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Peaches M. Hubbard Learning Mathematics: A Case Study: Visual Perception Techniques in Geometry Jones International University, Online Dr. Felicia Taylor April 25, 2009

Learning Mathematics 2 Abstract Kindergarten is where most students build a fundamental knowledge of mathematics. Pre-school aged children are taught numbers and shapes but usually through the process of recitation for memorization. Kindergarten is where students improve upon their basic understanding of what their numbers are, to how they can apply these numbers to create a simple problem solving strategy. In kindergarten students learn about numbers via pictures, manipulatives, class work and workbook content, and through various artistic means, such as singing or game play. As students get older they begin to see what learning style suits them, and how they can incorporate that learning style into their class work or studies. Kindergarten students may not be as advanced in their

understanding of what motivates them to learn, but through previous experience and the knowledge of working with and having my own children I have come to realize that children need visual stimuli to promote learning. Therefore, the goal of this assignment is to discuss the need and understanding of visual perception in mathematics; its uses, the theories that support its use; and how to incorporate visual perception techniques in mathematics curriculum.

Learning Mathematics 3

Table of Contents

Title Page Abstract Table of Contents Introduction Topic Student Demographics Student Population Curriculum & Assessment Procedures Mathematics Topics and Concepts Concepts & Standards Section III: Assessment Instruments Case Study Background Introduction to Assessment Instruments Lesson Directives and Assessment Questions Interview Questions Visual Perception Techniques in Geometry Section IV: Pre Assessment Results (Clean Copy of Pre-Assessment) Written Assessment Rubric – Table I Written Assessment Summary Rubric – Table II Evaluation Summary Instructional Plans and Activities Lesson Plan I (P. 30 – 35) Lesson Plan II (P. 36 – 42) Instructional Plan Implementation Ending Notes for Instructional Plan Section VII - Post Assessment and Results (Clean Copy of Post- Assessment) Written Assessment Open-Ended Rubric – Table III Summary of Open-Ended Response Evaluation Summary Student Work Samples (Post-Assessment) Post Assessment Notes Comparison Table (Post-Assessment Wrap-up) Conclusion JIU Consent Form References 45 46 - 52 53 54 - 55 56 57 58 60 61 62 - 64 30 - 42 42 43 - 44 7-8 9 10 11 - 14 15 16 17 - 19 20 - 26 27 28 - 29 4 5 6 1 2 3 4

Learning Mathematics 4 Introduction Course Project Topic For the duration of this course project I will be working with a classroom of kindergarten students that are placed in small cooperative groups. This is the third quarter of school and the children were introduced to some first grade curriculum since the second quarter. The topic that I have chosen for this course project is the use of visual perception techniques in mathematics. In a study conducted in Columbus, Ohio, one hundred and seventy-one second grade through sixth grade students were tested on their visual perception. The assessment result concluded, “Poor visual perceptual ability should be considered to be amongst the skills significantly related to poor mathematics achievement, and that In fact, a significant relationship between visual perceptual skill and mathematics abilities has been previously reported (Kulp, 1999; Solan, 1987). The point of my project is to research and gather information regarding the use of visual perception techniques in mathematics and to gain insight and knowledge into its use and effectiveness in regards to kindergarten students. School Demographics For the duration of this course I will be working with an inner city charter school located in Los Angeles, California, which is apart of the (LAUSD- Los Angeles Unified School District). The charter school offers its students a quality education and upholds the utmost standards of learning. The charter school consists of a pre-kindergarten and a kindergarten program. As stated by the director of the school, “The goal of this

institution is to provide our students with a quality education; to introduce all kindergarten students to first grade curriculum, by the second quarter of school, and to

Learning Mathematics 5 have our graduates move on to magnet programs.” (Mr. Richard Green- Charter School Director) The charter offers a commitment to both the students and the parent community. Students are engaged through a well-rounded curriculum, creative arts programs (offered through LAUSD), and the support of a caring and helpful staff. The schools founder was is Sister Jennie Lechtenberg, who started off by offering an after school tutoring service for low-income first and second graders. She them realized that a majority of the students were missing the fundamental skills needed due to the language barriers faced by their families. She then began to offer English classes, and so on. Today there are two Puente learning centers. The state of the art facility also operates as a community based non-profit and shares strong community ties by offering free classes to the community, in addition to the charter school program. Via the facility classes are offered to adults in computer technician training, ESL classes, Spanish classes, and administrative classes. Classes are offered to youth as well, with after school clubs, math academy, general tutoring, and a summer school for pre-kindergarten and kindergarten students. Student Population The capacity for the charter school is sixty students. The pre-kindergarten and kindergarten classes’ work in various rooms but as separate, and the class is comprised of four classroom teachers. Students are moved through out three rooms, in which their classroom activities take place. The students are offered math activities through class lecture and exercises; a weekly home-work packet, and through computer-aided programs (in a modern and up-to-date computer lab.) The students are placed in small

Learning Mathematics 6 groups of five to six students and each group is given a name. The groups are combined of both boys and girls. For the duration of this class I will be working with the

kindergarten students, whom range in age from five to six. I will be present in the classroom on Friday’s of each week. I will work with all of the kindergarten students, and for the case study I will select one of the groups to work with one on one. There is a strong relationship between parent and teachers, and students are assessed monthly on the lesson, which they have worked on. Some students have transitioned to first grade level curriculum, while others are receiving extra help in getting them prepared for the transition to first grade. The learning style appears to be student based, providing interactive classroom with traditional and authentic lessons and assessment.

In-Class Math Instruction, Curriculum and Assessment Procedures Students in the charter program are provided with a large group instruction, individual group instruction, computer aided learning, and a weekly work packet. The homework packet is given out every Friday and is due at the end of the following week. Parent involvement is urged, in order to reinforce the skills that students learn in school. At this time the students are working on single digit addition and subtraction, no regrouping; counting; number writing practice; and number and number word recognition. Students are not necessarily grouped by ability, but are pout in cooperative groups and although the classroom teachers teach them, yet they are also encouraged to assist each other, and to participate in the learning and teaching process.

Learning Mathematics 7

Course Project: Mathematics Topics and Concepts Concepts and Standards Concept one of my course project is to better understand a student’s factual knowledge, when dealing in mathematics, versus their perceived knowledge of mathematics. This deals with mathematics comprehension, and the need for the student to not just memorize facts, but to use conceptual understanding and adaptive reasoning. The activities that will be assigned for this concept include learning games and aides that will help students bring fourth their innate skills for mathematics, while building on their foundation of knowledge. First the students will be given assignments to complete without instruction of the lesson, by using their innate mathematical ability. Next,

Students will be given comprehension questions regarding visual pictures, with instruction, in which all five of the steps of mathematical proficiency will be utilized for problem solving. Results will then be recorded and used accordingly. The goal of the assessment is to see whether or not students have an innate ability to learn math; or with proper instruction and tools can any students learn the process of mathematical problem solving and comprehension? The above concept and activity ideas align with Standard one of the Colorado State Department of Education’s standards for mathematics. This standard states “Students develop number sense and use numbers and number relationships in problem-solving situations and communicate the reasoning used in solving these problems.” (CDE, 2005) Concept two of my course project is to put into practice the techniques of visual perception to determine its benefits in mathematics. “Visual perception has been used for

Learning Mathematics 8 centuries as an example in philosophical discussions about the nature of experience. Traditional mathematical methods began to be applied to it in the second half of the 1800s,” (Stephen Wolfram, A New Kind of Science.) The focal point for this is algebra, which is a related connection focal point for kindergarten mathematics. The focal point connection states that for algebra “Children identify, duplicate, and extend simple number patterns and sequential and growing patterns (e.g., patterns made with shapes) as preparation for creating rules that describe relationships,” (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.) This would align with the connections standards for grades Pre-k through second grade, which states, students at these grade levels should be able to recognize and use connections among mathematical ideas; understand how mathematical ideas interconnect and build on one another to produce a coherent whole; and recognize and apply mathematics in contexts outside of mathematics (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.) This would be in accordance to standard two, which states: “Students use algebraic methods to explore, model, and describe patterns and functions involving numbers, shapes, data, and graphs in problem-solving situations and communicate the reasoning,” and standard five, which states: “Students use a variety of tools and techniques to measure, apply the results in problem-solving situations, and communicate the reasoning used in solving these problems. (Colorado Department of Education) The students will be assessed on a variety of activities in which they will be given visual patterns, such as: completing the pattern using geometric figures, drawing the missing parts (spatial awareness), visual discrimination, and (visual motor integration) copying the picture. (edhelper.com) The above standards also coincide with the “Design

Learning Mathematics 9 Principles 3,5, and 6, for Fostering the Development of Whole-Number Sense.” (How Students Learn: Mathematics in the Classroom, pp.292-302.) In conclusion, visual perception is said to be a complex process, with about eleven elements for pre-school through kindergarten students, these elements include: 1) color perception and color constancy. 2) Shape perception and shape constancy. 3) Spatial relations. 4) Visual analysis and synthesis. 5) Visual closure. 6) Visual conceptualizing. 7) Visual discrimination. 8) Visual figure-ground distinction. 9) Visual memory. 10) Visual pattern following. 11) Visual sequence. (Shirley’s Preschool

