push-on type; (c) welding type.

Sensors 2016, 16, 567 4 of 17

Sensors 2016, 16, 567 4 of 16

Sensors 2016, 16, 567 4 of 16

The

The connection

connection point

point between

between two two pipelines

pipelines is is called

called the

the pipeline

pipeline junction/joint. These junctions

junction/joint. These junctions

can

can bebe detected

Thedetected

connectionusing

using magnetic

point between

magnetic flux

flux leakage

twoleakage

pipelines(MFL) and

is called

(MFL) andtheelectromagnetic acoustic

pipeline junction/joint.

electromagnetic transducers

These junctions

acoustic transducers for

for

pipeline

pipeline analysis

can be detected purposes.

analysisusing However,

magnetic

purposes. due to

flux leakage

However, due to sudden

suddenand

(MFL) vibrations of the

the pig

electromagnetic

vibrations of pigacoustic

while

while passing through

transducers

passing throughfor

pipeline

pipeline junctions,

pipeline junctions, INS

analysis purposes.sensors

INS sensors are

However,sensitive enough

due enough

are sensitive to sudden to capture these

vibrations

to capture these junctions.

ofjunctions. Sample

the pig while

Sample accelerometer

passing through

accelerometer

pipeline

pipeline data outputs

junctions, INS for a MEMS-based

sensors are sensitive IMU (SiIMU02)

enough to and

capture a high-end

these tactical

junctions.

pipeline data outputs for a MEMS-based IMU (SiIMU02) and a high-end tactical grade IMU (LN200) grade

Sample IMU (LN200)

accelerometer

are

are illustrated

pipeline

illustrated in Figures

data outputs

in for a4

Figures and

and 55,respectively.

4 MEMS-based As

As seen,

IMU (SiIMU02)

respectively. seen, repetitive

and pattern

a high-end

repetitive pattern spikes

tactical

spikes appear.

grade IMUStudying

appear. (LN200)

Studying

different IMUs

are illustrated

different signals

IMUsinsignals collected

Figurescollected from

4 and 5, from different

respectively. pigs for

differentAspigs different

seen, pipelines

forrepetitive trajectories

differentpattern

pipelinesspikes shows a repetitive

appear. Studying

trajectories shows a

signal/pattern

different IMUs in all the

signals accelerometers

collected from signals.

different Taking

pigs into

for consideration

different pipelines

repetitive signal/pattern in all the accelerometers signals. Taking into consideration the speed the speed of the

trajectories pig,

of the

shows thea

distance

repetitive

pig, between two

signal/pattern

the distance spikes

between is

in all equal

twothespikes to the length

accelerometers of

is equal tosignals.the fitting

Taking

the length or the

of into pipeline pieces.

consideration

the fitting Therefore, of the

the speedpieces.

or the pipeline the

pattern

pig, therepresents

distance the

betweenpipeline

two junction

spikes is(PLJ).

equal Such

to information

the length of is

theused as

fitting

Therefore, the pattern represents the pipeline junction (PLJ). Such information is used as a new a new

or the constraint

pipeline to the

pieces.

estimation

Therefore, to

constraint techniques

the

thepattern (as

estimation explained

represents

techniques in Section

the pipeline 3.2).

junction

(as explained (PLJ). 3.2).

in Section Such information is used as a new

constraint to the estimation techniques (as explained in Section 3.2).

Figure 4. Accelerometer outputMEMS (SiIMU02).

Figure 4. Accelerometer outputMEMS (SiIMU02).

Figure 5. Accelerometer outputLN200.

Figure 5. Accelerometer outputLN200.

2.2. Detecting Pipeline Junctions

2.2. Detecting Pipeline Junctions

To detect the spikes in the signal, different methods have been used in the signal processing

To detect

literature. the

In this spikes

paper, in the signal,

a discrete waveletdifferent methods(DWT)

transformation have been used

has been in the

used signalthese

to detect processing

spikes

literature. In this paper, a discrete wavelet transformation (DWT) has been used to detect

due to its simple implementation. The definition of wavelet transform can be written as: these spikes

due to its simple implementation. The definition of wavelet transform can be written as:

Sensors 2016, 16, 567 5 of 17

To detect the spikes in the signal, different methods have been used in the signal processing

literature. In this paper, a discrete wavelet transformation (DWT) has been used to detect these spikes

due to its simple implementation. The definition of wavelet transform can be written as:

1 ta

Sensors 2016, 16, 567 Xw pa, bq ? x ptq M dt 5 of 16 (1)

Sensors 2016, 16, 567 b b 5 of 16

mother The parameters paq is real number that

wavelet.

