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AS 38142009

AS 38142009

Australian Standard

Industrial and commercial gas-fired


appliances
This Australian Standard was prepared by Committee AG-011, Industrial and Commercial
Gas-Fired Appliances. It was approved on behalf of the Council of Standards Australia on
30 June 2009.
This Standard was published on 12 August 2009.

The following are represented on Committee AG-011:

Energy Networks Association


Engineers Australia
Gas Appliance Manufacturers Association of Australia
Gas Technical Regulators Committee
LPG Australia
Major Commercial/Industrial Gas Equipment Manufacturer
Major Industrial Gas Installations

This Standard was issued in draft form for comment as DR 08189.

Standards Australia wishes to acknowledge the participation of the expert individuals that
contributed to the development of this Standard through their representation on the
Committee and through the public comment period.

Keeping Standards up-to-date


Australian Standards are living documents that reflect progress in science, technology and
systems. To maintain their currency, all Standards are periodically reviewed, and new editions
are published. Between editions, amendments may be issued.

Standards may also be withdrawn. It is important that readers assure themselves they are
using a current Standard, which should include any amendments that may have been
published since the Standard was published.

Detailed information about Australian Standards, drafts, amendments and new projects can
be found by visiting www.standards.org.au

Standards Australia welcomes suggestions for improvements, and encourages readers to


notify us immediately of any apparent inaccuracies or ambiguities. Contact us via email at
mail@standards.org.au, or write to Standards Australia, GPO Box 476, Sydney, NSW 2001.

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AS 38142009

Australian Standard

Industrial and commercial gas-fired


appliances

Originated as AG 5011984
Previous edition 2002.
Republished and designated AS 38142005.
Second edition 2009.

COPYRIGHT
Standards Australia
All rights are reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or copied in any form or by
any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without the written
permission of the publisher.
Published by Standards Australia GPO Box 476, Sydney, NSW 2001, Australia
ISBN 0 7337 9218 9
AS 38142009 2

PREFACE
This Standard was reviewed by the Standards Australia Committee, AG-011, Industrial and
Commercial Gas-Fired Appliances, to supersede AS 38142005, Industrial and
commercial gas-fired appliances.
The objective of this Standard is to provide uniform minimum requirements for the safe
operation of gas-fired industrial appliances, and other large appliances used for commercial
applications, which are not covered by any other Standard.
This Standard should not be regarded as a design specification or as an instruction manual;
it has been prepared with due regard for gas rules and regulations now in force. In its
preparation, consideration has been given to
(a) continuity of satisfactory operation of appliances and equipment;
(b) the prevention of fire hazards, and explosions associated with fuel use and processes;
(c) gas rules and regulations now in force;
(d) the prevention of injury to persons or property;
(e) the provision of satisfactory permanent access for service; and
(f) relevant international and overseas Standards.
Explosions are the main hazard on the firing side of the equipment covered by the Standard,
the basic cause being ignition of a combustible mixture in the combustion chamber or
associated ductwork. The magnitude and intensity of the explosion will depend on both the
quantity of combustibles present and the proportion of air with which the combustibles are
mixed.
Explosions may be the result of one or more of the following:
(i) Improper design of equipment or control systems.
(ii) Equipment or control system malfunction, including valve leakage.
(iii) Interruption and restoration of gas or air supply causing loss of flame followed by
delayed ignition of the resultant accumulation of a combustible mixture.
(iv) Flame failure on a burner and subsequent ignition of the resultant accumulation of a
combustible mixture.
The presence of a well-trained, reliable and competent operator provides a major
contribution to safety.
AS 38142005 has been substantially revised with the objective of removing ambiguity
where it may have been experienced in the past. To this end a new section on gas/air ratio
control has been added. Several other sections have been expanded to cater for changing
technology, for example, the use of LEL monitoring or the inclusion of systems that are
commonly found on gas-fired turbines that were not previously covered adequately. The
appendices have been expanded to cover information on maintenance of appliances, the
configuration of gas/air ratio control systems as well as valve train requirements for gas-
fired turbines. The appliance field check sheet has been revised to cover the new clauses
and sections added to the Standard.
The user should be aware that in many jurisdictions in Australia, this Standard is deemed as
a prescribed standard to which compliance may be mandatory. While Australian and New
Zealand Standards mostly do not do so, all the Australian and New Zealand Technical
Regulators agree that this Standard should include appropriate requirements for particular
components to be certified by a recognized third party assessment body.

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3 AS 38142009

The terms normative and informative have been used in this Standard to define the
application of the appendix to which they apply. A normative appendix is an integral part
of a Standard, whereas an informative appendix is only for information and guidance.
AS 38142009 4

CONTENTS

Page

SECTION 1 SCOPE, APPLICATION AND DEFINITIONS


1.1 SCOPE ........................................................................................................................ 6
1.2 APPLICATION ........................................................................................................... 6
1.3 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS .................................................................................. 7
1.4 DEFINITIONS ............................................................................................................ 8

SECTION 2 REQUIREMENTS FOR DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION


2.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................. 19
2.2 CONTROLS, BURNER AND SAFETY DEVICE ACCESS..................................... 20
2.3 FLAME VISIBILITY ................................................................................................ 20
2.4 TEMPERATURES OF SURFACES AND COMPONENTS ..................................... 20
2.5 RESTRICTION ON ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS.............................................. 21
2.6 ACCESSIBILITY OF MANUAL CONTROLS ........................................................ 21
2.7 MATERIALS ............................................................................................................ 21
2.8 GAS PIPEWORK AND VALVE TRAINS ............................................................... 22
2.9 GAS PRESSURE REGULATION............................................................................. 25
2.10 GAS OVER-PRESSURE PROTECTION.................................................................. 26
2.11 GAS LOW-PRESSURE PROTECTION ................................................................... 27
2.12 GAS PRESSURE TEST POINTS.............................................................................. 27
2.13 GAS FILTER............................................................................................................. 28
2.14 SAFETY SHUT OFF SYSTEMS .............................................................................. 28
2.15 COMBUSTION AIR SUPPLYGENERAL REQUIREMENTS ............................. 35
2.16 COMBUSTION AIR FOR ATMOSPHERIC BURNERS.......................................... 36
2.17 FORCED AND INDUCED DRAUGHT BURNERS................................................. 36
2.18 DAMPERS ................................................................................................................ 37
2.19 APPLIANCE PRE-PURGING................................................................................... 38
2.20 PROCESS CONTROLS ............................................................................................ 41
2.21 IGNITION SYSTEMS............................................................................................... 41
2.22 PILOT BURNERS..................................................................................................... 42
2.23 MAIN BURNERS ..................................................................................................... 42
2.24 FLAME SAFEGUARD SYSTEMS........................................................................... 43
2.25 BLEED LINES .......................................................................................................... 46
2.26 APPLIANCE/BURNER CONTROL CIRCUITS ...................................................... 46
2.27 GAS/AIR RATIO CONTROL................................................................................... 48

SECTION 3 OPERATION
3.1 APPLIANCE OPERATION DETAILS ..................................................................... 52
3.2 IGNITION ................................................................................................................. 52
3.3 MAIN BURNERS ..................................................................................................... 54
3.4 INTERLOCKS AND LIMIT DEVICES.................................................................... 55
3.5 OPERATION SEQUENCES ..................................................................................... 56
3.6 COMBUSTION CONDITIONS ................................................................................ 57
3.7 COMMISSIONING................................................................................................... 58

SECTION 4 MARKINGS AND INSTRUCTIONS


4.1 MARKINGS.............................................................................................................. 59
4.2 INSTRUCTIONS ...................................................................................................... 59

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5 AS 38142009

Page

SECTION 5 SPECIAL APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS


5.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 61
5.2 HIGH INPUT GAS-FIRED APPLIANCES............................................................... 61
5.3 AIR-GAS MIXING MACHINES AND MIXING BLOWERS.................................. 62
5.4 SPECIAL ATMOSPHERES AND ATMOSPHERE GENERATORS ....................... 64
5.5 PROCESS AFTER-BURNERS ................................................................................. 66
5.6 STEAM AND HOT WATER BOILERS ................................................................... 68
5.7 DIRECT-FIRED AIR HEATERS AND CURTAINS ................................................ 68
5.8 STATIONARY GAS ENGINES AND TURBINES .................................................. 70
5.9 INCINERATORS AND CREMATORS .................................................................... 73
5.10 ROTARY PROCESS EQUIPMENT AND OVENSDIRECT-FIRED.................... 74
5.11 SMOKE OVENSDIRECT-FIRED......................................................................... 76
5.12 WATER HEATERS .................................................................................................. 77
5.13 MULTI-FUEL FIRING SYSTEMS........................................................................... 78

APPENDICES
A TYPICAL INFORMATION AND TECHNICAL DATA .......................................... 79
B TYPICAL PROCEDURE FOR THE APPROVAL OF INDUSTRIAL AND
COMMERCIAL APPLIANCES................................................................................ 83
C TYPICAL VALVE TRAIN ARRANGEMENTS ...................................................... 84
D FLAME SAFEGUARD SELECTION ....................................................................... 90
E PRO-FORMA LETTER TO THE GAS TECHNICAL REGULATOR FROM A
CONTRACTOR /COMPANY CERTIFYING THE TESTS CONDUCTED ON
THE PES .................................................................................................................. 92
F GAS/AIR RATIO CONTROL PROGRAMMABLE ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS...... 93
G MAINTENANCE AND CHECKS OF SAFETY DEVICES...................................... 96
H TYPICAL OPERATING SEQUENCE FOR AN AUTOMATIC FORCED
OR INDUCED DRAUGHT BURNER WITH INTERRUPTED PILOT.................. 101
I TYPICAL COMMISSIONING PROCEDURE ....................................................... 104
J TYPICAL FIELD CHECK LIST ............................................................................ 107
AS 38142009 6

STANDARDS AUSTRALIA

Australian Standard
Industrial and commercial gas-fired appliances

SECT ION 1 SCOPE, APPL IC AT I ON AND


DEF I N I T I O N S

1.1 SCOPE
1.1.1 General
This Standard provides minimum requirements for the design, construction and safe
operation of Type B appliances that use town gas, natural gas, simulated natural gas,
liquefied petroleum gas, tempered liquefied petroleum gas or any combination of these
gases either together or with other fuels.
Construction requirements given relate only to matters affecting gas-firing or to any
interconnection between the gas-firing system and the safety requirements of the appliance.
NOTE: Additional information regarding safety principles for industrial appliances is given in
AS 1375.
The Standard does not cover all the requirements for the safety of the process carried out in
the appliance. Other statutory and regulatory requirements may be applicable to the
appliances and/or installations that fall within the scope of this Standard. It is the
installer/manufacturers responsibility to ensure that appliances and/or installations comply
with these requirements.
Installation requirements for appliances covered by this Standard are detailed in AS 5601.
1.1.2 Exclusions from Standard
The following appliances are excluded from this Standard:
(a) Manually operated bunsen type burners.
(b) Simple atmospheric burners that are not fitted into a combustion chamber and burn in
an open ventilated space under the control of an operator.
(c) Engines other than stationary engines.

1.2 APPLICATION
1.2.1 General
The requirements of this Standard shall be used in conjunction with, but do not take
precedence over, the requirements of the technical regulator. The technical regulator may
determine the extent of application of this Standard.
This Standard applies to
(a) the appliance;
(b) the component parts of the appliance whether supplied with the appliance or
separately; and
(c) Type B appliance approvals commenced after its publication date.

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NOTES:
1 Commenced, for the purpose of this Clause, means the point at which Type B acceptance
has begun.
2 Appliances should comply with requirements of all authorities before being placed into
service (e.g. electrical, water, environmental, occupational health and safety etc.).
1.2.2 Appliance installation
Before an appliance is connected to a gas supply, a submission containing the standard and
technical data specified by the technical regulator may be required by the technical
regulator, in accordance with the administrative procedures of the technical regulator.
NOTE: Typical data and procedural requirements are given in Appendices A and B.
1.2.3 New materials and methods
Materials or methods not prescribed in this Standard shall
(a) not necessarily be excluded from use if they are not specifically referred to; and
(b) only be used if they are acceptable to the technical regulator.
1.2.4 Unusual installations
Certain gas installations or portions of installations that are unusual due to particular
circumstances or methods may not be covered in detail by this Standard. Details of such gas
installations may be required to be approved by the technical regulator before any work
commences.
1.2.5 Modification or relocation of an appliance
Where an appliance is modified or relocated, it should be upgraded to meet the
requirements of this Standard current at the time of the modification or relocation and may
need to be re-submitted to the technical regulator for approval.

1.3 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS


The following documents are referenced this Standard:
AS
1271 Safety valves, other valves, liquid level gauges, and other fittings for boilers
and unfired pressure vessels
1357 Valves primarily for use in heated water systems
1357.1 Part 1: Protection valves
1357.2 Part 2: Control valves
1375 Industrial fuel-fired appliances (known as the SAA Industrial
Fuel-fired Appliances Code)
2593 BoilersSafety management and supervision systems
4617 Manual shut off gas valves
4618 Gas appliance regulators
4620 Thermoelectric flame safeguards
4624 Combination controls for gas
4625 Electronic flame safeguards and flame detectors
4629 Automatic shut off valves and vent valves
4630 Leakage detection systems
4732 LP Gas fuel systems for marine engines

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AS 38142009 8

AS
5601 Gas installations
61508 Functional safety of electrical/electronic/programmable electronic safety-
related systems (series)
AS IEC
61511 Functional safetySafety instrumented systems for the process industry sector
AS/NZS
1425 LP Gas for fuel systems for vehicle engines
1596 The storage and handling of LP Gas
1869 Hose and hose assemblies for liquefied petroleum gases (LP Gas), natural gas
and town gas
3000 Electrical installations (known as the Australian/New Zealand Wiring Rules)
ISO
10380 PipeworkCorrugated metal hoses and hose assemblies
21789 Gas turbine applicationsSafety
BS
6501-1 Metal hose assemblies. Guidance on the construction and use of corrugated
hose assemblies
ASTM
F1120 Standard specification for circular metallic bellows type expansion joints for
piping applications
EN
298 Automatic gas burner control systems for gas burners and gas burning
appliances with or without fans

1.4 DEFINITIONS
For the purpose of this Standard, the following definitions apply:
1.4.1 Accessible
Access can be gained without hazard or undue difficulty for inspection, repair, renewal, or
operational purposes.
1.4.2 Air curtain
A direct-fired air heater that discharges a curtain of air across an opening direct to outside.
1.4.3 Air-gas mixing machine
Any combination of proportioning control devices, blowers or compressors that supply
mixtures of gas and air to burners where control and/or safety devices are installed between
the mixing device and burner.
1.4.4 Appliance
An assembly, other than a vehicle refuelling appliance (VRA), part of which uses gas to
produce flame, heat, light, power or special atmosphere and includes the following:
1.4.4.1 Type A appliance
An appliance for which a certification scheme exists.

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1.4.4.2 Type B appliance


An appliance, with gas consumption in excess of 10 MJ/h, for which a certification scheme
does not exist.
NOTE: A Type A appliance when used in an industrial/commercial application for which it was
not intended is considered to be part of a Type B appliance. An example of this is a certified
direct-fired space heater used as the heating/ventilating device in a spray/bake paint booth.
1.4.5 Approved
Acceptable to, and meeting the prescribed standards of, the technical regulator.
1.4.6 Atmospheric burner
See Burner.
1.4.7 Authorized installer
A person appointed, licensed, authorized or otherwise permitted to carry out gasfitting
work.
1.4.8 Auto-ignition temperature (AIT)
The lowest temperature at which the rate of self-heating of a gas-air mixture exceeds the
rate of heat loss to the surroundings, thus causing the mixture to ignite.
1.4.9 Automatic burner
See Burner.
1.4.10 Automatic ignition
The lighting of gas at a burner without a manual operation whenever gas flows from the
burner.
1.4.11 Bleed line
A small diameter pipe or tube that conveys gas to a safe place from a gas component that
discharges small rates of gas as part of its normal operation.
1.4.12 Burner
For the purpose of this Standard the following applies:
1.4.12.1 Atmospheric burner
A system where all of the air for combustion is produced by the inspirating effect of the gas
or the natural draught in the combustion chamber or combination of the two without
mechanical assistance.
1.4.12.2 Automatic burner
A burner system that, on starting, follows a self-acting sequence that has been manually or
automatically initiated, to provide gas and ignition to the burner without any intermediate
manual operation.
1.4.12.3 Forced draught burner
A system where all of the air, oxygen or a mixture of the two used for combustion is
provided under pressure.
1.4.12.4 Induced draught burner
A system where all or part of the air for combustion is introduced by providing suction in
the combustion chamber by mechanical means.
1.4.12.5 Multi-fuel alternative burner
A multi-fuel burner that can use only one fuel at a time.

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AS 38142009 10

1.4.12.6 Multi-fuel burner


A burner that can use more than one fuel.
1.4.12.7 Multi-fuel simultaneous burner
A multi-fuel burner that can use more than one fuel at a time.
1.4.12.8 Part automatic burner
A burner system that includes any self-acting operation.
1.4.13 Burner off cycle
A normal cessation of operation occurring when a pre-determined operation condition is
reached and the operation of the burner to provide the application of heat is no longer
required. The equipment is placed into a safe stand-by condition ready to restart on demand;
or
A shut down to a safe stand-by condition in response to an incorrect condition signal
resulting from a fault that is unlikely to be hazardous or is likely to be self rectifying so that
normal restarting is permissible when the fault has cleared.
1.4.14 Burner unit
A number of burners, fed from the same manifold, controlled together, having one
supervised ignition source and performing as a single burner.
1.4.15 Certified/Certification
Assessed by a certifying body and having a certificate number to demonstrate compliance
with a relevant Standard and/or other acceptable safety criteria.
1.4.16 Certifying body
A body acceptable to the technical regulator that provides assurance of compliance of
appliances and components with relevant Standards and other accepted safety criteria.
1.4.17 Combination gas control
An assembly of two or more different control functions in a single body.
1.4.18 Combustion products
Constituents resulting from the combustion of a fuel with air, oxygen or mixture of the two,
including the inerts associated with the fuel and the air but excluding any other diluent or
contaminant.
1.4.19 Common flue
See Flue.
1.4.20 Critical time
The time required to build up a pocket or concentration of unignited gas of such quantity
and proportions that, if ignited, the pressure of the resultant explosion could equal the
permissible safe internal pressure of the appliance.
1.4.21 Cross lighting
Lighting of one burner from another either directly or by means of an intermediate flame.
1.4.22 Damper
An adjustable device for controlling
(a) air flow in a forced or induced draught air system;
(b) the flow of flue products in a flue system;

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11 AS 38142009

(c) the recirculation of air, flue gases or process gases; or


(d) the flow of any other fluids.
1.4.23 Direct-fired air heater
An appliance for heating a forced air stream where the combustion products are released
with the heated air.
1.4.24 Direct-fired oven
An oven in which the combustion products flow through the oven compartment.
1.4.25 Double block and vent
See Safety shut off system double block and vent.
1.4.26 Draught diverter
A device, without moving parts, fitted in the flue of an appliance for isolating the
combustion system from the effects of pressure changes in the secondary flue.
1.4.27 Electronic flame safeguard
A flame safeguard utilising electronic components to perform its function.
1.4.28 Excess air
Air in excess of that required for complete combustion that is mixed unchanged with the
combustion products, in the combustion chamber.
1.4.29 Fail-safe
A feature that ensures absence or malfunction of any critical control or safety component,
system, signal or function will not result in an unsafe condition.
1.4.30 Flame abnormality
A flame condition that results in flame lift, floating, light back, appreciable yellow tipping,
carbon deposition or objectionable odour.
1.4.31 Flame detector
A device that is sensitive to flame properties and initiates a signal when flame is detected.
1.4.32 Flame establishment period
The period that begins when the fuel valve is energized and ends when the flame safeguard
system is first required to supervise that flame.
1.4.33 Flame failure response time
The time taken for the flame safeguard to detect loss of flame and de-energize the safety
shut off valve.
1.4.34 Flame lift
Separation of a flame from a burner port, whilst continuing to burn with its base some
distance from the port.
1.4.35 Flame proving period
The supervised period immediately following the flame establishment period and before
any further operation other than shutdown is permitted.
1.4.36 Flame safeguard
A safety device that automatically cuts off the gas supply if the actuating flame is
extinguished.

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AS 38142009 12

1.4.37 Flame safeguard system


A system consisting of a flame detector(s) plus associated circuitry, integral components,
valves and interlocks, the function of which is to shut off the fuel supply to the burner(s) in
the event of ignition failure or flame failure.
1.4.38 Flue
The pipe or duct through which combustion products are conveyed from a gas appliance to
a discharge point, including any draught diverter, slip joint and associated duct, barometric
device, fan or other fittings in the duct and includes the following.
1.4.38.1 Common flue
A flue system designed to carry combustion products from two or more appliances.
1.4.38.2 Natural draught flue
A flue in which the draught is provided by the buoyancy effect of the hot gases in it.
1.4.38.3 Open flue
A flue system containing a draught diverter or canopy.
1.4.38.4 Secondary flue
The portion of the flue that extends from the outlet of the draught diverter to the flue
terminal.
1.4.38.5 Slip joint
A join in the flue (usually close to the appliance) that may be dismantled to facilitate the
disconnection of the appliance from the flue.
1.4.39 Flue gases
Combustion products plus all diluents and contaminants. These include, where applicable,
excess air, dilution air, process air, and waste products from the process.
1.4.40 Flue system
The passage through which flue gases are conveyed from an appliance to a discharge point
including draught diverter, barometric device, fan or similar part.
1.4.41 Flue terminal
The point at which flue gases discharge from a flue.
1.4.42 Flued appliance
See Open flued appliance.
1.4.43 Flueless appliance
See Indoor flueless appliance.
1.4.44 Forced draught burner
See Burner.
1.4.45 Forced or induced draught combustion system
A combustion system where all or part of the air for combustion is provided by a fan or
other mechanical device which is an integral part of the combustion system.
1.4.46 Gas
A combustible fuel gas that may be one of but not limited to the following:

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1.4.46.1 Natural gas (NG)


A hydrocarbon gas consisting mainly of methane.
1.4.46.2 Simulated natural gas (SNG)
A gas comprising a mixture of LP gas and air, in the approximate proportions of 55%
LP gas and 45% air for commercial propane.
1.4.46.3 Town gas (TG)
A gas manufactured from coal or petroleum feedstocks.
1.4.46.4 Tempered liquefied petroleum gas (TLP)
A gas comprising a mixture of LP gas and air, in the approximate proportions of 27% LP
gas and 73% air for commercial propane.
1.4.46.5 Liquefied petroleum gas (LP gas)
A gas composed predominantly of any of the following hydrocarbons, or any combination
of them in the vapour phase; propane, propene (propylene), butane and butene (butylene).
1.4.47 Gas/air ratio control
A system which simultaneously controls the flow of gas and air to a burner(s)
1.4.48 Gas consumption
The rate of energy consumed by an appliance under specific conditions and expressed in
multipliers of joules per hour, for example, megajoules per hour (MJ/h) or gigajoules per
hour (GJ/h).
1.4.49 Gasfitting work
Refer to technical regulator regulations or requirements.
1.4.50 Gas pressure regulator
A device that automatically regulates the outlet pressure of the gas passing through it to a
predetermined value.
1.4.51 Gas tight
Meets the leak testing requirements of the appropriate Standard.
1.4.52 Hazardous conditions
Conditions that may cause injury to personnel or damage to equipment
1.4.53 High gas pressure detector
A sensing device that is actuated when pressure rises above a pre-set value.
1.4.54 Hose
Flexible tube or pipe of multiple layer construction.
1.4.55 Hose assembly
Flexible hose complete with end couplings.
1.4.56 Hot water boiler
Any vessel wherein water is intended to be heated to a temperature exceeding 99C by the
application of heat from the combustion products to the vessel without the generation of
steam.
1.4.57 Ignition temperature
The lowest temperature at which heat is generated by combustion faster than heat is lost to
the surroundings, and combustion thus becomes self-propagating.
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AS 38142009 14

1.4.58 In service
An appliance connected to the gas supply irrespective of the on or off status of the isolation
valve.
1.4.59 Indoor flueless appliance
An indoor appliance designed to discharge its combustion products into the same room or
space in which it is installed.
1.4.60 Induced draught burner
See Burner.
1.4.61 Injector
A device that causes air to mix with a stream of gas. In the case of an aerated burner it
incorporates an orifice discharging gas into the mixing tube or throat.
1.4.62 Interlock
A device or function that ensures that the operation of items of equipment is dependent
upon the fulfilment of predetermined conditions by other items of equipment.
1.4.63 Intermittent pilot
A pilot that is automatically ignited each time the burner is started, and which is
automatically extinguished with the main burner.
1.4.64 Interrupted pilot
A pilot that is automatically ignited each time the burner is started, and which is
automatically extinguished at the end of the main flame establishment period.
1.4.65 Leakage detection system
A means of checking that the safety shut off valves and the vent valves, where fitted, of a
safety shut off system are gas tight, also referred to as a valve proving system.
1.4.66 Light back
Transfer of the flame from burner port(s) into the body of the burner or back to the injector.
1.4.67 Limit device
A device that is actuated by the approach to a hazardous situation in an appliance due to
abnormal conditions, and when actuated, causes the gas supply to all burners to shut off
with lockout.
1.4.68 Lockout
A safety shutdown condition of the control system that requires a manual reset in order to
restart.
1.4.69 Lower explosive limit (LEL)
The lowest percentage of gas in a mixture of gas and air in which combustion can be self-
sustaining at standard temperature (15C) and pressure (101.325 kPa absolute) conditions.
1.4.70 Low-gas-pressure detector
A sensing device that is actuated when the gas pressure falls below a pre-set value.
1.4.71 Manual ignition
The lighting of gas at a burner by a manual operation whenever gas flows from the burner.

