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R.ThirumalaiA JS SenthilkumaarB

ABSTRACT optimum combination of both, along with the better

quality in machining. These objectives have gained
High speed machining is the general phenomenon in importance in economic liberalization and
modern aspects of machining. Extensive researchers have
globalization. Manufacturing process for a product
been conducted several experiments in the past for
consists of several phases, such as design, process
selecting the optimum parameters in machining Inconel
718. In this work, cutting speed, feed and depth of cut are planning, machining and quality control.
considered as the machining parameters and surface Machinability is the measure of ease with which the
roughness, cutting tool temperature, cutting force, tool life work material can be machined. The economics of
and metal removal rate are considered as the responses. machining involves in the determination of optimum
This paper is an attempt to Taguchi optimization technique process parameters like cutting speed, feed and depth
to study the machinability performances of Inconel 718. of cut in order to optimize an objective function (3).
Taguchi approach is an efficient and effective experimental Minimum cost of production, minimum surface
method in which a response variable can be optimized,
roughness, minimum tool wear, maximum production
given various control and noise factors, using fewer
rate, minimum cutting force, minimum flank wear
experiments than a factorial design. An orthogonal array of
L 27 was used; signal-to-noise ration and ANOVA analysis
and maximum tool life are some of the essential
were carried out to identify the significant factors. The objective functions in the machining process.
objective of this study is to predict the optimum cutting Machinability also involves finishability and
conditions to minimize surface roughness, maximum tool obtaining good surface finish. As per the
life, minimize cutting tool temperature, maximize metal recommendations of the cutting tool manufacturer on
removal rate and maximize cutting force. Confirmation machining of hard materials such as inconel 718, the
tests were conducted at an optimal level and these tests main parameters such as surface roughness and flank
verified that the Taguchi approach was successful in wear are taken into account.
optimizing the cutting parameters.
Heat resistant super alloys (HRSA) maintain
Key words: High speed machining, Anova, Taguchi,
excellent mechanical strength at elevated
Design of experiments, optimization.
temperatures, typically between 7000C and 11000C.
1. INTRODUCTION HRSA represents the largest group of materials in
aerospace industries. HRSA exhibit exceptional
Machining operations have been the centre of properties such as corrosion resistance, creep
attraction of the manufacturing industry since the resistance, and retaining strength and hardness at
revolution of industries. Machining of different elevated temperatures. Among HRSA, nickel based
materials strive hard either to achieve a minimum alloys are most widely used nowadays for various
cost of production or maximum production rate or an manufacturing

processes (4). Inconel 718 is one among the most During machining tools are subjected to rubbing
commonly used alloys and find application in aero process, which creates friction between the cutting
engine parts, rotor blades, casing, rings, and engine tool and work piece material. This results in
parts. progressive material loss in the cutting tool. Tool
wear is a change of shape of tool from its original
First Author : A: Department of Mechatronics Engg.
Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore
position resulting from gradual loss of tool material.
Email: The consequences of tool wear are poor surface
Second Author: B: Principal, Podhigai College of Engineering & finish, increase in vibration of the machine tool,
Technology, Tirupattur, Vellore.
increase in cutting force, lowering the productivity
and quality. Tool wear can be categorized into several parameter affecting the surface. Flank wear directly
types as crater wear, notch wear, chipping, plastic influences dimensions and quality of the surface (5).
deformations, ultimate failure and flank wear based In this work, square inserts are preferred over
on tool wear phenomenon. Flank wear determines the triangular inserts because they have stronger
tool life. Wear on the relief side is the flank wear and geometry and cost effectiveness due to more cutting
it occurs due to abrasive wear of the cutting tool edges. The main goal of this paper is to optimize the
against the machined surface. machining parameters of Inconel 718.