, = 1 (1)

, =

represent a time location. pbq is a positive real number that represents the scaling. Many (1) types of

Here . can

mother wavelets beinput,

is the used and . ispattern

in signal detection

the mother wavelet.applications,

The parameterssuch as the number

is real Haar basis

that and

represent . is location.

Here a time . is the mother

the input, andis a positive wavelet. The parameters is real number that

Mexican Hat. Figure 6 illustrates the MexicanrealHatnumber

motherthat represents

wavelet the scaling.

that has Many

the following types

model:of

represent a time location.

mother wavelets can be used isin asignal

positive real number

pattern detectionthat represents such

applications, the scaling. Manybasis

as the Haar typesand

of

mother wavelets can be used in signal pattern

Mexican Hat. Figure 6 illustrates the Mexican 5 detection

applications, such as the Haar basis and

2 4Hat mother2wavelet

wavelet2 that has the following model:

Mexican Hat. Figure 6 illustrates the

M Mexican 2t et that has the following model:

ptq ? Hat1mother (2)

23 (2)

=2 12 e

= 3 1 2 e (2)

3

Figure6.6.Mexican

Figure Hatmother

Mexican Hat motherwavelet.

wavelet.

The Mexican Hat mother wavelet has been applied to detect the signal patterns (pipeline

The Mexican

junctions) as shownHat mother7. wavelet

in Figure For has

more has beenabout

details applied

the to detect

wavelet the signal patterns (pipeline

The Mexican Hat mother wavelet been applied to detect thedetection technique,

signal patterns please

(pipeline refer

junctions)

junctions)

to [1014].as shown in Figure 7. For more details about the wavelet detection technique, please refer

as shown in Figure 7. For more details about the wavelet detection technique, please refer to [1014].

to [1014].

Figure 7. Pattern detected using WL.

Figure 7. Pattern detected using WL.

Since these patterns represent the pipeline junctions, a constraint is introduced here and called

Since these patterns represent

Pipeline Junction Constraint (PJC). This the pipeline

constraint junctions,

fixes botha constraint

the heading is introduced here and

and pitch angles called

during the

Pipeline

Since

movement Junction

theseinside Constraint

patterns (PJC).

represent

the pipeline piece This

the constraint

pipeline

(not fixes

during junctions, both

the junctions) the heading

a constraint and pitch angles

is introduced

[15]. New measurement during

herefor

model andthecalled

PJC

movement

Pipeline

will Junction inside

be introduced thein pipeline

Constraint Section piece

(PJC).

3.2. It is(not

This during the

constraint

noticeable that junctions)

fixes angle[15].

roll both the

is freeNew

headingmeasurement

to rotateand themodel

pitch

along angles for

pipeline PJC the

during

axis.

will be introduced

Therefore, rollthe

angle in Section 3.2.

will notpiece It is

be included noticeable that

in PJCthe roll angle

measurement is free to rotate along the pipeline axis.

movement inside pipeline (not during junctions) model.

[15]. New measurement model for PJC

Therefore,

Until roll

now, angle

we will not bethat

assumed includedthe in PJC between

period measurementtwo model.

junctions

will be introduced in Section 3.2. It is noticeable that roll angle is free torepresents

rotate alonga straight pipe. axis.

the pipeline

Until now,

However, due towe theassumed

fittings that bends),

(i.e., the period

this between twocannot

assumption junctions

be represents true

considered a straight

all the pipe.

time.

Therefore,

However,

roll angle will fittings

not be included in PJC assumption

measurement model.

Therefore, due to the

the PJC model will (i.e., bends), this

be supported by a bend detection cannot be considered

algorithm (BDA) totrue all the

detect the bends

time.