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15 AS 38142009

1.4.72 Mixing blower


A motor-driven blower, the suction side of which is supplied with a mixture of air and gas
from an appropriate proportioning device, which supplies a burner(s) in the immediate
vicinity of the blower and has no control and/or safety device between the blower and
burner.
1.4.73 Mixing tube
That part of an atmospheric burner in which the air and gas are mixed.
1.4.74 Modification
An upgrade to any or all of: gas valve train equipment; combustion/purge air system; flame
safeguard system; burner management system (not involving like for like exchange of
components) that changes the safety integrity of the existing system or takes the gas
appliance out of its original certification criteria.
1.4.75 Multi-fuel alternative burner
See Burner.
1.4.76 Multi-fuel burner
See Burner.
1.4.77 Multi-fuel simultaneous burner
See Burner.
1.4.78 Natural draught
The flow produced by the tendency of warmed gases to rise.
1.4.79 Natural draught burner
See Atmospheric burner under Burner.
1.4.80 Natural draught flue
See Flue.
1.4.81 No-flow
A flow condition suitably below the normal proven air flow device setting that provides a
reliable and repeatable no-flow signal from the flow device.
1.4.82 Nominal gas consumption
The appliance gas consumption, in megajoules per hour, stated in specifications, data
plates, instructions and general communications.
1.4.83 Non-return valve
A device designed to operate automatically to prevent reversal of flow in a pipe.
1.4.84 Open flued appliance
An indoor appliance designed to be connected to an open flue system, its combustion air
being drawn from the room or space in which it is installed.
1.4.85 Operating pressure
The gas pressure that the consumer piping or the appliance is or will be subjected to under
normal operating conditions.
1.4.86 Over-pressure protection system
A system preventing the pressure in piping or in an appliance from exceeding a
predetermined value.

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AS 38142009 16

1.4.87 Over-temperature cut-out device


A manual reset or non-resetting device that functions to shut off the gas supply to a burner
or burners to pre-vent temperature from exceeding a predetermined level.
1.4.88 Over-temperature limiting device
See Relief device.
1.4.89 Part automatic burner
See Burner.
1.4.90 Permanent pilot
A pilot that is intended to be permanently alight while the appliance is in service and that is
controlled independently of the main burner.
1.4.91 Pilot
A permanently located burner independent of the main burner, small in relation to it, and
arranged to provide ignition for the main burner.
1.4.92 Position indicator switch
A switch that is activated when a particular position is reached.
1.4.93 Closed position indicator switch
A switch which indicates closed when the valve is within 1 mm of the closed position or
has reduced the flow to 10% or less of the equivalent fully open flow for a given pressure
differential.
1.4.94 Open position indicator switch
A switch that indicates open when the valve is within 10% of the fully open position.
1.4.95 Position-proving system
A means of checking that the safety shut off valves and vent valves of a double block and
vent safety shut off system are in the correct position.
1.4.96 Process after-burner
A gas-fired appliance used specifically for the incineration of exhaust gases containing
combustible gases or dust in concentrations below the lower explosive limit.
1.4.97 Programmable electronic system (PES)
A system based on one or more central processing units (CPUs), connected to sensors
and/or actuators, for the purpose of control, protection or monitoring.
1.4.98 Programming flame safeguard
A flame safeguard that automatically sequences at least two burner functions such as
ignition spark, gas valve, etc.
1.4.99 Proof-of-closure switch
A switch fitted to a safety shut off valve that is only activated after the valve is closed and
incorporates over-travel of the valve past the position where the valve is just closed.
1.4.100 Protected pilot
A pilot that is fitted with a flame safeguard.
1.4.101 Purge (or purging)
With respect to an appliance means the removal of combustibles.

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17 AS 38142009

1.4.102 Purge volume


The purge volume includes the combustion chamber and all areas where combustion
products and combustible vapours, dusts or gases may accumulate in the appliance or
process, up to the vertical connection of a flue or chimney that discharges directly to
atmosphere.
1.4.103 Rated working pressure
The maximum allowable inlet pressure specified by the manufacturer.
1.4.104 Regulator
See Gas pressure regulator.
1.4.105 Relief device
A safety device designed to forestall the development of a dangerous condition by
preventing pressure, temperature or vacuum build-up.
1.4.106 Safe start check
A check of a flame safeguard system that will prevent an ignition attempt from occurring if
the system is in the flame proved condition before any gas valves are energized as part of
an ignition attempt.
1.4.107 Safety shutdown
The action of shutting off all gas and ignition energy by means of a safety control such that
restart cannot be accomplished without a full start cycle.
1.4.108 Safety shut off system
An arrangement of valves and associated control systems that shuts off the supply of gas,
when required, using a device that senses an unsafe condition.
1.4.109 Safety shut off system, double block and vent
A safety shut off system that incorporates two safety shut off valves in series, with the
space between the two valves automatically vented. These valves are interlocked so that
when the safety shut off valves are closed, the vent valve is open and vice versa.
1.4.110 Safety shut off valve
An automatic shut off valve that meets the requirements of AS 4629 and is used to shut off
gas supply to an appliance when a signal is generated indicating the approach of an unsafe
condition.
1.4.111 Set pressure
The mean pressure at which a device will actuate at a specific adjustment.
1.4.112 Start gas
The gas flowing at a pilot burner, or when no pilot burner is fitted, at a main burner during
the flame establishment period for initial ignition.
1.4.113 Steam boiler
Any vessel wherein steam is intended to be generated at a pressure above that of the
atmosphere by the application of heat from the combustion products to the vessel.
1.4.114 Stoichiometric combustion
The theoretical combustion of fuel in air such that no combustible agent or residual oxygen
remains in the combustion products.

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AS 38142009 18

1.4.115 Supervised burner


A burner fitted with a flame safeguard system.
1.4.116 Supervised pilot
See Protected pilot.
1.4.117 Technical regulator
The Government appointed person, body or authority that has jurisdiction over gas safety
legislation (or other entity authorized by that person, body or authority).
1.4.118 Temperature limit device
A device that automatically causes the gas supply to be interrupted when the temperature at
the control point reaches a predetermined limit.
1.4.119 Test firing valve
A manual shut off valve that can be used for turning a burner on or off in order to test it for
satisfactory ignition, flame stability, etc.
1.4.120 Thermostat
A device that automatically maintains a predetermined temperature in an appliance.
1.4.121 Valve
A device for the purpose of controlling or shutting off flow.
1.4.122 Valve train
A combination of valves, regulators, pipe pieces, unions and the like that form an integrated
system for flow or pressure control and safe operation of a burner.
1.4.123 Vent line
A pipe that is connected to a gas pressure regulator, relief valve or a double block and vent
safety shut off system, and will convey gas to a safe location.
1.4.124 Vent valve, double block and vent safety shut off system
A valve in the vent line of a double block and vent safety shut off system that automatically
opens when de-energized and automatically closes when energized.
1.4.125 Water heater
An appliance for the supply of water at a temperature not exceeding 99C.

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19 AS 38142009

SECT I ON 2 R E Q U I RE M E N T S FO R D E S IG N
AND CONST RUCT ION

2.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


2.1.1 Appliance design
Appliance design shall comply with the requirements of AS 1375 in regard to the overall
safety of the process.
A risk assessment and HAZOP shall be conducted on the appliance and associated
installation in accordance with AS 1375 to ensure that appropriate safety measures
additional to this Standard are provided. The scope of this analysis will depend on the size,
nature and complexity of the installation.
NOTE: Requirements for the prevention and relief of explosions due to such process hazards as
combustible gases, vapours or dusts are given in AS 1375.
2.1.2 Suitability for location
An appliance shall be designed to ensure safe, satisfactory and reliable operation in its
intended location.
2.1.3 Controls and indicating devices
Controls and indicating devices fitted to an appliance shall
(a) be sufficient to provide complete and safe control of the appliance; and
(b) where frequent observation or adjustment is required, be conveniently located.
2.1.4 Design of adjustable devices
An adjustable device that affects an appliance shall be designed so that it
(a) can be readily and conveniently adjusted as required;
(b) is, if important to the safety of the equipment, protected against unauthorized
interference;
(c) is not unduly influenced by temperature change;
(d) is not susceptible to sticking or seizing under normal operating conditions of use; and
(e) incorporates a locking or holding arrangement to prevent subsequent movement
through accident, vibration, or expansion.
NOTE: The tightening of any such locking device should not alter any setting.
2.1.5 Appliance to be well constructed
All component parts of an appliance shall be installed in accordance with the
manufacturers specification and be suitable for the application, well fitted and not warped,
bent, broken, or otherwise damaged.
2.1.6 Appliance parts to be secure against accidental displacement
Every part of an appliance shall be secure against accidental displacement.
2.1.7 Appliance parts to be secure for satisfactory operation
Essential parts of an appliance shall be secured to maintain their position to ensure
satisfactory operation of the appliance.
NOTE: This requirement is to ensure that essential parts of the appliance maintain their
relationship during normal operation and after any maintenance; e.g. flame detector in relation to
the burner.

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AS 38142009 20

2.1.8 Appliance to be free of sharp edges


All parts of an appliance with which a person may come in contact during normal operation,
adjustment or servicing shall be free from sharp projections or edges and projecting screw
ends.
2.1.9 Appliance supports to be of adequate strength
Appliance supports shall be of adequate strength to withstand the total weight of the
appliance in service.
2.1.10 Provision to be made for sampling flue gases
Provision shall be made for obtaining samples of flue gas for analysis.

2.2 CONTROLS, BURNER AND SAFETY DEVICE ACCESS


All controls, burners and safety devices shall be accessible for any of the following:
(a) Normal operation.
(b) Normal servicing.
(c) Functional adjustment.
(d) Testing.
(e) Replacement.
NOTE: Manifold assemblies that permit removal of control(s) intact for servicing are considered
to meet this requirement. Removal of an access door or panel to a control compartment or
appliance enclosure is considered acceptable.

2.3 FLAME VISIBILITY


2.3.1 Flame to be visible to maintenance personnel
It shall be possible for maintenance or adjusting personnel to safely view a flame, either by
direct sight or by means of a remote viewing device equivalent to direct sight.
NOTES:
1 The removal of a panel or part to allow viewing is permissible provided that there is no
hazard involved and combustion is not significantly affected (see Clause 3.6.1).
2 The location of a viewing device in or adjacent to an explosion relief panel, or other similar
area designed to relieve pressure or allow the passage of flame, gas or combustion products is
not considered to meet this requirement.
3 With gas turbines, the use of a screen display or operating parameter indication on a screen
display, appropriate to the appliance that is accessible to maintenance personnel, will satisfy
this requirement.
2.3.2 Visual indication of flame to operator
It shall be possible for an operator to:
(a) At any time, safely ensure visually that the main or pilot burner is alight.
NOTE: Reflected glare or indicator lamps may be considered adequate for this purpose.
(b) Where manually operated final burner controls are fitted, have a clear view of the
main and pilot flames.

2.4 TEMPERATURES OF SURFACES AND COMPONENTS


Appliance design shall ensure that the surface temperatures of appliance controls intended
to be operated shall not present a danger to the user (see Table 2.1).

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21 AS 38142009

2.5 RESTRICTION ON ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS


2.5.1 Ease of connection
Electrical components or assemblies that may be required to be removed from an appliance
shall not be connected by permanent or soldered joints, except in the case of extra-low
voltage circuits.
NOTE: Extra-low voltage means not exceeding 50 V a.c. and 120 V d.c. as defined by
AS/NZS 3000.
2.5.2 Limit on cross-connection
Electrical plug/socket connectors to the start gas valves and the main gas valves shall not be
interchangeable.
NOTE: The use of a wiring loom or arrangement that does not allow interchange without
significant modification will satisfy this Clause.

2.6 ACCESSIBILITY OF MANUAL CONTROLS


Any ladder or step that may be needed to reach manual operating controls on an appliance
shall be a permanent fixture.

2.7 MATERIALS
2.7.1 Materials to be adequate for their intended application
To ensure safe operation, materials used for the construction of an appliance shall be
(a) strong enough for their intended application;
(b) sufficiently resistant to heat; and
(c) sufficiently resistant to corrosion.
2.7.2 Restriction on use of zinc-base die-castings
Zinc-base die-casting alloys shall not be used where
(a) failure may result in leakage or ignition of gas;
(b) temperatures may exceed 90C; or
(c) the alloy is in contact with water.
2.7.3 Materials to be suitable for gas
Materials in contact with gas shall be suitable for use with the gas for which the equipment
has been designed.

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AS 38142009 22

TABLE 2.1
RECOMMENDED MAXIMUM TEMPERATURES OF
SURFACES AND COMPONENTS
Maximum temperature
Surface or component C

Adjacent combustible materials, floors, walls and the like 70


Surfaces intended to be handled, i.e. handles, knobs and the like, when made of
metals or materials with similar high conductivity; 55
porcelain, vitreous enamel or similar medium conductivity material; or 65
plastic, wood, rubber or similar low conductivity material 80
Surfaces likely to be accidentally touched, except those that are obviously hot
including
metals or materials with similar high conductivity; 100
porcelain, vitreous enamel or similar medium conductivity material; or 115
plastic, rubber or similar low conductivity material 120
Maximum specified by
Bodies of valves, cocks, and the like
the manufacturer
Controls and components containing non-metallic bellows, diaphragms, and the
65
like (unless specifically designed for higher temperature)
Maximum specified by
Electrical and electronic components
the manufacturer
Copper fuel piping 70
NOTES:
1 The above values are based on the temperature limits in the gas appliance Standards. In the gas appliance
Standards the limits are given as above ambient values. An ambient of 20C should be used for
comparison purposes.
2 The limits specified for knobs, handles, surfaces, etc. are intended to provide a degree of personal
protection. It is recognized that equivalent protection may be achieved by the provision of measures such
as special protective clothing, gloves, guards. The need for such protection should be indicated by a
notice.

2.8 GAS PIPEWORK AND VALVE TRAINS


2.8.1 Gas pipework and valve trains
Pipework and valve trains on an appliance shall
(a) comply with the requirements for pipework and fittings in AS 5601, and
(b) be gas tight at operating pressure when assembled.
NOTES:
1 Pipework may be required to be tested to higher pressures to meet the requirements of
AS 5601. It may be necessary to isolate specific sections of the pipework to undergo this
test.
2 See Appendix C for typical valve train arrangements.
2.8.2 Enclosure for a valve train
An enclosure for a valve train shall be ventilated at high and low level in accordance with
the ventilation of gas equipment requirements in AS 5601.

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23 AS 38142009

2.8.3 Pressure rating of valve train components


2.8.3.1 Upstream of and including appliance gas pressure regulator
Piping and valve train components upstream of and including the appliance gas pressure
regulator shall have a rated working pressure not less than
(a) the inlet pressure to the next upstream regulator; or
(b) the setting of any over-pressure protection system fitted to the next upstream
regulator.
2.8.3.2 Downstream of appliance gas pressure regulator
Piping and valve train components downstream of the appliance gas pressure regulator shall
have a minimum rated working pressure not less than the inlet pressure of the appliance
regulator unless over-pressure protection that complies with Clause 2.10 is fitted.
2.8.4 Requirements where pressurized air, oxygen or a standby gas is to be used
Where pressurized air, oxygen or a standby gas is to be used in conjunction with a gas valve
train or burner, a suitable protective device(s) shall be installed in the piping as close as
possible to and upstream of the point of interconnection of any gas and air, oxygen or
standby gas lines, to prevent cross-contamination.
NOTES: Suitable protective devices include:
1 A check valve preferably fitted with a soft seat of non-metallic material that is compatible
with gas.
2 A three-way valve that completely closes one outlet before opening the other.
3 A reverse-flow detector that controls a positive shut off valve.
4 A device, which mixes gas and combustion air and incorporates a double-diaphragm zero
regulator, used in conjunction with a proportional mixing device, where the air or oxygen
supply pressure does not exceed 7 kPa.
2.8.5 Multi-position manual control valves
Manual control valves having more than one operating position shall have the function of
each position clearly indicated.
2.8.6 Design of valve handles, dials and pointers
Valve handles, movable dials and pointers shall be designed so that they
(a) are not capable of being incorrectly assembled;
(b) are securely attached to their spindles; and
(c) do not contain loose parts that may become detached when the valve handle, dial or
pointer is removed.
2.8.7 Appliance isolating valve
2.8.7.1 Appliance isolating valve to be fitted
A quarter-turn manual shut off valve shall be fitted to isolate all gas to the appliance.
2.8.7.2 Requirements for appliance isolating valve
The appliance isolating valve shall comply with all of the following:
(a) Subject to (b), and be certified to the Type 1 requirements of AS 4617. For valves
requiring excessive physical force to operate, an alternative means to a single-action
type lever may be used provided it has position indication. For valves outside the
scope of AS 4617, the safety requirements detailed in that standard shall be met at
least at an equivalent level and the valve shall be certified. A declaration by the OEM
(original equipment manufacturer) of the valve, which supports the fitness for
purpose of the valves for the application, may be acceptable to the technical
regulator.

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AS 38142009 24

NOTE: Guidance on the physical strength for the hand-operation of equipment is given in
EN 614-1.
(b) Be capable of being connected to the inlet piping such that, when the outlet piping is
disconnected from it, the valve will remain securely attached to the inlet piping.
(c) Be suitable for the application.
2.8.7.3 Location of appliance isolating valve
The appliance isolating valve shall be
(a) located upstream of
(i) all other controls, and
(ii) the start gas line;
(b) in close proximity to the appliance; and
(c) accessible to enable quick isolation of the gas supply.
2.8.7.4 Identification of appliance isolating valve
Where the location of the appliance isolating valve is such that the valve is not readily
identifiable, a notice shall be provided to clearly indicate
(a) the function of the valve; and
(b) the appliance that it isolates.
2.8.7.5 Connection of appliance isolating valve
The valve train shall be connected to the appliance isolating valve by means of a flange or
union.
NOTE: This is to enable the valve train to be disconnected from the gas supply.
2.8.8 Main Burner Isolation
2.8.8.1 Main burner isolation valve
Where multiple burners are fitted to an appliance and the appliance can continue to operate
with one or more burners and its associated valve train being serviced, each burner shall be
fitted with suitable means of isolation to allow safe removal of valve train components,
servicing and commissioning of the burner.
Where the appliance burner is located remote from the appliance isolation valve, a separate
certified burner isolation valve shall be fitted unless the appliance isolating valve is capable
of being locked in the off position.
NOTE: For the purposes of Subclause 2.8.8.1, remote is taken to mean it requires access by means
of a ladder over 1.5 m to reach the burner or that it is in excess of 5 metres from the burner at the
same level. The intent of the additional requirement is to facilitate quick location and access to the
appliance isolation valve and, in the case of servicing, allow safe isolation of gas to the burner or
appliance being serviced.
2.8.8.2 Main burner isolation for commissioning
For the purposes of commissioning at the start gas rate, a permanent means shall be
provided to prevent gas from flowing at rates other than the start gas rate specified in
Clause 3.2.3.
NOTE: Suitable means of isolation include the following:
(a) A manual shut off valve (test firing valve) located immediately downstream of the main gas
safety shut off valve(s).
(b) A test firing valve located between the start gas take-off point and the first main gas safety
shut off valve.

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25 AS 38142009

(c) A clearly marked removable electrical plug, positive action switch or link in the electrical
supply to the main-gas safety shut off valves (or the main-gas control function within the
safety shut off valves), which cannot be inadvertently or incorrectly reconnected to the
electrical supply. Disconnection of electrical wiring does not satisfy this requirement.
(d) For gas-fired turbines, other means may be used to set the start gas rate to meet the intent of
this Clause.
2.8.9 Restriction on test firing valve
A test firing valve, if fitted, shall not be used to regulate gas input to the main burner under
normal operating conditions.
2.8.10 Pilot burner isolating valve
A manual shut off valve shall
(a) be fitted to the gas supply line of a pilot burner;
(b) enable the gas supply to a pilot burner to be turned off independently of the main
burner; and
(c) meet the Type 1 requirements of AS 4617 and be certified.
NOTE: The use of a manually-opened pilot take-off port incorporated in a certified thermoelectric
flame safeguard, meeting the requirements of AS 4620 or AS 4624, will satisfy the requirements
of this Clause.

2.9 GAS PRESSURE REGULATION


2.9.1 Gas pressure regulator to be fitted
A gas pressure regulator shall be fitted to
(a) the main gas supply to a burner or group of burners, unless some other equally
effective means of pressure control is provided, other than the service regulator; and
(b) the start gas supply, unless both the following apply
(i) the start gas take-off point is downstream of the main gas pressure regulator;
and
(ii) the main gas pressure regulator complies with Clause 2.9.3 at the start gas rate.
NOTE: In the case of a pilot burner, significant flame shrinkage of the pilot should not occur
during the main-flame establishment period. Refer to Clause 2.22.1(a) and (b).
2.9.2 Requirements for a gas pressure regulator
The requirements for a gas pressure regulator are as follows
(a) a regulator with a maximum design inlet pressure not exceeding 7 kPa and of a
nominal size not exceeding 50 mm shall meet the Grade 10 requirements of AS 4618
and be certified; or
(b) a regulator shall be of the lock-up type with a lock-up pressure not greater than 25%
above the set outlet pressure where any of the following apply
(i) the nominal inlet pressure for the regulator exceeds 7 kPa;
(ii) the design pressure drop across the regulator is greater than 20% of the nominal
inlet pressure; or
(iii) the nominal size exceeds 50 mm.
2.9.3 Gas pressure regulator accuracy
Over the controlled flow rate range, a gas pressure regulator shall maintain the outlet
pressure within plus or minus 10% of the set pressure.