Machining parameter and tool geometry are the The full factorial experiment design approach is
important parameters that affects the machinability utilized for experimental planning and to investigate
properties. A machinability model may be defined as the influence of machining parameters (2) on the
a functional relationship between the input surface roughness and flank wear. Response surface
parameters ( cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut) methodology is a combination of experimental and
and the output responses ( surface roughness , metal regression analysis and statistical influences. Using
removal rate, cutting force, power and flank wear) of RSM and factorial design of experiments,
machining process (1). In order to develop a mathematical models relating to surface roughness
mathematical model, it is necessary to conduct the and flank wear have been developed.
experiments involving the tool material and the work
material. The response data are obtained from the 2. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
experimental work, by keeping cutting speed, feed
Single pass turning in dry condition is conducted in
and depth of cut as the function of machining
order to investigate the performance and to study the
process. Uncoated carbide tools are used to machine
wear mechanism of uncoated carbide tools on Inconel
nickel-based alloys at cutting speed range of 10
718 in the form of cylindrical bar stock of diameter
30m/min and at feed rates upto 0.5mm/rev for
38mm (5). The experiment is conducted on L16 ACE
improved productivity. Carbides are most widely
designer lathe with the following specifications:
used as cutting tool material to machine inconel 718
power, 7.5 kW motor drive; speed range, 0 3,500
at slow speeds (6). Uncoated carbide tools are widely
rpm, and feed range, 0.01 1,000 mm/rev with
used to due to its economic consideration. Machining
constant speed capabilities.
of inconel 718 is carried out with uncoated carbide
tools at cutting speed range of 10 30 m/min and at 2.1 WORK MATERIAL
feed rates up to 0.5 mm/rev for improved
productivity. In machining of parts, surface roughness The test specimens to conduct the experiment were
is the most important technical requirement to prepared form 38 mm cylindrical bar stock. Each
achieve proper assembly of machined components. specimen having 38mm in diameter and 75mm in
The surface roughness is the direct indicator of length were used for turning. The chemical
surface quality that directly relies on tool geometry composition of the material is given in the Table 1
such as nose radius, edge geometry, rake angle etc and the mechanical properties of Inconel 718 are
(7). In machining, tool wear becomes an additional shown in Table 2.

Table. 1 Chemical composition of Inconel 718 ( Weight Basis)

Table 2. Mechanical Properties of Inconel 718


The cutting materials are K10 type uncoated carbide The parameter level is chosen within the intervals
inserts, and as per ISO specification, inserts are based on the recommendations by the cutting tool
designated as SNMG 120408 QM H13A, which are manufacturer (8). In full factorial design, three
having the following tool geometry: inclination process parameters at three levels led to a total of 27
angle, -60; orthogonal rake angle, -60; orthogonal tests for machining processes. The machining
clearance angle, 60; auxiliary cutting edge angel, 140; operations are carried out on a 7.5 kW LT16 CNC
principal cutting edge angle, 750; and nose radius, 0.8 lathe with a maximum spindle speed of 3,500 rpm.
mm. Cutting tool inserts were clamped onto a tool Three levels are specified for each process parameter
holder with a designation of DBSNR 2020K 12 for as given in Table 3.
machining process.

Table 3. Machining parameters and levels

Machining parameters Level 1 Level 2 Level 3
Cutting speed V (m/min) 25 35 45

Feed f (mm/rev) 0.1 0.15 0.2

Depth of cut d (mm) 1.0 1.25 1.5

Surface roughness was measured by Mittoyo-surftest

211 with sampling length of 0.25mm. The flank was
measured by Olympus Toolmakers microscope with 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
10x magnification and 1- m resolution coupled with
image processing software. SURFACE ROUGHNESS
3. DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS The analysis of data begins with the determinations
of the effects of each treatment level on the response
Three levels were specified for each of the factors as and S/N ratio. Based on Taguchis optimization
machining parameters (cutting speed, feed, and depth process, the percentage level of contribution of feed
of cut). The orthogonal array L27 was chosen, which rate is found to be the predominant parameter (9).
consists of 27 rows corresponding to the number of The analysis also predicted that the feed followed by
parameters combinations at three levels. The input cutting speed and depth of cut will be dominating
parameters are cutting speed, feed and depth of cut. parameters in the process of optimization. Analysis of
variance for Surface roughness is shown in table 4
Using the factorial design of experiments, 27
and the Response table for means is shown in Table 5
experiments are conducted for the machining ranges and main effects plots for surface roughness against
and the values for the responses such as, surface parameters under various conditions are given in fig
roughness, cutting force, cutting tool temperature, 1.
MRR and tool life are measured. (Datas not shown
Table 4. Analysis of Variance of surface roughness
source DF Seq SS Adj SS Adj MS F P % C
v 2 0.48593 0.48593 0.24297 528485.8 0 3.398426
f 2 13.73818 13.73818 6.86909 14941235 0 96.08006
d 2 0.00514 0.00514 0.00257 5592.17 0 0.035947
v*f 4 0.0691 0.0691 0.01728 37576.79 0 0.483261
v*d 4 0.00003 0.00003 0.00001 14.06 0.001 0.00021
f*d 4 0.0003 0.0003 0.00018 397.62 0 0.002098
Error 8 0 0 0 0
Total 26 14.29911 14.29868 100