Therefore, the PJC model will be supported by a bend detection algorithm

and disable the PJC model during the bend periods. BDA is introduced in the next section. (BDA) to detect the bends

and disable

Finally,the

it isPJC model

useful during the

to mention bend

that anyperiods.

junctionBDA is introduced

detection functioninshould

the next

be section.

executed prior to

Finally, it is useful to mention that any junction detection function

the navigation offline process to save the pipeline junctions file. This file will be used should be executed prior to

as an input to

the navigation offline process

the navigation offline process. to save the pipeline junctions file. This file will be used as an input to

the navigation offline process.

Sensors 2016, 16, 567 6 of 17

Until now, we assumed that the period between two junctions represents a straight pipe. However,

due to the fittings (i.e., bends), this assumption cannot be considered true all the time. Therefore, the

PJC model will be supported by a bend detection algorithm (BDA) to detect the bends and disable the

PJC model during the bend periods. BDA is introduced in the next section.

Finally, it is useful to mention that any junction detection function should be executed prior to the

navigation offline process to save the pipeline junctions file. This file will be used as an input to the

navigation offline process.

Sensors 2016, 16, 567 6 of 16

2.3. Bend Detection Algorithm (BDA)

Sensors 2016, 16, 567 ` 6 of 16

The used IMU has three gyroscopes that measure and record the angular rates , x, , y ,of

The used IMU has three gyroscopes that measure and record the angular rates

z of

pigs 2.3.

motion

pigsBend around

Detection

motion aroundthree axes

Algorithm x,

(BDA)

three axes y, and z, respectively. The axes are defined as shown in

, , and , respectively. The axes are defined as shown in Figure 8.Figure 8.

The x-axis angular

The x-axis raterate

angular px q measures

measuresthethe

rate change

rate changeofofthe

theroll

roll angle, while y and

angle, while and z measure

measure the

The used IMU has three gyroscopes that measure and record the angular rates , , of

rate change

the rate of the pitch

change of theand heading

pitch angles,

and heading respectively.

angles, respectively.

pigs motion around three axes , , and , respectively. The axes are defined as shown in Figure 8.

The x-axis angular rate measures the rate change of the roll angle, while and measure

the rate change of the pitch and heading angles, respectively.

Figure 8. Pig defined axes.

To detect whether the pig is located inside a fitting (bend), the change in heading and/or pitch

Figure 8. Pig defined axes.

To detect

angles whether

of the the pig

pig in motion is located

should inside

not exceed a fitting

a certain (bend), the .change

threshold in heading

This threshold can beand/or

selectedpitch

byofsensor

angles the calibration.

pig in motion The changenot

should rate for both

exceed a the and

certain axes are

threshold pC monitored

th q. This at every

threshold epoch.

can be The

selected

To detect whether the pig is located inside a fitting (bend), the change in heading and/or pitch

change

by sensor of the angular velocity magnitude can be compared

the y threshold to the selected

and z axes are. This threshold . For

anglescalibration. The change

of the pig in motion shouldrate for both

not exceed a certain monitored atcan

threshold every epoch. The

be selected

simplicity,

change of the both values

angular are merged

velocity as follows:

magnitude can be compared to the selected threshold

by sensor calibration. The change rate for both the and axes are monitored at every epoch. th q. For

pCThe

simplicity,

changeboth values

of the are velocity

angular merged magnitude

as follows:can be compared to the selected threshold . For

= + (3)

simplicity, both values are merged as follows: b

Here is called a resultant angular Rrate. y2 ` the

Selecting 2

z threshold is the most important part in (3)

= + (3)

this method. By plotting different resultant angular rates for different IMUs, it has been noticed that

the best

Here Rvalue to select

is called a resultant is angular

the meanrate.

valueSelecting

of the static

theperiod (during

threshold the most

is the calibration time). part

important

Here is called a resultant angular rate. Selecting the threshold is the most important part in

Checking

in this method. theBy

condition

plotting ofdifferent

this threshold should

resultant be donerates

angular at every

for iteration and

different IMUs,before

it applying

has been the

noticed

this method. By plotting different resultant angular rates for different IMUs, it has been noticed that

PJC

that the constraints as shown in Figure 9.

the best value to

best value to select

select pCth qisisthe

themean

meanvalue

valueofof the

the static

static period

period (during

(during the calibration

the calibration time).time).

