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By Tom Irvine

Email: tomirvine@aol.com

August 1, 2000

___________________________________________________________________________________

The method in this report is based on Reference 1.

Consider a simply-supported beam with length L, as shown in Figure 1. The cross-section

consists of two materials, as shown in Figure 2.

Figure 1.

a E1 , I 1 Direction

of vibration

b E2 , I2

Figure 2.

1

The fundamental bending frequency for a beam simply-supported at both ends is

EI

fn = (1)

2 L2

where

E is the modulus of elasticity.

I is the area moment of inertia.

is the mass density, mass per length.

Example

Consider a simply-supported laminated beam, with the cross-section shown in Figure 3.

1.25 in

Direction

of vibration

Y

0.60 in Aluminum

Figure 3.

Material [

E lbf / in 2 ] [

m lbm / in 3 ]

Epoxy 6 0.065

2.0 (10 )

Fiberglass

Aluminum 6 0.100

10.0 (10 )

2

The center of mass of each material is referenced to the bottom side of the lower section.

Let Y be the center of mass for each section.

Now calculate an overall centroid Y , weighted in terms of the product of area and elastic

modulus.

Table 2. AE Centroid

Section Area E AE Y AEY

(in 2 ) (lbf / in 2 ) (lbf) (in) (lbf in)

Epoxy 0.50 6 6 0.80 5

2.0 (10 ) 1.0 (10 ) 8.0 (10 )

Fiberglass

Aluminum 0.75 6 6 0.30 6

10.0 (10 ) 7.5 (10 ) 2.25 (10 )

Total 6 6

8.5 (10 ) 3.05 (10 )

Y=

AEY (2)

AE

3.05 (106 ) lbf in

Y= (3)

8.5 (106 ) lbf

Now let c equal the distance from the center of mass to the overall AE centroid.

For the epoxy section,

c1 = Y y1 (5)

3

For the aluminum section,

c2 = Y y 2 (8)

I=

1

12

[base [

] height 3 ] (11)

I1 =

1

12

[1.25 [

] 0.40 3 ] in 4 (12)

I1 = 0.0067 in 4 (13)

I2 =

1

12

[1.25 [

] 0.60 3 ] in 4 (14)

I 2 = 0.0225 in 4 (15)

The composite stiffness EI requires two terms, as calculated in Table 2 and in the

following equations.

c2 AEc 2 E Io Eo Io

(in 2 ) (lbf in 2 ) ( )

Section c AE lbf / in 2 (in 4 ) (lbf in 2 )

(in ) (lbf)

Epoxy 0.441 0.194 6 5 6 0.0067 4

1.0 (10 ) 1.94 (10 ) 2 (10 ) 1.34 (10 )

Alum. 0.059 0.0035 6 4 6 0.0225 5

7.5 (10 ) 2.61 (10 ) 10 (10 ) 2.25 (10 )

Total 5 5

2.20 (10 ) 2.384 (10 )

4

The composite beam stiffness factor EI is

EI = AEc 2 + E o Io (16)

5

EI = 4.58 (10 ) (lbf in 2 ) (18)

2 lbm 12 in

ft

(19)

lbm in 3

EI = 1.77 (10 8 ) (20)

sec 2

lbm

1 = 0.065 [1.25 in ][

0.40 in ] (21)

in 3

lbm

1 = 0.033 (22)

in

lbm

2 = 0.100 [1.25 in ][

0.60 in ] (23)

in 3

lbm

2 = 0.075 (24)

in

5

The composite mass per length is

= 1 + 2 (25)

lbm lbm

= 0.033 + 0.075 (26)

in in

lbm

= 0.108 (27)

in

EI

fn = (28)

2 L2

lbm in 3

1.77 (10 8 )

sec

2

fn = (29)

2[

20 in ]2 lbm

0.108

in

f n = 159.0 Hz (30)

Reference

1. Dave Steinberg, Vibration Analysis for Electronic Equipment, Second Edition, Wiley,

New York, 1988.

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