Activities, 2007.) I believe visual perception be an important factor in understanding mathematics, especially with early primary grade level students. We can all gain-learned knowledge, but we all perceive things differently, therefore I believe we must look deeper into how a student learns, instead of how much a student can retain. It should not be quantity versus substance in learning, the focus should on the goals and objectives, how a students learns, and getting the student to learn to the best of their ability provided of the best quality. Section III: Assessment Instruments Case Study Background For the duration of this class I have aligned myself with a charter kindergarten class located in Los Angeles, California. The program has a total of sixty students. I have created a group of seven of the sixty students that I will be working with on a weekly basis. The students are a differentiated group and come from various backgrounds; the skill level of the students are comprised of (2) ESL learners, one students strives while the other is a t a mid range learning level. The group is also comprised of a set of sibling

Learning Mathematics 10 twins a boy and a girl both on the low level range of learning. Both siblings have speech impediments. The next sets of learners are both highly proficient students. Lastly, there is a student whom I have added to the group; this student has behavioral concerns, but has a willingness to learn. This student needs one-on-one attention and is at the mid to low level range in his knowledge and skill base for mathematics. Introduction to Assessment Instruments For this assessment the students will be pulled out of class one by one and will not be given instruction on the concepts of visual perception. Students will complete a packet comprised of worksheets that focus on visual perception; the worksheets are authorized for use by edhelper.com. Each student will be given a pre-assessment of ten questions, in which they will communicate their responses both orally and written (fill-in-the-bubble.) The goal of this assessment is to prove the benefits of visual perception skills in mathematics to create a better understanding of learning. [“Learning, for visual-spatial learners, takes place all at once, with large chunks of information grasped in intuitive leaps, rather than in the gradual accretion of isolated facts, small steps or habit patterns gained through practice. For example, they can learn all of the multiplication facts as a related set in a chart much easier and faster than memorizing each fact independently." (Study Guides and Strategies: The Visual Learner.)] The students will be given a set of visual perception activities, these activities correspond the Colorado state standards as well as the mathematics curriculum focal points of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, which include a focus on algebra, geometry, and data analysis for kindergarten students.

Learning Mathematics 11

Lesson, Directives, and Choice of Assessment Questions

Name Date ___________________ _____________________________

Match the picture on top with one of the four choices. 1.

Match the picture on top with one of the four choices. 3.

Copy the lines shown on the left to the blank grid on the right.

Learning Mathematics 12 9. 10.

Circle the picture that is exactly the same as the picture on top. 13.

Complete. 18.

Learning Mathematics 13

**How many times is the number 6 in the above picture? 4 times
**

Complete. 23. Draw the letter M in box C1. 24. Draw the letter P in box A2.

5 times

10 times

2 times

Draw the letter C in box A1. Draw the letter U in box B2. Draw the letter E in box A3.

Draw the letter K in box A1.

A 1 2 3

B

C

A 1 2 3

Complete the pattern. 31.

B

C

?

Learning Mathematics 14

A shape is missing from the square. Pick the shape that completes the square. 34.

(EdHelper.com provides all illustrations.)

Interview Questions During the post assessment interview I will reiterate to the students that they will not be graded on this assessment. I will review the goals of the assessment and review the questions that the student missed, if any. It is my goal to provide the students with perception skills and techniques, as well as training in communication, grade level appropriate mathematical vocabulary, and a better understanding of why we are discussing and completing work for visual perception techniques. The students will be asked the following questions in regards to their lesson: What did you like or dislike about the assignment? How often do you look at things at home and try to match them up or figure out which piece of an object fits into another? Have you had an eye appointment in the past? What is the process or problem-solving skills that you used to figure out numbers 13, 31, and 34?

Learning Mathematics 15 Did you have a hard time with questions 23 and 24? If so, why? Which question did you like the best, and why? Which was the hardest question for you, and why? Were question 9 and 10 hard or easy? Can you tell me how you figured out how to draw each shape? (i.e., did you count the dots or did you just look at the lines and draw?) Corresponding Standards Standard Two Standard Rationale Students use algebraic methods to explore, model, and describe patterns and functions involving numbers, shapes, data, and graphs in problem-solving situations and communicate the reasoning used Three in solving these problems. Students use data collection and analysis, statistics, and probability in problem-solving situations and communicate the reasoning used Four in solving these problems. Students use data collection and analysis, statistics, and probability in problem-solving situations and communicate the reasoning used in solving these problems. (Colorado Department of Education, 1995.) The Benefits of Visual Perception Techniques in Geometry Visual perception is generally though of as plainly, how we see things. There is so much more to more to visual perception, and the benefits of using visual perception techniques in mathematics can greatly assist in student learning achievement. The

website Visual Learning for Life provides a detailed definition and description of what visual perception is. This article and website relate directly to and supports the teaching

Learning Mathematics 16 of the topic for this case study, the benefits of teaching visual perception techniques in mathematics learning. A great quote that relates to this case study is from Aristotle; “The soul never thinks without a picture” (Aristotle, Greek 384-322 B.C.) Teaching about visual perception, especially to primary students will help them form and develop a better understanding of interpretation, analysis, comprehension, and problem-solving skills and techniques. Section IV: Pre-Assessment Results Clean Copy of Pre-Assessment Questions Name: _____________________________________________ Match the picture on top with one of the four choices. 1.

2.

Circle the picture that is exactly the same as the picture on top. 3.

Learning Mathematics 17

Complete. 5.

How many times is the number 1 in the above picture? 9 times 7 times 4 times 10 times

Draw a line from start to finish. Do not cross any lines. 6.

Learning Mathematics 18

7.

Draw the letter H in box A2. Draw the letter Y in box B2. Draw the letter N in box A1. Draw the letter L in box B1.

A 1 2

8.

B

Draw a circle in box A1. Draw a triangle box B2.

1 A B

9.

2

?

Learning Mathematics 19

10.

(All illustrations areOpen-ended Response Rubrics and Table 1 Written Assessment provided by Edhelper.com) Student Name: Rochelle

Question # 7 How well did the student: 1 Demonstrate an understanding of the problem. Did the student draw a picture or write an expression or equation that properly represents the problem? Determine the relevant information in the question to solve the problem. Did the student write, circle, or otherwise indicate he/she knew the relevant information needed to solve the problem? Devise appropriate solution strategies to solve the problem. Is what the student wrote a viable way to solve the problem? No evidence 0 No evidence 0

Date: 3/25/2008

Conceptual Understanding Some evidence Solid evidence Exceptional 2 4 6 X

2 3

X X Procedural Understanding Some evidence Solid evidence Exceptional 1 2 3

How well did the student: Correctly implement the solution strategy/strategies to solve problem. Did the students solve the problem/strategy they created correctly? As we are evaluating procedural understanding, we are concerned with the solution to the problem/strategy the student created regardless if it is a correct strategy. Determine the correct answer to the original question. If the student was able to come up with the correct answer, give them a point regardless of their method.

4

X

5

X Problem Total 17

Question # 9 How well did the student: Demonstrate an understanding of the problem. 1 Did the student draw a picture or write an expression or equation that properly represents the problem? Determine the relevant information in the question to solve the problem. Did the student write, circle, or otherwise 2 indicate he/she knew the relevant information needed to solve the problem? Devise appropriate solution strategies to solve the problem. Is 3 what the student wrote a viable way to solve the problem? No evidence 0

Conceptual Understanding Some evidence Solid evidence Exceptional 2 4 6 X

X X

Learning Mathematics 20

Procedural Understanding Some evidence Solid evidence Exceptional 1 2 3

How well did the student: Correctly implement the solution strategy/strategies to solve problem. Did the students solve the problem/strategy they created correctly? As we are evaluating procedural 4 understanding, we are concerned with the solution to the problem/strategy the student created regardless if it is a correct strategy. Determine the correct answer to the original question. If the 5 student was able to come up with the correct answer, give them a point regardless of their method.

No evidence 0

X

½ - DIDN’T ID SCALE Problem Total 19 1/2

**Student Name: Harry
**

Question # 7 How well did the student: 1 Demonstrate an understanding of the problem. Did the student draw a picture or write an expression or equation that properly represents the problem? Determine the relevant information in the question to solve the problem. Did the student write, circle, or otherwise indicate he/she knew the relevant information needed to solve the problem? Devise appropriate solution strategies to solve the problem. Is what the student wrote a viable way to solve the problem? No evidence 0 No evidence 0

Date: 3/25/2008

Conceptual Understanding Some evidence Solid evidence Exceptional 2 4 6 X

2 3

X X Procedural Understanding Some evidence Solid evidence Exceptional 1 2 3

How well did the student: Correctly implement the solution strategy/strategies to solve problem. Did the students solve the problem/strategy they created correctly? As we are evaluating procedural understanding, we are concerned with the solution to the problem/strategy the student created regardless if it is a correct strategy. Determine the correct answer to the original question. If the student was able to come up with the correct answer, give them a point regardless of their method.

4

X

5

½ Problem Total

Not applicable 18 1/2

Question # 9 How well did the student: Demonstrate an understanding of the problem. 1 Did the student draw a picture or write an expression or equation that properly represents the problem? Determine the relevant information in the question to solve the problem. Did the student write, circle, or otherwise 2 indicate he/she knew the relevant information needed to solve the problem? Devise appropriate solution strategies to solve the problem. Is 3 what the student wrote a viable way to solve the problem? How well did the student: No evidence 0 No evidence 0

Conceptual Understanding Some evidence Solid evidence Exceptional 2 4 6 X

X X Procedural Understanding Some evidence Solid evidence Exceptional 1 2 3

Learning Mathematics 21

Correctly implement the solution strategy/strategies to solve problem. Did the students solve the problem/strategy they created correctly? As we are evaluating procedural 4 understanding, we are concerned with the solution to the problem/strategy the student created regardless if it is a correct strategy. Determine the correct answer to the original question. If the 5 student was able to come up with the correct answer, give them a point regardless of their method.