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AS 38142009 26

2.9.4 Position of gas pressure regulator


A gas pressure regulator shall be positioned so that
(a) it complies with the requirements of Clause 2.2;
NOTE: A gas pressure regulator should be located upstream of the safety shut off valves
unless a downstream location will not adversely affect burner light-up, and the requirements
of Clause 2.9.1 are met.
(b) the breather vent outlet cannot be readily blocked; and
(c) the possibility of ignition of any gas leaking from the breather vent outlet is
minimized.
2.9.5 Venting of gas pressure regulator
A gas pressure regulator shall be vented in accordance with AS 5601.
NOTE: A restricting orifice in a regulator breather vent outlet may be fitted, provided it does not
adversely affect the operation of the regulator.

2.10 GAS OVER-PRESSURE PROTECTION


2.10.1 Requirement where over-pressure protection shuts off the gas supply
Where an over-pressure protection system shuts off the gas supply, it shall require a manual
reset to restore the supply.
2.10.2 Where over-pressure protection system is to be fitted
An over-pressure protection system shall be fitted where any of the following apply:
(a) The rated working pressure of any piping or valve train component downstream of the
appliance gas pressure regulator does not otherwise comply with the requirements of
Clause 2.8.3.2.
(b) The inlet pressure to the last regulator before a burner exceeds 7 kPa and is more than
35% above the minimum operating outlet pressure, unless the burner can maintain
satisfactory combustion, in accordance with Clause 3.6.1, with the regulator in the
wide open position.
NOTE: Where a component performs the function of both gas pressure regulator and gas/air
ratio control in response to combustion air pressure changes, the minimum operating gas
pressure is taken to be the outlet pressure at the maximum gas flow rate.
(c) The failure of a regulator could result in the start gas rate exceeding the maximum
allowable in Clause 3.2.3.
2.10.3 Setting of over-pressure protection system
The over-pressure protection system shall be set to ensure that
(a) no piping or valve train component can be subjected to a pressure in excess of its
rated working pressure; and
(b) where Clause 2.10.2(b) applies, the following requirements are met:
(i) Where a separate flow rate control valve is used, the shut off pressure at the
system sensing point shall not exceed 35% above the minimum operating
pressure with the appliance operated over its entire firing range.
NOTES:
1 A higher set pressure may allow the air-gas ratio to fall below 84% of the
stoichiometric rate (i.e. gas/air mixture is fuel rich), and allow carbon monoxide to
be formed in sufficient quantities to form an explosive mixture.
2 In the case where the pressure at the burner exceeds the critical ratio, then the
setting of the overpressure switch ensures that at the trip point the aeration level
should not fall below 84% of stoichiometric air-gas ratio.

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27 AS 38142009

(ii) Where a combination gas control performs the function of both gas pressure
regulator and gas/air ratio control in response to combustion air pressure
changes, the shut off pressure at the system sensing point shall be as low as
possible without causing nuisance shutdowns but shall not exceed 35% above
the pressure at the highest normal firing rate.
NOTE: In order to prevent the production of excessive quantities of carbon monoxide
at less than the maximum burner firing rate, the shut off pressure should be set to the
lowest setting possible without nuisance shutdowns occurring.
2.10.4 Location of over-pressure protection system sensing point
The sensing point for the over-pressure protection system shall be located
(a) to ensure that the requirements of Clause 2.10.3(a) can be met; and
(b) either
(i) downstream of a gas pressure regulator; or
(ii) downstream of a combination gas control performing the function of both gas
pressure regulator and gas/air ratio control in response to combustion air
pressure changes.
NOTE: The sensing point should not be located between double block valves.

2.11 GAS LOW-PRESSURE PROTECTION


2.11.1 Low-gas-pressure detector to be fitted
A low-gas-pressure detector shall be fitted where a reduction in supply pressure may cause
a burner to become unstable or combustion to become unsatisfactory before the flame
safeguard system goes to lockout.
NOTE: A low-pressure trip valve on the gas pressure regulator or a low-pressure switch
connected into the safety shut off circuit are acceptable methods.
2.11.2 Requirements of low-gas-pressure detector
A low-gas-pressure detector shall
(a) be downstream of the appliance gas pressure regulator; and
(b) cause safety shutdown of all burners affected by an under-pressure condition.

2.12 GAS PRESSURE TEST POINTS


2.12.1 Location of pressure test points
A gas pressure test point shall be provided at the outlet of each component in the valve train
including the appliance isolating valve.
2.12.2 Maximum orifice size of a pressure test point
The diameter of a restricting orifice in a non-self-sealing gas pressure test point shall not
exceed 1 mm.
2.12.3 Sealing of a pressure test point
A gas pressure test point shall be provided with a means of sealing the outlet and be
suitable for the maximum operating pressure.

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AS 38142009 28

2.13 GAS FILTER


2.13.1 Filter to be fitted
A filter shall be fitted where the nominal inlet pressure to the appliance regulator for the
main burner or start gas supply exceeds 7 kPa or where an over-pressure protection system
shuts off the gas supply.
2.13.2 Requirements and location of filter
The filter(s) required by Clause 2.13.1 shall
(a) prevent the passage of foreign particles larger than 1 mm;
(b) be located so that gas to all safety shut off valves is filtered; and
(c) be located downstream of the appliance isolating valve and as close as practical to the
first safety shut off valve.
NOTES:
1 Where possible, the location of the filter should be immediately downstream of the appliance
isolating valve.
2 A safety shut off valve that incorporates a filter in its design may meet these requirements.

2.14 SAFETY SHUT OFF SYSTEMS


2.14.1 Safety shut off valve and vent valve
Safety shut off valves and vent valves shall comply with AS 4629 and be certified except
where a safety shut off valve is part of a thermoelectric flame safeguard, in which case it
shall comply with AS 4620 or AS 4624 and be certified. For valves outside the scope of
AS 4629, AS 4620 or AS 4624, the safety requirements detailed in those standards shall be
met at least at an equivalent level and the valves shall be certified. A declaration by the
OEM of both the appliance and valves, which supports the fitness for purpose of the valves
for the application, may be acceptable to the technical regulator.
NOTE: Where a class of automatic shut off valve or vent valve is referred to, the following
classification of valves applies:
Class 1An automatic shut off valve having the tightest shut off requirements with respect to
closure against reverse flow conditions.
Class 2An automatic shut off valve with a lower shut off requirement than a Class 1 valve with
respect to closure against reverse flow.
Class 3An automatic shut off valve with no closure requirements against reverse flow.
2.14.2 Function of safety shut off system
A safety shut off system shall be connected such that it will shut off at the approach or
presence of an unsafe condition.
NOTE: The need for a safety shut off valve system is dependent on the fitting of flame safeguards
and limit devices etc. that may be required by other Sections of this Standard. There may be
occasions where none of these is fitted, e.g. in the case of a permanently manned, fully manual
operation of a small open atmospheric burner where adequate operating instructions are
displayed. In such a case, the function of the safety shut off valve system is performed by the
operator closing a manual valve.
2.14.3 Safety shut off valve system requirements for main and start gas supplies
2.14.3.1 General
Except as permitted by Clauses 2.14.3.2 to 2.14.3.8, the main burner gas supply and the
start gas supply shall be fitted with separate safety shut off valve systems that comply with
the following minimum requirements, selected on the basis of the gas rate through the
individual system:

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29 AS 38142009

(a) Valves are to be of the Class 1 automatic shut off type.


(b) For a gas rate not exceeding 5 GJ/h (1.4 MW), the valve arrangement is to be two
valves in series.
(c) For a lighter-than-air gas where the gas rate exceeds 5 GJ/h (1.4 MW) but does not
exceed 20 GJ/h (5.5 MW), the valve arrangement is to be double block and vent or
double block with a leakage detection system.
(d) For a lighter-than-air gas where the gas rate exceeds 20 GJ/h (5.5 MW) the valve
arrangement is to be
(i) double block and vent with a position-proving system; or
(ii) double block with a leakage detection system.
(e) For a heavier-than-air gas where the gas rate exceeds 5 GJ/h (1.4 MW), the valve
arrangement is to be double block with a leakage detection system.
NOTE: On multiple burner appliances the minimum requirement is double block on main gas for
each individual burner.
2.14.3.2 Concession for atmospheric burner not exceeding 500MJ/h
An atmospheric burner not exceeding 500 MJ/h (140 kW), fitted with an intermittent or
permanent pilot, or which is manually ignited, may use a single Class 3 safety shut off
valve or a thermoelectric flame safeguard for the gas supply to both main and pilot burners.
2.14.3.3 Concession for atmospheric burner not exceeding 1GJ/h
An atmospheric burner not exceeding 1 GJ/h (275 kW), which is manually ignited or fitted
with a permanent pilot, may use
(a) a single Class 1 safety shut off valve for the main burner gas supply and either a
single Class 3 safety shut off valve or thermoelectric flame safeguard for the pilot
burner gas supply; or
(b) two Class 2 safety shut off valves for the main burner gas supply and a single Class 2
safety shut off valve for the pilot burner gas supply.
2.14.3.4 Concession for forced or induced draught burner up to 200MJ/h
A forced or induced draught burner not exceeding 200 MJ/h (60 kW) may use two Class 2
safety shut off valves for the main burner gas supply and a single Class 2 safety shut off
valve for the start gas supply.
2.14.3.5 Concession for forced or induced draught burner up to 1GJ/h
A manually operated forced or induced draught burner not exceeding 1 GJ/h (275 kW) may
use a single Class 1 safety shut off valve provided that the valve is only actuated by a flame
safeguard or limit device.
2.14.3.6 Concession for a main burner up to 1GJ/h igniting at low rate
A burner not exceeding 1 GJ/h (275 kW) that employs ignition of the main burner at a low
rate in order to comply with Clause 3.2.3 may be fitted with one double block safety shut
off valve system, to cover both main and start gas rates, provided the downstream safety
shut off valve is a two-stage valve that employs an independently energized second stage
such that energizing the second stage alone does not open the valve; and either
(a) incorporates a position indicator switch to ensure that the second stage is not operated
before or during the start gas establishment period; or
(b) incorporates a closed position indicator switch that complies with AS 4629 and is
certified.

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AS 38142009 30

2.14.3.7 Concession for a burner using a separate start gas line


A start gas line may use a single Class 1 safety shut off valve provided the start gas rate
(a) does not exceed 500 MJ/h (140 kW); and
(b) does not exceed 40% of the maximum rate specified in Clause 3.2.3.
2.14.3.8 Provision for start gas to be taken from between safety shut off valves for a main
burner directly ignited at a low rate
A start gas supply may be taken from between two main gas safety shut off valves provided
the following requirements are complied with:
(a) For a main burner with a total input not exceeding 500 MJ/h (140 kW) (refer to
Figure 2.1), no additional start gas safety shut off valve is required, provided
(i) the downstream safety shut off valve is fitted with a closed position indicator
switch; and
(ii) the start gas rate is not more than 40% of the rate permitted in Clause 3.2.3.

FIGURE 2.1 BURNERS UP TO 500 MJ/h (140 kW)

(b) For a main burner with a total input exceeding 500 MJ/h (140 kW) but not exceeding
5 GJ/h (1.4 MW) (refer to Figure 2.2)
(i) an additional Class 1 safety shut off valve is fitted in the start gas line; and
(ii) the downstream main gas safety shut off valve is fitted with a closed position
indicator switch.

FIGURE 2.2 BURNERS OVER 500 MJ/h (140 kW) AND UP TO 5 GJ/h (1.4 MW)

(c) For a main burner with a total input exceeding 5 GJ/h (1.4 MW) but not exceeding
20 GJ/h (5.5 MW) (refer to Figure 2.3), an additional Class 1 safety shut off valve is
fitted in the start gas line and either
(i) a leakage detection system is fitted; or
(ii) the downstream main gas safety shut off valve is fitted with a proof-of-closure
switch.

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FIGURE 2.3 BURNERS OVER 5 GJ/h (1.4 MW) AND UP TO 20 GJ/h (5.5 MW)

(d) For a main burner with a total input exceeding 20 GJ/h (5.5 MW) (refer to
Figure 2.4), an additional Class 1 safety shut off valve is fitted in the start gas line
and either
(i) a leakage detection system is fitted; or
(ii) all the safety shut off valves are fitted with proof-of-closure switches.

FIGURE 2.4 BURNERS OVER 20 GJ/h (5.5 MW)

NOTE: The use of leakage detection system is an alternative.

2.14.4 Energizing of automatic safety shut off valves


In a system that complies with Clause 2.14.3.8 no safety shut off valve shall be energized,
except as part of a program in a leakage detection system, unless the following apply
immediately prior to start-up
(a) where fitted, all closed position indicator switches indicate correct valve position; and
(b) where fitted, all proof-of-closure switches prove correct valve position; and
(c) where fitted, a leakage detection system proves correct valve positions.
2.14.5 Ignition of main burner by separate pilot
Where a main burner is ignited by a separate pilot and the flow rate through the main burner
safety shut off valve system exceeds 1 GJ/h (275 kW) at start-up, one of the safety shut off
valves in the main burner gas supply, downstream of the pilot gas take off, shall have an
opening time of not less than 5 s.
2.14.6 Requirements for a safety shut off valve and vent valve
2.14.6.1 Rated working pressure
The operating pressure of a safety shut off valve and vent valve shall not exceed the
maximum rated working pressure.
2.14.6.2 Orientation
A safety shut off valve or vent valve shall be fitted in an orientation for which it is
designed.

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AS 38142009 32

2.14.6.3 Size of vent valve for a double block and vent safety shut off system
Except as permitted in Clause 2.14.6.4, the minimum size of a vent valve that is part of a
double block and vent safety shut off system shall comply with Table 2.2.
2.14.6.4 Size of vent valve for a leakage detection system
The size of the valve in the vent line of a leakage detection system shall not be less than
8 mm.
2.14.6.5 Arrangement for manual reset vent valve
A manual reset vent valve used in a double block and vent safety shut off system shall be
arranged to prevent gas escaping through the vent line when the upstream safety shut off
valve is open.
2.14.7 Safety shut off system not to be bypassed
A safety shut off system shall not be bypassed unless the bypass is fitted with a safety shut
off system.
2.14.8 Vent line requirement
A vented safety shut off system shall be fitted with a vent line complying with AS 5601.
2.14.9 Requirements for a position-proving system
2.14.9.1 Safety shut off valve
All safety shut off valves used in a position-proving system shall incorporate a proof-of-
closure switch.
2.14.9.2 Vent valve
A vent valve used in a position-proving system shall
(a) comply with Table 2.2; and
(b) incorporate a position indicator switch.

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33 AS 38142009

TABLE 2.2
MINIMUM SIZE OF VENT VALVE
Minimum size of vent valve
Nominal size of largest mm
safety shut off valve
mm Double block and vent Position proving
systems systems
Less than 20 Same as safety shut off Same as safety shut off
valve valve
20-40 20 15
50 25 15
65 32 20
80 40 20
100 50 25
150 65 32
200 80 50
NOTE: Where a safety shut off valve greater than 200 NB is used, the vent valve may be sized
using an appropriate method such as found in Appendix 6 (for pressures > 100 kPa) of Sizing
of vents of The Institute of Gas Engineers, 2000, IGE/UP/9 The Application of Natural Gas
Fuel Systems to Gas Turbines and Supplementary and Auxiliary Fired Burners, London, UK.

2.14.9.3 Position-proving system to be interlocked to prevent burner start-up


The valves used in conjunction with a position-proving system shall be interlocked to
prevent burner start-up (including pre-purge) where
(a) both safety shut off valves are not proved closed; or
(b) the vent valve is not proved open.
2.14.9.4 Alarm interlock
The valves used in conjunction with a position-proving system controlling a gas
consumption in excess of 20 GJ/h (5.5 MW) shall be interlocked to actuate an alarm where
either of the following conditions apply immediately after any controlled or safety
shutdown:
(a) Any safety shut off valve is not proved closed.
(b) The vent valve is not proved open.
NOTE: The nature and location of an alarm (i.e. audible, visible etc.) should be such that the
operators attention is attracted.
2.14.10 Requirements for a leakage detection system
2.14.10.1 Compliance with Standard
A leakage detection system shall comply with the requirements of AS 4630.
Where the system is commercially available, it shall be certified to either AS 4630 or an
equivalent Standard. However where the system is not commercially available, i.e. purpose-
designed, compliance with AS 4630 or an equivalent Standard should be checked for
acceptability with the technical regulator.
2.14.10.2 Leakage detection system to be interlocked to cause lockout
A leakage detection system shall be interlocked to cause lockout where the leakage rate
exceeds the maximum allowed under Clause 2.14.10.5 before any source of ignition is
energized or introduced into the combustion chamber.

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AS 38142009 34

2.14.10.3 Commencement of leakage detection test


The commencement of a leakage detection test shall occur as follows:
(a) For an appliance, other than an appliance with an induced draught burner, during or
immediately before the pre-purge cycle.
(b) For an appliance with an induced draught burner, immediately before the pre-purge
cycle commences.
2.14.10.4 Alarm interlock
A leakage detection system controlling a gas consumption in excess of 20 GJ/h (5.5 MW)
shall be interlocked to actuate an alarm if any one of the valves is not proved sufficiently
gas tight immediately after any controlled or safety shutdown.
NOTE: The nature and location of an alarm (i.e. audible, visible etc.) should be such that the
operators attention is attracted.
2.14.10.5 Maximum allowable leakage rate
The maximum allowable leakage rate into or out of the space between the safety shut off
valves shall be 0.05% of the maximum gas rate through the system.
2.14.10.6 Leakage detection system that uses gas at line pressure
Where a leakage detection system using gas at line pressure as the testing medium is
employed, the following additional requirements shall be met:
(a) When pressurizing the space between the safety shut off valves:
(i) the gas rate used shall satisfy the requirements of Clause 3.2.3; or
(ii) the upstream safety shut off valve shall not be open for more than 2 s, and the
downstream safety shut off valve is to incorporate a position indicator switch or
position proving switch.
(b) Separate pressure switches shall be used to monitor
(i) the rise from atmospheric pressure; and
(ii) the fall from line pressure;
NOTES:
1 Where a leakage detection system complying with EN1643 is used, it is permissible to use
a single pressure switch to perform the above required monitoring functions.
2 A single pressure transmitter is also permissible to perform the above required monitoring
functions.
(c) The pressure settings of switches referred to in (b) shall not overlap.
(d) Where the contents of the space between the safety shut off valves are to be released
into the combustion chamber all of the following shall apply:
(i) The contents of the space are to be released through the burner head.
(ii) A Class 1 safety shut off valve is to be used.
(iii) The average flow rate is to comply with the requirements of Clause 3.2.3.
(iv) The valve used is not to be open for more than 5 s.
(v) The purge air flow is to be
(A) proved before the valve is opened; or
(B) programmed to start immediately upon completion of a successful
leakage detection cycle.

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(vi) The pre-purge requirements of Clause 2.19 are to be met after the valve has
closed as part of the leakage detection cycle.
NOTE: Line pressure shall be no less than the outlet pressure of the next upstream regulator.
2.14.11 Function of interlocks
Where a safety shut off system controls a gas consumption in excess of 20 GJ/h to a
burner(s) which fires into a combustion chamber either connected to a common flue or with
multiple burners firing into it, then the interlocks required by Clauses 2.14.9.3 and
2.14.10.2 shall
(a) where the appliance is unattended, act on all burners sharing the combustion chamber
or common flue; or
(b) where an operator is in attendance, activate an alarm.
NOTE: The nature and location of an alarm (i.e. audible, visible etc.) should be such that the
operators attention is attracted.
2.14.12 Requirements of safety shut off system actuators
2.14.12.1 Individual actuators to be fitted
All valves in a double block and vent safety shut off system shall be individual valves fitted
with their own individual actuators unless the valve fulfils the requirements of either
Clause 2.14.12.2 or 2.14.12.3.
2.14.12.2 Single three-way valve permitted
The combining of a safety shut off valve and a vent valve in a single three-way valve is
permitted provided that all the following conditions are met:
(a) The safety shut off valve is the downstream safety shut off valve.
(b) When energized the valve is open from inlet to outlet and closed to vent.
(c) When de-energized the valve is open from inlet to vent and closed to the outlet.
2.14.12.3 Use of rigidly coupled actuators
Where the valves of a double block and vent safety shut off system are to be rigidly coupled
to a common actuator, all of the following requirements shall be met:
(a) The coupled vent and safety shut off valves are to be downstream of another safety
shut off valve.
(b) The upstream safety shut off valve is to be fitted with an independent actuator.
(c) The failure of an interlock that serves all burners is to cause all safety shut off valves
to close and all vent valves to open.
(d) Any condition requiring lockout of an individual burner or burner unit is to cause all
safety shut off valves to close and all vent valves to open on the individual burner or
burner unit.
(e) The means of connecting the rigidly coupled valves is to be constructed so that it is
not readily interfered with.
NOTE: A fixed cover is an acceptable means of preventing interference.

2.15 COMBUSTION AIR SUPPLYGENERAL REQUIREMENTS


2.15.1 Combustion air supply equipment to be correctly sized
Combustion air supply equipment shall be correctly sized and arranged to ensure that the air
flow is
(a) non-pulsating except in the case of purpose designed pulse combustion systems; and

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AS 38142009 36

(b) adequate for all operating conditions specified by the equipment manufacturer.
2.15.2 Combustion air quality
Combustion air shall be free of contaminants such as suspended particles, flue gases, water
or other gases or fuels that may adversely affect the combustion process.
NOTE: Flue gases, vapours or flammable substances introduced into the combustion air for
emission or process control should not be considered as contaminants.
2.15.3 Air openings to be of adequate size
Air openings shall be adequate to allow satisfactory combustion in compliance with
Clause 3.6.1.
2.15.4 Air openings not to be obstructed
Measures shall be taken to prevent air openings from being obstructed.

2.16 COMBUSTION AIR FOR ATMOSPHERIC BURNERS


2.16.1 Primary aeration controls to be corrosion-resistant
Primary aeration control(s) shall be corrosion-resistant.
NOTE: Controls may be made of corrosion-resistant material or have a corrosion-resistant finish.
2.16.2 Effect of foreign matter on primary aeration controls to be minimal
Primary aeration controls shall be constructed so that any build-up of foreign matter does
not adversely affect the flame characteristics.

2.17 FORCED AND INDUCED DRAUGHT BURNERS


2.17.1 Draught characteristics to be specified by burner manufacturer
The air flow and pressure characteristics of a forced or induced draught combustion system
shall be specified by the burner manufacturer.
2.17.2 Proving air flow
An appliance shall be fitted with devices for proving adequate air flow during the pre-
purge, ignition and operation of the burner including
(a) static or differential pressure sensing, where it can be shown that this provides
satisfactory and reliable proof of air flow during pre-purge, ignition and subsequent
firing; and
(b) flow-sensing, where tapping points of a differential system should be arranged so that
the static pressure difference, in a system with a closed damper, does not result in an
apparent flow signal being given.
NOTE: Proof of adequate air flow is normally obtained by one of the methods in (a) or (b),
however this list is not exhaustive and other methods may be acceptable to the technical
regulator.
2.17.3 Self-check of air flow proving device
2.17.3.1 Self-check to be carried out
The air flow proving device shall be proved in the no-flow state, prior to start-up.
NOTE: Three way vent solenoids may be used to provide the no air flow signal where it is
impractical to shut down or stop the air flow.
2.17.3.2 Failure of air flow proving device during self-check
Failure of the air flow proving device during a self-check shall cause
(a) start-up to be prevented; or

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37 AS 38142009

(b) lockout.
2.17.4 Safety shutdown to occur if air flow fails
Air flow failure at any time during the pre-purge, ignition or operation of the burner, shall
cause the air flow proving device to initiate safety shutdown within 1 s.
NOTES:
1 Following safety shutdown due to incorrect air pressure or air flow, automatic restart is
permitted provided that repetitive recycling could not cause a hazard.
2 The contactors of a combustion air fan and purging air fan (where fitted) should be
interlocked to cause safety shutdown in the event of the contactors opening.
2.17.5 Air-gas mixtures
2.17.5.1 Air-gas mixing machines and mixing blowers
Air-gas mixing machines and mixing blowers shall comply with the requirements of
Clause 5.3.
2.17.5.2 Maximum temperature of mixtures
The temperature of an air-gas mixture to a burner(s) shall not exceed 50% of the auto-
ignition temperature of the gas in degrees Celsius.
NOTE: Typical values for auto-ignition temperatures are given in Table 2.3.