Checking the condition

Checking the conditionof this threshold

of this should

threshold bebe

should done

done atatevery

everyiteration

iterationand

and before

before applying the PJC

applying the

PJC constraints

constraints as shown as in

shown in Figure

Figure 9. 9.

Figure 10 illustrates the values that have been calculated before compensating for gyro

Figure 9. Algorithm for corrected state estimation.

biases and scale factors. Threshold can for

Figure 9. Algorithm be corrected

selected as the estimation.

state mean value of all resultant angular

rates of and during the static period of the pig before it begins moving.

Figure 10 illustrates the values that have been calculated before compensating for gyro

biases and scale factors. Threshold can be selected as the mean value of all resultant angular

rates of and during the static period of the pig before it begins moving.

Sensors 2016, 16, 567 7 of 17

Figure 10 illustrates the R values that have been calculated before compensating for gyro biases

and scale factors. Threshold pCth q can be selected as the mean value of all resultant angular rates of y

and z during the static period of the pig before it begins moving.

Sensors 2016, 16, 567 7 of 16

Figure 10.

Figure 10. Selecting

Selecting threshold criteria.

threshold criteria.

3. Methodology

3. Methodology

To cater for all three-dimensional dynamics of the pig motion, a total of six sensors are used in

To cater for all three-dimensional dynamics of the pig motion, a total of six sensors are used in

a full IMU, which comprises three gyroscopes and three accelerometers. In addition to the IMU, the

a full IMU, which comprises three gyroscopes and three accelerometers. In addition to the IMU, the

odometer is used to measure the displaced travel distance of the pig. AGMs and their measurement

odometer is used to measure the displaced travel distance of the pig. AGMs and their measurement

model will be shown in this section, although the target is to use the fewest number of AGMs

model will be shown in this section, although the target is to use the fewest number of AGMs

as possible.

as possible.

3.1. Dynamic

3.1. Dynamic Error Model

Error Model

A MEMS-based

A MEMS-based IMU IMUwas wasthe

themain

mainsensor

sensorused

usedtotocollect

collectthe

the pigs

pigs motion

motion data.

data. EKF

EKF waswas used

used as

as an estimation technique to overcome the poor performance and non-linearity

an estimation technique to overcome the poor performance and non-linearity of the dynamic system of the dynamic

system

in in thisBoth

this work. work. Both dynamic

dynamic and measurement

and measurement models developed

models developed in this

in this section tosection

estimatetothe

estimate

states

the states of the system. The state vector to be estimated was designed to include the

of the system. The state vector to be estimated was designed to include the errors associated witherrors associated

withposition,

the the position, velocity,

velocity, attitude,

attitude, andand

the the stochastic

stochastic bias

bias errors

errors associatedwith

associated withthethegyroscopes

gyroscopes and

and

accelerometers. The

accelerometers. The state

state vector

vector was

was defined

defined asas follows

follows [16]:

[16]:

= T (4)

x r v bg ba (4)

where:

where:

Position error 3 1

Velocity

r Position p3 3 1q 1

error

error

Attitude error 3 1

v Velocity error p3 1q

Gyroscope bias error 3 1

Attitude error p3 1q

Accelerometer bias error 3 1 .

bg Gyroscope bias error p3 1q

The

ba dynamic modelbias

Accelerometer is non-linear

error p3 and

1q. can be represented in discrete form as follows [17,18]:

= , + , (5)

The dynamic model is non-linear and can be represented in discrete form as follows [17,18]:

where is the dynamic model, is the stochastic model, and is the process noise.

x

The linearized error state systemk`

model

1 f px

can , kq ` g px

k be expressed

k , kq was:

k (5)

= + (6)

where:

: is the 15 1 state vector

: is the 15 15 transition matrix

Sensors 2016, 16, 567 8 of 17

where f is the dynamic model, g is the stochastic model, and w is the process noise.

The linearized error state system model can be expressed as:

xk`1 k xk ` Gk wk (6)

where:

k : is the p15 15q transition matrix

Gk : is the p15 1q noise distribution matrix

wk : is the unit-variance white Gaussian noise.