X

½ - DIDN’T ID SCALE

Not Applicable Problem Total

Not applicable 15 1/2

**Student Name: Joshua
**

Question # 7 How well did the student: 1 Demonstrate an understanding of the problem. Did the student draw a picture or write an expression or equation that properly represents the problem? Determine the relevant information in the question to solve the problem. Did the student write, circle, or otherwise indicate he/she knew the relevant information needed to solve the problem? Devise appropriate solution strategies to solve the problem. Is what the student wrote a viable way to solve the problem? No evidence 0 No evidence 0

Date: 3/25/2008

Conceptual Understanding Some evidence Solid evidence Exceptional 2 4 6 X

2 3

X X Procedural Understanding Some evidence Solid evidence Exceptional 1 2 3

How well did the student: Correctly implement the solution strategy/strategies to solve problem. Did the students solve the problem/strategy they created correctly? As we are evaluating procedural understanding, we are concerned with the solution to the problem/strategy the student created regardless if it is a correct strategy. Determine the correct answer to the original question. If the student was able to come up with the correct answer, give them a point regardless of their method.

4

X

5

X

Not Applicable Problem Total

Not applicable 15

Question # 9 How well did the student: Demonstrate an understanding of the problem. 1 Did the student draw a picture or write an expression or equation that properly represents the problem? Determine the relevant information in the question to solve the problem. Did the student write, circle, or otherwise 2 indicate he/she knew the relevant information needed to solve the problem? Devise appropriate solution strategies to solve the problem. Is 3 what the student wrote a viable way to solve the problem? How well did the student: No evidence 0 No evidence 0

Conceptual Understanding Some evidence Solid evidence Exceptional 2 4 6 X

X X Procedural Understanding Some evidence Solid evidence Exceptional 1 2 3

Learning Mathematics 22

Correctly implement the solution strategy/strategies to solve problem. Did the students solve the problem/strategy they created correctly? As we are evaluating procedural 4 understanding, we are concerned with the solution to the problem/strategy the student created regardless if it is a correct strategy. Determine the correct answer to the original question. If the 5 student was able to come up with the correct answer, give them a point regardless of their method. Problem Total 24

X

X

**Student Name: Jafar
**

Question # 7 How well did the student: 1 Demonstrate an understanding of the problem. Did the student draw a picture or write an expression or equation that properly represents the problem? Determine the relevant information in the question to solve the problem. Did the student write, circle, or otherwise indicate he/she knew the relevant information needed to solve the problem? Devise appropriate solution strategies to solve the problem. Is what the student wrote a viable way to solve the problem? No evidence 0 No evidence 0

Date: 3/25/2008

Conceptual Understanding Some evidence Solid evidence Exceptional 2 4 6 X

2 3

X X Procedural Understanding Some evidence Solid evidence Exceptional 1 2 3

4

X

5

X

Not Applicable Problem Total

Not applicable 7

Question # 9 How well did the student: Demonstrate an understanding of the problem. 1 Did the student draw a picture or write an expression or equation that properly represents the problem? Determine the relevant information in the question to solve the problem. Did the student write, circle, or otherwise 2 indicate he/she knew the relevant information needed to solve the problem? Devise appropriate solution strategies to solve the problem. Is 3 what the student wrote a viable way to solve the problem? How well did the student: No evidence 0 No evidence 0

Conceptual Understanding Some evidence Solid evidence Exceptional 2 4 6 X

X X Procedural Understanding Some evidence Solid evidence Exceptional 1 2 3

Learning Mathematics 23

Correctly implement the solution strategy/strategies to solve problem. Did the students solve the problem/strategy they created correctly? As we are evaluating procedural 4 understanding, we are concerned with the solution to the problem/strategy the student created regardless if it is a correct strategy. Determine the correct answer to the original question. If the 5 student was able to come up with the correct answer, give them a point regardless of their method.

X

X Problem Total 7

**Student Name: Jennifer
**

Question # 7 How well did the student: 1 Demonstrate an understanding of the problem. Did the student draw a picture or write an expression or equation that properly represents the problem? Determine the relevant information in the question to solve the problem. Did the student write, circle, or otherwise indicate he/she knew the relevant information needed to solve the problem? Devise appropriate solution strategies to solve the problem. Is what the student wrote a viable way to solve the problem? No evidence 0

Date: 3/25/2008

Conceptual Understanding Some evidence Solid evidence Exceptional 2 4 6 X

2 3

X X No evidence 0 Procedural Understanding Some evidence Solid evidence Exceptional 1 2 3

4

X

5

X Problem Total 4

Conceptual Understanding Some evidence Solid evidence Exceptional 2 4 6 X

X X Procedural Understanding Some evidence Solid evidence Exceptional 1 2 3

Learning Mathematics 24

Correctly implement the solution strategy/strategies to solve problem. Did the students solve the problem/strategy they created correctly? As we are evaluating procedural 4 understanding, we are concerned with the solution to the problem/strategy the student created regardless if it is a correct strategy. Determine the correct answer to the original question. If the 5 student was able to come up with the correct answer, give them a point regardless of their method. Problem Total 24

X

X

**Student Name: Mary
**

Question # 7 How well did the student: 1 Demonstrate an understanding of the problem. Did the student draw a picture or write an expression or equation that properly represents the problem? Determine the relevant information in the question to solve the problem. Did the student write, circle, or otherwise indicate he/she knew the relevant information needed to solve the problem? Devise appropriate solution strategies to solve the problem. Is what the student wrote a viable way to solve the problem? No evidence 0

Date: 3/25/2008

Conceptual Understanding Some evidence Solid evidence Exceptional 2 4 6 X

2 3

X X No evidence 0 Procedural Understanding Some evidence Solid evidence Exceptional 1 2 3

4

X

5

X Problem Total 3

Conceptual Understanding Some evidence Solid evidence Exceptional 2 4 6 X

X X Procedural Understanding Some evidence Solid evidence Exceptional 1 2 3

Learning Mathematics 25

Correctly implement the solution strategy/strategies to solve problem. Did the students solve the problem/strategy they created correctly? As we are evaluating procedural 4 understanding, we are concerned with the solution to the problem/strategy the student created regardless if it is a correct strategy. Determine the correct answer to the original question. If the 5 student was able to come up with the correct answer, give them a point regardless of their method. Problem Total 24

X

X

**Student Name: Marta
**

Question # 7 How well did the student: 1 Demonstrate an understanding of the problem. Did the student draw a picture or write an expression or equation that properly represents the problem? Determine the relevant information in the question to solve the problem. Did the student write, circle, or otherwise indicate he/she knew the relevant information needed to solve the problem? Devise appropriate solution strategies to solve the problem. Is what the student wrote a viable way to solve the problem? No evidence 0 No evidence 0

Date: 3/25/2008

Conceptual Understanding Some evidence Solid evidence Exceptional 2 4 6 X

2 3

X X Procedural Understanding Some evidence Solid evidence Exceptional 1 2 3

4

X

5

X Problem Total 9

Conceptual Understanding Some evidence Solid evidence Exceptional 2 4 6 X

X X Procedural Understanding Some evidence Solid evidence Exceptional 1 2 3

Learning Mathematics 26

Correctly implement the solution strategy/strategies to solve problem. Did the students solve the problem/strategy they created correctly? As we are evaluating procedural 4 understanding, we are concerned with the solution to the problem/strategy the student created regardless if it is a correct strategy. Determine the correct answer to the original question. If the 5 student was able to come up with the correct answer, give them a point regardless of their method. Problem Total 30

X

X

**Table 2 Summary Data of Open-Ended Response Rubrics
**

Student Name (First name or pseudonym) Rubric Score Question # Question # 4 9 Additional Comments • Strong Math Student (ESL Learner) •#7 good use of concepts and procedures – procedurally correct, but completed only 3 out of 4 steps for answer. •#9 demonstrated a strong understanding of the problem. • Harry id said to be a student who needs extensive help in mathematics and receives low assignment and test scores in mathematics. • #7 demonstrated a strong understanding of the problem. • #9 demonstrated a strong understanding of the problem. • Admits not knowing when to add, subtract, multiply, or divide • #7 Shoe an understanding of the problem, but failed to choose the correct answer. • #9 showed both strong conceptual and procedural understanding. • Is classified as a student who struggles in math, and although he showed some conceptual and procedural understanding of questions 7and9, both questions appeared to be a challenge. • The sibling of Jafar also said to face serious challenges in mathematics. • #7 showed a lack of both

Rochelle

17

19 ½

Harry

18 ½

15 ½

Joshua

15

24

Jafar

7

7

Jennifer

4

24

Learning Mathematics 27

conceptual and procedural understanding of the problem. #9 Showed strong understanding of the problem. #7 demonstrated little understanding of the problem as a whole. #9 Showed exceptional understanding of this problem. #7 showed some understanding of the problem. #9 showed strong knowledge of the problem.