TABLE 2.3
TYPICAL VALUES FOR AUTO-IGNITION
TEMPERATURES (AIT) OF GASES
Auto-ignition temperature
Fuel gas
C
Natural gas 540
Simulated natural gas 450
Tempered liquefied petroleum gas 450
Liquefied petroleum gas (Butane) 406
Liquefied petroleum gas (Propane) 450
Town gas 560

2.18 DAMPERS
2.18.1 Requirements for a fixed or adjustable damper
A damper shall maintain satisfactory combustion in accordance with the requirements of
Clause 3.6.1 and be
(a) secure against accidental displacement;
(b) interlocked to prevent the pre-purge period proceeding unless the damper is in the
correct position and remains there for the full pre-purge period; and
(c) interlocked to prevent ignition of the burner unless the damper is in the correct
position for ignition.
2.18.2 Requirements for an automatic damper control system
2.18.2.1 Automatic damper to maintain satisfactory combustion
An automatic damper control system shall maintain satisfactory combustion over the entire
range of burner operation.

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AS 38142009 38

2.18.2.2 Failure of damper mechanism


Where failure occurs in the control mechanism of an automatically-operated damper
(a) the damper shall assume a position that will ensure that satisfactory combustion is
maintained; or
(b) lockout shall occur.
2.18.2.3 Manual damper control
Where dampers are intended to be manually adjusted during operation they shall be fitted
with
(a) fixed stops to contain the adjustment within normal operational limits; and
(b) a device to indicate the damper position.

2.19 APPLIANCE PRE-PURGING


2.19.1 General requirements
2.19.1.1 Function of pre-purge
A pre-purge shall ensure that the concentration of any combustible mixture present in an
appliance is reduced to a safe level by dilution with the purging medium.
2.19.1.2 Appliance or process to be pre-purged
An appliance or process shall be pre-purged unless
(a) the purge medium continues during the burner off cycle and the conditions of purging
comply with Clause 2.19.2.2 (b) and (c);
(b) reignition is being attempted after flame failure as permitted by Clause 3.5.5.2; or
(c) flame failure of a burner occurs in a multiple-burner installation where
(i) all burners fire into a single combustion chamber;
(ii) the individual main burners are fitted with independent supervised ignition and
flame safeguard systems; and
(iii) at least one of the burners remains alight.
2.19.1.3 Pre-purging using an inert medium
Where it is hazardous to purge with air, an inert purging medium shall be used.
2.19.1.4 Supply of inert purging medium to be proved
Failure to prove an adequate supply of the purging medium prior to the commencement of
the pre-purge shall result in lockout.
2.19.2 Pre-purging by mechanical means
2.19.2.1 Mechanical pre-purging required under certain conditions
Pre-purging shall be by mechanical means
(a) unless a natural draught pre-purge is permitted by Clause 2.19.3.1;
(b) where the combustion chamber is fitted with a forced or induced draught burner, and
combustible vapours, dusts or gases may accumulate in the combustion chamber; or
(c) where the appliance has an atmospheric burner and the natural draught pre-purge does
not comply with Clause 2.19.3.1.

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2.19.2.2 Conduct of mechanical pre-purge


A mechanical pre-purge shall be carried out such that all of the following conditions are
met:
(a) The duration of the pre-purge period is sufficient to ensure that the volume of the
purging medium used is at least 5 times the purge volume.
(b) The flow rate of the purging medium is not less than 25 % of the maximum flow rate
of the combustion air.
(c) The circulation of the purging medium is such that no zone in the purge volume
remains unpurged.
NOTES:
1 Consideration should be given to options that will restrict the purge period to a maximum of
15 min. Additional fans or dampers may be used specifically for this purpose.
2 Variations to the value of the purge volume or purge time may be acceptable to the technical
regulator where satisfactory plug flow conditions are shown to exist. However the minimum
purge requirement under these conditions should not normally be less than 60% of the purge
required by this Clause.
3 Where the burner system cannot provide a total adequate pre-purge of the appliance (because
of special requirements) then steps should be taken, in consultation with the technical
regulator, to increase the level of safety from the minimum specified by the Standard.
4 Refer to Clause 5.10.2 for large batch ovens.
5 Refer to Clause 5.8.3 for gas turbine purging.
2.19.3 Pre-purging using natural draught
2.19.3.1 Requirements for an appliance using natural draught
A natural draught pre-purge shall not be permitted unless all of the following apply:
(a) No forced or induced draught burner is fitted.
(b) Openings during the entire pre-purge period provide a total area of not less than
0.2 m 2/m 3 of the purge volume.
(c) Openings during the entire pre-purge period are positioned to ensure that the purge
volume is completely purged of any of the following, which may be present at start-
up or operating temperatures
(i) lighter-than-air gases;
(ii) heavier-than-air gases;
(iii) combustible vapours;
(iv) combustible dusts; and
(v) flammable liquids.
2.19.3.2 Pre-purge period using natural draught
For an appliance using natural draught the pre-purge period after flame failure shall be not
less than 5 min unless the requirements of Clause 3.5.5.2 are met.
NOTE: Heavier-than-air gases may require longer purge periods than lighter-than-air gases, to
allow for dilution of the gases.
2.19.3.3 Pre-purge period included in operating instructions
Where a burner is manually ignited the pre-purge period shall be included in the operating
instructions and indicated on a notice placed in a prominent position on the appliance.

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AS 38142009 40

2.19.3.4 Pre-purge where appliance doors are opened


Where an appliance is pre-purged by means of opening the appliance doors or other
closures, then the doors or other closures shall be
(a) open during the pre-purge period and remain open until the flame is established; and
(b) fitted with interlocks unless
(i) the burner is manually ignited; and
(ii) the purge volume is less than 10 m3 .
2.19.4 Pre-purge timer
Where an appliance or process requires a pre-purge period and automatic controls are
incorporated, both the following shall apply:
(a) A purge timer is to be interlocked with the burner safety shut off system to ensure
that the required pre-purge period has elapsed before a source of ignition is energized.
(b) The timer is to be sealed or locked to prevent unauthorized or accidental change of
setting and the minimum timer setting clearly displayed immediately adjacent to the
timer.
NOTES:
1 The timer may be an integral component of a flame safeguard unit.
2 The minimum purge period should also be displayed on the appliance data plate in accordance
with Clause 4.1.1(f).
2.19.5 Pre-purge interlocks
2.19.5.1 Purge flow proving device to be fitted
An appliance fitted with a mechanical means for pre-purging shall be fitted with a device
for proving adequate air flow during the pre-purge.
2.19.5.2 Self-check of purge flow proving device
The pre-purge shall be prevented from commencing unless the purge flow proving device is
proved in the no-flow state prior to start-up.
2.19.5.3 Purging to cease if purge flow fails
Failure of the purge flow at any time during the pre-purge period shall cause the purge flow
proving device to abort the pre-purge until the correct flow is re-established.
2.19.5.4 Pre-purge to reset when purge flow is re-established
When correct flow is re-established, the pre-purge cycle shall recommence from its start
point.
2.19.5.5 Proof of operation of zone circulation fans in appliances.
Where a mechanical pre-purge is reliant on the proof of operation of zone circulation fans,
the proof of air flow for purge for the appliance shall be by a self-checking air flow proving
device in the appliance exhaust flow or the appliance fresh air inlet supply flow; and
(a) a self-checking air flow proving device shall be fitted to each of the recirculation
fans, or
(b) where a rotation sensor is used to prove the operation of the recirculation fans, it shall
be fitted to sense the rotation of the fan impeller directly and be self-checking.
NOTE: The use of centrifugal switches to prove the rotation is not an acceptable means of
proving air flow.

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41 AS 38142009

2.20 PROCESS CONTROLS


2.20.1 Requirements where appliance safety depends on process
Where safety or correct operation of an appliance is dependent on the correct operation of a
process, interlocks shall
(a) prevent the gas-firing equipment from operating until the process equipment is
operating correctly; and
(b) initiate a safety shutdown in the event of a process malfunction.
2.20.2 Process limit device to cause lockout
The operation of a process limit device that shuts down gas-fired equipment shall cause
lockout of the gas supply to the gas-fired equipment.
2.20.3 Requirements where appliance safety and operation depend on flow
Where the safe or correct operation of the gas-firing equipment is dependent on flow, flow-
proving device(s) shall be fitted to cause lockout or prevent an ignition attempt if
(a) the device is not proven in the no-flow state prior to the flow commencing; and
(b) loss of flow occurs during operation.
NOTE: Where an electrical device creating flow is energized through contactors, safety
shutdown should be initiated in the event of the contactors opening.
2.20.4 Provision of over temperature protection on recirculation fans
Where the proof of operation of a recirculation fan is provided by the use of a rotary sensor,
over temperature protection shall be provided. Protection shall be installed such that it
adequately detects the loss or reduction of flow through the recirculation fan.

2.21 IGNITION SYSTEMS


2.21.1 Ignition to be safe, reliable and smooth
The ignition of main and pilot burners, regardless of the method used, shall be safe, reliable
and smooth under all operating conditions.
2.21.2 Manual ignition systems
2.21.2.1 Requirements for a manually-inserted gas torch
A manually-inserted gas lighting torch shall be connected by means of a hose assembly
that
(a) complies with AS/NZS 1869;
(b) is of the minimum practicable length for the application but does not exceed 3 m; and
(c) has a certified manual isolating valve, immediately upstream of the hose assembly.
2.21.2.2 Point of ignition to be accessible
The point of ignition of a manually-ignited burner shall be readily accessible while the
appropriate gas controls are being operated.
2.21.2.3 Explosion relief to be provided for a manually-ignited burner
Where a manually-ignited burner fires into an enclosure in which an explosive
accumulation of gas can occur, the enclosure shall have a fixed area for explosion relief in
accordance with the requirements of AS 1375.

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AS 38142009 42

2.22 PILOT BURNERS


2.22.1 Requirements for a pilot burner with a single main burner
Where a pilot burner is fitted it shall be stable, supervised and provide the ignition energy
necessary to
(a) immediately ignite the main burner safely and reliably under all operating conditions;
and
(b) ignite the main burner safely and reliably when the pilot burner is turned down to the
point where it will just actuate the flame safeguard system.
WARNING: IN ORDER TO PROVE THIS REQUIREMENT, IT MAY BE
NECESSARY TO CARRY OUT A PILOT TURNDOWN TEST. THIS TEST
HOWEVER, SHOULD ONLY BE CARRIED OUT BY EXPERIENCED
PERSONNEL USING EXTREME CAUTION.
2.22.2 Requirements for supervised pilot burners with multiple main burners
Where multiple burners are operated as a unit, a sufficient number of supervised pilots shall
be used to accomplish safe and reliable ignition.
2.22.3 Flames to travel freely to all ports of a multi-port pilot
Flames shall travel freely to all burner ports of a multi-port pilot when gas is ignited at any
one port.
2.22.4 Bleed lines not to affect ignition of main burner
The location of a bleed line shall not affect the operation of a pilot burner in providing main
burner ignition.
2.22.5 Protection from blockage
A port or injector of a pilot burner that may be exposed to falling particles during normal
operation shall be protected against blockage.

2.23 MAIN BURNERS


2.23.1 Ignition to be in combustion chamber
Ignition of the main burners shall occur totally within any combustion chamber provided.
2.23.2 Main burners subdivided into zones or sections
A main burner assembly that is subdivided into sections or zones shall
(a) be installed so that gas is supplied to the main burner section closest to the supervised
pilot first;
(b) sequence the adjacent burners so that they ignite safely and reliably from each other;
(c) where in excess of 1 GJ/h, be supervised at the end or ends of the burner assembly
furthest from the source of ignition; and
(d) where the length of a (main burner) line burner, or pipe burner exceeds 1.5 m, have
the sensing of the main flame at the furthest end from the source of ignition.
2.23.3 Requirements for a burner that can be retracted or swivelled
A burner(s), with the exception of a hand held torch or lighting torch, that can be retracted
or swivelled from the operating position without the use of tools shall have a reliable means
of preventing
(a) inadvertent movement from the operating position;
(b) an unsafe leakage of gas if the supply is disconnected; and

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43 AS 38142009

(c) start-up or continued operation in other than the operating position.


2.23.4 Requirements for cross-ignition
Where cross lighting is necessary to accomplish satisfactory ignition, more than one series
of cross-ignition ports shall be used.
Other methods that ensure satisfactory cross-ignition may be acceptable to the technical
regulator.
2.23.5 Protection from blockage
A port or injector of a main burner that may be exposed to falling particles during normal
operation shall be protected against blockage.

2.24 FLAME SAFEGUARD SYSTEMS


2.24.1 Requirements for a flame safeguard system
A flame safeguard system shall incorporate a certified flame safeguard that complies with
(a) AS 4620 for thermoelectric types;
(b) AS 4625 for electronic types; or
(c) an approved equivalent standard.
2.24.2 Flame safeguard system to be fitted
Each burner shall have a flame safeguard system fitted as an integral part of the burner
system, except where any of the following apply:
(a) A manually-ignited burner of up to 500 MJ/h (140 kW) is firing into an open area or
open combustion chamber and a flame abnormality or flame failure is obvious to the
operator so that remedial action can be taken.
(b) Except as required by Clause 2.24.9 the burner ignites smoothly and reliably under all
operating conditions from another burner that is fitted with a flame safeguard system
and the unsupervised burner cannot be operated unless the supervised burner is
already operating.
(c) The appliance is in continuous operation and
(i) is manually ignited and supervised, in an approved manner, until a temperature
in excess of 750C is reached after annual shutdown or any unplanned outage;
(ii) the combustion chamber surfaces operate continuously at a temperature in
excess of 750C; and
(iii) the heat retention of the combustion chamber surfaces is such that the time
taken for the surfaces to cool to a temperature of 750C is in excess of 1 h.
2.24.3 Flame safeguard to comply with classification
A flame safeguard system shall comply with Table 2.4.
2.24.4 Maximum hold-time for a thermoelectric flame safeguard
The magnetic valve of a thermoelectric flame safeguard shall hold open within 60 s of
igniting the operating flame.

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AS 38142009 44

TABLE 2.4
FLAME SAFEGUARD CLASSIFICATION
Flame safeguard classification

Appliance Burner input (To meet AS 4620, AS 4624 or AS 4625 as required)


burner type MJ/h
1A 2A 2B 2Ca 2Cb 1D 2D 3D Thermo-
electric
0 to 200 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y1 Y1 Y2
0 to 500 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y1 Y1 Y2
500 to 1000 Y Y Y Y Y Y1 Y1 Y3
Atmospheric
1000 to 5000 Y Y Y Y Y1 Y1
5000 to 20000 Y Y Y Y1 Y1
Over 20000 Y Y
0 to 2000 Y Y Y Y Y1 Y1
Forced or
induced 2000 to 20000 Y Y Y Y1 Y1
draught
Over 20000 Y Y
LEGEND:
Y = May be used for this application.
Y1 = Programming functions required from an external source.
Y2 = 45 s flame failure response time.
Y3 = 15 s flame failure response time.
NOTES:
1 The following explanation of the classification of electronic flame safeguards applying to the table has been
taken from AS 4625:
(a) Class 1Has a safe start check and a continual self-check of the flame safeguard and flame detector.
(b) Class 2Has a safe start check of the flame safeguard and flame detector.
(c) Class 3Has no safe start check or continual self-check of the flame safeguard or flame detector.
2 Five further sub-divisions apply to Class 1 and 2 as follows:
(a) A Programming without reignitionrigorous timings.
(b) B Programming without reignitionless rigorous timings (greater than 5 seconds (safety time) or
main flame establishment period).
(c) Ca Programming with reignitionrigorous timings.
(d) Cb Programming with reignitionless rigorous timings (greater than 5 seconds (safety time) or
main flame establishment period.
(e) D Non-programming.
Class 3 flame safeguards are limited to Type D, non-programming.
3 Unless otherwise recommended by the flame safeguard manufacturer, all non-continuous self-checking flame
safeguards operating on a continuous or permanent basis should undergo a controlled shutdown at least once
every 24 h.
4 Additional information to assist users in the selection of a unit appropriate for the application is provided in
Appendix D.

2.24.5 Maximum shut off time following flame failure


The flame safeguard system response time shall not exceed
(a) 45 s, where
(i) a main atmospheric burner(s) is used, which is either manually-ignited or fitted
with a manually-ignited permanent pilot(s); and
(ii) the total input to the combustion chamber or connected combustion chambers
does not exceed 500 MJ/h (140 kW).

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45 AS 38142009

(b) 15 s, where
(i) a main atmospheric burner(s) is used, which is either manually-ignited or fitted
with a manually-ignited permanent pilot(s); and
(ii) the total input to the combustion chamber or connected combustion chambers
where the burner(s) are fitted exceeds 500 MJ/h (140 kW), but does not exceed
1 GJ/h (275 kW);
(c) 3 s, where (a) and (b) do not apply.
2.24.6 Requirements for a flame detector
A flame detector shall be accessible and be certified to
(a) meet the requirements of AS 4625 for the electronic type;
(b) meet the requirements of AS 4620 for the thermoelectric type; or
(c) an approved equivalent Standard.
2.24.7 Flame simulation to be prevented
Flame simulation in a flame detector shall be prevented.
2.24.8 Detector not to detect other flame
A flame detector shall not detect any flame other than the one it is supervising except that
the pilot flame detector required by Clause 2.24.10 may detect the main flame served by
that pilot.
2.24.9 Requirements for a pilot used on atmospheric burner(s) exceeding 1 GJ/h
(275 kW), or forced or induced draught burner(s)
Where an intermittent or permanent pilot is used on atmospheric burner(s) exceeding 1 GJ/h
(275 kW), forced or induced draught burner(s), either two electronic flame safeguard
systems or two electronic flame detectors connected to one flame safeguard system shall be
used.
2.24.10 Detectors to supervise separate flames
Where an intermittent or permanent pilot is used on atmospheric burner(s) exceeding 1 GJ/h
(275 kW), forced or induced draught burner(s), the flame detector(s) required by
Clause 2.24.9 shall be fitted so that one will supervise the pilot and the other will supervise
the main flame.
2.24.11 Requirements for two flame detectors used with one flame safeguard device
or system
Where two flame detectors are used in conjunction with one flame safeguard system
(a) the safe start check shall ensure that both flame detectors are in the no flame position
prior to start-up;
(b) the safe start check on the main burner flame detector shall continue on through the
pilot flame ignition sequence; and
(c) the loss of flame signal from either flame detector shall cause lockout of the
associated pilot and main burner.
NOTE: It is recommended that a proprietary flame safeguard system that performs the required
functions without alteration be used.
2.24.12 Detector to ensure cross lighting is complete
Where cross lighting is necessary to accomplish satisfactory ignition of supervised burners,
the flame detector(s) shall be positioned to ensure cross lighting is completed within the
flame establishment period.

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AS 38142009 46

2.24.13 Requirements for flame safeguards incorporating hot surface igniters


Where the ignition of the main burner is achieved by the use of a hot surface igniter, the
following conditions shall be met:
(a) The main burner trial for ignition shall not exceed 5 seconds.
(b) The energy released during the ignition period shall comply with Clause 3.2.3.1, or
explosion relief be fitted in accordance with AS 1375.
(c) In the case of an atmospheric burner, primary and secondary air openings of not less
than 0.2 m 2/m 3 of the combustion chamber volume shall be provided.
In the case of the main burner configuration, the valve train shall comply with
Clause 2.14.3.

2.25 BLEED LINES


2.25.1 General requirements for a bleed line termination
Except as permitted in Clause 2.25.2, a bleed line shall be vented to outside atmosphere and
comply with the requirements of AS 5601 for vent lines.
2.25.2 Terminating bleed lines in a combustion chamber
2.25.2.1 Combustion chamber to have a supervised burner
A combustion chamber in which a bleed line terminates shall have a supervised burner so
that
(a) the supervised burner is alight whenever the bleed line can discharge gas; and
(b) the bleed gas is ignited by the supervised burner.
2.25.2.2 Bleed line requirements
A bleed line that terminates in a combustion chamber shall
(a) originate downstream of a safety shut off valve;
(b) be metallic;
(c) have an internal diameter not less than 4 mm and a nominal wall thickness not less
than 0.8 mm;
(d) have a suitable burner tip;
(e) not be used to provide the ignition source for any burner; and
(f) not interfere with the main burner ignition from the pilot.
2.25.2.3 Bleed line termination to be protected against blockage
The termination of a bleed line that may be exposed to falling particles during normal
operation shall be protected against blockage.

2.26 APPLIANCE/BURNER CONTROL CIRCUITS


2.26.1 Requirements of control circuits
Control circuits shall be designed so that
(a) failure of a single component cannot cause a hazardous condition; and

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47 AS 38142009

(b) where programmable electronic system (PES) control circuitry is used for a burner
management system, then its performance under fault conditions shall at least match
that achieved by conventional technology. Any single failure, or any dormant
condition followed by another single failure, shall be protected against, so that critical
timings and sequence operations remain safe. This applies right through the electronic
system, from the CPU, memory, etc., through to output devices. The safe state is
complete burner shutdown with lockout.
NOTE: Control circuits should be designed to facilitate the detection of fault conditions; e.g. by
means of fault indicating lights.
2.26.2 Gas-actuated controls
Gas-actuated controls shall be of a type where there is no continuous bleed during the off
period.
2.26.3 Requirements for a programmable electronic system (PES)
A Programmable Electronic System (PES) shall not be installed or modified without
notifying the technical regulator. This excludes components certified in accordance with the
requirements of this Standard.
A PES on a Type B appliance shall comply with all the following requirements:
(a) All systems that perform safety-related functions shall be hard-wired directly to the
PES inputs or outputs.
(b) If a PES controller (logic solver and its associated I/O module) is used to perform
safety-related functions
(i) it shall be a safety-related PES controller and possess a safety certificate from a
certification body e.g. TV, to the appropriate safety integrity level (SIL) of
AS 61508; or
(ii) where a customer/contractor insists on using a non-safety-related PES
controller to perform safety-related functions the safety-integrity of the PES
controller shall be independently verified, to the required SIL, by an
appropriate institution.
(c) The following shall be submitted to the technical regulator:
(i) A relevant flow sheet written in plain English containing the description of
events to occur within the PES. (Typically this would be done prior to writing
the PES program).
(ii) The relevant parts (only) of the PES program.
(iii) The hard-wired electrical schematic diagram clearly indicating connection to
the PES.
(iv) A copy of the safety certificate together with the documentation, on any
restrictions applying to that PES controller.
(v) The hazard risk SIL analysis conducted on the appliance in accordance with
AS 61508 or AS IEC 61511. This analysis shall indicate the identified hazards,
risks, safety functions identified and their SIL requirements.
(vi) The SIL validation calculations to confirm the safety instrument system (SIS)
meeting the required SIL. These calculations shall take into account all
equipment involved in performing the safety functions, including but not
limited to sensing elements, logic solver, I/O modules and final control
elements.

