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4, 2015

DOI: 10.1515/sgem-2015-0048

BOGUMI WRANA

Cracow University of Technology, Warszawska 24, 31-155 Krakw, Poland,

e-mail: wrana@limba.wil.pk.edu.pl

Abstract: The article is a review of the current problems of the foundation pile capacity calculations. The article considers the main

principles of pile capacity calculations presented in Eurocode 7 and other methods with adequate explanations. Two main methods

are presented: method used to calculate the short-term load capacity of piles in cohesive soils and method used to calculate

the long- term load capacity of piles in both cohesive and cohesionless soils. Moreover, methods based on cone CPTu result are pre-

sented as well as the pile capacity problem based on static tests.

Key words: pile load capacity calculation, Eurocode 7, method and method, direct methods based on CPTu data

is considered in the article, in particular the sufficient

compressing resistance case (Fig. 1a).

Piles can be either driven or cast in place. Pile

driving is achieved by: impact dynamic forces from

hydraulic and diesel hammers; vibration or jacking.

Concrete and steel piles are most common. Driven

piles which tend to displace a large amount of soil due

to the driving process are called full-displacement

piles. Cast-in-place (or bored) piles do not cause any

soil displacement, therefore, they are non-displace-

ment piles.

Piles may be loaded axially and/or transversely.

The limit states necessary to be considered in the

design of piles are the following (EN-1997-1,

7.2.(1)P):

Bearing resistance failure of the pile foundation,

Insufficient compression resistance of the pile

(Fig. 1a), Fig. 1. Piles load capacity:

Uplift or insufficient tensile resistance of the pile (a)(c) on compression, (d), e) on tension,

(Fig. 1d), (f)(h) on transverse loading

Failure in the ground due to transverse loading

(Fig. 1f), Figure 2a shows the following main parameters

Structural failure of the pile in compression (Fig. used in the pile capacity problem:

1b), tension (Fig. 1e), bending (Fig. 1g), buckling s(Q) load-settlement top pile data recorded in the

(Fig. 1c) or shear (Fig. 1h), in-situ test on compression,

Combined failure in the ground, in the pile foun- sk characteristic settlement, generally calculated

dation and in the structure, using the assumption on soil behavior as: semi-

Excessive settlement, heave or lateral movement, infinite elastic, isotropic and homogenous area

Loss of overall stability, (Boussinesq theory), which gives such larger set-

Unacceptable vibrations. tlement than the measured one,

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84 B. WRANA

Rc;d design resistance as the capacity parameters (1) The results of static load tests, which have been

determined from designing standards, considered demonstrated by means of calculations or other-

in the present article, wise, to be consistent with other relevant experi-

Rtest in-situ static test result on top pile, ence,

Qlim limit resistance defined as rapid settlement (2) Empirical or analytical calculation methods whose

occurs under sustained or slight increase of the ap- validity has been demonstrated by static load tests

plied load the pile plunges. in comparable situations,

Ration of Qlim/Rc;d = t presents the total safety (3) The results of dynamic load tests whose validity

factor. has been demonstrated by static load tests in com-

parable situations,

(4) The observed performance of a comparable piles

foundation, provided that this approach is sup-

ported by the results of site investigation and

ground testing.

Equilibrium equation

The equilibrium equation to be satisfied in the ul-

timate limit state design of axially loaded piles in

compression is

Fc; d Rc; d , (1)

Rc;d is the pile compressive design resistance.

Fig. 2a. Capacity parameters:

Rc;d design resistance, Rtest static test result, Design axial load

Qlim limit resistance, s(Q) load-settlement curve

from top pile measurement sk characteristic settlement The design axial compressive load Fc;d is obtained

by multiplying the representative permanent and vari-

Figure 2b shows typical load/settlement curves for able loads, G and Q by the corresponding partial ac-

compressive load of the shaft Qs and the base Qb load tion factors G and Q

capacity and the total load capacity Qt characteristic

Fc; d = G Grep + Q Qrep . (2)

depending on soil layers: (a) for friction pile and

(b) for end-bearing pile.

The two sets of recommended partial factors on

actions and the effects of actions are provided in Ta-

ble A3 of Annex A of EN 1997-1.