S = 0.000678042 R-Sq = 100.00% R-Sq(adj) = 100.00%

Main Effects Plot for Means - Ra
Data Means

v f



Mean of Means

25 35 45 0.10 0.15 0.20




1.00 1.25 1.50

e 5. Response Table for Means

Level v f d
1 2.065 1.039 1.909
2 1.871 1.850 1.890
3 1.738 2.785 1.875
Delta 0.327 1.746 0.034
Rank 2 1 3

Fig 1. Main effect plots for surface roughness

4.2 TAGUCHI OPTIMIZATION ANALYSIS OF revelaed that feed is given the Rank 1 and cutting
TOOL LIFE speed the rank 2 and depth of cut the rank 3. The
analysis of variance of tool life is shown in Table.6
The objective of this work is to maximize the tool and the Response table for means is shown in Table 7
life. The study found that fee rate contributes around and main effects plots for Tool life against parameters
63% followed by cutting speed and depth of cut with under various conditions are given in fig 2.
22% and 8% respectively. The taguchi analysis
Table 6. Analysis of Variance of Tool life
Source DF Seq SS Adj SS Adj MS F P % C
v 2 484.87 484.87 242.44 523.22 0.000 21.393
f 2 1427.48 1427.48 713.74 1540.38 0.000 63.051
d 2 166.35 166.35 83.17 179.50 0.000 7.3487
v*f 4 124.19 124.19 31.05 67.01 0.000 5.4862
v*d 4 14.47 14.47 3.62 7.81 0.007 0.6392
f*d 4 42.61 42.61 10.65 22.99 0.000 1.8823
Error 8 3.71 3.71 0.46 0.1639
Total 26 2263.68

Table 7. Response Table for Means Fig.2 Mean effect plots for Tool life
Main Effects Plot for Means - TL
Data Means

v f



Mean of Means

25 35 45 0.10 0.15 0.20




1.00 1.25 1.50

Level v f d
1 20.010 24.281 17.591
2 13.295 11.775 13.957
3 9.797 7.046 11.553
Delta 10.213 17.235 6.038
Rank 2 1 3

4.3 TAGUCHI OPTIMIZATION ANALYSIS OF 62, followed by depth of cut and cutting speed with
CUTTING FORCE 345 and 4% respectively. Also the response table of
The cutting force acts along the direction of the means shows the ranking in the form of feed, depth
cutting speed. The results indicate that with an of cut and cutting speed. The analysis of varience for
increase in cutting speed, the cutting force decreases cutting force is shown in Table 8 and the Response
and it is high with larger depth of cut. Also cutting table for means is shown in Table 9. The main effects
forces increases with an increase in feed rate. Form plots for Tool life against parameters under various
the Anova table, it is found that feed rate is the conditions are given in fig 3.
dominant parameter which aims at a percentage of
Table 8. Analysis of Variance of cutting force
Source DF Seq SS Adj SS Adj MS F P % C
v 2 58591 58591 29295 5463.43 0.000 5
f 2 1008301 1008301 504150 94021.05 0.000 5
d 2 561941 561941 280971 52399.36 0.000 4
v*f 4 2124 2124 531 99.01 0.000 5
v*d 4 1184 1184 296 55.18 0.000 6
f*d 4 20367 20367 5092 949.60 0.000 5
Error 8 43 43 5 6
Total 26 1652551

Table 9. Response table for Means Fig 3. Mean effect plots for cutting force

Main Effects Plot for Means - Fc

Data Means
v f

Mean of Means


25 35 45 0.10 0.15 0.20



1.00 1.25 1.50

Level v f d
1 1075.1 774.3 837.6
2 1008.5 1023.4 1016.6
3 961.5 1247.4 1191.0
Delta 113.5 473.1 353.4
Rank 3 1 2