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AS 38142009 48

Like computer programs, the only true way of assessing a PES user-program to ensure that
it functions the way it was designed, is to test run the program. It is not possible to inspect a
PES program in its entirety by visual examination and conclude that the program does what
it is required to do under all possible operating situations. In order to ensure the integrity of
the PES user software, the person/company who designed the system shall have an
appropriate quality system, and shall have adhered to the principles outlined in AS 61508.
The designer responsible for the development of the program shall test-run the program by
simulating the inputs, and prove that the outputs occur at the right time and duration.
NOTES:
1 A signed written statement to that effect may be required by the technical regulator (see
Appendix E for a sample of the statement).
The term PES extends to and includes all elements in the system such as
(a) sensors and/or other input devices;
(b) data links and/or other communication paths; and
(c) actuators and/or other output devices.
2 The term PES includes system software, such as executive, users and communication, that is
configured to operate a process.
3 The term PES is used to cover systems incorporating a wide range of programmable
electronic devices and includes systems incorporating
(a) microprocessors;
(b) programmable controllers (PCs);
(c) programmable logic controllers (PLCs);
(d) programmable state controllers;
(e) other computer based devices.
4 A PES can include a microprocessor-based temperature, pressure, gas/air ratio or level
controller or monitor.
5 Provision of back-up hard-wired hardware safety systems can be used to reduce PES system
SIL requirements as determined by the SIL analysis of the overall safety system.

2.27 GAS/AIR RATIO CONTROL


2.27.1 General requirements
Systems that are designed to control the throughput and the gas/air ratio shall be sized so as
to perform satisfactorily under all normal operating conditions.
NOTE: Satisfactory performance means compliance with Clause 3.6.1.
The gas/air ratio system shall be of fail-safe design.
NOTE: Correctly designed systems utilizing manually linked valves with pinned and locked
linkages, zero governor regulating systems and ratio regulators are often considered to provide
suitable levels of safety.
Where the gas/air ratio system is to be undertaken by a PES, the system shall be designed to
meet the SIL requirements as determined in accordance with Clause 2.26.3.
The effects of gravity, vibration, etc., on the throughput or ratio control valves shall not
move them from the set position so as to cause an unsafe condition.
Means shall be provided to adjust and lock the air and gas rate settings.
NOTE: This can be in the form of password protection or physical means.
Electronic gas/air ratio control system shall be designed so that when the air and gas rate
are controlled automatically using electrically, mechanically or pneumatically linked valves
or flow rate metering/proportioning, control and feedback is provided as per Figure 2.5 and
Table 2.5.

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FIGURE 2.5 EXAMPLE OF A GAS/AIR RATIO CONTROL CONFIGURATION

TABLE 2.5
ACCEPTABLE FEEDBACK TYPES

Feedback Output feedback


Actuator Device
Position * Speed Flow or P Pressure

Valve X X X
For air
Fan X X X
Valve X X X
For fuel
Pressure regulator X X
At least 2 feedbacks (1 gas, 1 air) required
* A feedback signal that is directly related to the mechanical part of the actuator.
If a fan speed signal is used as means to control the air flow, proof of air flow may not rely on fan rotation
alone. A possible additional signal can be derived from an independent air-proving device checked at least
during start up.
Actuator feedbacks can also be the following from the process:
Ratio of the actual fuel/air mixture.
Ratio signal from the flame.
Signal from the flue gas.
NOTE: In cases where more than one means of control is provided for a stream, additional feedbacks are
required for those additional elements. For example, combined speed control and damper control on air
flow will require speed and position feedback to be incorporated.

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AS 38142009 50

2.27.2 Interference with interlocks


The gas/air throughput controls shall not be positioned so as to affect any low pressure cut-
off system under all normal operating conditions.
NOTE: This means that the location of the control elements is such that the sensing of air and gas
flow for interlocking purposes are not rendered ineffective.
2.27.3 Variation in control settings and control response
Gas/air ratio and throughput controls shall not deviate so significantly from any set position
as to give rise to unsatisfactory combustion (i.e. not complying with Clause 3.6.1).
NOTES:
1 This deviation can occur, for example, during start-up, load changes, introduction of
additional burners, shut-down of burners or flame failure of burners.
2 For multiple burner systems, it may be necessary to provide additional controls or equipment
to prevent unsatisfactory combustion.
The gas/air ratio control system speed and response shall be suitable to prevent air fuel ratio
deviations that give rise to unsatisfactory combustion.
2.27.4 Preheated combustion air control
Where pre-heated combustion air supplies are used, the gas/air ratio controls shall prevent
unsatisfactory combustion during changes in combustion air temperature.
2.27.5 Requirements for independent gas and air control elements
Where gas/air throughput control valves are not physically linked and the operation is not
simultaneous, the air and gas control system shall be designed and installed to ensure that
during firing rate increase or decrease, satisfactory combustion is maintained.
Independently controlled gas/air ratio control systems shall be configured so that there shall
be air lead on increasing firing rate and fuel lead on decreasing firing rate.
NOTE: This does not prohibit the use of purpose-designed burners intended to operate under fuel
rich conditions. Such systems must have specialized overall design features to ensure safe
operating conditions at all times and throughout the appliance. Excess combustibles shall be
removed before the discharge of the flue gases to atmosphere.
2.27.6 Special requirements for PES based gas/air ratio control system
Electronic gas/air ratio systems that are not certified to EN 298 or are part of a non-safety
PES must be provided with independent limit device(s) to cause lockout in the event of a
failure of the gas/air control, or before hazardous conditions occur. The response speed of
the limit device(s) shall be fast enough to shut the system down before hazardous
conditions occur. Consideration should be given to sounding an alarm before this point.
Where the limit device(s) are part of a safety PES, the SIL of the gas/air protection loop
will depend on the application and shall be determined in accordance with AS 61508 or
AS IEC 61511.
Appendix F contains a means to comply with the requirements of this Clause. Alternative
configurations may be acceptable to the technical regulator.
NOTE: During system design it is important to consider the effect of sudden reductions of airflow
to firing burners when opening air registers on the burners prior to bringing them into service.
This problem occurs, for example, with multiple burners supplied from common fans and
common windboxes. In such cases, special consideration of the light off and flame failure
conditions needs to be taken into account.
2.27.7 Additional requirements for pneumatically controlled gas/air ratio
All weep lines, bleed holes and vent lines shall be designed and installed to minimize the
likelihood of blockage by dust, dirt and other such contaminants.

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51 AS 38142009

2.27.8 Gas/air ratio controls incorporating variable speed drive systems


Where a gas air ratio control uses a variable speed drive (VSD) for the regulation of
combustion air flow, the gas air ratio control system shall incorporate a sensor that is
separate to the VSD to provide feedback to the gas air ratio controller and an air flow
proving device that senses not less than 25% of the maximum air rate for the burner during
pre-purge in accordance with Clause 2.19.2.2.
NOTE: This does not apply to gas turbines.
2.27.9 Use of oxygen sensing probes
Where heated oxygen sensing probes are used to control the gas/air ratio of a burner, they
shall not act as a source of ignition during the purge period.
NOTE: Guidance on meeting this requirement is provided in Appendix F.

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AS 38142009 52

SECT ION 3 OPERAT I O N

3.1 APPLIANCE OPERATION DETAILS


Appliance operation shall be consistent with details displayed on the appliance data plate
(refer to Section 4.1).

3.2 IGNITION
3.2.1 Starting sequence interlocks before starting burner ignition source
Where interlocks are required by this Standard, or are fitted, they shall ensure that burner
ignition is not initiated until
(a) power supply is available (if required);
(b) any damper fitted for combustion air or flue gas control is in the correct position;
(c) the pre-purge cycle has been completed;
(d) any leakage detection cycle has been satisfactorily completed;
(e) the combustion air sensor is checked and proved; and
(f) all applicable limit devices are in the operational position.
NOTE: Limit devices may include one or more of the following:
(a) Low liquid level.
(b) Excess pressure.
(c) Excess temperature.
(d) High gas pressure.
(e) Low gas pressure.
(f) Essential process limits.
(g) the flame detection system has undergone a safe-start check.
(h) a purge sequence according to the requirements of this standard has been carried out.
3.2.2 Ignition sequence
3.2.2.1 Commencement of ignition
Where a pre-purge period is required by this Standard, the ignition spark or other means of
ignition shall commence immediately after the pre-purge period is completed, unless an air
flow is maintained up to ignition to ensure a safe level of dilution of any combustibles that
may be present.
3.2.2.2 Completion of ignition
The ignition spark or other means of ignition shall cease at the end of the start gas flame
establishment period.
NOTE: This requirement is not applicable to gas turbines due to the need to ensure the gas
turbine has a stable flame during starting to achieve self sustaining speed.
3.2.2.3 Start gas flame establishment period
The start gas flame establishment period for a burner with an automatic ignition system
shall not exceed 15 s for a pilot on an atmospheric burner where the pilot gas rate does not
exceed the lesser of:
(a) 1% of the main burner gas rate; or
(b) 5 MJ/h.

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53 AS 38142009

For all other cases, the flame establishment period shall not exceed
(i) 5 s; or
(ii) a value shown to be less than 70% of the appliance critical time demonstrated by
detailed calculations of the system critical time in accordance with AS 1375
Appendix D.
3.2.3 Start gas rate
3.2.3.1 Start gas rate not to exceed determined values
Except for a direct-fired air heater, the start gas rate shall not exceed the value determined
by one of the following methods
(a) throughout the start gas flame establishment period, the gas concentration in relation
to the proven air flow rate for that period is not to exceed the percentages of the lower
explosive limit (% of LEL) as detailed in Table 3.1, provided that
(i) the gases during the start gas flame establishment period are thoroughly mixed
with the air flow except in the immediate vicinity of the burner; and
(ii) the pre-heated air temperature does not exceed 400C; or
NOTES:
1 The gas concentration needs to be within the flammability limits at the burner head to
ensure ignition but must be diluted rapidly to the levels specified to ensure that the
mixture elsewhere in the combustion chamber could not be ignited inadvertently.
2 Typical values of LEL for common gases are summarized in Table 3.2.
(b) the energy released during the start gas flame establishment period does not exceed
35 kJ per cubic metre of combustion chamber volume; or
(c) a start gas rate calculation in accordance with AS 1375.
NOTE: For direct-fired air heaters refer to Clause 5.7.6.

TABLE 3.1
PERCENTAGE OF LOWER EXPLOSIVE
LIMIT VALUES (LEL) TO MEET CLAUSE 3.2.3.1(a)
% of % of % % O2 % CO2
Type of gas
LEL stoichiometric excess air in flue in flue
Natural 50 24 310 16.2 2.7

Town 50 14 600 18.2 1.6

Propane 25 13 690 18.5 1.6

Butane 25 14 610 18.3 1.8

TLP (26% LP Gas) 25 11 790 18.5 1.6

SNG (55% LP Gas) 25 12 720 18.5 1.6

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AS 38142009 54

TABLE 3.2
LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT VALUES (LEL)
FOR SELECTED GASES
Type of gas LEL % gas in mix Stoichiometric ratio
Natural 5.00 9.55:1

Town 6.00 4.63:1

Propane 2.20 22.80:1

Butane 1.80 30.97:1

TLP (26% LP Gas) 8.46 5.19:1

SNG (55% LP Gas) 4.00 12.09:1

3.3 MAIN BURNERS


3.3.1 Start flame proving period
Where a flame safeguard system is fitted, gas shall not flow to the main burner or burner
unit until
(a) for an atmospheric burner, the start flame has been proved; or
(b) for a forced or induced draught burner, the start flame has been proved for at least 5 s
immediately following the start gas flame establishment period.
3.3.2 Main flame establishment period
Where a burner is fitted with a flame safeguard and either
(a) an interrupted pilot is fitted; or
(b) an intermittent or permanent pilot is fitted to a forced or induced draught burner or an
atmospheric burner exceeding 1 GJ/h (275 kW). The main flame establishment period
shall be
(i) not less than 2 s; and
(ii) not more than 5 s or, for special applications, not more than a value shown to be
less than 70% of the appliance critical time demonstrated by detailed
calculations of the system critical time in accordance with AS 1375
Appendix D.
3.3.3 Main burner supervision
3.3.3.1 Interrupted pilot
Where a burner is fitted with a flame safeguard and an interrupted pilot, the pilot shall be
turned off at the end of the main flame establishment period, to ensure supervision of the
main flame alone occurs.
3.3.3.2 Intermittent or permanent pilot with a forced or induced draught burner or
atmospheric burner exceeding 1GJ/h (275kW)
Where a forced or induced draught burner, or atmospheric burner exceeding 1 GJ/h
(275 kW), is fitted with a flame safeguard and an intermittent or permanent pilot,
independent supervision of the main burner as required by Clause 2.24.10 shall commence
at the end of the main flame establishment period.

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3.3.4 Main burner to start at reduced rate


Where the total input into a combustion chamber exceeds 5 GJ/h (1.4 MW), either
(a) the main burner(s) shall be designed to start at a rate not exceeding one-third of the
maximum consumption of each burner firing into the combustion chamber; or
(b) where a higher start rate is required, a main burner start gas rate calculation shall be
done in accordance with Clause 3.2.3 or be limited such that the maximum pressure
rise from a delayed ignition shall not cause unacceptable damage to the plant or
injury to personnel.

3.4 INTERLOCKS AND LIMIT DEVICES


3.4.1 Interlocks and limit devices not to be rendered ineffective
No means shall be provided for an interlock or limit device to be rendered ineffective
except as part of an approved automatic programmed checking cycle.
3.4.1.1 Where an interlock is to be fitted
An interlock shall be fitted where its absence would create a hazard to personnel or damage
to equipment.
3.4.1.2 Interlock to be tested
All interlocks and limit devices shall be tested on the commissioning of equipment, to
confirm that they satisfy design and functional requirements.
An interlock and limit device should also be tested periodically over the life of equipment
with which it is associated. Refer to Appendix G for maintenance schedule.
It is not acceptable to disable a single safety interlock to enable testing or maintenance
while the system is still in operation.
In some continuous applications such as petrochemical or process industries where shutting
down the system to test interlocks is undesirable, consideration should be given to
duplicating interlocks and engineering the system to enable safe testing of one sensor, while
the others are on line.
3.4.1.3 Requirements for an interlock
An interlock shall
(a) operate before an unsafe condition occurs;
(b) prevent unsafe operation on interruption and restoration of the interlock power
supply;
(c) prevent starting any portion of the process until safe conditions are re-established;
and
(d) not be readily defeated.
NOTES:
1 Where an interlock disables equipment, the disabling action should
(a) affect the least equipment;
(b) take place in the safest manner possible; and
(c) activate an alarm, either visual and/or audible to attract the attention of the operator.
2 Where an interlock disables equipment, fault detection should be facilitated by means that
will readily indicate the fault; e.g. fault indicating light(s).

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AS 38142009 56

3.4.2 Limit devices


3.4.2.1 Limit device to be fitted
A limit device(s) shall be fitted where failure of operating controls would cause a hazardous
condition.
3.4.2.2 Limit device not to be an operating control
A limit device shall not be used as an operating control.
For limit devices that are part of a PES-based safety system, the requirements of AS 61508
or AS IEC 61511 shall apply.
3.4.2.3 Requirements for a limit device
A limit device shall
(a) be fitted in compliance with Clauses 2.1 and 2.2;
(b) be fitted so that its correct operating position is readily determined by observation or
testing;
(c) be locked or sealed unless, when set within its adjustment range, it functions before a
hazardous condition is reached;
NOTE: An example of when sealing would not be required would be a high temperature limit
device that has a range of 150-200C but where a hazardous condition does not occur until
210C is reached.
(d) when actuated, cause lockout;
(e) not allow start-up until the fault that caused the limit device to actuate has been
cleared; and
(f) be fail-safe in design and installation. For example, switches shall be wired so that
open circuit causes shutdown and temperature limit devices shall be configured so
that a broken thermocouple or senor causes shutdown.

3.5 OPERATION SEQUENCES


3.5.1 Ignition sequence after power interruption
Where interruption of a main power supply causes burner shutdown, ignition and reignition
of the burner(s) after resumption of power shall be prevented except where
(a) a complete restart cycle, including pre-purge period, is initiated; and
(b) there are sufficient interlocks to allow safe ignition.
3.5.2 Programmed sequence for automatic or part automatic burner
The programming system used for an automatic or part automatic burner, shall provide the
following operation sequence:
(a) With the exception of thermoelectric types, carry out a self-check of integral circuitry
to prove that the system is not in the flame proved condition prior to start-up.
(b) A self-check of the air flowing proving device(s), where provided, in accordance with
Clause 2.17.3 and Clause 2.19.5.2.
(c) A check of the starting sequence interlocks in accordance with Clause 3.2.1.
(d) A pre-purge in accordance with Clause 2.19.1.2.
(e) Provision of a source of ignition immediately after the pre-purge cycle in accordance
with Clause 3.2.2.1.
(f) A start gas flame establishment period that complies with Clause 3.2.2.3.

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(g) Cessation of the source of ignition at the end of the start gas flame establishment
period in accordance with Clause 3.2.2.2.
(h) A start gas flame proving period in accordance with Clause 3.3.1.
(i) A main flame establishment period in accordance with Clause 3.3.2.
(j) Continuous monitoring during operation.
NOTE: A typical operating sequence for a forced or induced draught burner with interrupted pilot
is given in Appendix H.
3.5.3 Appliance to be left in safe condition
Shutdown of an appliance, regardless of the cause of shutdown, shall leave the appliance
and its associated equipment in a safe condition.
3.5.4 Requirement for lockout on flame failure
Flame failure at the point of supervision shall
(a) result in lockout of the relevant burner system;
(b) result in lockout of all burners, where two or more burners are served by a common
valve train; or
(c) meet the requirements of Clause 3.5.5.
3.5.5 Reignition attempt on flame failure
3.5.5.1 Requirements for forced or induced draught burners
For a forced or induced draught burner, one reignition attempt after flame failure at the
point of supervision may be made provided
(a) the initial flame failure resulted in a safety shutdown;
(b) a full restart cycle including any pre-purge is carried out;
(c) the total energy released during the period commencing at flame failure and ending at
cessation of the reignition attempt (i.e. main burner shutdown time plus start gas
establishment time) does not exceed the energy release permitted by Clause 3.2.3.1;
and
(d) failure of the burner to reignite shall result in lockout.
3.5.5.2 Requirements for atmospheric burners
For an atmospheric burner, one reignition attempt after flame failure at the point of
supervision may be made provided
(a) the main burner input does not exceed 1 GJ/h (275 kW);
(b) the total energy released during the period commencing at flame failure, and ending
at the cessation of the reignition attempt, (i.e. main burner shutdown time plus start
gas reignition time) does not exceed the energy release permitted by Clause 3.2.3.1;
and
(c) failure of the burner to reignite results in lockout, and any further ignition attempt
incorporates a pre-purge period in accordance with Clause 2.19.3.2.

3.6 COMBUSTION CONDITIONS


3.6.1 Burners to maintain satisfactory combustion conditions
All burners shall maintain satisfactory combustion under all operating conditions by
ensuring that
(a) ignition is smooth and reliable;

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AS 38142009 58

(b) combustion is completed within the combustion chamber;


(c) excessive combustion noise and vibration is avoided on start-up, during operation and
on shutdown;
(d) flames are stable, showing no flame abnormality;
(e) combustion products leaving the appliance are free of carbon particles;
(f) the CO concentration in the combustion products does not exceed 400 ppm for a flued
appliance across the normal operating range unless the process requires a special
atmosphere;
NOTE: For special appliances, e.g. gas-fired turbines, that operate at very high excess air
levels, it may not be practical to meet the CO levels required in (f). Such appliances may
require the approval of the technical regulator.
(g) the CO/CO 2 ratio in the combustion products does not exceed 0.02 for an open flued
appliance across the normal operating range unless the process requires a special
atmosphere; and
(h) the CO concentration in the combustion products meets the requirements of
Clause 5.7.7.1 for an indoor flueless appliance.
3.6.2 Leakage of combustion products to be prevented
Leakage or spillage of combustion products from the appliance, other than through the flue
terminal, shall be minimized under all operating conditions.
NOTE: Minor spillage during loading or similar operations may be permissible provided no
hazard results.

3.7 COMMISSIONING
3.7.1 Commissioning checks to be carried out
Before an appliance is placed into service, a systematic check shall be carried out to prove
that the following items are installed and function correctly, and operate in the proper
sequence:
(a) Each item of equipment in a gas valve train and burner;
(b) All controls;
(c) All limit devices;
(d) All interlocks;
(e) Flame safeguard systems; and
(f) Safety shut off systems.
NOTES:
1 Steam and hot water boilers should be issued with a Certificate of Inspection of Boiler, as
required by the appropriate authority, before the appliance is placed into service.
2 Refer to Appendix I for a typical commissioning procedure.

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59 AS 38142009

SECT ION 4 MARK I NG S AND I NST RUCT IONS

4.1 MARKINGS
4.1.1 Markings to be displayed
All appliances shall have clear, permanent markings that are readily accessible and easy to
read when the appliance is installed. These markings are to include
(a) manufacturers name;
(b) model identification;
(c) nominal gas consumption (MJ/h);
(d) gas type;
(e) maximum and minimum gas supply pressures (kPa);
(f) purge times (min);
(g) gas pressure at the burner head, for the nominal gas consumption (kPa);
(h) combustion chamber volume (m 3 );
(i) maximum appliance design temperature (C);
(j) total volume swept by the combustion products in passing from the burner to the flue
connection (m 3);
(k) serial number;
(l) date of manufacture (dd/mm/yyyy);
(m) the purge volume for combustible atmospheres (m3) (where applicable);
NOTE: This includes, as a minimum, the combustion chamber volume, the volume of
recirculation ducts and exhaust (flue) ducts, and that portion of the work chamber in which
free circulation occurs, excluding the chimney.
(n) dilution air volume m 3/min at 20C (where applicable); and
(o) design solvent(s) type and maximum quantity (L/h) (where applicable).
NOTE: Units of measurement should comply with the SI system.
4.1.2 Marking of controls, dials and gauges
Any controls, dials and gauges fitted shall have clear, permanent markings.
NOTE: Units of measurement should comply with the SI system.
4.1.3 Controls with non-standard operation
Where the method of operation and direction of motion of manual controls does not comply
with accepted practice or any applicable regulations and standards, they shall be clearly
marked to indicate any variations.

4.2 INSTRUCTIONS
4.2.1 Written instructions to be provided
The manufacturer, designer or supplier of the gas-firing equipment or appliance shall
provide written instructions to enable safe and satisfactory installation, operation and
maintenance of the equipment. These should be provided in English as a minimum to the
owner-operator. These instructions are to include detailed procedures for
(a) start-up;

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AS 38142009 60

(b) normal operation;


(c) normal shutdown;
(d) emergency operation (where applicable);
(e) emergency shutdown; and
(f) maintenance and safety checks (see Appendix G).
4.2.2 Instructions for operation
Clear, concise and durable operating instructions shall be displayed adjacent to the
operating station.
4.2.3 Limits of safe operation to be specified
Where equipment has been designed to operate within the limits of a particular set of
operating conditions, sufficient information and instructions shall be included in the written
instructions to warn operators and others of the hazards of unsafe conditions if the
operating procedures are not followed or are altered. The operating procedures include all
operation functions, settings and parameters of the complete system.
NOTE: Modification or relocation of the appliance may require the approval of the technical
regulator. See Clause 1.2.5.

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61 AS 38142009

SECT ION 5 SPECI A L APP L I CAT I O N


R E Q U IRE M E N T S

5.1 GENERAL
The requirements of this Section are additional to all other requirements of this Standard
but shall take precedence in cases of conflict.