Eurocode 7 describes three procedures for obtain-

ing the characteristic compressive resistance Rc,k of

a pile:

(a) Directly from static pile load tests with coefficient

1 and 2 for n pile load tests, given in Table A.9

Fig. 2b. Typical load/settlement curves for compressive load tests: of EN 1997-1 Annex A,

(a) friction pile; (b) end-bearing pile (b) By calculation from profiles of ground test results or

by calculation from ground parameters with coeffi-

cient given in Table A.10 of EN 1997-1 Annex A,

2. APPROACHES OF PILE DESIGN (c) Directly from dynamic pile load tests with coeffi-

ACC. TO EN-1997 cientgiven in Table A.11 of EN 1997-1 Annex A.

In the case of procedures (a) and (b) Eurocode 7

provides correlation factors to convert the measured

EN 1997-1 7.4(1)P states that the design of piles pile resistances or pile resistances calculated from

shall be based on one of the following approaches: profiles of test results into characteristic resistances.

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Pile load capacity calculation methods 85

Case (c) is referred to as the alternative procedure in or by separating it into base and shaft components Rb;d

the Note to EN 1997-1 7.6.2.3(8), even though it is and Rs;k, using the relevant partial factors, b and s

the most common method in some countries.

Rb; k Rs ; k

Rc; d = + . (6)

Characteristic pile resistance from profiles b s

of ground test results The combinations of sets of partial factor values

Part 2 of EN 1997 includes the following Annexes that should be used for Design Approach 2 are as fol-

with methods to calculate the compressive resistance, lows

Rc,cal of a single pile from profiles of ground test re- DA2.C1: A1 + M1 + R2

sults:

(a) D.6 Example to determine Rc;cal based on cone where R2 for base, shaft and total: t = b = s = 1.1 in

penetration resistance: relating the piles unit base case of compression, and t = 1.15 in case of shaft in

resistances qb at different normalised pile settle- tension.

ments, s/D, and the shaft resistance qs to average

cone penetration resistance qc values. The values

in Tables D.3 and D.4 are used to calculate the pile 3. DRAINED AND UNDRAINED

base and shaft resistances in the pile. LOADING CONDITIONS

(b) D.7 Example to determine Rc;cal base on maximum

base resistance and shaft resistance from the qc val-

ues obtained from an electrical CPT. Drained loading occurs when soils are loaded

(c) E.3 Example to determine Rc;cal based on results of slowly, resulting in slightexcess pore pressures that

an MPM test. dissipate due to permeability.On the other hand,

Characteristic total pile compressive resistance Rc;k undrained loading occurs when fine-grained soils are

or the base and shaft resistances Rb;k and Rs;k may be loaded at a high rate, they generate excess pore pres-

determined directly by applying correlation factors 3 sures because these soils have very low permeabil-

and 4 to the set of pile resistances calculated from the ities.

test profiles. This procedure is referred to as the Model The drained (or long-term) strength parameters of

Pile procedure by Frank et al. (2004) to determine Rc;cal. a soil, c and must be used in drained (long-term)

analysis of piles.

The undrained (or short-term) strength parameter

Characteristic pile resistance

of a soil, cu, must be used in undrained (short-term)

from the ground parameters

analysis of piles.

The characteristic base and shaft resistances may

also be determined directly from the ground parame-

ters using the following equations given in EN 1997-1 4. ESTIMATING LOAD CAPACITY

7.6.2.3(8) OF PILES

Rb; k = Ab qb; k (3)

Pile load carrying capacity depends on various

Rs ; k = A s;i qs ; i ; k (4) factors, including: (1) pile characteristics such as pile

length, cross section, and shape; (2) soil configuration

where and short and long-term soil properties; and (3) pile

qb;k characteristics of unit base resistance, installation method. Two widely used methods for pile

qs;i;k characteristics of unit shaft resistance in the design will be described:

i-th layer. method used to calculate the short-term load

capacity (total stress) of piles in cohesive soils,

Design compressive pile resistance method used to calculate the long-term load

The design compressive resistance of a pile Rc;d capacity (effective stress) of piles in both cohesive

may be obtained either by treating the pile resistance and cohesionless soils.