• 13 Mary • • Marta 9 30 • 24 •

Learning Mathematics 28 The Evaluation Summary The pre-assessment was conducted in a conference room located on the school campus. My assessment group consisted of seven kindergarten students, whose range in mathematics knowledge varies (From students who face challenges in mathematics, to mid and high range level students, and English learner language students.) The students have not had experience with this assessment material in class, but showed an openness and willingness to take the assessment. Many of the students felt that the assessment was fun. The students were pulled out of class, interviewed, and had the test conducted individually. The teachers are pleased to introduce visual perception techniques in their curriculum and I believe there are several benefits of this subject matter inclusion into their mathematics curriculum. There was no time allotment for the tests; each student completed the assessment at their own pace. All of the students were very cooperative; they were given the assessment instructions and completed their tests accordingly. The following is

documentation of each student’s start and finish time of the assessment, as well as any notes that are valid for this exercise. Start Time

Rochelle Harry Joshua Jafar Jennifer Mary Marta 8:03 AM 8:27 AM 8:49 AM 9:06 AM 9:29 AM 9:53 AM 10:13 AM

Completion Time

8:24 AM 8:41 AM 9:03 AM 9:27 AM 9:49 AM 10:11 AM 10:25 AM

Learning Mathematics 29

For question number seven of the assessment most students showed an understanding of the concept of the boxes (A1, A2, B1, and B2), yet many were not able to use their procedural understanding to discern between why and where they were to place the letters, For example:

There were some misunderstandings related to the above problem, the majority of the mistakes stem from difficulty with letter and number recognition. Box A and B 1 & 2 differentiation to name a few. Question number nine deals with geometry, the students had to pick the missing portion of a shape, from three choices. Many students excelled on this question, and while others did not choose the correct answer they demonstrated a conceptual thought process and procedural understanding.

Learning Mathematics 30 Instructional Plans and Activities Lesson Plan Title: “Having Fun With Learning Shapes – Part One” Name: Grade: Number of Students: Amount of time planned for the activity: Minutes Peaches M. Hubbard Kindergarten Seven Activity One: 15 Minutes/ Activity Two: 30

Math Concept: Geometrical Shapes and Visual Perception Techniques. Standard’s Covered (Standard 2): Students use algebraic methods to explore, model, and describe patterns and functions involving numbers, shapes, data, and graphs in problemsolving situations and communicate the reasoning used in solving these problems. (Standard 4): Students use geometric concepts, properties, and relationships in problem-solving situations and communicate the reasoning used in solving these problems. And, (Standard 6): Students link concepts and procedures as they develop and use computational techniques, including estimation, mental arithmetic, paper-and-pencil, calculators, and computers, in problem-solving situations and communicate the reasoning used in solving these problems. Goals: The primary goals of this lesson are to: • Provide students with a better understanding and appreciation of shapes, and to get a better understanding of how these shapes are formed. • To have students use their knowledge of shapes to see the shapes that are around them in their daily lives. • For students to use their passion for drawing and to incorporate that in their ability to draw various shapes. Objectives: • •

Recognizing various geometrical shapes names. Using color-coded geometrical shapes to review and identify various geometrical shapes.

Learning Mathematics 31 • Using numbers to help students count the sides of the shapes.

Pre-assessment Findings: There were a few pre-assessment findings that led me to believe that incorporating this lesson would give the students a better understanding of geometrical figures. The first indicator that the students needed to work on shapes occurred when several students showed some difficulty when they were asked to complete the opposite side of a drawing. The other indicator that students showed difficulty with shapes occurred when students were asked to draw shapes in the corresponding box; most student’s were not able to draw these shapes and did not recognize the shapes by name. Description of Activity: The case study, kindergarten focus group will complete two activities that will coincide with this lesson, they are as follows:

•

Activity One: students will be given a two-paged worksheet. Page one of the worksheet will be comprised of geometrical shapes, by which students are to recognize, call-out. And point to various geometrical shapes using their pointers.

•

Activity Two: Students will be provided with a dice template, which they are to color, cut out, and play a shape recognition game.

Supplies/Materials Needed: The supplies needed for this lesson include: seven pencil and erasers; chalk, pointers, and printed worksheets (3 worksheets per student.)

Learning Mathematics 32 Teaching Strategies Introduction: The students will be given instruction on recognizing shapes by their names and by how many sides they have. For a demonstration, pictures of shapes will be used, as well as real life objects that have the shame shape. Guiding/Discussion Questions: 1.) What are the shapes that you see around you, in the classroom? 2.) Using general classroom items, what shapes is this object? 3.) How many lines does it take to draw a. …(Various shapes)? Checking for Understanding: The following are measures used to check for understanding: Reviewing concepts in an oral (group) review. Using formative assessment through the guidance and discussion questions. Sending home a mixed worksheet, with all of the corresponding activities to the lesson, and re-assessing the student’s worksheets. Incorporation of Learning Principles Discussed in this Course: this lesson plan incorporates the following learning principles: • Learning Principle One (Engaging Prior Understanding): this is incorporated in this lesson by using various classroom items and identifying various “real world” objects shapes. This will build on the foundation of what students know of shapes while introducing them to other objects and shapes. (How Students Learn, p.4) • Design Principle One: Exposing Children to Major Forms of Number Representation. According to the textbook, this principle is represented in five

Learning Mathematics 33 major ways: through objects, dot set patterns, segments on a scale or graph, and segments or points on a dial. This design principle will be used when the students create the dice (object), as well as practice their counting when they roll the dice. Design Principle Three: Providing Visual and Spatial Analogs of Number Representations That Children Can Actively Explore in a Hands-On Fashion. Providing the students with fun learning activities that aid them in learning and recognizing shapes and numbers fulfill the objectives of this design principle. (How Students Learn, pp.283-293)

•

Learning Environments and Design Characteristics.

All of the

perspectives of learning: (learning, knowledge, assessment, and community centered learning) will create the environment for this lesson. The students will draw their own shapes based on what they know of the shape, which is encouraged by learner-centered environments. The students will be asked to create various geometrical shapes step-by-step, in an attempt to understand how to make a shape, which is encourages by knowledge centered learning environments. Students who are demonstrating difficulty will be encouraged to do board work, in which they will be given hands on demonstration of making shapes, which is encouraged by assessment centered learning environments. Lastly, the students will free to ask questions, and assist other students that may be having some difficulty with the activities. This will also create a team effort or partnership, which can boost self-esteem and create positive peer interaction. Community centered learning environments encourages this type of learning. (How Students Learn, pp. 13-17.)

Learning Mathematics 34

•

Incorporation of the Five Strands of Proficiency (How Students Learn, p.

218): The following describes how the five strands of proficiency will be incorporated into the student’s lesson and learning activities. o has. o Procedural Fluency: learning how to draw various lines, angles, and Conceptual Understanding: comprehension of how many sides a shape

geometrical shapes. o make the dice. o o Adaptive Reasoning: N/A Productive Disposition: relating “real world” items and objects to see Strategic Competence: Understanding how to put together the sides to

how shapes surround us in our daily lives, and why objects of certain shapes are used in the capacity that they are. • Incorporation of Constructivists Teaching Behaviors. The course website offers

this enlightening explanation of the constructivist classroom “It is important to help all students construct new mathematical understandings, and at the same time develop sensitivities to the wonder and benefit of understanding learners who are different from themselves and who use various perspectives to solve problems. “(JIU, EDU518: Teaching for Mathematics Comprehension.) I would incorporate this idea into my lesson and corresponding activities by focusing on what the students know about shapes, reinforcing that knowledge, and showing them the proper way to create geometrical shapes.

Learning Mathematics 35

Attachments: The following is a sample of the activities that correspond with this lesson.

“Students will use pointers to point to the shape that is called out.” Touch Worksheet (This is a sample of activity one. (MathWizardWorksheets.com)

Shapes Dice Template. (This is a sample of activity two. (MathWizardWorksheets.com)

Lesson Plan Title: “Having Fun With Learning Shapes - Part Two.” Name: Grade: Peaches M. Hubbard Kindergarten

Learning Mathematics 36 Number of Students: Amount of time planned for the activity: Minutes Seven Activity I & II: 30 Minutes/Activity III: 15

Math Concept: Geometrical Shapes and Visual Perception Techniques. Standard Covered: (Standard 2): Students use algebraic methods to explore, model, and describe patterns and functions involving numbers, shapes, data, and graphs in problemsolving situations and communicate the reasoning used in solving these problems. (Colorado Department of Education, 2005) Goals: The primary goals of this lesson are to: • Provide students with a better understanding and appreciation of shapes, and to get a better understanding of how these shapes are formed. • To have students use their knowledge of shapes to see the shapes that are around them in their daily lives. • For students to use their passion for drawing and to incorporate that in their ability to draw various shapes. Objectives: After the completion of the lesson the student’s will be able to demonstrate their knowledge of: • How to draw various geometrical shapes, by drawing straight and angled lines to create various geometrical shapes. • Using the knowledge that they have gained about shapes to complete patterns. • • Using their knowledge of numbers to count the correct number of shapes. Recognizing various geometrical shapes.

Learning Mathematics 37

Pre-assessment Findings: There were a few pre-assessment findings that led me to believe that incorporating this lesson would give the students a better understanding of geometrical figures. The first indicator that the students needed to work on shapes occurred when several students showed some difficulty when they were asked to complete the opposite side of a drawing. The other indicator that students showed difficulty with shapes occurred when students were asked to draw shapes in the corresponding box; most student’s were not able to draw these shapes and did not recognize the shapes by name. Description of Activity: The case study, kindergarten focus group will complete two activities that will coincide with this lesson, they are as follows: • Activity One: Students will be given two stapled worksheets, page one will be comprised of geometrical shapes, by which students are to recognize, count, and find the pattern for various geometrical shapes. Page two consists of a matching activity by which students have to match the shape, with a part of the shape missing. • Activity Two: Students will be given a worksheet, which they are to complete the missing part of the picture by drawing the missing portion of the picture. Supplies/Materials Needed: The supplies needed for this lesson include: seven pencil and erasers; chalk, and printed worksheets (3 worksheets per student.)