4.4 TAGUCHI OPTIMIZATION ANALYSIS OF Inconel 718 has low thermal conductivity and
CUTTING TOOL TEMPERATURE specific heat which involves several problems in
machining this material. This work intends in
minimization of cutting tool temperature. Form the
Anova table obtained for the cutting tool temperature, followed by cutting speed and then followed by depth
it is found that feed and cutting speed are equally of cut. The analysis of variance for cutting tool
important in contribution and depth of cut is least temperature is shown in Table 10 and the Response
contributing parameter in the optimization process. table for means is shown in Table 11. The main
The Taguchi analysis revealed that ranking of effects plots for Tool life against parameters under
parameters will be done in such a manner that feed various conditions are given in fig 4.

Table 10. Analysis of Variance of cutting Tool temperature

Source DF Seq SS Adj SS Adj MS F
P C%
v 2 47239.5 47239.5 23619.8 1249418.74 45.2053
0.000 1
f 2 52454.0 52454.0 26227.0 1387332.35 50.1952
0.000 6
d 2 4464.5 4464.5 2232.3 118080.25 4.27225
0.000 3
v*f 4 289.7 289.7 72.4 3831.38 0.27722
0.000 5
v*d 4 24.7 24.7 6.2 326.10 0.02363
0.000 6
f*d 4 27.4 27.4 6.8 362.10
0.000 0.02622
Error 8 0.2 0.2 0.0 1
Total 26 104499.9 100

Table 11. Response table for Means Fig 4. Mean effect plots for cutting tool temperature
Main Effects Plot for Means - CT
Data Means
v f



Mean of Means


25 35 45 0.10 0.15 0.20



1.00 1.25 1.50

Level v f d
1 510.0 506.8 546.6
2 566.2 567.2 563.7
3 612.3 614.5 578.1
Delta 102.3 107.7 31.5
Rank 2 1 3
(1999), Machinability assessment of
5. CONCLUSION inconel 718 by factorial design of
The investigation of high speed turning of inconel experiment coupled with response surface
718 using Taguchi optimization technique leads to the methodology, Journal of Material
following inferences: Processing Technology, 95, 30-39.
In this study the optimal cutting condition 2. Douglas C. Montgomery.(2005), Design
was selected by varying the cutting and Analysis of Experiments, 363-381,
parameters through the Taguchi parameter John Wiley & Sons.
design method. The results indicated the
Taguchi parameter was an efficien way of 3. Dudzinski, D. et al., 2004, A review of
determining the optimal cutting parameters developments towards dry and high speed
for surface roughness, tool life, cutting machining of Inconel 718 alloy, Inte. J.
force, Metal removal rate and cutting tool Machine Tools & Manufacture, 44, pp.439
temperature. 456.
The observations indicated that cutting 4. Simms, C.T., and Hagel, W.C., 1972, The
speed, feed and depth of cut and the super alloys, Wiley, New York,
interaction effect between these parameters 5. Senthilkumaar, J.S., Saravanan, R. and
influence the response variable to a greater Asokan, P. (2008) Simultaneous
extent. It is also inferred that tool life is only optimisation for
influenced by cutting speed alone. machinability assessment of Inconel 718,
Journal Manf. Tech. Today, Vol. 7, No. 2,
The R2 value for the regression equations is 6. J.S.Senthilkumaar, P.Asokan, and
considered and it is found that they are RM.Arunachalam,, Machinability
enough to obtain reliable estimates. assessment of Inconel 718 by design of
The influence of feed followed by cutting experiment coupled with Genetic Algorithm
speed and depth of cut plays the optimization.
predominant role in the taguchi analysis of 7. Arunachalam, RM. (2007 Wear of mixed
all the responses. alumina ceramic tools in high speed facing
of Inconel 718, International Journal of
Machining and Machinability of Materials ,
Vol. 2, Nos. 3/4, pp. 433-450.
8. DG thakur, B Ramamoorthy, L
Vijayaraghavan An experimental analysis
of effective high speed turning of superalloy
inconel 718 J Mater Sci (2009) Vol 44, pp
3296 3304
9. JS Senthilkumaar, P selvarani, RM
Arunachalam Intelligent optimization and
selection of machining parameters in finish
turning and facing of Inconel 718 Int J Adv
6. References
Manuf Technol, DOI 28 june 2011
1. Choudhury, I.A., and El-Baradie, M.A.