as a total resistance Piles resist applied loads through side friction

(shaft or skin friction) and end bearing as indicated

Rc; k in Fig. 3. Friction piles resist a significant portion of

Rc; d = (5)

t their loads by the interface friction developed be-

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86 B. WRANA

tween their surface and the surrounding soils. On the stress and undrained shear strength but decreases for

other hand, end-bearing piles rely on the bearing long piles.

capacity of the soil underlying their bases. Usually, Niazi and Mayne [24] presented 25 methods of

end-bearing piles are used to transfer most of their estimating pile unit shaft resistance within -method

loads to a stronger stratum that exists at a reasonable and compared them. They showed main differences

depth. with respect to parameters: length effect, stress his-

Design bearing capacity (resistance) can be de- tory, Ip, su, v , progressive failure, plugging effect.

fined as Belowthe main methods estimating skin friction in

claysare shown:

Rc , d = Qb + Qs = Ab qb + A s ,i qs ; i ; d . (7) (a) American Petroleum Institute (API, 1984, 1987)

The equation by API (1984, 1987) suggests values

for as a function of cu as follows

cu 25

1 90 for 25 kPa < cu < 70 kPa,

= 1.0 for cu 25 kPa, (9)

0.5 for cu 70 kPa.

(b) NAVFAC DM 7.2 (1984). Proposition for coef-

ficient depends on type of pile (Table 1)

Pile type

consistency strength su [kPa]

Fig. 3. Piles side friction (shaftor skin friction)

and end bearing Very soft 012 1.00

Soft 1224 1.000.96

Timber and

Medium stiff 2448 0.960.75

concrete piles

5. -METHOD, SHORT-TERM LOAD Stiff 4896 0.750.48

CAPACITY FOR COHESIVE SOIL Very stiff 96192 0.480.33

Very soft 012 1.00

Soft 1224 1.000.92

5.1. UNIT SKIN FRICTION qs(z) Steel piles Medium stiff 2448 0.920.70

Stiff 4896 0.700.36

Very stiff 96192 0.360.19

The method is based on the undrained shear

strength of cohesive soils; thus, it is well suited for

As in the API method, effective stress effects are

short-term pile load capacity calculations. In this

neglected in the DM 7.2 method.

method, the skin friction is assumed to be propor-

(c) Equation based on undrained shear strength and

tional to the undrained shear strength su, of the cohe-

effective vertical stress, Kolk and Van der Velde

sive soil as follows and the interface shear stress qs

method [18]. Coefficient is based on the ratio

between the pile surface and the surrounding soil is

of undrained shear strength and effective stress.

determined as

A large database of pile skin friction results was

qs ( z ) = ( z ) su ( z ) (8) analyzed and correlated to obtain value (Table 2).

(d) Simple rules to obtain coefficient based on

where

su/ v proposed standard DNV-OS-J101-2007

su undrained shear strength,

adhesion coefficient depending on pile mate- 1

rial and clay type. 2 or su / v 1,

su / v

It is usually assumed that ultimate skin friction is = (10)

1

independent of the effective stress and depth. In real- 4 or su / v > 1.

ity, the skin friction is dependent on the effective 2 su / v

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Pile load capacity calculation methods 87

su/ v 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4

0.95 0.77 0.70 0.65 0.62 0.60 0.56 0.55 0.53 0.52 0.50 0.49 0.48

su/ v 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 3.0 4.0

0.47 0.42 0.41 0.41 0.42 0.41 0.41 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.39 0.39

(e) Mechanism controlling friction fatigue, Randolph Figure 4 presents mobilized values of versus

[26] sud/ v 0 for all piles discussed in this paper. Studies

Randolph [26] suggested that progressive failure, have shown that the plasticity index has a largeimpact

which occurs in strain softening soil, was a possible on the mobilized ultimate shaft friction and corre-

mechanism controlling friction fatigue. The progres- sponding -values.

sive failure from the peak (peak) to the residual (res)

shaft resistance is shown in Fig. 4. Randolph [26]

proposed a reduction factor (Rf) which depends on the 5.2. UNIT BASE RESISTANCE qB

degree of softening and the pile compressibility K

2

1 For cohesive soils it can be shown, using Ter-

R f = 1 (1 )1 (11) zaghis bearing capacity equation, that the unit base

2 K

resistance of the pile is

where

qb = ( su )b N c (13)

peak

DL2 where (su)b is the undrained shear strength of the co-

( EA) pile

hesive soil under the base of the pile, and Nc is the

= res , K = , (12)

peak wres bearing capacity coefficient that can be assumed equal

to 9.0 (Skempton [29]).