Teaching Strategies

Learning Mathematics 38 Introduction: The students will be given instruction on recognizing shapes by their names and by how many sides they have. For a demonstration, pictures of shapes will be used, as well as real life objects that have the shame shape. Guiding/Discussion Questions: 4.) What are the shapes that you see around you, in the classroom? 5.) Using general classroom items, what shapes is this object? 6.) How many lines does it take to draw a. …(Various shapes)? Checking for Understanding: The following are measures used to check for understanding: Reviewing concepts in an oral (group) review. Using formative assessment through the guidance and discussion questions. Sending home a mixed worksheet, with all of the corresponding activities to the lesson, and re-assessing the student’s worksheets. Incorporation of Learning Principles Discussed in this Course: • Learning Principle Two: The Essential Role of Factual Knowledge and

Conceptual Frameworks in Understanding. (How Students Learn, p.6.) This principle will be incorporated into this lesson and its activities by teaching the students about shapes and how to draw shapes, by understanding this factual information students will be able to use their conceptual knowledge by finding patterns: and understanding what shape comes next, as well as shape recognition, and counting the sides and incorporating problem-solving skills.

Learning Mathematics 39

•

Design Principle One: Exposing Children to Major Forms of Number

Representation. According to the textbook, this principle is represented in five major ways: through objects, dot set patterns, segments on a scale or graph, and segments or points on a dial. (How Students Learn, pp.283-284) This aligns with the activities of this lesson because the students will be provided with dot set patterns to create shapes and practice number sense and counting skills. The benefits of this are discusses by an online learning website, which states that Geometry and Spatial Sense - Children build on their knowledge of basic shapes to identify more complex 2-D and 3-D shapes by drawing and sorting. They then learn to reason spatially, read maps, visualize objects in space, and use geometric modeling to solve problems. Eventually children will be able to use coordinate geometry to specify locations, give directions and describe spatial relationships. (Time4Learning.com)

•

Learning Environments and Design Characteristics.

All of the

perspectives of learning: (learning, knowledge, assessment, and community centered learning) will create the environment for this lesson. The students will draw their own shapes based on what they know of the shape, which is encouraged by learner-centered environments. The students will be asked to create various geometrical shapes step-by-step, in an attempt to understand how to make a shape, which is encourages by knowledge centered learning environments. Students who are demonstrating difficulty will be encouraged to do board work, in which they will be given hands on demonstration of making shapes, which is encouraged by assessment centered learning environments.

Learning Mathematics 40 Lastly, the students will free to ask questions, and assist other students that may be having some difficulty with the activities. This will also create a team effort or partnership, which can boost self-esteem and create positive peer interaction. Community centered learning environments encourages this type of learning. (How Students Learn, pp. 13-17.)

•

Incorporation of the Five Strands of Proficiency (How Students Learn, p.

218): The following describes how the five strands of proficiency will be incorporated into the student’s lesson and learning activities. o has. o Procedural Fluency: learning how to draw various lines, angles, and Conceptual Understanding: comprehension of how many sides a shape

geometrical shapes. o o o Strategic Competence: N/A Adaptive Reasoning: N/A Productive Disposition: relating “real world” items and objects to see

how shapes surround us in our daily lives, and why objects of certain shapes are used in the capacity that they are. • Incorporation of Constructivists Teaching Behaviors. The course website offers

this enlightening explanation of the constructivist classroom “It is important to help all students construct new mathematical understandings, and at the same time develop sensitivities to the wonder and benefit of understanding learners who are different from themselves and who use various perspectives to solve problems. “(JIU, EDU518:

Learning Mathematics 41 Teaching for Mathematics Comprehension.) I would incorporate this idea into my lesson and corresponding activities by focusing on what the students know about shapes, reinforcing that knowledge, and showing them the proper way to create geometrical shapes.

Attachments: The following is a sample of the activities that correspond with this lesson.

•

Activity One: will be comprised of two worksheets. On the first worksheet students are to count the shapes, which will help them with number and shape recognition. On the second worksheet student’s are to use pointer to point to the correct shape that is called out to them, each student can also take a turn calling out the shapes for their classmates.

Counting Shapes Worksheets This is a sample of activity one. (MathWizardWorksheets.com) •

Match-up

Activity Two: this will be the third page of the lesson packet. Students are to complete the missing part of the picture by drawing the missing portion of the picture.

Learning Mathematics 42

This is a sample of activity two. (Edhelper.com) Instructional Plan Implementation The first lesson took place on Tuesday, April 14, 2009. The students were sitting in their collaborative groups and were called individually to a table located in the math and reading lab classroom. There are seven students that I am working with for this

assessment process. The student’s are comprised of high and low level learners, ESL learners, and two siblings that have some developmental delays. The first lesson started at approximately 7:45 a.m. and ended at 8:30 .m. The second lesson took place in the same classroom on April 15, 2009, beginning at 7:50 to 8:45 a.m. The materials needed for both lessons included: seven pencils, an eraser, crayons, and the activity worksheets. The environment in the classroom was quite, most of the students were excited, and a few were apprehensive because they were unsure of the activities that were in store for them. Each lesson is comprised of two worksheets. For each lesson, I reviewed the mathematical concepts of shapes. As a group we reviewed the name of the shape and the sides, and gave examples of what things around them are of the same shape. Secondly, I read all of the directions, and I after the review I had the students complete their work individually. Lesson one asked the students to name and identify the correct shapes by calling the shape out. The students then colored the shapes on their worksheet. The second page of lesson one asked the students to draw a line and match the corresponding

Learning Mathematics 43 shape. For lesson two the students were asked to identify the shapes by name, count the shapes, and fill-in-the blanks by counting the shapes and writing the proper amount on the line. For the second page for lesson two the students were asked to draw the missing half of the picture. The students did not show any signs of boredom, they were excited and eager to go through each worksheet. Although two of the more advanced students were able to catch on to the concepts of learning quickly, all of the students took their time in completing the lesson activities. The students interacted well with both each other and myself throughout the duration of the lesson. The students were excited to learn and answer questions, and did not hesitate to ask me questions, which let me know that they were comfortable with their learning environment, with me, and with the lesson as a whole. Ending Notes: The students were eager for me to work with them. Most of the students showed some distress when we began page two of lesson two, in which the students were asked to draw the missing half of the picture. They just assumed that they did not know how to complete the task. [At this moment I stepped in and asked all of the students to at least try, that there pictures were not expected to be perfect, but just to do the best that they can. I also showed the students how they could use the concepts that they learned for the day and the prior day to aid them in completing their pictures. One example that I pointed out was of a picture of a castle. I pointed out all of the shapes that were shown on the half of the picture that was complete. I explained that if they look at the shaped they could see how to place them to draw the missing portion. For example, the topside

Learning Mathematics 44 of the caste was a triangle, which was connected to the bottom halve which was a rectangle.] These simple suggestions seemed to help the students tremendously, they became motivated and their self-esteem appeared to be boosted. I ended each session with letting the students know that they all did a great job, and each student received several stamps for their participation and hard work. End Results: There were a few students who are having some difficulties in their studies that demonstrated some difficulty, I worked with these students and they were able to complete the activities. The two sibling students who have pre-determined

developmental difficulty, were somewhat quite when they did not understand an activity right away, although they did demonstrate their understanding by the end of the lesson. The other students were equally involved in all of the activities. At the end of the activities I reviewed the lesson and the student’s demonstrated their knowledge of being able to identify, match, and give oral feedback regarding the shapes that were discussed for the lesson. At the end all of the students demonstrated their knowledge of the lesson, and for that reason I would not revise the lesson. The students were engaged,

comfortable, and excited to complete the activities associated with lesson one and two.

Learning Mathematics 45 Post Assessment and Results Section VII: Post-Assessment and Findings Clean Copy of Post-Assessment Questions Name: _____________________________________________

Touch Worksheet: (MathWizardWorksheets.com) “Students will use pointers to point to the shape that is called out.”

Counting Shapes: (MathWizardWorksheets.com) “Students will demonstrate their knowledge of shapes by identifying, counting, and coloring the shapes on the worksheet. On the actual assessment document the student are provided with lines in which they are to fill-in-the blanks and write the number of shapes there are, for each shape.

Learning Mathematics 46

Match-up Worksheet: (MathWizardWorksheets.com) “Students are to match the shapes on the left side of the worksheet to the shapes on the right side of the worksheet. Also, the students are to demonstrate their knowledge of shapes by naming each shape orally, as a group.

Complete the Picture: (Edhelper.com) “Students are to complete the picture by drawing the missing portion.”

**Written Assessment Open-ended Response Rubrics and Table 3 Student Name: Rochelle
**

Question # 2 – Page 4 How well did the student: 1 Demonstrate an understanding of the problem. Did the student draw a picture or write an expression or equation that properly represents the problem? Determine the relevant information in the question to solve the problem. Did the student write, circle, or otherwise indicate he/she knew the relevant information needed to solve the problem? Devise appropriate solution strategies to solve the problem. Is what the student wrote a viable way to solve the problem?