By applying Taylor series expansion and ignoring the higher order terms, the linearized system

model in the local level frame (LLF), represented as north, east, and down (NED), can be expressed

as follows: fi fi fi

I F1 0 0 0 rk r

0 I F 0 F3 ffi ffi ffi

2 ffi vk ffi v ffi

xk`1 0 F4 I F3 0 ffi ffi ` ffi wk (7)

ffi ffi ffi

ffi ffi ffi

0 0 0 F5 0 fl bg fl F7 fl

0 0 0 0 F6 ba F8

where: T T

rk k , k , hk , vk vkN , vkE , vkD

T T

k rk , pk , Ak , bg bgx , bgy , bgz (8)

T

ba bax , bay , baz

1

fi

R M `h 0 0

1

F1 0 0 fl .t (9)

ffi

p R N `hqcos

0 0 1

fi

0 fu fn

F2 f u 0 f e fl .t (10)

ffi

fn fe 0

fi

R11 R12 R13

F3 R21 R22 R23 fl .t (11)

ffi

R31 R32 R33

fi

R11 R12 R13

F3 R21 R22 R23 fl .t (12)

ffi

R31 R32 R33

1

fi

R M `h 0 0

0 1 0 ffi

F4 fl .t (13)

R `h

N

tan

0 R N `h 0

fi

x 0 0

F5 0 0 fl .t (14)

ffi

y

0 0 z

Sensors 2016, 16, 567 9 of 17

fi

f x 0 0

F6 0 0 fl .t (15)

ffi

f y

0 0 f z

fi fi fi

vn r

fl , v ve fl , p (16)

ffi ffi ffi

r fl

h vd A

b fi

a 2

fi 2 f x 2f x

b2 x x b ffi

F7

2

2 y y fl , F8

ffi 2 f y 2f y ffi

ffi (17)

a b fl

2

2 z z 2 f z 2f z

where:

2 Variance of the white noise associated with the random process

RM Meridian radius of curvature (North-South)

RN Prime vertical radius of curvature of the Earths surface (East-West)

, , h Latitude, longitude and height, respectively

f n, f e, f d Specific forces in east, north and up directions, respectively.

Rij Rotation matrix Rlb elements from body to local level frame.

t Rate change of time.

zk Hxk ` k (18)

Here H is the design matrix and is the measurement noise. Both process and measurement

noises are assumed to be white and uncorrelated to each other. Readers can refer to [19] for more details

about measurement models. In this work, a new measurement model has been developed specifically

for pipeline navigation. The mathematical equations will be demonstrated in the next section.

The rotation matrix (direct cosine matrixDCM) is updated at every epoch. The attitude angles

(roll, pitch, and heading) can be calculated using this matrix. Heading and pitch angles of the pig in

the pipeline are computed from the elements of the following (DCM) [19]:

fi

a a 12 a 13

l l

` v T l

` v T 11

Rv Rb Rb rI s Rb Rb a 21

a 22 a 23 fl (19)

ffi

a 31 a 32 a 33

where Rkj represents the DCM from pjq to pkq frames, pb, l, vq represent the IMU body, local level

(navigation), and vehicle (pig) frames, respectively. The rotation matrix from the body to vehicle

(pig) frame is calculated after installing the IMU in the pig. Rvb is constant and does not change. pq

represents the skew-symmetric matrix of the rotation vector pertaining to the error of the attitude

DCM and can be expressed as follows:

fi

0 A p

A 0 (20)

ffi

r fl

p r 0

Sensors 2016, 16, 567 10 of 17

Let bij and cij represent the ijth elements of Rvb and Rlb , respectively. The Rlb can be written

as follows:

fi

cosp cosA cosr sinA ` sinr sinp cosA sinr sinA ` cosr sinp cosA

Rlb cosp sinA cosr cosA ` sinr sinp sinA sinr cosA ` cosr sinp sinA fl (21)

ffi

sinp sinr cosp cosr cosp

From Equation (19), the required a ij elements to be used for heading and pitch angles calculation

can be expressed as follows:

a 11 b11 pc11 ` c21 A c31 pq ` b12 pc12 ` c22 A c32 pq ` b13 pc13 ` c23 A c33 pq

a 21 b11 pc21 ` c31 r c11 Aq ` b12 pc22 ` c32 r c12 Aq ` b13 pc23 ` c33 r c13 Aq

a 31 b11 pc31 ` c11 p c21 rq ` b12 pc32 ` c12 p c22 rq ` b13 pc33 ` c13 p c23 rq (22)

a 32 b21 pc31 ` c11 p c21 rq ` b22 pc32 ` c12 p c22 rq ` b23 pc33 ` c13 p c23 rq

a 33 b31 pc31 ` c11 p c21 rq ` b32 pc32 ` c12 p c22 rq ` b33 pc33 ` c13 p c23 rq

sinA a

A tan1 tan1 21 (23)

cosA a11

sinp a31

p tan1 tan1 b (24)

cosp a232 ` a233

Similarly, the estimated heading and pitch angles can be calculated from Equation (19) as follows:

sin A a

A tan1 tan1 21 (25)

cos A a 11

sin p a 31

p tan1 tan1 b (26)

cos p a 2 ` a 2

32 33

Ideally as per the algorithm assumption, the heading and pitch angles do not change in the

pipeline piece; the change in these angles should be zero. Therefore, the approximated changes of

heading and pitch angles model can be expressed as follows:

zvp,A e r

e (27)

e is the measured heading and pitch vector.

The measurement design matrix can be expressed as follows:

B p B p B p ff

B r B p B A

H p,A B A B A B A

(28)

B r B p B A

The design matrix elements are expanded in the Appendix. Finally, the innovation sequence of

EKF at each epoch can be calculated as follows:

T

where xk represents the error state vector r p A .

Sensors 2016, 16, 567 11 of 17

4. Results

This section introduces the equipment used and describes the pipeline inspection test performed

to assess the efficacy of the PLJ algorithm. The results of the proposed methodPipeline junctions

integrationWill be discussed in detail and compared with the results of the traditional method of the

EKF-based odometer/AGM integration for pipeline navigation. In figures and tables, EKF/PLJ will be

referred to as the new developed method, while EKF will be referred to as the normal EKF method.

Please note that odometer and AGM (if available) are used in both methods. The developed method

was examined through real pipeline inspection trajectories, using as few AGMs as possible.

The pigs data and the reference trajectory have been provided by M/s ROSEN. A SiIMU02 (by

UTC Aerospace Systems, Brea, CA, USA) MEMS-based inertial sensor was used for the experiment.

SiIMU02 is a six degree of freedom inertial system that uses solid-state devices to measure the angular

rate and linear acceleration. Table 1 shows the IMU specifications. The forward velocity time stamp

was synchronized with the IMU data. The odometer standard deviation (STD) is 0.15 m{s.

Gyroscope Accelerometer

Bias Repeatability p1q 100 {h 10 mg

Bias Instability 6 {h? 0.5 mg?

Random Walk 0.5 { h 0.5 m{s{ h

Diameter (55.88)

Size (mm)

Depth (35.56)

One point worth noting is that the pig operator did not provide the AGMs positions, however,

they provided the full reference trajectory. As a result, an artificial AGMs were extracted from the true

reference trajectory. The total pig journey distance is almost 3 km over a total travel time of 1 h.

For comparison purposes, the proposed algorithm was applied for two different scenarios. In both

scenarios, the position of the first and last point of the trajectory is known. The first point represents

the pig pipeline inlet and the last point is the pig pipeline outlet.

Scenario #1: Processed IMU & odometer data using one AGM (after 20 min)

Scenario #2: Processed IMU & odometer data using no AGM.

4.1. Scenario #1

In this scenario, one AGM was added after 20 min of motion to provide position update (CUPT)

to the navigation algorithm. Figure 11 shows the solutions of the EKF-based and EKF/PLJ-based,

where both solutions are compared against the reference trajectory. The EKF/PLJ proposed solution

showed an improvement over the standalone EKF solution, which is clearly noticed in Figure 12. The

figures illustrate the north, east, and height position errors for both methods. The errors in the north

and east direction are clearly smaller in the EKF/PLJ algorithm. However, the height error is slightly

smaller using EKF only. The maximum and RMS position errors (in meters) for each solution are

shown by bar graphs in Figures 13 and 14 respectively.