EA axial stiffnes of pile,

wres post-peak displacement required to mobi-

lize the residual shaft resistance.

6. -METHOD, LONG-TERM

(f) Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, NGI-05 LOAD CAPACITY FOR COHESIVE

Karlsrud et al. [15], proposed modification of the

AND COHESIONLESS SOILS

NGI method by introducing correlation of sud/ v 0 and

Ip with coefficient presented by the trend lines

shown in Fig. 4. New data are included herein, all

6.1. UNIT SKIN RESISTANCE qs(z)

previous data have been re-interpreted.

and is suited for long-term (drained) analyses of pile

load capacity. The unit skin resistance qs, between

the pile and the surrounding soil is calculated by

multiplying the friction factor, , between the pile

and soil by h

qs ( z ) = h = ( z ) K ( z ) v ( z ) = ( z ) v ( z ) (14)

installation mode, usually K = K0, with K0 =

(1 sin)(OCR)0.5 3,

OCR overconsolidation ratio,

v vertical effective stress.

Niazi and Mayne [24] presented 15 methods of

Fig. 4. Measured values of in relation to normalized strength, estimating pile unit shaft resistance within -method

for all piles (Karlsrud et al. [15]) and compared them. They showed main differences

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88 B. WRANA

OCR, K, v , L, d, su, ID, Ip. The main methods esti-

mating skin frictionare shown below:

(a) according to NAVFAC DM 7.2(1984), =

(z)K(z) = tan (z)K(z), Tables 3 and 4.

Steel piles 20o

Timber piles 3/4

Concrete piles 3/4

Fig. 5. Chart for determination of -values

K (piles under K (piles

Pile type dependent on OCR and Ip, Karlsrud [16]

compression) under tension)

Driven H-piles 0.51.0 0.30.5

Driven displacement piles 6.2. UNIT BASE RESISTANCE qb

1.01.5 0.61.0

(round and square)

Driven displacement tapered Using Terzaghis bearing capacity equation, the

1.52.0 1.01.3

piles

unit base resistance at the base of the pile can be cal-

Driven jetted piles 0.40.9 0.30.6

culated

Bored piles (less than 60 cm

0.7 0.4

in diameter) qb = ( v )b N q + cb N c (15)

where

(b) proposition value of = (z)K(z) can be estimated ( v ) b vertical effective stress at the base of the

according to the following propositions:

pile,

Author Proposition of value cb cohesion of the soil under the base of the pile,

McClelland [21] = 0.15 to 0.35 for compression, Nc = (Nq 1)cot .

for driven piles = 0.10 to 0.25 for tension (for uplift piles)

= 0.15, 0.75, 1.2 for = 28, 35, 37, Values of bearing capacity factor Nq

for driven piles

Meyerhof [22] (a) Janbu [13] presented equations to estimate capacity

= 0.1, 0.2, 0.35 for = 33, 35, 37,

for bored piles coefficients Nq and Nc for various soils

= Ctan( 5)

Kraft and Lyons

[19] C = 0.7 for compression, C = 0.5 for tension

(uplift piles)

Earth pressure coefficient K can be averaged from

Ka, Kp and K0: K = (K0 + Ka Kp)/3 where: K0 = (1

sin ), Ka = tan2(45 /2), Kp = tan 2(45 + /2)

(d) Karlsrud [16]

Karlsrud [16] proposed to take into account the

plasticity index Ip in -method. Figure 5 shows dia-

gram of -values from as low as 0.045 for low-

plastic NC clays to about 2.0 to very stiff clays with

OCR of 40, which is the upper range of available pile Fig. 6. Shear surface around the base of a pile:

data. definition of the angle (Janbu [13])