Date: 4/15 - 16/2009

Conceptual Understanding No evidence Some evidenceSolid evidence Exceptional 0 2 4 6 X

2 3

X X Procedural Understanding No evidence Some evidenceSolid evidence Exceptional 0 1 2 3

How well did the student: Correctly implement the solution strategy/strategies to solve problem. Did the students solve the problem/strategy they created correctly? As we are evaluating procedural 4 understanding, we are concerned with the solution to the problem/strategy the student created regardless if it is a correct strategy. Determine the correct answer to the original question. If the 5 student was able to come up with the correct answer, give them a point regardless of their method. Problem Total Question # 3 – Page 4 How well did the student: 1 Demonstrate an understanding of the problem. Did the student draw a picture or write an expression or

X

X 20 Conceptual Understanding No evidence Some evidenceSolid evidence Exceptional 0 2 4 6 X

Learning Mathematics 47

equation that properly represents the problem? Determine the relevant information in the question to solve the problem. Did the student write, circle, or otherwise 2 indicate he/she knew the relevant information needed to solve the problem? Devise appropriate solution strategies to solve the problem. Is 3 what the student wrote a viable way to solve the problem? How well did the student: Correctly implement the solution strategy/strategies to solve problem. Did the students solve the problem/strategy they created correctly? As we are evaluating procedural 4 understanding, we are concerned with the solution to the problem/strategy the student created regardless if it is a correct strategy. Determine the correct answer to the original question. If the 5 student was able to come up with the correct answer, give them a point regardless of their method. Problem Total

X X Procedural Understanding No evidence Some evidenceSolid evidence Exceptional 0 1 2 3

X

X 22

**Student Name: Harry
**

Question # 2 – Page 4 How well did the student: 1 Demonstrate an understanding of the problem. Did the student draw a picture or write an expression or equation that properly represents the problem? Determine the relevant information in the question to solve the problem. Did the student write, circle, or otherwise indicate he/she knew the relevant information needed to solve the problem? Devise appropriate solution strategies to solve the problem. Is what the student wrote a viable way to solve the problem?

Date: 4/ 15-16 /2008

Conceptual Understanding No evidence Some evidenceSolid evidence Exceptional 0 2 4 6 X

2 3

X X Procedural Understanding No evidence Some evidenceSolid evidence Exceptional 0 1 2 3

How well did the student: Correctly implement the solution strategy/strategies to solve problem. Did the students solve the problem/strategy they created correctly? As we are evaluating procedural 4 understanding, we are concerned with the solution to the problem/strategy the student created regardless if it is a correct strategy. Determine the correct answer to the original question. If the 5 student was able to come up with the correct answer, give them a point regardless of their method. Problem Total Question # 3 – Page 4 How well did the student: Demonstrate an understanding of the problem. 1 Did the student draw a picture or write an expression or equation that properly represents the problem?

X

1/2 4 1/2 Conceptual Understanding No evidence Some evidenceSolid evidence Exceptional 0 2 4 6 X

Learning Mathematics 48

Determine the relevant information in the question to solve the problem. Did the student write, circle, or otherwise 2 indicate he/she knew the relevant information needed to solve the problem? Devise appropriate solution strategies to solve the problem. Is 3 what the student wrote a viable way to solve the problem? How well did the student: Correctly implement the solution strategy/strategies to solve problem. Did the students solve the problem/strategy they created correctly? As we are evaluating procedural 4 understanding, we are concerned with the solution to the problem/strategy the student created regardless if it is a correct strategy. Determine the correct answer to the original question. If the 5 student was able to come up with the correct answer, give them a point regardless of their method. Problem Total

X X Procedural Understanding No evidence Some evidenceSolid evidence Exceptional 0 1 2 3

X

X 0

**Student Name: Joshua
**

Question # 2 – Page 4 How well did the student: 1 Demonstrate an understanding of the problem. Did the student draw a picture or write an expression or equation that properly represents the problem? Determine the relevant information in the question to solve the problem. Did the student write, circle, or otherwise indicate he/she knew the relevant information needed to solve the problem? Devise appropriate solution strategies to solve the problem. Is what the student wrote a viable way to solve the problem?

Date: 4/ 15-16 /2009

Conceptual Understanding No evidence Some evidenceSolid evidence Exceptional 0 2 4 6 X

2 3

X X Procedural Understanding No evidence Some evidenceSolid evidence Exceptional 0 1 2 3

How well did the student: Correctly implement the solution strategy/strategies to solve problem. Did the students solve the problem/strategy they created correctly? As we are evaluating procedural 4 understanding, we are concerned with the solution to the problem/strategy the student created regardless if it is a correct strategy. Determine the correct answer to the original question. If the 5 student was able to come up with the correct answer, give them a point regardless of their method. Problem Total Question # 3 – Page 4 How well did the student: Demonstrate an understanding of the problem. 1 Did the student draw a picture or write an expression or equation that properly represents the problem?

X

X 24 Conceptual Understanding No evidence Some evidenceSolid evidence Exceptional 0 2 4 6 X

Learning Mathematics 49

Determine the relevant information in the question to solve the problem. Did the student write, circle, or otherwise 2 indicate he/she knew the relevant information needed to solve the problem? Devise appropriate solution strategies to solve the problem. Is 3 what the student wrote a viable way to solve the problem? How well did the student: Correctly implement the solution strategy/strategies to solve problem. Did the students solve the problem/strategy they created correctly? As we are evaluating procedural 4 understanding, we are concerned with the solution to the problem/strategy the student created regardless if it is a correct strategy. Determine the correct answer to the original question. If the 5 student was able to come up with the correct answer, give them a point regardless of their method. Problem Total

X X Procedural Understanding No evidence Some evidenceSolid evidence Exceptional 0 1 2 3

X

X 24

**Student Name: Jafar
**

Question # 2 – Page 4 How well did the student: 1 Demonstrate an understanding of the problem. Did the student draw a picture or write an expression or equation that properly represents the problem? Determine the relevant information in the question to solve the problem. Did the student write, circle, or otherwise indicate he/she knew the relevant information needed to solve the problem? Devise appropriate solution strategies to solve the problem. Is what the student wrote a viable way to solve the problem?

Date: 4/ 15-16 /2009

Conceptual Understanding No evidence Some evidenceSolid evidence Exceptional 0 2 4 6 X

2 3

X X Procedural Understanding No evidence Some evidenceSolid evidence Exceptional 0 1 2 3

How well did the student: Correctly implement the solution strategy/strategies to solve problem. Did the students solve the problem/strategy they created correctly? As we are evaluating procedural 4 understanding, we are concerned with the solution to the problem/strategy the student created regardless if it is a correct strategy. Determine the correct answer to the original question. If the 5 student was able to come up with the correct answer, give them a point regardless of their method. Problem Total Question # 3 – Page 4 How well did the student: Demonstrate an understanding of the problem. 1 Did the student draw a picture or write an expression or equation that properly represents the problem? Determine the relevant information in the question to solve the problem. Did the student write, circle, or otherwise 2 indicate he/she knew the relevant information needed to solve the problem? Devise appropriate solution strategies to solve the problem. Is 3 what the student wrote a viable way to solve the problem?

X

X 6 Conceptual Understanding No evidence Some evidenceSolid evidence Exceptional 0 2 4 6 X

X X

Learning Mathematics 50

Procedural Understanding No evidence Some evidenceSolid evidence Exceptional 0 1 2 3

How well did the student: Correctly implement the solution strategy/strategies to solve problem. Did the students solve the problem/strategy they created correctly? As we are evaluating procedural 4 understanding, we are concerned with the solution to the problem/strategy the student created regardless if it is a correct strategy. Determine the correct answer to the original question. If the 5 student was able to come up with the correct answer, give them a point regardless of their method. Problem Total

X

X 8

**Student Name: Jennifer
**

Question # 2 – Page 4 How well did the student: 1 Demonstrate an understanding of the problem. Did the student draw a picture or write an expression or equation that properly represents the problem? Determine the relevant information in the question to solve the problem. Did the student write, circle, or otherwise indicate he/she knew the relevant information needed to solve the problem? Devise appropriate solution strategies to solve the problem. Is what the student wrote a viable way to solve the problem?

Date: 4/ 15-16 /2009

Conceptual Understanding No evidence Some evidenceSolid evidence Exceptional 0 2 4 6 X

2 3

X X Procedural Understanding No evidence Some evidenceSolid evidence Exceptional 0 1 2 3

How well did the student: Correctly implement the solution strategy/strategies to solve problem. Did the students solve the problem/strategy they created correctly? As we are evaluating procedural 4 understanding, we are concerned with the solution to the problem/strategy the student created regardless if it is a correct strategy. Determine the correct answer to the original question. If the 5 student was able to come up with the correct answer, give them a point regardless of their method. Problem Total Question # 3 – Page 4 How well did the student: Demonstrate an understanding of the problem. 1 Did the student draw a picture or write an expression or equation that properly represents the problem? Determine the relevant information in the question to solve the problem. Did the student write, circle, or otherwise 2 indicate he/she knew the relevant information needed to solve the problem? Devise appropriate solution strategies to solve the problem. Is 3 what the student wrote a viable way to solve the problem? How well did the student:

X

X 13 Conceptual Understanding No evidence Some evidenceSolid evidence Exceptional 0 2 4 6 X

X X Procedural Understanding No evidence Some evidenceSolid evidence Exceptional 0 1 2 3

Learning Mathematics 51

Correctly implement the solution strategy/strategies to solve problem. Did the students solve the problem/strategy they created correctly? As we are evaluating procedural 4 understanding, we are concerned with the solution to the problem/strategy the student created regardless if it is a correct strategy. Determine the correct answer to the original question. If the 5 student was able to come up with the correct answer, give them a point regardless of their method. Problem Total

X

X 20

**Student Name: Mary
**

Question # 2 – Page 4 How well did the student: 1 Demonstrate an understanding of the problem. Did the student draw a picture or write an expression or equation that properly represents the problem? Determine the relevant information in the question to solve the problem. Did the student write, circle, or otherwise indicate he/she knew the relevant information needed to solve the problem? Devise appropriate solution strategies to solve the problem. Is what the student wrote a viable way to solve the problem?