5.2 HIGH INPUT GAS-FIRED APPLIANCES


5.2.1 General
The requirements of Clauses 5.2.2 to 5.2.6 shall apply to appliances where the total gas
consumption of all burners firing into a single combustion chamber exceeds 20 GJ/h
(5.5 MW).
5.2.2 Start-up where multiple main burners are fitted
Where multiple main burners are fitted, appliance start-up shall be achieved by the
sequential start-up of individual burners, in a pre-determined order, compatible with the
appliance design.
5.2.3 Manual ignition where multiple main burners are fitted
Where an appliance is fitted with manually-ignited multiple main burners, the sequential
steps for ignition shall be clearly detailed in the operators instructions.
5.2.4 Automatic ignition where multiple main burners are fitted
Where multiple main burners are fitted with an automatic ignition system and the ignition
sequence is critical to the safe start-up of the appliance, an interlock shall be included to
ensure that the previous burner in the operating sequence is alight before any attempt to
ignite the next burner in the sequence is made.
5.2.5 Burner control
The burner controls shall ensure that no step change in gas rate to the appliance exceeds
one-third of the total gas consumption of the appliance.
NOTE: The use of a modulating control system is preferred. However, care should be taken to
ensure that the rate of change is not too fast.
5.2.6 Flame safeguards
All the following requirements shall apply to a high input gas-fired appliance that is
required by Clause 2.24.2 to have a flame safeguard fitted:
(a) Where a manual or automatic start-up of the appliance or burner(s) is not carried out
at least once in any 24 h period, a continuous self-checking flame safeguard (i.e.
Class 1A, in accordance with AS 4625) is to be fitted.
(b) Where a flame safeguard check is carried out by a manual shutdown and start-up,
specific reference to this is to be made in the operators instructions.
(c) Where more than one burner is monitored by a single safety shut off system,
individual ignition and flame detection is to be provided for each burner.
(d) Burners with a total gas consumption that exceeds 20 GJ/h shall have a continuous
self-checking flame safeguard (i.e. Class 1A, in accordance with AS 4625) fitted.

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AS 38142009 62

5.3 AIR-GAS MIXING MACHINES AND MIXING BLOWERS


5.3.1 General
An air-gas mixing machine or mixing blower shall be constructed and installed to ensure
that an internal explosion will not cause injury to personnel or damage to other equipment.
NOTE: The air supply to an air-gas mixing machine or a mixing blower should be filtered.
5.3.2 Materials
Materials shall be selected to prevent the generation of static electricity.
5.3.3 Strength of pipe and fittings
Pipes and fittings (except blow-out discs) supplied for an air-gas mixing machine or mixing
blower shall be designed to withstand a pressure of at least 800 kPa.
5.3.4 Safety shut off system to be fitted
A safety shut off system that complies with Clause 2.14 shall be fitted to the gas supply line
upstream of an air-gas mixing machine or mixing blower.
NOTE: The requirements of Clause 2.8.4 may also need to be considered.
5.3.5 Safety shut off system to cause lockout
The safety shut off system required by Clause 5.3.4 shall cause lockout when any of the
following apply:
(a) The air-gas mixing machine or mixing blower is stopped.
(b) The pressure at the gas inlet connection of the air-gas mixing machine or mixing
blower is 20% below the normal static supply pressure.
(c) The pressure at the gas inlet connection of the air-gas mixing machine or mixing
blower is below the pressure at which the air-gas mixing machine or mixing blower
will operate satisfactorily.
5.3.6 Air-gas ratio
5.3.6.1 Locking provision for air-gas ratio from a mixing machine
Except where air and gas flow rate indicators are fitted, air-gas mixing machines shall have
provision for positively locking the air-gas ratio adjustments.
5.3.6.2 Limiting provision for air-gas ratio from a mixing machine
A stop or other means shall be provided to effectively prevent air-gas mixing machines that
supply non-combustible mixtures from being adjusted to within or approaching the
combustible range.
5.3.6.3 Air-gas ratio from a mixing blower
The air-gas ratio from a mixing blower shall be automatically maintained within the
required limits over the entire turndown range.
5.3.7 Mixing blower outlets
Pipework connecting a burner(s) to a mixing blower shall
(a) not exceed 1 m; and
(b) contain no control or safety device.

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63 AS 38142009

5.3.8 Flashback requirements for air-gas mixing machines


Air-gas mixing machines supplying combustible mixtures shall have a blow-out disc in the
mixture line as close as practicable to the mixer except that, where the outlet connection of
the mixer is less than 65 NB or its equivalent, the blow-out disc may be replaced by a non-
return valve specially designed to withstand the reverse pressure created by a flashback.
5.3.9 Rupture of blow-out disc
The rupture of a blow-out disc shall:
(a) Not endanger personnel.
(b) Cause lockout of the gas supply to the mixing machine.
5.3.10 Flame arrestor between air-gas mixing machine and burner
A flame arrestor shall be installed as close as practicable to each burner supplied with a
combustible mixture from an air-gas mixing machine.
NOTES:
1 Detailed arrangements may be required by the technical regulator for approval.
2 The following details are supplied for guidance purposes using natural gas only. Where the
size of the pipe and fittings between the flame arrestor outlet and burner inlet is not greater
than the flame arrestor outlet connection then the total length of the connection should not
exceed
(a) 12 m where the size of the pipe and fittings is not greater than 65 NB; or
(b) 6 m where the size of the pipe and fittings is greater than 65 NB.
3 Burners with inlet connections less than 40 NB may be permitted to be grouped and supplied
through a common flame arrestor.
5.3.11 Flame arrestor at mixing machine
An air-gas mixing machine supplying a combustible mixture and having an outlet
connection equal to or greater than 65 NB or its equivalent shall have a flame arrestor fitted
in the mixture line as close as practicable to the mixing machine.
NOTE: A flame arrestor installed according to Clause 5.3.10 satisfies this requirement provided
the length between the mixing machine outlet and the burner inlet is in accordance with the notes
to Clause 5.3.10.
5.3.12 Flame arrestors
A flame arrestor fitted to an air-gas mixing machine shall incorporate a temperature
sensitive device, which, in the event of an increase in temperature due to the presence of a
flame, will activate to cause
(a) either
(i) the automatic safety shut off valve(s) controlling the gas supply to the air-gas
mixing machine; or
(ii) an automatic safety shut off valve in the mixture line to the flame arrestor to
close; and
(b) the system to lockout.
5.3.13 Air-gas mixing machines requirement for non-return valve
Where burners are fitted with individual safety shut off valves in the mixture line, and
flame arrestors are fitted in accordance with Clause 5.3.10, a non-return valve specially
designed to withstand the reverse pressure created by a flashback, shall be fitted between
the automatic safety shut off valve and the flame arrestor.
NOTE: Non-return valves may also be required to satisfy the requirements of Clause 2.8.4.

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AS 38142009 64

5.4 SPECIAL ATMOSPHERES AND ATMOSPHERE GENERATORS


5.4.1 General
This Clause applies to atmosphere generators and the distribution and discharge of special
atmospheres prepared from gas.
NOTE: Atmosphere generators, and the special atmospheres produced, can be applied to a wide
range of processes and appliances. The technical regulator should be informed when the design,
operation, input and other integrated features are known. Additional safety requirements may then
be indicated by the technical regulator.
5.4.2 Piping for special atmospheres
Piping used for the distribution or venting of special atmospheres shall meet the appropriate
requirements for the supply of gas as given in AS 5601.
5.4.3 Storage of special atmosphere
Where the special atmosphere is to be stored prior to use, interlocks shall be provided to
ensure that the special atmosphere supplied to the storage container is within acceptable
limits.
NOTE: This requirement may be satisfied by interlocking the compressor with a flame safeguard
system, a temperature sensor or an atmosphere analyser located at the outlet of the atmosphere
generator.
5.4.4 Storage container for compressed special atmosphere
Where a special atmosphere is to be compressed and stored, approval for the storage
container(s) shall be obtained from the appropriate authority.
5.4.5 Venting and disposal of special atmospheres
Provision shall be made for
(a) the venting of special atmospheres during start-up and operation from a point adjacent
to the generator to a safe place; and
(b) the safe disposal of special atmospheres from all discharge points.
5.4.6 Discharge using a vent line
A vent line for the special atmosphere from an atmosphere generator or the appliance being
supplied with the special atmosphere, shall
(a) discharge in a safe place outside the building in accordance with the vent line
termination requirements of AS 5601; or
(b) discharge within the building provided
(i) the special atmosphere is combustible;
(ii) a permanent, supervised, ignition source is maintained at the discharge point
and is interlocked in accordance with Clause 3.4.1.1;
(iii) the discharge point is designed to ensure complete combustion is achieved;
(iv) provision is made for the combustion products to be discharged in accordance
with the appropriate flueing requirements of AS 5601; and
(v) the installation is acceptable to the relevant authority(s).
5.4.7 Start-up of an atmosphere generator
During the entire start-up sequence of an atmosphere generator including the pre-purge
period, both the following shall apply:
(a) The vent is to be open.

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(b) The supply line from the generator to the point(s) of use is to be closed during the
entire start-up sequence, including the pre-purge period.
5.4.8 Ignition
Where the special atmosphere is combustible and discharges into an appliance that contains
air, both the following shall apply:
(a) A supervised ignition source that is interlocked in accordance with Clause 3.4.1.1 is
to be provided.
(b) Combustion products are to be discharged in a safe place in accordance with the
flueing requirements of AS 5601.
5.4.9 Requirement where the air-gas ratio is variable
Where the air-gas ratio to an atmosphere generator can be varied during operation, flow
indicators shall
(a) be installed in the air and gas supply lines; and
(b) be well illuminated and easily read from the generator operating station.
NOTE: A differential pressure gauge across a fixed orifice can be an acceptable method of flow
indication.
5.4.10 Requirements where the air-gas ratio is fixed
Where the air-gas ratio to an atmosphere generator is not variable during operation,
provision shall be made for positively locking the ratio adjustment.
5.4.11 Automatic relief device
Where the special atmosphere is to be used at a variable rate, an automatic relief device
shall be fitted to the special atmosphere line.
5.4.12 Flame arrestor
Where the special atmosphere is combustible, or could form a combustible mixture with air
in pipework or equipment prior to the discharge point, a flame arrestor shall
(a) be installed; and
(b) incorporate a temperature sensitive device that in the event of an increase in
temperature due to the presence of a flame, will activate to cause the closing of a
safety shut off valve(s) controlling
(i) the gas supply to the reaction vessel of the atmosphere generator; or
(ii) the flow of the special atmosphere to equipment in which a combustible
mixture of air and special atmosphere can be formed.
NOTE: The flame arrestor should be as close as practical to all discharge points that are in the
vicinity of an ignition source.
5.4.13 Water-cooled equipment
The outlet for water discharge from water-cooled equipment shall be either
(a) permanently open; or
(b) provided with an over-pressure relief device or flow-proving device.
5.4.14 Exothermic atmosphere generators
5.4.14.1 Flame safeguard requirement
A flame safeguard system shall be fitted to an exothermic atmosphere generator.

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AS 38142009 66

5.4.14.2 Flame safeguard bypass


The flame safeguard required by Clause 5.4.14.1 shall not be bypassed unless the surface
temperature of the combustion chamber wall exceeds 900C.
5.4.14.3 Pressure detectors to be fitted
Where a temperature interlock allowed by Clause 5.4.14.2 is fitted, high and low gas
pressure and low combustion air pressure detectors shall be fitted.
5.4.14.4 Pressure detectors to be interlocked
A pressure detector required by Clause 5.4.14.3 shall be interlocked to cause lockout.
5.4.14.5 Interlocking combustible atmosphere flow
Where the exothermic atmosphere is combustible, the air shut off device or a safety shut off
valve(s) controlling the flow of exothermic atmosphere shall be interlocked with all the
following:
(a) The flame safeguard system.
(b) A temperature limit device.
(c) The high and low gas pressure and low air pressure detectors.
5.4.14.6 Purging
The exothermic generator, and any connected piping or appliance that is not isolated and
separately vented shall be purged prior to ignition in accordance with Clause 2.19.
5.4.14.7 Air-gas ratio control
Where the air-gas ratio of the mixture supplied to the burner(s) has to be manually altered
from a start-up to a running condition, the control shall incorporate suitable limit stops.
5.4.15 Endothermic atmosphere generators
5.4.15.1 Safety shut off valves to be fitted
A safety shut off system in accordance with Clause 2.14 shall be fitted to control the gas
supply for the reaction.
5.4.15.2 Air shut off device
A shut off device shall be fitted to control the air supply for the reaction.
5.4.15.3 Pressure detectors
High and low-gas pressure detectors and a low-air pressure detector shall be:
(a) Fitted to the appliance
(i) gas supply line; and
(ii) air supply line.
(b) Interlocked so as to cause lockout on activation.

5.5 PROCESS AFTER-BURNERS


5.5.1 General
Process after-burners shall comply with the requirements of AS 1375 in regard to the
overall safety of the process.

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5.5.2 Control of process products


5.5.2.1 Requirement for interlocks
Sufficient interlocks shall be provided to ensure hazardous conditions such as the following
cannot occur:
(a) Flame failure.
(b) The discharge of unburnt process products.
(c) The ignition of the process afterburner with process products present.
(d) The passage of process products through the process afterburner at temperatures
below the design limits.
(e) Excessive process products entering the process afterburner.
NOTE: Other Authorities may require interlocks for such purposes as air pollution or odour
control.
5.5.2.2 Process productspercentage of LEL
Process products shall be prevented from entering the process afterburner in quantities
greater than 25% of the product LEL except in those cases where there is strict compliance
with the requirements of incineration as documented in AS 1375.
NOTE: In a minority of installations the design may be such that the process products always
enter the afterburner in quantities greater than 25% of the LEL. In these cases the process
products should be treated as a fuel. Additionally the use of a flame arrester would normally be
required.
5.5.3 Combustion air supply
Combustion air to a process afterburner shall be supplied by mechanical means unless all of
the following apply:
(a) The flow of gases between the process afterburner and the stack terminal incorporates
no downward flow section.
(b) The pressure of the process products is not above atmospheric.
(c) The connecting openings between the process afterburner and the stack terminal do
not affect the flow of products so as to cause unsatisfactory combustion.
NOTE: The air in the process products to be incinerated may be used to supply all or part of the
combustion air for the process afterburner.
5.5.4 Shutting down of process afterburner
The safety system shall ensure that during the shutting down of the burner(s) fitted to a
process afterburner, an adequate supply of air is maintained for the satisfactory combustion
of any residual process products.
5.5.5 Pre-purge
Where an appliance or exhaust system served by a process afterburner incorporates exhaust
and/or recirculation fans, then a pre-purge equal to five times the effective volume of the
installation in accordance with Clause 2.19.2.2 shall be carried out before the ignition of
any burner in the appliance or the process afterburner.
NOTE: The effective volume of the installation is equal to the internal volume of the appliance,
which is the source of the process gases to be incinerated, plus the combustion chamber volume
of the process afterburner plus the internal volume of all ductwork, passages and fans between the
two.

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AS 38142009 68

5.6 STEAM AND HOT WATER BOILERS


Refer to AS 5601 for requirements pertaining to emergency gas isolation valves required
for boilers.
NOTES:
1 Boilers may be subject to additional requirements as contained in AS 2593.
2 Steam and hot water boilers should be issued with a Certificate of Inspection of Boiler, as
required by the appropriate authority, before the appliance is placed into service.

5.7 DIRECT-FIRED AIR HEATERS AND CURTAINS


5.7.1 General
This Clause applies to the gas-firing equipment on direct-fired air heaters or air curtains
that are used to heat a forced air stream, with the combustion products being released
directly into the heated air used for the purposes of comfort heating.
5.7.2 Heater air supply
The air supply for a direct-fired air heater shall be taken directly from the outside of the
building and comply with the requirements of Clause 2.15.2.
NOTE: Recirculated inside air may be added after the outside air has passed through the
combustion zone of the heater.
5.7.3 Air flow sensing device
A direct-fired air heater shall be fitted with an air flow sensing device in accordance with
Clause 2.17.2, which shall operate if the heater air supply falls to a level that would
produce emissions in excess of those stated in Clause 5.7.7.1 at the appliance nominal gas
consumption.
5.7.4 Pre-purge
A pre-purge shall be carried out in accordance with Clause 2.19.2.2.
NOTE: For the purposes of this Clause the purge volume includes the air heater, inlet ductwork
and outlet ductwork up to the first permanently open outlet.
5.7.5 Temperature limit device
An air temperature limit device shall be fitted, in accordance with Clause 3.4.2.3, to shut
off the gas supply before the temperature of the air at the heater outlet reaches 80C.
5.7.6 Start gas rate
The start gas rate for a direct-fired air heater shall not exceed 10% of the maximum main
burner gas rate.
5.7.7 Combustion
5.7.7.1 Limits for combustion products
A direct-fired air heater shall not produce carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, aldehydes or
nitrogen dioxide in excess of the following values, with the heater handling the
manufacturers rated air throughput at nominal gas consumption and at the manufacturers
minimum gas consumption
(a) CO 2 3000 ppm;
(b) CO 10 ppm;
(c) Formaldehyd 1 ppm; and
(d) NO X 0.5 ppm.

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69 AS 38142009

NOTES:
1 The ratio of CO to CO2 should not exceed 0.003.
2 In some areas the ambient level of CO may cause the outlet level of CO from the heater to be higher.
However, the level of CO in the heated air stream should not exceed 50 ppm.

5.7.7.2 Samples of heated air to be taken


To ensure the requirements of Clause 5.7.7.1 are met samples of the heated discharge air
shall be taken from the discharge duct work, before the first discharge outlet, and far
enough downstream to ensure that combustion products are uniformly mixed with the
heated air.
5.7.7.3 Limitation on air temperature
The heated air temperature at the point of discharge shall not exceed 80C during
combustion testing.
5.7.7.4 Combustion at minimum air flow
The direct-fired air heater shall comply with the combustion requirements of Clause 5.7.7.1
with the heater delivering all air flows down to the point at which the air flow limit device
is tripped, at the nominal gas consumption.
5.7.8 Markings
5.7.8.1 Marking plate to be fitted
The marking plate(s) shall include all the following information in addition to that required
by Clause 4.1.1:
(a) The wording DIRECT-FIRED AIR HEATER.
(b) The air flow proving device trip setting, in Pascals.
(c) The setting of the temperature limit device in C.
(d) The rpm of the heater fan, the related air flow in litres per second and the external
static pressure in Pascals.
(e) A statement that includes the following words:
This heater shall be tested every six months of operation to show that the concentration of
the following gases at the heater outlet does not exceed the following values:
Carbon monoxide (CO) 10 ppm
Carbon dioxide (CO 2) 0.3% v/v (3000 ppm)
Formaldehyde (CHOH) 1 ppm
Nitrogen oxides (NO X) 0.5 ppm.
5.7.8.2 Restriction on installation
Direct-fired air heaters shall have a permanent label attached in a prominent position that
includes the following wording, in letters of at least 8 mm height:
THIS HEATER SHALL NOT BE INSTALLED IN DOMESTIC OR RESIDENTIAL
PREMISES. FOR ALL OTHER APPLICATIONS THE APPROVAL OF THE GAS
TECHNICAL REGULATOR MUST BE OBTAINED.

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AS 38142009 70

5.8 STATIONARY GAS ENGINES AND TURBINES


5.8.1 General
This Clause applies to stationary gas engines and turbines that shall be designed and/or
installed in such a manner that a combustible mixture igniting within them shall not directly
cause injury to personnel or damage to other equipment.
The gas supply to engines operating on LP Gas in the liquid phase shall be installed in
accordance with AS/NZS 1596 and, where applicable, AS/NZS 1425 and AS 4983.
Gas fired turbines that comply with the requirements of ISO 21789 may be deemed by a
technical regulator to meet the intent of this Standard.
5.8.2 Requirement for safety shut off valve system
5.8.2.1 Safety shut off system to be fitted
A safety shut off system complying with the following shall be fitted:
(a) Where the gas consumption of the gas engine or turbine does not exceed 500 MJ/h
and the engine or turbine is located outdoors, the safety shut off system shall
comprise at least one safety shut off valve complying with Clause 5.8.2.2.
(b) Where the gas consumption of the gas engine or turbine exceeds 500 MJ/h, the safety
shut off system shall comply with Clause 2.14.3.
NOTE: This Clause does not apply to manual start engines used for recreational or domestic
purposes outdoors. Refer to Figure C6(a) for minimum valve train requirements up to 5 GJ/h
gas firing rates.
Where the gas rate for the turbine exceeds 5 GJ/h:
(i) The leakage detection system sequence shall comply with Clause 2.14.10.
(ii) Where a leakage detection systems is part of the OEM integrated turbine
control system, it shall be performed by the Safety PES system and the valve
gas leakage rates shall be such as not to exceed 0.05% of the maximum gas
rate.
(iii) Leakage detection systems shall not allow opening of the main safety shut off
valves during the test sequence.
(iv) Where valve position proving is used in place of a leakage detection system,
valves that incorporate over-travel and comply with AS 4629 or an approved
equivalent standard shall be used.
NOTE: Refer to Figures C6(b) and C6(c) for additional valve train requirements
exceeding 5 GJ/h gas firing rates.
5.8.2.2 Safety shut off valves and vent valves
Safety shut off valves of Class 1 and vent valves used on safety shut off systems for gas
engines and turbines shall comply with the requirements of AS 4629 and be certified.
For valves outside the scope of AS 4629, the safety requirements detailed in that standard
shall be met at least at an equivalent level and the valve shall be certified. A declaration by
the OEM of both the appliance and valves, which supports the fitness for purpose of the
valves for the application, may be acceptable to the technical regulator.
Combined (control and shut off) valve assemblies incorporated in the design of an OEM
safety shut off system may be acceptable to the technical regulator who may require a
declaration and evidence to establish proven in use status.

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71 AS 38142009

For OEM safety shut off valves, a flow control valve shall not be used as a safety shut off
valve. Where a safety shut off valve is used in combination with a control valve, the
assembly shall be considered as equivalent to a single valve only.
5.8.2.3 Emergency isolation and vent valves
A combined emergency manual isolation valve and manual vent valve in compliance with
AS 4617 shall be provided outside of any turbine enclosure or turbine hall. For valves
outside the scope of AS 4617, the safety requirements detailed in that standard shall be met
at least at an equivalent level and the valve shall be certified. A declaration by the OEM of
both the appliance and valves, which supports the fitness for purpose of the valves for the
application, may be acceptable to the technical regulator.
Where the gas rate to the turbine exceeds 5.0 GJ/h, this system shall be automatically
actuated.
Automatic emergency isolation and vent valves shall comply with the requirements of
Clause 5.8.2.2.
NOTE: Automatic actuation of the emergency valve is normally from the operation of the
emergency stop or, if required, from the fire or gas-detection system.
5.8.2.4 Activation of the safety shut off system to shut off gas supply
Safety shutdown shall occur when
(a) the gas engine or turbine stops;
(b) the gas engine or turbine fails to ignite the gas; or
(c) the inlet gas pressure is reduced to an operating pressure below the normal minimum
operating limit and not cause a hazard for the engine or gas turbine.
5.8.3 Turbine purging
Prior to any start-up, the turbine and the associated equipment shall be purged in
accordance with Clause 2.19.
NOTES:
1 Where heat recovery equipment does not form part of the turbine assembly, three complete
changes in volume to the base of the exhaust stack may be acceptable.
2 Due to the characteristics of gas turbines and their starting systems, a purging flow rate of not
less than eight per cent (8%) of the full load mass air flow may be acceptable for purging the
gas turbine and any associated heat recovery steam generators.
Where a heat recovery system is installed and there is supplementary firing fitted, it is
acceptable to purge with turbine exhaust gases provided that under all load conditions, the
temperature of the purge gases does not exceed 450C for natural gas or 80% of AIT for
other fuels, and the temperature is interlocked.
Where the heat recovery system is initially purged prior to a turbine start up, provided that
a leakage detection system is fitted to the supplementary firing burners, then re-purging is
not required. The integrity of the safety shut off valves must be checked prior to a start up
of the supplementary burners.
Air flow proving devices shall be self checked in accordance with Clause 2.19.5.2.
Turbine rotation speed is an acceptable form of proving air flow and no-flow.
NOTE: This acceptance is based on turbine rotation speed being checked and measured to be
within specified ranges at all critical parts of a gas turbines operation.