to theInnavigation algorithm.

this scenario, one AGM Figure 11 shows

was added afterthe solutions

20 min of the

of motion EKF-based

to provide and EKF/PLJ-based,

position update (CUPT)

where both solutions are compared against the reference trajectory.

to the navigation algorithm. Figure 11 shows the solutions of the EKF-based and The EKF/PLJ proposed solution

EKF/PLJ-based,

showed an improvement over the standalone EKF solution, which is clearly noticed

where both solutions are compared against the reference trajectory. The EKF/PLJ proposed solutionin Figure 12. The

figures

showedillustrate the north,

an improvement east,

over theand height position

standalone errors for

EKF solution, bothismethods.

which The errors

clearly noticed in the12.

in Figure north

The

and eastillustrate

figures directionthe

arenorth,

clearly smaller

east, in the EKF/PLJ

and height algorithm.

position errors However,

for both the The

methods. height error

errors inisthe

slightly

north

Sensorssmaller

and 16,using

2016,east 567 EKFare

direction only. The smaller

clearly maximum and

in the RMS position

EKF/PLJ errors

algorithm. (in meters)

However, for each

the height solution

error 12 of 17

are

is slightly

shown

smallerby bar graphs

using in Figures

EKF only. 13 and 14,and

The maximum respectively.

RMS position errors (in meters) for each solution are

shown by bar graphs in Figures 13 and 14, respectively.

Figure 11. TrajectoriesCase #1.

Figure 11. TrajectoriesCase #1.

Figure 12. Position Errors-EKF & EKF/PLJ Scenario #1.

Figure 12. Position Errors-EKF & EKF/PLJ Scenario #1.

Sensors 2016, 16, 567 12 of 16

Figure 13. Maximum Position ErrorScenario #1.

Sensors 2016, 16, 567 13 of 17

Figure 13. Maximum Position ErrorScenario #1.

Figure 14. RMS Position ErrorsScenario #1.

4.2. Scenario #2

Figure 14. RMS Position ErrorsScenario #1.

4.2. ScenarioScenario

#2 #2 is similar to scenario #1, without adding any AGM. Directly from the output

trajectory, the

4.2. Scenario #2difference between both solutions is clear, as shown in Figure 15. The position errors

Scenario

for each#2 is similar

method to scenario

are shown #1,16.

in Figure without adding any AGM. Directly from the output trajectory,

Scenario

the difference between#2 isboth

similar to scenario

solutions #1, without

is clear, adding

as shown in any AGM.

Figure 15.Directly from theerrors

The position outputfor each

trajectory, the difference between both solutions is clear, as shown in Figure 15. The position errors

method are shown in Figure 16.

for each method are shown in Figure 16.

Figure 15. TrajectoriesScenario #2.

Sensors 2016, 16, 567 13 of 16

Figure 16. Positions ErrorsEKF & EKF/PLJ Scenario #2.

The bar graphs in Figures 17 and 18 show that the proposed EKF/PLJ method greatly improve

the accuracy of the results.

Sensors 2016, 16, 567 14 of 17

Figure 16. Positions ErrorsEKF & EKF/PLJ Scenario #2.

Figure 16. Positions ErrorsEKF & EKF/PLJ Scenario #2.

The

The bar

bar graphs

graphs inin Figures

Figures 17

17 and

and 18

18 show

show that

thatthe

theproposed

proposedEKF/PLJ

EKF/PLJ method

method greatly

greatly improve

improve

the The bar

accuracy graphs

of the in Figures

results.

the accuracy of the results. 17 and 18 show that the proposed EKF/PLJ method greatly improve

the accuracy of the results.

Figure 17. Maximum Position ErrorsScenario #2.

Figure 17. Maximum Position ErrorsScenario #2.

Figure 18. RMS Positions ErrorsScenario #2.

Figure 18. RMS Positions ErrorsScenario #2.