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Pile load capacity calculation methods 89

N q (tan + 1 + tan 2 ) 2 exp(2 tan ) friction angle decreases with depth. Hence Nq, which

is a function of the friction angle, also would reduce

where is an angle defining the shape of the shear with depth. Variation of other parameters with depth

has not been researched thoroughly. The end bearing

surface around the tip of a pile as shown in Fig. 6. The

capacity does not increase at the same rate as the in-

angle ranges from /3for soft clays to 0.58 for

creasing depth. Figure 7 attempts to formulate the end

dense sands.

bearing capacity of a pile with regard to relative den-

(b) Values of bearing capacity factor Nq according to sity (ID) and vertical effective stress v (Randolph et

NAVFAC DM 7.2(1984), see Table 5. al. [17]).

[] 26 28 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

Nq for driven piles 10 15 21 24 29 35 42 50 62 77 86 120 145

Nq for bored piles 5 8 10 12 14 17 21 25 30 38 43 60 72

If water jetting is used, should be limited 6.4. CRITICAL DEPTH FOR SKIN FRICTION

to 28. This is because water jets tend to loosen the (SANDY SOILS)

soil. Hence, higher friction angle values are not war-

ranted. Skin friction should increase with depth and it be-

comes a constant at a certain depth. This depth was

named a critical depth. The typical experimental

6.3. PARAMETERS THAT AFFECT

variation of skin friction with depth in a pile as evi-

THE END BEARING CAPACITY

dence for critical depth is shown in Fig. 8.

capacity:

(c) Effective stress at pile tip,

(d) Friction angle at pile tip and below ( ),

(e) The dilation angle of soil (),

(f) Shear modulus (G),

(g) Poissons ratio (v).

Remarks:

As one can see, experimental data do not support

the old theory with a constant skin friction below

the critical depth.

Skin friction tends to increase with depth and just

Fig. 7. End bearing capacity of a pile above the tip of the pile to attain its maximum

with regard to relative density (ID) and effective stress value. Skin friction would drop rapidly after that.

(Randolph et al. [27]) Skin friction does not increase linearly with depth

as was once believed.

Most of these parameters have been bundled into No satisfactory theory exists at present to explain

the bearing capacity factor Nq. It is known that the the field data.

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90 B. WRANA

Due to lack of a better theory, engineers are still 6.5. CRITICAL DEPTH FOR END BEARING

using critical depth theory of the past. CAPACITY (SANDY SOILS)

Pile end bearing capacity in sandy soils is related

The following reasons have been offered to explain to effective stress. Experimental data indicate that end

why skin friction does not increase with depth indefi- bearing capacity does not increase with depth indefi-

nitely, as suggested by the skin friction equation: nitely. Due to lack of a valid theory, engineers use the

1. K value is a function of the soil friction angle ( ). same critical depth concept adopted for skin friction

Friction angle tends to decrease with depth. Hence, as forthe end bearing capacity. As shown in Fig. 11,

K value decreases with depth (Kulhawy [20]). the end bearing capacity was assumed to increase till

2. Skin friction equation does not hold true at high the critical depth. It is clear that there is a connection

stress levels due to readjustment of sand particles. between end bearing capacity and skin friction since

3. Reduction of local shaft friction with increasing the same soil properties act in both cases, such as ef-

pile depth, see Fig. 9 (Rajapakse [28]). fective stress, friction angle, and relative density. On

the other hand, two processes are vastly different in

nature.

(Rajapakse [28])

Fig. 11. Unit base bearing capacity and critical depth

Let us assume that a pile was driven to a depth of

3 m and unit skin friction was measured at a depth of The following approximations were assumed for

1.5 m. Then let us assume that the pile was driven fur- the critical depth within the bearing zone:

ther to a depth of 4.5 m and unit skin friction was meas- Critical depth for loose sand = 10 D (D is the pile

ured at the same depth of 1.5 m. It has been reported that diameter or the width),

unit skin friction at 1.5 m is less in the second case. Critical depth for medium dense sand = 15 D,

NAVFAC DM 7.2 gives maximum value of skin Critical depth for dense sand = 20 D.

friction and end bearing capacity is achieved after 20 The critical depth concept is a gross approximation

diameters within the bearing zone. The following that cannot be supported by experimental evidence.

approximations were assumed for the critical depth:

Critical depth for loose sand = 10 D (D is the pile

diameter or the width), 7. ESTIMATING PILE LOAD CAPACITY

Critical depth for medium dense sand = 15 D, BASED ON CPT RESULTS

Critical depth for dense sand = 20 D.