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AS 38142009 72

5.8.4 Gas supply flexible connection


Where required by a manufacturer a flexible connection complying with the requirements of
AS/NZS 1869, ASTM F1120 or BS 6501 Part 1 and ISO 10380 shall be installed
downstream of the safety shut off valve(s) controlling the gas supply to a gas engine or
turbine.
The flexible connection shall be constructed of materials capable of withstanding the rated
operating pressures and temperatures, and long periods of high frequency vibrations that
may occur, and be reliable in service.
The gas supply to engines operating on LP Gas in the liquid phase shall be installed in
accordance with AS/NZS 1596 and where applicable AS/NZS 1425 and AS 4732.
For gas turbines, means such as the flexible connection shall:
(a) be designed to withstand the maximum vibration levels that can be imposed by the
turbine; and
(b) be rated to 1.5 times the maximum gas supply pressure.
NOTE: A manufacturers statement of fitness for purpose including a hydrostatic test report may
be required by the technical regulator.
5.8.5 Exhaust system to be fitted
A gas engine or turbine shall be fitted with an exhaust system capable of preventing any
hazard to personnel resulting from the ignition of unburnt gas.
5.8.6 Flexible connection to be fitted to exhaust line
A suitable flexible connection shall be:
(a) provided in an exhaust system of a gas engine or turbine to minimize the possibility
of fracture due to vibration or expansion and contraction; and
(b) constructed of materials capable of withstanding the operating pressures and
temperatures.
NOTE: A manufacturers statement of fitness for purpose may be required by the technical
regulator.
5.8.7 Requirements of an exhaust system
The exhaust system of a gas engine or a turbine shall
(a) be as short as possible; and
(b) not be manifolded together or connected to the flue of another appliance.
5.8.8 Exhaust terminal location
The exhaust system shall discharge combustion products to atmosphere in accordance with
the requirements for flues in AS 5601.
5.8.9 Ventilation
Where an engine or turbine is installed in a building or compartment the ventilation must be
in accordance with AS 5601.
NOTE: Additional ventilation may be necessary to maintain an acceptable ambient temperature.
5.8.10 Requirements for Ignition
Ignition shall commence immediately after any pre-ignition interlock checks and the pre-
purge is completed.

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73 AS 38142009

The energy released during the ignition safety time (critical time) shall comply with the
requirements of Clause 3.2.3 or be limited such that the maximum pressure rise from a
delayed ignition shall not cause unacceptable damage to the plant or injury to personnel.
Over-firing during the ignition sequence shall be prevented.
NOTE: Prevention of over-firing can be achieved by control valve positioning, pressure
monitoring, fuel flow monitoring or a separate start gas supply line.
Where the main gas flow control valve is used for start gas, the flow control valve shall
control the fuel flow to the gas turbine at start-up under all foreseeable operating conditions
and shall not exceed the requirements of Clause 3.2.3. Where failure of the fuel flow
control equipment may lead to excess start gas flow or other dangerous conditions, an
additional independent monitoring device(s) shall be installed to initiate shutdown or if an
out of position to demand is detected, a start-up shall be prevented.
NOTE: The requirement of Clause 3.2.2.2 for the means of ignition to cease at the end of the start
gas flame establishment period is not applicable to gas turbines due to the need to ensure the gas
turbine has a stable flame during starting to achieve self sustaining speed.
5.8.11 Extinction safety time
On loss of flame, the flame detection and gaseous fuel shutdown system shall have a
combined maximum response time (extinction time) of no more than 3 seconds or shall
limit the release of unburned gaseous fuel to an amount that prevents damage to the plant or
injury to personnel.
Where the shutdown time exceeds 3 seconds, calculation shall be provided to ensure that
the intent of this clause is complied with.
5.8.12 Indirect flame monitoring
Where indirect flame monitoring is used, it shall detect the loss of combustion under all
foreseeable operating conditions. The indirect flame monitoring system shall undergo a safe
start check prior to the ignition sequence commencement.

5.9 INCINERATORS AND CREMATORS


5.9.1 General
Burners for incinerators and cremators shall be provided with safety systems that shall
incorporate the functions and equipment set out in Clauses 5.9.2 to 5.9.5.
NOTE: Requirements for the prevention and relief of explosions due to such process hazards as
combustible gases, vapours or dusts are given in AS 1375.
5.9.2 Primary burner interlock
Where a primary burner and a secondary burner are fitted, the primary burner shall be
interlocked to prevent its ignition and operation unless the secondary burner is operating or
a temperature in excess of 750C has been reached in the secondary combustion chamber.
5.9.3 Combustion air
Combustion air to a burner shall be supplied by mechanical means unless:
(a) The combustion air for a secondary burner, and for any other burner not interlocked
with a secondary burner, is supplied by other than mechanical means provided
(i) the flow of gases between the burner and the stack terminal incorporates no
downward flow section; and
(ii) the connecting openings between the burner and the stack terminal do not affect
the flow so as to cause unsatisfactory combustion.

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AS 38142009 74

(b) The combustion air for a primary burner interlocked with a secondary burner is
supplied by means of a high pressure inspirator that is capable of supplying all the
air, as primary air, that is required for the combustion of the gas.
5.9.4 Pre-purge
Where a mechanical means of supplying combustion air is required, the safety system shall
incorporate a pre-purge period to ensure that either
(a) where only one chamber is fitted with a burner, a volume of air equal to five times the
effective volume of the chamber into which the burner is firing is purged to
atmosphere before ignition is attempted; or
(b) where more than one chamber is fitted with a burner each chamber shall be purged
sequentially, commencing with the primary chamber, with an air volume equal to five
times the effective volume of the chamber into which each burner is firing, before
ignition is attempted in any chamber.
5.9.5 Flues
5.9.5.1 Flues not to be interconnected
The flue shall not be interconnected with the flue from any other type of appliance.
NOTE: Where two or more incinerators or cremators are connected to a common flue, mechanical
assistance may be required to ensure that all flue gases discharge only at the flue terminal.
5.9.5.2 Limiting updraught
Provision shall be made so that updraught in the combustion chamber does not exceed the
design limit.

5.10 ROTARY PROCESS EQUIPMENT AND OVENSDIRECT-FIRED


5.10.1 General
This Section does not cover all the requirements for special atmosphere ovens or rotary
process equipment nor does it provide for the safety of the processes carried out.
NOTE: Some of the requirements for the prevention and relief of explosions due to such process
hazards as combustible gases, vapours or dusts are given in AS 1375.
5.10.2 Purging
A direct-fired oven or rotary process equipment, including recirculation ducts, shall be
purged in accordance with Clause 2.19 before a source of ignition is introduced into or
energized within the appliance.
For large manually-operated batch ovens, a reduced pre-purge may be carried out if the
burner circuit on the oven is interlocked with limit switches on each of the oven doors so
that:
(a) pre-purging by operation of the combustion air fan cannot commence and the pilot
flame cannot be established, unless the front doors are fully open;
(b) if purging has commenced and the front doors are closed, then the timer will stop and
reset; and
(c) the purge time is no less than 5 mins in duration.
5.10.3 Provision of air
All primary and secondary air for combustion shall be supplied direct to the burner(s) from
outside the oven or rotary process equipment.

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75 AS 38142009

5.10.4 Explosion relief


Explosion relief shall be fitted where required by AS 1375 except where sufficient dilution
air is provided so that the LEL does not exceed 4% under all operating conditions.
5.10.5 Temperature limit device
A temperature limit device, interlocked with a safety shut off valve to cause lockout of the
gas supply in the event of excess temperature, shall be fitted unless the temperature reached
with all burners operating continuously at maximum rate exceeds neither
(a) the ignition temperature of any materials processed; or
(b) a temperature that is hazardous to adjacent personnel, the oven itself or materials
surrounding the oven.
5.10.6 Access for cleaning
Ducts and flues within the oven or rotary process equipment shall be provided with access
for cleaning.
5.10.7 Processes with solvents or combustible dust
5.10.7.1 Provision of dilution air
Where dilution air is required in compliance with AS 1375, it shall be provided from
outside the oven and shall be monitored with a self-checking air flow proving device.
The dilution air flow proving device shall be capable of detecting a reduction in dilution air
due to operational and atmospheric pressure variations. Failure of the dilution air supply
shall prevent the feeding of additional material and cause the burners to lockout.
5.10.7.2 Recirculation air fans
Rotary sensors to prove the operation of recirculation air fans shall not be used on process
ovens where solvent or flammable dusts are being evolved. Only devices that provide proof
of air flow shall be used.
5.10.7.3 Monitoring of solvent LEL
Where the dilution air flow is to be varied to allow for changes in process conditions,
redundant LEL monitoring (measuring) devices shall be provided to ensure that dilution in
accordance with AS 1375 is not reduced. A failure of either device shall cause an
immediate cessation of solvent laden material into the oven.
The selection of the LEL monitoring devices shall take into account the following system
requirements:
(a) Type of solvents.
(b) Temperature range of operation.
(c) Condensation.
(d) Response times.
Where the solvent LEL monitors are of the self checking type, failure of either shall raise
an alarm and failure of both shall cause cessation of solvent material flow.
A HAZOP shall be conducted to determine if burner shutdown is necessary on high LEL or
device failure.
NOTES:
1 LEL monitor or control devices shall comply with the relevant electrical safety and hazardous
area classification standards.

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AS 38142009 76

2 Self checking is taken to mean that the LEL monitoring device is capable of detecting a
sensor fault, and undergoes a calibration check with every start up or at least every 24 hours
for continuously operating systems.
3 Diversion of solvent laden air may be another means of rendering the appliance safe on high
LEL if accepted by the technical regulator.

5.11 SMOKE OVENSDIRECT-FIRED


5.11.1 Lighting torch
Where manual ignition is required and a pilot burner is not fitted, then a lighting torch shall
be installed to light the burners.
5.11.2 Combustion air
5.11.2.1 Combustion air to be provided from outside of oven
All primary and secondary air for combustion shall be supplied direct to the burner(s) from
outside the oven.
5.11.2.2 Restrictions on the use of ducting
Where ducting is used to provide combustion air for an atmospheric burner, the duct shall
have an unobstructed cross-sectional area throughout its total length of not less than
300 mm 2 per MJ/h of gas consumption.
5.11.2.3 Smoke not to interfere with combustion
The admission or generation of smoke within the oven shall not cause unsatisfactory
combustion.
5.11.3 Explosion relief requirements
Explosion relief with a total area of not less than 0.2 m2 /m 3 of the volume of the appliance
shall be provided.
5.11.4 Loading doors
Loading doors shall not be used for explosion relief.
5.11.5 Sawdust trays
Where sawdust trays are located above the burner they shall
(a) be located so as not to obstruct the free escape of flue gas; and
(b) provide adequate clearance from the burner to avoid flame impingement in the event
of a gas rich flame.
NOTE: See Clauses 2.22.5 and 2.23.5 for the protection of burners.
5.11.6 Flue
5.11.6.1 Minimum requirements for natural draught flue
The cross-sectional area of a natural draught flue shall be at least equivalent to 250 mm2 per
MJ/h of gas consumption, but shall not in any case be less than 8100 mm2 (100 mm
diameter).
5.11.6.2 Flue damper
A damper, where fitted in a natural draught flue, shall not restrict more than one-third of the
total cross-sectional area of the flue.

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77 AS 38142009

5.12 WATER HEATERS


5.12.1 General
This Clause applies to water heaters including instantaneous heaters, circulators and storage
water heaters but excluding open tanks in which the water is heated at or near atmospheric
pressure.
5.12.2 Thermostat
A thermostat shall be fitted on all water heaters other than those of the instantaneous type.
5.12.3 Over-temperature control
5.12.3.1 Over-temperature cut-out device to be fitted
A fail-safe over-temperature cut-out device shall be fitted to
(a) all water heaters having a gas consumption in excess of 200 MJ/h (55 kW); and
(b) all unvented water heaters containing more than 1 L of water.
5.12.3.2 Over-temperature cut-out to initiate lockout
The over-temperature cut-out device shall be interlocked with the gas supply to cause
lockout before the water temperature exceeds 99C.
5.12.4 Unvented water heaters
5.12.4.1 Relief valve to be fitted
Unvented water heaters containing more than 1 L of water shall be fitted with one or more
certified relief valves, with a pressure setting not exceeding the maximum working pressure
of the water heater, and which are either
(a) a combination temperature and pressure relief valve complying with AS 1357.1 and
AS 1357.2 and having a rating in kilowatts of not less than
0.21 gas consumption (MJ/h); or
(b) a pressure relief valve complying with AS 1271 and having a total steam discharge
capacity, in kg/h, of not less than 0.34 gas consumption (MJ/h).
NOTE: A rating in kilowatts of 0.21 gas consumption is the equivalent in energy of a steam
rating in kg/h of 0.34 gas consumption (MJ/h).
5.12.4.2 Location of relief valves
The relief valves required by Clause 5.12.4.1 shall be located within 150 mm of the top of
the water container or the top 20% of the water capacity whichever is the higher.
NOTE: In the case of instantaneous water heaters, fitting the valves in the plumbing immediately
adjacent to the outlet will be deemed to comply with the requirement.
5.12.4.3 Heaters containing 1L of water or less
Unvented water heaters containing 1 L of water or less shall be fitted with a relief device
that will release excess pressure in the waterways to prevent damage to the heater.
5.12.5 Provision for draining
All water heaters and attached water vessels shall be provided with a means to effectively
drain the water in the heater without causing damage to the building or contents.
NOTE: In the case of instantaneous water heaters, a plug or cap on the drain connection will be
deemed to comply with the requirement.

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AS 38142009 78

5.13 MULTI-FUEL FIRING SYSTEMS


5.13.1 Alternative multi-fuel systems
5.13.1.1 Isolation of alternative fuel supply
Multi-fuel alternative burner systems shall be arranged so that the safety shut off valve(s)
for the fuel not being used are automatically closed if the burner for that fuel is
(a) not in the firing position; or
(b) is not intended to be fired.
5.13.1.2 Alternative fuel system to be interlocked
Each multi-fuel alternative burner firing system shall be provided with an interlock system
to ensure that
(a) more than one fuel cannot be supplied simultaneously;
(b) the shutdown procedure for one fuel is completed before the start-up procedure,
including pre-purge, for the other fuel is initiated;
(c) all circuits from one fuel are disconnected before switching to an alternative fuel; and
(d) the circuitry is arranged so that a pre-purge is carried out, except in multiple burner
installations where other burners are firing.
5.13.1.3 Fuel lines to be sealed on disconnection
Where part of the fuel firing equipment is disconnected while the alternative fuel is in use,
provision shall be made for:
(a) sealing off disconnected fuel lines; and
(b) a procedure to be included in the operators instructions detailing the correct method
of changing fuels.
NOTE: The disconnection and sealing off of fuel lines should not be carried out until after the
manual isolating valve for the fuel has been shut.
5.13.2 Multi-fuel simultaneous firing systems
5.13.2.1 Maximum operating input
Multi-fuel simultaneous burner systems shall be arranged so that the maximum operating
input cannot exceed the maximum rated hourly consumption of the burner.
5.13.2.2 Combustion air requirement
In a multi-fuel simultaneous burner system, when both fuels are being admitted, the
combustion air supply shall be adequate for the total quantity of fuel being admitted.

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79 AS 38142009

APPENDIX A
TYPICAL INFORMATION AND TECHNICAL DATA
(Informative)
This Appendix contains typical information to be supplied to the technical regulator for
each appliance in accordance with the procedure set out in Appendix B.
1 Name and address of appliance manufacturer.
2 Name and address of the authorized installer or conversion contractor.
3 Name and address of commissioning person.
4 Name and address of organization where appliance is or is to be installed.
5 Customer contact and telephone number.
6 Appliance type, operation and process description.
7 Number of burners and type.
8 Nominal gas consumption for total appliance and for each main burner.
9 Gas consumption at ignition for each burner.
10 Air flow rate at ignition for each burner.
11 Volume of each combustion chamber.
12 Total volume swept by the combustion products from the burner(s) to each flue
connection.
13 Air flow rate during purge periods.
14 Details and method of operation of any combustion air or flue dampers.
15 Details of any explosion reliefs including location, cross-sectional area and weight
together with calculations (refer AS 1375 Appendix E).
16 Appliance marking plate details (refer Clause 4.1 for requirements).
17 Process and instrumentation diagrams for the appliance (see Figure A3).
18 Schematic drawing of the combustion air control system and fuel valve train
specifying all valve train components (i.e. their brand, model number, size and rated
working pressure) and the proposed setting of all adjustable devices (refer Figure A1
for a typical example).
19 Schematic electrical wiring diagram showing the safety and control circuits including
details of the brand, model number and method of operation of each major component
and the proposed setting of any adjustable device (refer Figure A2).
20 Purge time calculations.
21 Calculations of start gas rate conditions (refer Clause 3.2.3).
22 Air dilution rate calculations for processes involving solvents or dusts (refer
AS 1375).
23 Ventilation provided or to be provided in the area where the appliance is or is to be
installed (refer AS 5601).
24 Method of flueing and location and type of flue material.
25 Operating instructions.

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AS 38142009 80

26 Documentation requirements for PES system.


NOTE: Units of measurement should comply with the SI system.

FIGURE A1 EXAMPLE OF A TYPICAL VALVE TRAIN SCHEMATIC

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81 AS 38142009

CIRCUIT COMBUSTION
BREAKER FUSE O/L FAN
1
2
3 M
4
5
6 ISOLATION SWITCH FUSE
7
8 1
9 2
10 3 ALARM LIGHT
ON/OFF
11 4 p BURNER ON/OFF
12 5 SWITCH
APS
13 6 FAN CONTACTOR
1, 3, 5
14 7
15 8
t
16 9
17 10 T EXTENDED PURGE
TIMER
18 11
F
19 12
20 13 IGNITION
p p t
21 14
22 15 GPS 1 GPS 2 OT
23 16 PILOT GAS
24 17
25 18
26 19
27 20 MAIN GAS
28 21
29 22 X
30 23
UV CELL Y
31

ITEM DESCRIPTION MANUFACTURER TYPE SETTING CERTIFICATE No


APS AIR PRESSURE SWITCH NITRO PS50 1.5 kPa 1246
GPS1 MAIN HIGH GAS PRESSURE SWITCH BAR C6-B1-47 1.3 kPa 1240
WITH MANUAL RESET
GPS2 PILOT HIGH GAS PRESSURE SWITCH BAR C64/81 1.3 kPa 1248
WITH MANUAL RESET
T EXTENDED PURGE TIMER ELEC T123 9 min
X TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER ELEC X123 - 1236
Y MODULATING MOTOR ELEC Y123 -
OT OVER TEMPERATURE LIMIT ELEC OT123 250 C 1237
WITH MANUAL RESET
F FLAME SAFEGUARD PROGRAMMER U-BEAUT FSG123 - 1238

DESIGNED BY: TITLE:


A. DESIGNER U BEAUT BURNER SIZE 2
DATE: - CLIENT: A. CUSTOMER

No. DATE REVISION BY SCALE: NTS SUPPLIER: A BURNER Co.

FIGURE A2 EXAMPLE OF A TYPICAL ELECTRICAL SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM

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AS 38142009 82

FIGURE A3 EXAMPLE OF A PROCESS AND INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM

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83 AS 38142009

APPENDIX B
TYPICAL PROCEDURE FOR THE APPROVAL OF INDUSTRIAL AND
COMMERCIAL APPLIANCES
(Informative)
This Appendix provides guidance on the typical procedure to be adopted by all persons or
bodies wishing to install or commission appliances covered by this Standard.
Whilst the technical regulator may inspect and test the appliance for compliance with the
requirements of this Standard, the person(s) or bodies responsible for the installation or
commissioning of the appliance should ensure
(a) compliance with these requirements;
(b) adequate instruction of operating personnel; and
(c) the safety of the installed appliance.
The typical procedure for approval is:
1 The details set out in Appendix A should be submitted to the technical regulator for
approval at least 28 days before the appliance is due to be commissioned, together
with any relevant fee that may be required by the technical regulator for inspection
and testing.
2 The technical regulator will examine the details submitted and may give its comments
or preliminary approval within 14 days.
3 No appliance is to have gas turned on until preliminary approval of the technical
regulator has been given.
4 Upon receipt of preliminary approval, the appliance may be commissioned by a
licensed/registered/approved commissioning person.
5 At least 7 days notice should be given to the technical regulator to inspect and test the
commissioned appliance.
6 The technical regulator may carry out an on-site inspection and test of the installed
appliance as soon as possible after the receipt of a request to test and the completion
of commissioning.
7 When satisfied that the appliance meets these requirements, the technical regulator
may issue a Certificate/Notice of Compliance upon request and may attach an
approval label to the appliance.
8 No appliance should be handed over to the owner/operator for operation until the
requirements of the technical regulator have been met.

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AS 38142009 84

APPENDIX C
TYPICAL VALVE TRAIN ARRANGEMENTS
(Informative)
Gas valve trains must comply with the requirements of Clause 2.8. The examples shown
here are a limited selection of arrangements that comply with the requirements of this
Standard. It is not to be construed that these are the only arrangements possible, or that they
will comply or be suitable in every case.
The diagrams of typical valve train arrangements show a double block safety shut off valve
system on both main and start gas supplies. The number and selection of safety shut off
valves must be in accordance with Clause 2.14.

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Manual gas valve

A symbol shown
Filter in dotted lines means
the item is optional
Pressure test point

Pressure regulator

Pressure regulator with over-pressure protection

Over-pressure slam-shut valve

Slow-opening fast-closing valve

Slow-opening fast-closing two stage valve

Automatic safety
Fast-opening fast-closing valve
shut off valves

Fast-opening fast-closing two stage valve

Manual reset valve

Vent valve

Position indicator switch on valve

Proof of closure switch on valve

LG Low gas pressure detector

HG High gas pressure detector

Flow rate control valve

Flow limiting valve

Burner

Thermoelectric valve

Three-way valve

FIGURE C1 LIST OF COMMONLY USED SYMBOLS

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AS 38142009 86

LG HG

see Note 1
LG HG

(a) Burner with separate pilot

LG HG

see Note 1
LG HG

(b) Burner with direct spark ignition

NOTES:
1 An over-pressure protection device is required if downstream components are not rated at the gas inlet
pressure.
2 High gas pressure detectors should preferably be located downstream of safety shut off valves to prevent
nuisance shutdowns. Such shutdowns will occur when either lock-up or positive shock pressure of the
regulator is above the detector setting, or weep past the regulator seat occurs.

