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GLOSSARY: CHAPTER 2

THE FOOD INDUSTRY and FOOD REGULATION


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EXPLORING FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
PETER S. MURANO
ANPR Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking; the first step in a formal rulemaking
process that begins with publication of a document in the Federal Register describing a
proposed issue that allows for a public comment period
CFR Code of Federal Regulations; a complete resource of authoritative regulatory
information divided into 50 chapters, called titles
Chemogastric Revolution impact of the field of chemistry upon daily life, including the
pharmaceutical and the food processing industry
Color Additives Amendment 1960 (CAA) legislation requiring that dyes be approved
by the FDA prior to their marketing and use in foods, drugs, cosmetics, and certain
medical devices
Delaney Clause language included in both the CAA and FAA that prohibited approval of
any additive that had been shown to cause cancer in humans and animals
Fair Packaging and Labeling Act 1966 legislation to address the need for labels that
included accurate information for standard product weights in packages food products
Farm and Foreign Agriculture Services (FAS) branch of the USDA that creates and
supervises domestic agriculture programs, humanitarian relief, and expanding global
markets
FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) law that gives the FDA authority to
adopt a science-based oversight system that addresses hazards that may arise from farm
to table (stages of food processing)
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act 1938 (FFDCA) basis of modern food law that
gave regulatory authority over food and food ingredients to the FDA and defined
standards for truthful ingredient labeling for processed foods
Federal Register legal newspaper published daily by the National Archives and Records
Administration (NARA) in collaboration with the Government Printing Office
Food Additives Amendment 1958 (FAA) revision of FFDCA 1938; requires that any
new food additive must obtain FDA approval prior to use in the food industry
Food Nutrition and Consumer Services (FNCS) branch of the USDA that provides
domestic food assistance programs, free and reduced school lunches, and the Dietary
Guidelines for Americans, including the food pyramid diagram
Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) legislation that amended pesticide statutes to
establish a more consistent, protective regulatory scheme grounded in sound science,
signed into law by President Clinton August 3, 1996
Food Safety Inspection Services (FSIS) program that inspects milk, poultry, and eggs,
but also uses science to develop regulations for proper food production; works to ensure a
safe food supply, prevent contamination, and educate the public on proper handling of
such foods
Foodservice companies that procure and distribute food, beverages, and related supplies
to institutional, governmental, commercial, or industrial clients
Fresh prepared food companies businesses that manufacture, process, and/or market
fresh and refrigerated prepared foods for consumer use, including but not limited to heat-
and-serve and ready-to-eat entrees, salads, sandwiches, soups, and sushi
GRAS list additives generally recognized as safe
Marketing and Regulatory Programs (MRP) programs that help market the U.S. food
supply domestically and internationally, as well as research industry practices and
monitor the health of animals and plants
Pathogen Reduction Act of 1996 act mandating that meat and poultry slaughter and
ground meat processing plants must comply with Salmonella standards established by the
USDAs Food Safety and Inspection Service and that they adopt generic E. coli pathogen
testing
Pesticide Residue Amendment 1954 amendment to the 1938 FFDCA to address the
issue of residual pesticide contamination in or on raw agricultural commodities such as
grains, fruits, and vegetables
Prior-sanctioned substances food additives that were in use before the 1958 FAA that
had previously been determined to be safe
Saccharin Study and Labeling Act of 1977 legislation that imposed a two-year
moratorium against any ban of saccharin and mandated that consumer warning labels be
used to announce the saccharin-cancer connection in animals
Standard of identity detailed listing of information, which describes how the foods are
prepared, fully defines the product, and provides legal name and the required ingredients
for certain foods
Wholesale distributors entities that distribute a wide range of groceries and related
products to grocers, restaurants, and other retailers