7.1. INTRODUCTION

assessing the pile capacity on the basis of the soil

strength-deformation characteristics, the most fre-

quently followed design practice is to refer to the for-

mulae correlating directly the pile capacity compo-

nents of qb and qs to the results of the prevalent in situ

tests. Within the domain of these in situ methods, the

Fig. 10. Critical depth: dc critical depth, fcd unit skin friction cone penetration test (CPT) is one of the most fre-

at critical depth, fcd = K c tan, quently used investigation tools for pile load capacity

c effective stress at critical depth evaluations. Ever since the first use of CPT in geo-

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Pile load capacity calculation methods 91

technical investigations, research efforts have ad- Semi-empirical methods with the purely CPT pa-

vanced the very elementary idea of considering it as rameters, the additional estimated parameters are

mini-pile foundation. This has resulted in plethora of taken into account (r, , , K, v 0 , L, d, su, ID).

correlative relationships being developed between the Indirect CPT methods employ soil parameters,

CPT readings cone resistance (qc) or more proper such as friction angle and undrained shear strength

corrected cone resistance (qt), sleeve friction ( fs), and obtained from cone data to estimate bearing ca-

shoulder pore water pressure (u2) and the pile capacity pacity. The indirect methods apply strip-footing

components of qb and qs. bearing capacity theories, and neglect soil com-

As commonly reported (e.g., Ardalan et al. [2]; pressibility and strain softening. These methods

Cai et al. [5], [6]), there are two main approaches to are rarely used in engineering practice.

accomplish axial pile capacity analysis from CPT

data: (a) rational (or indirect) methods and (b) direct

methods. 7.2. DIRECT CPT METHODS

considered as a mini-pile foundation as noted by Ar-

dalan et al. [2] and Eslami and Fellenius (1997). The

mean effective stress, compressibility and rigidity of

the surrounding soil medium affect the pile and the

cone work in a similar manner.This concepthas led to

the development of many direct CPT methods.

(Niaziand Mayne [24])

cone resistance with the pile unit resistances. Some

methods may use the cone sleeve friction in deter-

mining unit shaft resistance. Several methods mod-

ify the resistance values to consider the difference

in diameter between the pile and the cone. The in-

fluence of mean effective stress, soil compressibil-

ity, and rigidity affect the pile and the cone in equal

measure, which eliminates the need to supplement

the field data with laboratory testing and to calcu-

late intermediate values, such as K, and Nq.

Pure empirical methods initial formulations

were based solely on cone resistance (qc) derived

from mechanical cone penetrometers. Subse-

quently, with the introduction of the electrical

cone penetrometer, the additional channels meas- Fig. 13. Upper and lower empirical values

uring sleeve friction ( fs), and porewater pressures of different piles in coarse grained soils for:

(u1 and u2) were considered. (a) qs(z); (b) qb (after Kempfert and Becker [17])

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92 B. WRANA

Unit skin resistance qs(z) and unit base resistance qb mon practice is by means of a static loading test. The

capacity is the total ultimate soil resistance of the

Based on the load test database up to 1000 load

pile determined from the measured load-settlement

tests on precast concrete, cast-in-place concrete, steel

behavior. It can be defined as the load for which

pipe, screw cast-in-place, and micro piles etc.,

rapid settlement occurs under sustained or slight

Kempfert and Becker [17] developed correlations for

increase of the applied load the pile plunges. This

pile qs(z) and qb from CPT qc and su. Their results,

definition is inadequate, however, because large set-

presented in the form of empirically derived charts

tlement is required for a pile to plunge and is not

with upper and lower bound estimates of qs(z) and qb

obtained in the test. Therefore, the pile capacity or

(Fig. 13), have been integrated into the national Ger-

ultimate load must be determined by some definition

man recommendations for piles.

based on the load-settlement data recorded in the

Partial embedment reduction factor test.