Conceptual Understanding No evidence Some evidenceSolid evidence Exceptional 0 2 4 6 X

2 3

X X Procedural Understanding No evidence Some evidenceSolid evidence Exceptional 0 1 2 3

How well did the student: Correctly implement the solution strategy/strategies to solve problem. Did the students solve the problem/strategy they created correctly? As we are evaluating procedural 4 understanding, we are concerned with the solution to the problem/strategy the student created regardless if it is a correct strategy. Determine the correct answer to the original question. If the 5 student was able to come up with the correct answer, give them a point regardless of their method. Problem Total Question # 3 – Page 4 How well did the student: Demonstrate an understanding of the problem. 1 Did the student draw a picture or write an expression or equation that properly represents the problem? Determine the relevant information in the question to solve the problem. Did the student write, circle, or otherwise 2 indicate he/she knew the relevant information needed to solve the problem? Devise appropriate solution strategies to solve the problem. Is 3 what the student wrote a viable way to solve the problem? How well did the student: Correctly implement the solution strategy/strategies to solve problem. Did the students solve the problem/strategy they created correctly? As we are evaluating procedural 4 understanding, we are concerned with the solution to the problem/strategy the student created regardless if it is a correct strategy.

X

X 24 Conceptual Understanding No evidence Some evidenceSolid evidence Exceptional 0 2 4 6 X

X X Procedural Understanding No evidence Some evidenceSolid evidence Exceptional 0 1 2 3

X

Learning Mathematics 52

Determine the correct answer to the original question. If the 5 student was able to come up with the correct answer, give them a point regardless of their method. Problem Total

X 24

**Student Name: Marta
**

Question # 2 – Page 4 How well did the student: 1 Demonstrate an understanding of the problem. Did the student draw a picture or write an expression or equation that properly represents the problem? Determine the relevant information in the question to solve the problem. Did the student write, circle, or otherwise indicate he/she knew the relevant information needed to solve the problem? Devise appropriate solution strategies to solve the problem. Is what the student wrote a viable way to solve the problem?

Date: 3/25/2008

Conceptual Understanding No evidence Some evidenceSolid evidence Exceptional 0 2 4 6 X

2 3

X X Procedural Understanding No evidence Some evidenceSolid evidence Exceptional 0 1 2 3

How well did the student: Correctly implement the solution strategy/strategies to solve problem. Did the students solve the problem/strategy they created correctly? As we are evaluating procedural 4 understanding, we are concerned with the solution to the problem/strategy the student created regardless if it is a correct strategy. Determine the correct answer to the original question. If the 5 student was able to come up with the correct answer, give them a point regardless of their method. Problem Total Question # 3 – Page 4 How well did the student: Demonstrate an understanding of the problem. 1 Did the student draw a picture or write an expression or equation that properly represents the problem? Determine the relevant information in the question to solve the problem. Did the student write, circle, or otherwise 2 indicate he/she knew the relevant information needed to solve the problem? Devise appropriate solution strategies to solve the problem. Is 3 what the student wrote a viable way to solve the problem? How well did the student: Correctly implement the solution strategy/strategies to solve problem. Did the students solve the problem/strategy they created correctly? As we are evaluating procedural 4 understanding, we are concerned with the solution to the problem/strategy the student created regardless if it is a correct strategy. Determine the correct answer to the original question. If the 5 student was able to come up with the correct answer, give them a point regardless of their method. Problem Total

X

X 24 Conceptual Understanding No evidence Some evidenceSolid evidence Exceptional 0 2 4 6 X

X X Procedural Understanding No evidence Some evidenceSolid evidence Exceptional 0 1 2 3

X

X 30

Learning Mathematics 53

**Summary Data of Open-Ended Response Rubrics Rubric Score
**

Student Name (First name or pseudonym) Question # 2 (Page 4) Question # 3 (Page 4) Additional Comments

• Strong Math Student (ESL Learner) •#2 good use of concepts and procedures – procedurally correct, completed all the steps for the answer. •#3 demonstrated a strong understanding of the problem, and using shapes to help create a picture. • Harry is said to be a student who needs extensive help in mathematics and receives low assignment and test scores in mathematics. • #2 demonstrated some understanding of the problem. • #3 demonstrated no understanding of the problem. Henry needs extra help with developing his motor skills. Joshua is a bright student but he has behavioral concerns that interfere with his schoolwork; Joshua needs one-on-one attention. #2 demonstrated a strong understanding of the problem and completed it appropriately. #3 showed both strong conceptual and procedural understanding. • Is classified as a student who struggles in math, yet he showed both, conceptual and procedural understanding of questions 2 and 3. Jafar had developmental concerns and functions at a much lower level of learning than the other students, yet he strived in both questions, which deal with art and shapes. • The sibling of Jafar also said to face serious challenges in mathematics. • #2 showed a great understanding of both conceptual and procedural knowledge of the problem. • #3 Showed strong understanding of the problem. • Mary is a fast learner and very bright, but as Joshua has behavioral concerns that can sometimes get in the way of her learning. • #2 showed a great understanding of both conceptual and procedural knowledge of the problem. • #3 Showed strong understanding of the problem. • #2 showed some understanding of the problem. • #3 showed strong knowledge of the problem.

Rochelle

20

22

Harry

12

14

Joshua

24

24

Jafar

6

8

Jennifer

13

20

Mary

24

24

Marta

24

30

Learning Mathematics 54 The Evaluation Summary The first lesson took place on Tuesday, April 14, 2009. The students were sitting in their collaborative groups and were called individually to a table located in the math and reading lab classroom. There are seven students that I am

working with for this assessment process. The student’s are comprised of high and low level learners, ESL learners, and two siblings that have some developmental delays. The first lesson started at approximately 7:45 a.m. and ended at 8:30 .m. The second lesson took place in the same classroom on April 15, 2009, beginning at 7:50 to 8:45 a.m. The materials needed for both lessons included: seven pencils, an eraser, crayons, and the activity worksheets. The environment in the classroom was quite, most of the students were excited, and a few were apprehensive because they were unsure of the activities that were in store for them. For each lesson, I reviewed the mathematical concepts of shapes. As a group we reviewed the name of the shape and the sides, and gave examples of what things around them are of the same shape. Secondly, I read all of the directions, and I after the review I had the students complete their work individually. Lesson one asked the students to name and identify the correct shapes by calling the shape out. The students then colored the shapes on their worksheet. The second page of lesson one asked the students to draw a line and match the corresponding shape. For lesson two the students were asked to

identify the shapes by name, count the shapes, and fill-in-the blanks by counting the shapes and writing the proper amount on the line. For the second page for lesson two the students were asked to draw the missing half of the picture.

Learning Mathematics 55 The students did not show any signs of boredom, they were excited and eager to go through each worksheet. Although two of the more advanced students were able to catch on to the concepts of learning quickly, all of the students took their time in completing the lesson activities. The students interacted well with both each other and myself throughout the duration of the lesson. The students were excited to learn and answer questions, and did not hesitate to ask me questions, which let me know that they were comfortable with their learning environment, with me, and with the lesson as a whole. The allotment for the tests: The students worked in a group and the students had approximately thirty to thirty-five minutes per lesson. All of the students were very cooperative; they were given the assessment instructions and completed their tests accordingly. All of the students did a good job for the lesson activity, yet Harry appeared to struggle more than any of the other student with assessment questions two and three, page four. Harry is a boy with a big personality, he is very friendly and outgoing, yet he tends to disturb or distract the other students when they are trying to learn. Henry has some behavioral concerns, he is also lacking in the development of his fine motor skills. Jafar did far better on this assignment, especially with questions two and three, yet he continues to struggle with his motor and fine motor skills, he also has a speech impediment and has a hard time speaking in complete simple and complex sentences.

Learning Mathematics 56 Student Work Samples

Rochell Rochell

Rochell

Learning Mathematics 57 Post Assessment Notes The students did not show any signs of boredom, they were excited and eager to go through each worksheet. Although two of the more advanced students were able to catch on to the concepts of learning quickly, all of the students took their time in completing the lesson activities. The students interacted well with both each other and myself throughout the duration of the lesson. The students were excited to learn and answer questions, and did not hesitate to ask me questions, which let me know that they were comfortable with their learning environment, with me, and with the lesson as a whole. The students were eager for me to work with them. Most of the students showed some distress when we began page two of lesson two, in which the students were asked to draw the missing half of the picture. They just assumed that they did not know how to complete the task. [At this moment I stepped in and asked all of the students to at least try, that there pictures were not expected to be perfect, but just to do the best that they can. I also showed the students how they could use the concepts that they learned for the day and the prior day to aid them in completing their pictures. One example that I pointed out was of a picture of a castle. I pointed out all of the shapes that were shown on the half of the picture that was complete. I explained that if they look at the shaped they could see how to place them to draw the missing portion. For example, the topside of the caste was a triangle, which was connected to the bottom halve which was a rectangle.] These simple suggestions seemed to help the students tremendously, they became motivated and their self-esteem appeared to be boosted.