EKF/Odometer integration for pipeline navigation, using the developed method of EKF/PLJ,

had a maximum position error of 11.59 m in the north direction, and EKF/odometer solution only had

a maximum position error of 76.41 m in the same direction. This is an overall average improvement of

85%. Despite all the improvements in the horizontal plane (north and east directions), the above bar

graphs reveal that height errors have slight increase using the new EKF/PLJ method. This increase

does not affect the total solution for the pipeline trajectory, especially, if we consider that the pipeline

is usually located 15 m below the Earth surface. Finally, the results can be summarized as shown in

Tables 2 and 3 where north, east, height maximum and RMS errors for both scenarios are shown.

Sensors 2016, 16, 567 15 of 17

Maximum Error

Method North (m) East (m) Height (m)

EKF 31.99 72.89 3.28

Scenario #1

EKF/PLJ 11.83 10.77 7.03

EKF 76.41 51.94 1.99

Scenario #2

EKF/PLJ 11.59 8.48 5.99

RMS Error

Method North (m) East (m) Height (m)

EKF 17.7 25.05 1.61

Scenario #1

EKF/PLJ 7.11 5.80 2.91

EKF 46.72 34.58 1.03

Scenario #2

EKF/PLJ 7.35 5.91 2.31

5. Conclusions

The main objective of this work was to increase the accuracy of pipeline navigation. Based on the

reality of constructing the pipelines (i.e., straight shapes), and how they connect to each other, pipeline

junctions have been modeled and included as new measurements to update the navigation estimation

algorithm. The new developed algorithm will also lead to a reduction in the total required number of

AGMs. Two different testing scenarios were discussed based on real pipeline data that was collected

using a MEMS-IMU-based system. These results show that the newly proposed method is capable of

reducing the trajectory navigation RMS error by around 80% over one hour of operation and without

using any AGM along the pig journey.

Acknowledgments: This work was supported in part by research funds from TECTERRA Commercialization

and Research Centre, the Canada Research Chairs Program, and the Natural Science and Engineering Research

Council of Canada (NSERC). Special thanks to ROSEN Canada Ltd. (Calgary, AB, Canada) for providing the pigs

navigation data.

Author Contributions: Hussein Sahli and Naser El-Sheimy conceived and designed the algorithm; Hussein Sahli

analyzed the data; Hussein Sahli and Naser El-Sheimy wrote the paper.

Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Appendix A

The elements in Equation (28) can be calculated as follows:

B p B p B p ff

B r B p B A

H p,A B A B A B A

B r B p B A

?EQ5 r2pb21 c21 `b22 c22 `b23 c23 qEQ9 `2pb31 c21 `b32 c22 `b33 c23 qEQ8 sEQ4

B p EQ7

EQ3 EQ7

Br EQ1

?EQ6 r2pb21 c11 `b22 c12 `b23 c13 qEQ9 `2pb31 c11 `b32 c12 `b33 c13 qEQ8 sEQ4

B p EQ7

EQ3 EQ7

Bp EQ1

B p

0

BA

Sensors 2016, 16, 567 16 of 17

B A pb11 c11 ` b12 c12 ` b13 c13 q pb11 c31 ` b12 c32 ` b13 c33 q

Br pb11 c11 ` b12 c12 ` b13 c13 q2 ` pb11 c21 ` b12 c22 ` b13 c33 q2

B A pb11 c21 ` b12 c22 ` b13 c23 q pb11 c31 ` b12 c32 ` b13 c33 q

Bp pb11 c11 ` b12 c12 ` b13 c13 q2 ` pb11 c21 ` b12 c22 ` b13 c33 q2

pb11 c21 `b12 c22 `b13 c23 q2

` 1 pb11 c11 ` b12 c12 ` b13 c13 q2

B A pb11 c11 `b12 c12 `b13 c13 q2

1

BA pb11 c11 ` b12 c12 ` b13 c13 q2 ` pb11 c21 ` b12 c22 ` b13 c33 q2

where

EQ1 pb11 c31 ` b12 c32 ` b13 c33 q2 ` pb21 c31 ` b22 c32 ` b23 c33 q2 ` pb31 c31 ` b32 c32 ` b33 c33 q2

EQ2 pb11 c11 ` b12 c12 ` b13 c13 q2 ` pb11 c21 ` b12 c22 ` b13 c23 q2

c

3

Q3 2 pb21 c31 ` b22 c32 ` b23 c33 q2 ` pb31 c31 ` b32 c32 ` b33 c33 q2

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