Load-displacement curves obtained from axial

White and Bolton [31] studied, the causes of low load tests on pile foundations exhibit differing shapes

values of qb/qc in sand in contrast with qb = qc for and resulting conclusions. There is only a single value

steady deep penetration (e.g., cavity expansion solu- of load termed capacity that is selected from the

tions and strain path method). They examined a data- entire curve for design purposes. Yet, there are at least

base of 29 load tests on a variety of CE piles (steel 45 different criteria available for defining the axial

pipe piles, Franki piles with enlarged base, and precast capacity (Hirany and Kulhawy [8]). An example of

square, cylindrical and octagonal concrete piles) and a load test conducted on a 0.76 m diameter, 16.9 m

CPT qc data. The low value of qb/qc, which forms long drilled shaft installed at Georgia Institute of

basis of the apparent scale effect on the diameter, can Technology is shown in Fig. 15.

be attributed topartial embedment in the underlying

hard layer (Fig. 14), whereas, partial mobilization was

explained by defining failure according to a plunging

criterion. They concluded that any reduction of qc

when estimating qb of CE piles in sand should be

linked to the above factors rather than pile diameter.

from axial pile load tests (Hirany and Kulhawy [8])

dition can be interpreted in several different ways.

Tomlinson [30] lists some of the recognized criteria

and list disadvantages and advantages of pile tests in

general. The main interpreted failure loads corre-

Fig. 14. Partial embedment reduction factor on qb spond to settlements equal to 0.1d, where d is the

(after White and Bolton [31]) equivalent pile diameter referring to an equivalent

circle diameter for square and hexagonal piles. Such

definition does not consider the elastic shortening of

8. PILE LOAD CAPACITY DETERMINED the pile, which can be substantial for long piles,

FROM STATIC LOAD TESTING while it is negligible for short piles. In reality, set-

tlement relates to a movement of superstructure (pile

with soil), and it does not relate to the capacity as

The pile bearing capacity is necessary to verify a soil response to the loads applied to the pile in

with the assumption of the design. The most com- a static loading test.

Unauthenticated

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Pile load capacity calculation methods 93

REFERENCES [18] KOLK H.J., VAN DER VELDE A., A Reliable Method to

Determine Friction Capacity of Piles Driven into Clays,

Proc. Offshore Technological Conference, 1996, Vol. 2,

[1] American Petroleum Institute, API Recommended Practice Houston, TX.

for Planning, Designing and Constructing Fixed Off-shore [19] KRAFT L.M., LYONS C.G., State of the Art: Ultimate Axial

Platforms, API, Washington, DC, 1984. Capacity of Grouted Piles, Proc. 6th Annual OTC, Houston

[2] ARDALAN H., ESLAMI A., NARIMAN-ZAHED N., Piles shaft ca- paper OTC 2081, 1990, 487503.

pacity from CPT and CPTu data by polynomial neural networks [20] KULHAWY F.H. et al., Transmission Line Structure Founda-

and genetic algorithms, Comput. Geotech., 2009, 36, 616625. tions for Uplift-Compression Loading, Report EL, 2870,

[3] BOND A.J., SCHUPPENER B., SCARPELLI G., ORR T.L.L., Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto 1983.

Eurocode 7: Geotechnical Design Worked examples, Worked [21] MCCLELLAND B., Design of deep penetration piles for ocean

examples presented at the Workshop Eurocode 7: Geotech- structures, Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division,

nical Design Dublin, 1314 June 2013. ASCE, 1974, Vol. 100, No. GT7, 705747.

[4] BUDHU M., Soil Mechanics and Foundations, Wiley, Hoboken, [22] MEYERHOF G.G., Bearing Capacity and Settlement of Pile

New York 1999. Foundations, ASCE J. of Geotechnical Eng., 1976, GT3,

[5] CAI G., LIU S., TONG L., DU G., Assessment of direct CPT 195228.

and CPTu methods for predicting the ultimate bearing ca- [23] NAVFAC DM 7.2 (1984): Foundation and Earth Structures,

pacity of single piles, Eng. Geol., 2009, 104, 211222. U.S. Department of the Navy.