Learning Mathematics 58 Comparison Table (The following table shows the results for both the pre-assessment and postassessment results.) Student Names Pre-Assessment Scores Post-Assessment Scores Total

Rochelle

36

42

78

Joshua

39

48

87

Jafar

14

14

28

Jennifer

28

33

61

Harry

33 1/2

26

59 1/2

Mary

27

48

75

Marta

39

53

92

Post-Assessment Wrap-up All of the students tried their best to follow the instructions given to them regarding the assessment. Mostly, the same students that struggled in the pre-assessment were the same students who faced some challenges in the post-assessment, due to predetermined learning and/or behavioral conditions. Most of the students showed

significant improvement from the pre-assessment to the post-assessment. The students were able to demonstrate their knowledge of visual perception and geometry skills by

Learning Mathematics 59 identifying shapes, counting, drawing, and using number sense and reasoning skills. The students were exposed to the two of the curriculum focal points provided by the (NCTM), which include: Geometry, which states that kindergarten students should be able to “interpret the physical world with geometric ideas (e.g., shape, orientation, spatial relations) and describe it with corresponding vocabulary. They identify, name, and describe a variety of shapes, such as squares, triangles, circles, rectangles, (regular) hexagons, and (isosceles) trapezoids presented in a variety of ways (e.g., with different sizes or orientations), as well as such three-dimensional shapes as spheres, cubes, and cylinders. They use basic shapes and spatial reasoning to model objects in their environment and to construct more complex shapes.” (NCTM, 2005.) Numbers and Operations, which states that kindergarten students should be able to “use numbers, including written numerals, to represent quantities and to solve quantitative problems, such as counting objects in a set, creating a set with a given number of objects, comparing and ordering sets or numerals by using both cardinal and ordinal meanings, and modeling simple joining and separating situations with objects. They choose, combine, and apply effective strategies for answering quantitative questions, including quickly recognizing the number in a small set, counting and producing sets of given sizes, counting the number in combined sets, and counting backward.” (NCTM, 2005.)

Learning Mathematics 60 Conclusion It is my opinion that visual perception and geometry go hand in hand. Although students may be able to learn various facts regarding numbers; their perception skills are needed when it comes to demonstrating what they have learned through illustrations and drawings to represent number values, shapes, or the like. Some students perceived knowledge does not match up with the factual knowledge and this disconnect can hinder a student in a variety of subjects, especially mathematics. As an educator I find it imperative to teach students visual perception techniques; these techniques will not only benefit the students in geometry but they provide strengthening exercises and strategies for one’s mind and memory. This case study has shed a new light on how students (kindergarten students) learn. I have found new techniques and acquired new skills to help students have a better understanding of mathematics. Therefore, I would like to end with a humorous quote that can be used to explain the use of visual perception in mathematics: “Sometimes it is useful to know how large your zero is. ~Author Unknown

Learning Mathematics 61 STUDENT WORK CONSENT AND RELEASE FORM I hereby grant permission to Jones International University, Ltd., its affiliates and designees (collectively, JIU®) to duplicate and use the material indicated below in the future without compensation to or consent from me. I acknowledge the duplication of the material may be in audio, digital, tangible print, internet-based or other forms of duplication and may be distributed in their entirety, abridged, compiled with other’s works or otherwise used by JIU. I expressly grant permission to JIU to use and distribute the same, as described above, as they elect, including as a part of its education courses. I also confirm I am the original author of the material or have otherwise identified the copyright owner or author in the material. I expressly release JIU and each of its affiliates and designees from and against all claims, demands, and causes of action that I may now have or in the future will have arising from their duplication and use of the material. I understand that, except for the rights granted to JIU above, I shall retain all ownership and other rights associated with the material. Material: [Brief description of student’s project] Case study regarding the benefits of using visual perception techniques in geometry. Course: EDU518 Term: April 2009 Please sign this form below, indicating whether you accept or decline to have your work added to the JIU Course Project Library. Acceptance is optional and is in no way a requirement of your course. ACCEPT Signature: Peaches M. Hubbard Printed Name: Peaches M. Hubbard Date: April 25, 2009 DECLINE Signature Printed Name: Date:

Please attach this form to your Course Project.

Learning Mathematics 62 Reference: Sister Lechtenberg, Jennie and Green, Richard (Founder, Executive Director and Director.) Puente Learning Center Website. Charter Public School and Community Learning Center. Geiger, Meghan E. (2004, September 22). Are visual perceptual skills related to mathematics ability in second through sixth grade children? The Free Library. (2004). Retrieved March 12, 2009. http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Are visual perceptual skills related to mathematics ability in second ...-a0125948684 Wolfram, Stephen. A New Kind of Science (2002). Notes for Chapter 10: Processes of Perception and Analysis. Section: Visual Perception, Page 1076. Stephen Wolfram, LLC. http://www.wolframscience.com/reference/notes/1076b National Council for Teachers in Mathematics (2009), Curriculum Standards and Focal Points (Grades Pre-Kindergarten through Eighth Grade.) Reston, VA. http://www.nctm.org/standards/focalpoints.aspx?id=308 Edhelper.com (2009.) Visual Perception Skills, Mathematics. http://www.edhelper.com/visual_skills.htm Kindergarten

Donovan, M.S. and Bransford, J.D. National Research Council, How Students Learn, Mathematics in the Classroom (2005.) Published by: National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., USA.

California State Department of Education, Mathematics Framework for California Public Schools: Colorado Model Content Standards for Mathematics. www.cde.state.co.us/cdeassess/documents/OSA/standards/math.htm Edhelper.com (2009.) Math, Reading Comprehension, Themes, Lesson Plans, and Printable Worksheets. http://www.edhelper.com/ Study Guide and Strategies (Independent Educational Public Service Provider, 2009.) “The Visual Learner.” Minnesota, USA.

http://www.studygs.net/visual.htm

The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2009.) “Curriculum Focal Points for Grades Pre-kindergarten though Eighth Grade.” Reston, V.A.

http://www.nctm.org/standards/focalpoints.aspx?id=308

**The Colorado Council of Teachers of Mathematics (CCTM 2007.) “Model Content Standards.” Colorado, U.S.A.
**

http://www.cctmath.org/about/standards.html

Learning Mathematics 63 Colorado Department of Education (1995.) “Colorado Content Standards for Mathematics.” Denver, Colorado. http://www.cde.state.co.us/cdeassess/documents/OSA/standards/math.htm Visual Learning for Life, website (2009.) London. http://www.visuallearningforlife.com/teachers.html Shirley’s Preschool Activities Website (2007). Activities for Visual Perception. http://www.shirleys-preschool-activities.com/visual-perception.html Jones International University, Online (2009.) Sample Assessment Procedure Assignment. Sample Assessment Section IV: Pre-Assessment Results.

EdHleper (2009). Edhelper.com, Educational Resources and Printables. Visual Perceptual Skills, Mixed Review. http://www.edhelper.com/visual_skills.htm National Research Council. (2005.) How Students Learn: Mathematics in the Classroom. Committee on How People Learn, A Targeted Report for Teachers, M.S. Donovan and J.D. Bransford, Editors. Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, D.C: The National Academies Press. The Colorado Department of Education. (1999-2008.) Colorado State Standards and Assessment: Colorado Standards in Mathematics (2005.) Denver, C.O. http://www.cde.state.co.us/coloradomath/Standards_and_Assessment.htm) Jones International University. (2009.) Course: EDU518: Teaching for Mathematics Comprehension. Module 4, Theme 1: Constructivism. S. Mandell, content author. Centennial, C.O.: Jones International University, ltd. http://courses.jonesinternational.edu/display.jkg? clid=15314&uid=12032&tpl=frameset&jess_cookie=phubbard:b8e5317:7c10ec0 b Edhelper.com. (2009.) Basic Kindergarten Skills and Visual Perception Mixed Reviews. Edhelper Educational Resources. http://www.edhelper.com/Kindergarten_Basic_Skills.htm Math Wizards Worksheets (2009.) Kindergarten Shapes Worksheets. Owned by: Nick Ramsay, MathWorksheetWizard.com. http://www.mathworksheetwizard.com/kindergarten/shapes.html

Sample Instructional Implementation Plan. EDU518: Teaching for Comprehension. Dr. Felicia Taylor. Copyright © 2009 Jones International University®, Ltd. Centennial, C.O.

Learning Mathematics 64 Jones International University. (2009.) Course: EDU518: Teaching for Mathematics Comprehension. Module 7, Theme(s) 1 and 2: Constructivism. S. Mandell, content author. Centennial, C.O.: Jones International University, ltd. http://courses.jonesinternational.edu/display.jkg? clid=15314&uid=12032&tpl=frameset&jess_cookie=phubbard:b8e5317:7c10ec0 b Edhelper.com. (2009.) Basic Kindergarten Skills and Visual Perception Mixed Reviews. Edhelper Educational Resources. http://www.edhelper.com/Kindergarten_Basic_Skills.htm

**Math Wizards Worksheets (2009.) Kindergarten Shapes Worksheets. Owned by: Nick Ramsay, MathWorksheetWizard.com.
**

http://www.mathworksheetwizard.com/kindergarten/shapes.html

Sample Instructional Implementation Plan. EDU518: Teaching for Comprehension. Dr. Felicia Taylor. Copyright © 2009 Jones International University®, Ltd. Centennial, C.O. Copyright © 2009, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. Curriculum Focal Points: Pre-Kindergarten through Grade Eight Mathematics. Reston, VA. http://www.nctm.org/standards/focalpoints.aspx?id=308 Quote Garden (1998-2009.) Quotations About Mathematics. Last modified 2007 Oct 19 Fri 22:33 PDT. www.quotegarden.com/math.html

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