[6] CAI G., LIU S., PUPPALA A.J., Reliability assessment of [24] NIAZI F.S., MAYNE P.W., Cone Penetration Test Based Di-

CPTu-based pile capacity predictions in soft clay deposits, rect Methods for Evaluating Static Axial Capacity of Single

Eng. Geol., 2012, 141142, 8491. Piles, Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 2013, (31),

[7] DNV-OS-J101-2007: Det Norske Veritas. Design of offshore 9791009.

wind turbine structures. October 20007. [25] RANDOLPH M.F., WROTH C.P., A simple approach to pile

[8] HIRANY A., KULHAWY F.H., Conduct and interpretation of design and the evaluation of pile tests, Behavior of Deep

load tests on drilled shaft foundations, Report EL-5915, Foundations, STP 670, ASTM, West Conshohocken, Penn-

1988,Vol. 1, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, sylvania, 1979, 484499.

CA, www.epri.com [26] RANDOLPH M.F., Design considerations for offshore piles,

[9] FELLENIUS B.H., Basics of Foundation Design, Electronic Proc. of the Conference on Geotechnical Practice in Offshore

Edition, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, T2G 4J3, 2009. Engineering, Austin, Texas, 1983, 422439.

[10] FLEMING W.G.K. et al., Piling Engineering, Surrey Univer- [27] RANDOLPH M.F., DOLWIN J., BECK R., Design of Driven Piles

sity Press, New York 1985. in Sand, Geotechnique, 1994, Vol. 44, No. 3, 427448.

[11] GWIZDAA K., Fundamenty palowe. Technologie i oblicze- [28] RUWAN RAJAPAKSE, Pile Design and Construction Rules of

nia. Tom 1, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa 2010. Thumb, Elsevier, Inc., 2008.

[12] GWIZDAA K., Fundamenty palowe. Badania i zastosowania. [29] SKEMPTON A.W., Cast-in-situ bored piles in London clay,

Tom 2, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa 2013. Geotechnique, 1959, Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 153173.

[13] JANBU N., (ed.), Static bearing capacity of friction piles, Pro- [30] TOMLINSON M.J. Pile Design and Construction Practice,

ceedings of the 6th European Conference on Soil Mechanics Viewpoint Publications, London, 1977, 1981 edition, 1987

and Foundation Engineering, 1976, Vol. 1.2, 479488. edition, 1991 edition, 1994 edition, 1995 edition, 1998 edi-

[14] HELWANY S., Applied soil mechanics with ABAQUS appli- tion, 2008 edition.

cations, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2007. [31] WHITE D.J., BOLTON M.D., Comparing CPT and pile base

[15] KARLSRUD K., CLAUSEN C.J.F., AAS P.M., Bearing Capacity of resistance in sand, Proc. Inst. Civil Eng. Geotech. Eng.,

Driven Piles in Clay, the NGI Approach, Proc. Int. Symp. on 2005, 158(GE1), 314.

Frontiers in Offshore Geotechnics, 1. Perth 2005, 775782. [32] WRANA B., Lectures on Soil Mechanics,Wydawnictwo

[16] KARLSRUD K., Prediction of load-displacement behavior and Politechniki Krakowskiej, 2014.

capacity of axially loaded piles in clay based on analyses and [33] WRANA B., Lectures on Foundations, Wydawnictwo

interpretation of pile load test result, PhD Thesis, Trondheim, Politechniki Krakowskiej, 2015.

Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 2012. [34] WYSOKISKI L., KOTLICKI W., GODLEWSKI T., Projektowanie

[17] KEMPFERT H.-G., BECKER P., Axial pile resistance of differ- geotechniczne wedug Eurokodu 7. Poradnik, Instytut Tech-

ent pile types based on empirical values, Proceedings of Geo- niki Budowlanej, Warszawa 2011.

Shanghai 2010 deep foundations and geotechnical in situ [35] PN-EN 1997-1, Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design Part 1:

testing (GSP 205), ASCE, Reston, VA, 2010, 149154. General rules. Part 2: Ground investigation and testing.

Unauthenticated

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