FIGURE C2 TYPICAL VALVE TRAIN INCORPORATING DOUBLE-BLOCK SAFETY


SHUT OFF VALVE ARRANGEMENT

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(a) Burners up to 1 GJ/h (275 kW) employing staged valves

(b) Burners over 1 GJ/h (275 kW) ignited by a separate pilot

FIGURE C3 SLOW OPENING SAFETY SHUT OFF VALVES

Actuator

Actuator

Actuator

FIGURE C4 RIGIDLY COUPLED VALVES

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AS 38142009 88

FIGURE C5 POSITION-PROVING SAFETY SHUT OFF SYSTEMS

FIGURE C6(a) FUEL GAS SYSTEM FOR TURBINES AND LARGE ENGINESMINIMUM
ARRANGEMENT

FIGURE C6(b) FUEL GAS SYSTEM FOR TURBINES AND LARGE ENGINESTYPICAL
ALTERNATIVE ARRANGEMENT 1

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LEGEND:
Key Type of Equipment
1 Manual isolation valve
2 Optional strainer
3 Shut-off valve
3a Shut-off valve and manual isolation valve
4 Vent valve
5 Vent
6 Optional strainer
7 Shut-off valve*
8 Vent valve**
9 Fast acting shut-off valve*
10 Flow control valve
10a Flow control and shut-off valve*
11 Combustion system
12 Gas turbine enclosure or building limits
*close on every shut down **vent on every shut down

FIGURE C6(c) FUEL GAS SYSTEM FOR TURBINES AND LARGE ENGINESTYPICAL
ALTERNATIVE ARRANGEMENT 2

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AS 38142009 90

APPENDIX D
FLAME SAFEGUARD SELECTION
(Informative)
The following information on flame safeguard classification has been provided to assist
users in the selection of a unit appropriate for the application. Table D1 summarises
features for Class 1 and 2 flame safeguards and Table D2 shows the equivalence between
the classification used in this standard and EN 298 classification characters.
The basic flame safeguard is a Class 3D that changes over one or more sets of contacts
whenever a flame is detected. It is primarily intended for use in manual systems or as an
addition to a programming unit to supervise an additional flame. Any safe start checks
required by Appliance Standards or any programming functions are provided by external
circuitry.
The majority of flame safeguard applications will require a Class 2 unit:
Class 2A These units provide timings that are acceptable for most applications.
However, units should still be checked for any other features required for a
particular application and for any duty limits recommended by the
manufacturer.
Class 2B Class 2B units are generally suitable for natural draught burners on small
appliances where the longer flame establishment periods and limited flame
proving periods may be permitted by the gas appliance Standards.
Class 2C These units are provided with a reignition attempt after flame failure. Sub-
type (a) has timings similar to Class 2A units and sub-type (b) has timings
similar to Class 2B units. Class 2C units should only be used under the
strict guidelines laid down in relevant gas appliance Standards.
Class 2D These units are similar to the basic Class 3D units except that a safe start
check is included.
Class 1 Class 1 units are similar to their Class 2 counterparts except that they
automatically check the correct operation of the unit at regular intervals
whilst in use, thus providing additional safety against fault conditions. This
feature is particularly relevant where appliances operate for extended
periods without shutdown.
Class 1D These are basic flame safeguards that have continuous self-checking and do
not provide any program sequence for starting the burner. This is provided
by external means similar to Class 3D.

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TABLE D1
FEATURES OF CLASS 1 AND 2 FLAME SAFEGUARDS
Class 1A 2A 1Ca 2Ca 1B 2B 1Cb 2Cb 1D 2D 3D
Safe start check Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Continual self-check Y Y Y Y Y
Rigorous timings Y Y Y Y
Less rigorous timings Y Y Y Y
Reignition single try Y Y
Reignition multiple try Y Y
* * *
Forced/induced purge Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Airflow interlock Y* Y Y Y Y* Y* Y* Y*
Waiting time Y* Y* Y Y
Volatile lock out Y Y Y Y
* * *
Non volatile lock out Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y*
* These are optional features that may be included in the device.

TABLE D2
EQUIVALENCE GUIDE
AS 4625 EN 298 classification characters
classification st nd
1 2 3 rd 4th 5th 6th
1A F,A or B I,T,B,or M L L X,J or B K
2A F,A or B I, T, B or M L L X,J or B N
1B F,A or B I,T,B or M L L X,J or B K
2B F,A or B I, T, B or M L L X,J or B N
1Ca F,A or B I,T,B or M C L X,J or B K
2Ca F,A, or B I, T, B or M C L X,J or B N
2Cb F or A I, T, B or M R R X,J or B N
1D O O O O O K
2D O O O O O N
3D O O O O O N
NOTES:
1 Class 1 controls are similar to Class 2 controls except that Class 1 controls incorporate a
continual self check of the flame safeguard and flame detector. EN 298 requires this check for
Class 1 and Class 2 equivalents.
2 EN 298 requires that the flame safeguard checks for presence of flame prior to start up (safe start
check) and the 6th character refers to permanent or non permanent operation only.

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APPENDIX E
PRO-FORMA LETTER TO THE GAS TECHNICAL REGULATOR FROM A
CONTRACTOR /COMPANY CERTIFYING THE TESTS CONDUCTED ON THE
PES
(Informative)

CONTRACTOR/COMPANY (letterhead)

To:(ABC Gas Company)


We certify that for the Type B appliance described in the accompanying submission
for:

......................................................................................................................................
the Programmable Electronic System (PES) has been designed, installed and
tested in accordance with AS 61508 to try to detect any possible systematic
software and systematic/random hardware faults. To the best of our assessment
the PES is error-free and functions according to the logic on the attached flow
sheet.

Yours faithfully

....................................... (Signature)

........................................ (Print name)

Date:...................................................

FIGURE E1 EXAMPLE OF PRO-FORMA LETTERPES

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93 AS 38142009

APPENDIX F
GAS/AIR RATIO CONTROL PROGRAMMABLE ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
(Normative)

F1 INTRODUCTION
The intent of this Appendix is to provide guidance on a means of complying with the
requirements of Clause 2.27.6 where certified or PES based gas/air ratio systems are used
for combustion control. There may be other configurations that meet the intent of the
standard and may use new and innovative technology. For these alternatives acceptance
from the technical regulator shall be sought prior to implementation.

F2 DEFINITION OF GAS/AIR RATIO CONTROL PROGRAMMABLE


ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
Gas/air control programmable electronic systems (PES) derive the air and gas flows from
flow transmitters, valve position, pressures, blower speed, or other sensors, and calculate
the air/gas ratio. The desired gas/air ratio throughout the various firing ranges is maintained
by independently adjusting the gas and/or airflow rates.
Clause 2.27 requires these systems to be provided with independent limit device(s) to cause
lockout in the event of a failure of the gas/air control system, or before hazardous
conditions occur. This safety function shall be either hardwired, or performed by a safety
related PES in accordance with Clause 2.26.3. Sensors used in the safety function shall be
independent from the sensors used for air/gas control.
With systems that do not use a safety related PES to perform safety functions, it is common
practice to use a hardwired oxygen analyser to initiate shutdown on low oxygen level.
With systems that use a safety related PES to perform safety functions, it is common
practice to use independent air and gas flow transmitters, or control valve position
feedback, to initiate shutdown on dangerous gas/air ratio.
There is a number of PES based air/gas ratio control systems that have been certified to
EN 298. These groups of devices are designed such as to only allow the parameters of the
air and gas control valve positions to be changed. The concept is similar to an electronic
version of the fixed profile cams. Once set the relative position of both air and gas control
motors are constantly monitored. Deviations that are outside set limits will cause the burner
to lockout. These types of devices are often referred to as 'parameterisable' air fuel ratio
controls. These systems are covered in more detail under F2 and F3 below.
A non-safety PES shall not be relied upon to initiate any of the safety actions.

F3 PARAMETERISABLE SYSTEMS THAT DO NOT REQUIRE A LOW OXYGEN


LIMIT DEVICE
Systems without an oxygen sensing probe or low oxygen alarm shall comply with the
following conditions:
(a) The system shall be certified to EN 298, an approved alternative Standard or deemed
failsafe without the use of a probe.
(b) The internal program or sequencing of the system shall not be modifiable. The
settings of the relative positions of the air and fuel control devices may be adjustable.

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AS 38142009 94

(c) The system shall be installed and wired in accordance with the manufacturers
installation and wiring instructions and maintained in accordance with the
manufacturers recommendations.
(d) Satisfactory combustion shall be maintained at all firing rates. For natural gas, a
minimum excess air level of 23% or 4.2% O2 shall be maintained.
(e) Close attention shall be paid to the connection of the motors to the control dampers
and valves. The preferred option is directly coupled devices. However, linkage
systems may be used provided acceptable steps have been taken to prevent slippage.
Such steps include shafts being connected to linkages by pinning or welding and the
use of keyways or splines.

F4 PARAMETERISABLE SYSTEMS THAT REQUIRE A LOW OXYGEN LIMIT


Systems that are deemed not to be failsafe without an oxygen probe, shall comply with the
following requirements in addition to F2:
(a) Failure of the oxygen probe during the monitoring operation or the trimming control
shall result in the system defaulting to excess air conditions and shutdown.
(b) The oxygen trip limit shall be set such that the level of Carbon Monoxide produced
by the burner/s does not exceed 1500 ppm.
(c) A low oxygen trip shall result in a lockout of the burner/s and an alarm being
initiated.
(d) The location of the probe and the response time shall ensure that a low O2 trip occurs
within 30 seconds.
(e) Non-safety PES that is used for gas/air ratio control shall be fitted with a separate
oxygen sensor that will initiate a safety shutdown on low oxygen. The SIL for this
configuration shall meet or be designed to meet a level acceptable to the technical
regulator.
(f) Failure of the oxygen sensing probe shall cause the burner/s to lockout.

F5 PES GAS/AIR RATIO CONTROL SYSTEMS


The PES is a general application control device that can be programmed to perform a
number of logic functions as well as air fuel ratio controls. PES based systems that are not
fitted with a separate oxygen probe shall meet a SIL of no less than 2 as defined by
AS 61508. The configuration of the PES shall meet the requirements of Clause 2.27. Some
of the means of achieving these requirements are as follows:
(a) Duplicate gas and duplicate airflow transmitters that are not SIL-rated feeding a
single safety related PES with SIL 3 certification.
(b) Single gas and single airflow SIL 2 transmitters feeding a single safety related PES
with SIL 3 certification.
(c) Two independent systems that each have a gas transmitter, an air flow transmitter and
non-safety related PES or DCS (Distributed Control System) or a safety related PES
without certification. Both gas and air ratio control systems must be completely
independent of each other and must be continually checking that there is never more
than 2% variation between the measured ratios
(d) Single gas and single airflow transmitters, each with a back-up for the respective flow
measurements such as pressure measurement or control valve position, all feeding a
single safety related PES with certification. It must be ensured that the installation, as
well as the PES, conforms to SIL 2.

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(e) Gas/air ratio control systems that are part of a DCS or PES without certification for
safety applications. These shall be fitted with duplicate oxygen probes that will effect
burner shut down or other back up systems that comply with the above. Failure of the
oxygen sensing probe shall cause a safety shut down of the burner. Oxygen probes
that are used for a low oxygen trip function shall be failsafe or trip if high oxygen is
detected.

F6 ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BURNER MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS


FITTED WITH LOW OXYGEN LIMIT DEVICE
F6.1 The oxygen probe that could act as an ignition source
In the case where an oxygen probe is fitted either as a requirement or used as a control (trim
function), the following shall apply:

(a) The probe shall not be activated unless the main burner has been established. Control
by the probe shall be inhibited until the probe is at its correct operating temperature.
Interlocking to ensure the burner is held at low fire will meet this requirement.
(b) On shut down of the burner, the oxygen sensor shall be turned off and allowed to cool
down. If this is in excess of the post-purge time for the appliance, an additional 'cool
down timer' shall be fitted to ensure sufficient time is provided.
(c) On a low oxygen excursion, the burner management system shall immediately, by
hard wired means, shut down the safety shut-off system, and switch off the oxygen
detectors heated probe.
(d) Manual reset shall not occur until the hard-wired 'cool down timer' for the probe, if
fitted, has timed out.
F6.2 With an oxygen probe that does not act as an ignition source
On start-up with a hot probe, burner light up may commence after the completion of the
purge.
On start-up with a cold probe, the oxygen probe may commence heating itself as soon as
power to the burner management system is provided or continue to operate during the
shutdown period as normal.
On a low oxygen excursion, the burner management system shall immediately, by hard
wired means, shut down the safety shut-off system.
If a supplier states that their oxygen probe is not an ignition source, they shall provide
information and assurance in writing to support their claim.

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AS 38142009 96

APPENDIX G
MAINTENANCE AND CHECKS OF SAFETY DEVICES
(Informative)

G1 INTRODUCTION
This Appendix is an aid to ensure the continued safe operation of a gas-fired appliance and
plant.

G2 REGULAR TESTING
A regular systematic and thorough inspection, together with programmed maintenance and
testing of safety devices is essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of gas fired
equipment. Such preventative maintenance and testing should be carried out on an annual
basis. More frequent testing will be determined by the reliability of the device, the
environmental conditions, the back-up protection offered by other devices or procedures,
and the recommendations of the safety device manufacturer, the appliance manufacturer or
installer. Minimum testing and maintenance intervals should be set in consultation with the
appropriate licensed or responsible person.
The following is an aid in ensuring the continued safe operation of the plant.
For appliances that are fitted with a PES base burner management and safety system in
compliance with AS 61508, the testing frequency of critical interlocks and limit devices
will be dictated by the SIL evaluation. In some instances the procedures and tests
requirements will be far more rigorous than indicated by the following generic testing
procedures model. These installations are covered by the requirements of the Technical
Regulator as part of the appliance installation acceptance process.
NOTE: Safety controls are usually activated so rarely that they easily fall into neglect and
become unsafe. If an interlock or valve has not been actuated for months, there is a chance that it
might not work when needed. Thus, an investment in safety equipment should be supported by a
maintenance commitment, i.e. a regular checking of safety circuits, mechanisms and settings, to
make certain that neither deterioration nor tampering has occurred.

G3 PERSONNEL AND ORGANIZATION


Tests should be made by personnel who are competent, accredited and familiar with the
equipment, and the specific functions of the various safety controls. Inspection reports
should go to persons having sufficient authority to act on them. Arrangements should be
made to ensure coordination between operating and inspecting personnel.
In some jurisdictions the service provider carrying out maintenance and servicing may
require to be licensed by the Technical Regulator.

G4 GENERAL OUTLINE OF PROCEDURES


At least one complete cycle of operation should be performed prior to and immediately
following every test, and at least two complete cycles where any adjustments has been made
or any part replaced.
A rigorous inspection should be made during and after the initial operating cycle and should
include the following:
(a) All appropriate inspection covers should be removed to expose any levers, contacts,
or other working parts.

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97 AS 38142009

(b) The various safety devices should be operated in turn to check the proper
performance of each one.
(c) Close visual inspection of all mechanical and electrical components of the safety
devices should be made. This includes all timers, relays, contactors and limit
switches. Particular notice should be taken of broken or bent parts, unusual or sticky
action, improper contact appearance or lack of contact pressure, effects of excessive
heating, vibration, the presence of metallic particles and the intrusion of moisture,
dust or chemical attack.
(d) A proper check should be made of the surfaces and engagement of any clutches or
timing gears, and the position of connection levers, wires, cables or pipes to be sure
that mechanical interference cannot occur.
(e) Timing mechanisms and safety devices should be checked several times before
satisfactory performance is assumed to have been proved.
(f) Upon completion of the tests, covers of all safety controls should be properly sealed
in place to minimize tampering, a complete recommissioning procedure including a
dry-run should be carried out.
(g) A comprehensive report of the work and tests carried out must be provided to the
owner operator. The report is to provide the following information:
(i) The combustion readings for the appliance/burner before the tests.
(ii) The combustion readings for the appliance/burner after the completion of
servicing.
(iii) The settings of any safety interlock as found and settings after servicing.
(iv) Record of any modifications or changes to the operation of the appliance.
(v) List of modification additions or replacement of device, components or other
controls associated with the safe use of the appliance.
A Field Check List should be used to record results of the Annual Safety Test. An example
is given in Appendix J.
It is imperative that any test actually simulates the way the equipment would be required to
operate when an unsafe incident occurs.

G5 TESTING SCHEDULES
Tables G1 to G4 detail the minimum recommended tests for components in the appliances
protection system. The tests are based on a typical industrial gasfired appliance.
However, it is recognized that for other fuel and for specialized processes, departures from
these procedures may be appropriate. Any such departure from the basic principles implied
should only be made on the basis of sound engineering judgement and experience. They
should be applied with the following warnings and provisos in mind:
(a) Do not undertake the following tests unless thoroughly familiar with the operation of
the safety devices and the correct testing procedures.
(b) If in doubt call in the appliance manufacturer, a competent service organization or the
appropriate utility.
(c) Ensure all the original safe settings of the safety devices are recorded before making
adjustments.
(d) Some or all of the tests may be required to be carried out by a person authorized by
the appropriate authority. Check before carrying out any such tests.
(e) All the tests are safety tests, no efficiency tests are included.

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AS 38142009 98

(f) The frequency of the tests is a suggested minimum, which may be varied depending
on environment, equipment, manufacturers' instructions, SIL evaluation, operating
procedures, or the requirements of the Technical Regulator. Where the time between
tests is increased, it must only be done on the basis of sound engineering justification.

TABLE G1
SAFETY CHECKINDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL GAS FIRED APPLIANCES
Minimum Requirements (Annual unless
Component
stated otherwise)
Manual isolating valve Test for gas tightness
Check for ease of movement
Filter/strainers Check, clean or replace filter medium
Test for gas tightness
Pressure regulators Test and record trip settings
Test for gas tightness
Check breather holes and vents are clear
Over pressure or under pressure Test and record trip settings
Gas valve train Safety devices Test for gas tightness
Check breather holes and vents are clear
Safety shut off valves Test between block valves if faulty:
(including vent valves) Inspect and repair
Test for gas tightness
Test functionality of valves
Gas/air ratio control valves Test for gas tightness if required
Test for smooth operationlubricate if
required
Repair or replace sloppy or stiff linkages
Non return valves Inspect and repair if required
Test for gas tightness

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TABLE G2
TYPICAL TEST SCHEDULE FOR COMBUSTION
Minimum requirements (Annual unless
Component
stated otherwise)
Combustion air system Inspect and clean filters
Inspect and clean fans
Check mechanical devices and lubricate if
required
Flueing Check flue for corrosion, obstructions and flue
gas leakage
Explosion relief Check for integrity of explosion relief devices
where fitted
Smoothness of ignition and Clean and adjusted pilot and main burner if
flame stability required
Where a pilot is used, pilot ignition is smooth
not delayed and stable
Where a pilot is used, lighting of main flame
by pilot is smooth and is not delayed
For burners starting at low fire, ignition is not
delayed and is smooth
Check the flame stability of main flame over
its entire range as is practical
Combustion
Flue gas analysis Undertaken in accordance with Clause 3.6.
Record start gas, low, mid and high fire
readings as far as is practical
NOTE: Every endeavour should be made to
confirm satisfactory combustion over the
entire burner range.
Ventilation Check that ventilation openings are clear of
obstruction
Check conditions of mechanical devices and
interlocks
Direct fired heaters or unflued Minimum six monthly check flue gas analysis
appliances (spray booths) to ensure standards for direct fired air heaters
are met. Equipment used to be capable of
measuring how levels of carbon monoxide and
carbon dioxide as well as formaldehyde and
NO 2
Electronic gas/air ratio systems Minimum six month check flue gas analysis to
ensure that the equipment is functioning
correctly and maintaining the required gas/air
ratio and trip settings

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AS 38142009 100

TABLE G3
TYPICAL TEST SCHEDULE FOR INTERLOCKS AND LIMITS
Components Annual checks
1 Combustion air flow detector Check settings of any related limits and
interlocks
Reset to a safe level and test for shutdown
2 High gas pressure detector Check settings of limits and interlocks
3 Low gas pressure detector Systematically reset one at a time to a safe
level and test for shutdown
4 Gas pressure relief valve Check settings of limits and interlocks
5 Overpressure shut-off device
NOTE: Test must cause limit or interlock to
6 Purge air flow device and timer
operate to be valid. Observe the set out-in and
cut-out position of each device. For low
pressure switches, turn the supervised pressure
medium off and on and observe whether the
load contact opens and closes properly
7 Low or high level limits Check settings of limits and interlocks
8 Excess process temperature or For high temperatures or high pressure
pressure cutout or other process switches, adjust the switch setting down until
9 limit the load contact opens. For low temperature
Positional switches switches, adjust the switch setting upwards
until the load contact opens. Caution: The
switch must be reset to the proper operational
setting.
For positional switches, confirm correct
operation and out of position alarm and/or
trip

TABLE G4
TYPICAL TEST SCHEDULE FOR FLAME SUPERVISION SYSTEM
Type of system Annual checks
Thermoelectric Check shutdown time by either removing element from flame; or
disconnecting. Check location of the pilot and thermocouple to
ensure that, if thermocouple is energized, pilot will light main flame.
Inspect thermoelement for deterioration and replace if necessary.
Flame ionization Inspect and clean flame rod and ground fins. Replace where
necessary. Inspect and clean the earth terminal. Check for shutdown
and lockout when rod is not in flame or is disconnected. Check
location of pilot and flame rod to ensure that if pilot energizes the
flame rod, the pilot will light main flame.
Ultraviolet Check for shutdown and lockout by disconnecting or removing and
covering the cell. Clean viewing cell. Replace cell if operation
exceeds 10 000 h or as per manufacturer's instructions. Where a tube
supplying cooling air to the cell is fitted, check if it is clear and
clean.
Infrared Check for shutdown and lockout by disconnecting or removing and
covering the cell. Clean viewing cell. Replace cell as per
manufacturer's instructions. Where a tube supplying cooling air to
the cell is fitted, check if it is clear and clean.
All types Check that at least one complete cycle of operation is performed
immediately following every test and where adjustment has been
made. The checking should include times and functions of each
event in the cycle. Replace components that do not operate in
accordance with their manufacturers' specifications.

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101 AS 38142009

APPENDIX H
TYPICAL OPERATING SEQUENCE FOR AN AUTOMATIC FORCED
OR INDUCED DRAUGHT BURNER WITH INTERRUPTED PILOT
(Informative)

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AS 38142009 102

FIGURE H1 TYPICAL AUTOMATIC SEQUENCE DIAGRAM FOR A BURNER SYSTEM


USING A PILOT

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103 AS 38142009

FIGURE H2 TYPICAL AUTOMATIC SEQUENCE DIAGRAM FOR A BURNER


SYSTEM WITHOUT A PILOT

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AS 38142009 104

APPENDIX I
TYPICAL COMMISSIONING PROCEDURE
(Informative)

I1 SCOPE
This Appendix describes a typical commissioning procedure, and is intended as a model on
which the commissioning instructions for an appliance can be based. It is written about a
gas-fired appliance that is automatic in operation as a matter of convenience, but it is
expected that it can be adapted for applications using manual control.

I2 STAGE 1 PRELIMINARY INSPECTION


(a) Check that all necessary preliminary approvals have been obtained.
(b) Burnercheck that the capacity matches the appliance specification.
(c) Burner, valve train and componentscheck compliance with the applicable
requirements.
(d) Obtain the operating and commissioning manual, including a burner and appliance
wiring diagram.
(e) Gas supply:
(i) Check the gas availability and condition at the appliance inlet, e.g. gas type,
pressure, and temperature.
(ii) Check any gas over-pressure protection against specification.
(iii) Check that any interlocks for multiple fuel firing are as specified.
(f) Interlocks:
(i) Check appliance safety devicesover-temperature cut-out device, vents, relief
devices, etc.
(ii) Check for interlocks on multiple burner installations.
(iii) Conduct a visual inspection and check compliance with any applicable
requirements.
(g) Check availability and correct voltage, phase, etc., of the electricity supply.
(h) Ventilation:
(i) check the plantroom ventilation for compliance with any applicable
requirements, size and location of openings; or
(ii) if mechanical ventilation is provided, check the operation of fans and their
interlocks with ventilation openings.
(i) Carry out a general safety inspection of plantroom area.
(j) Check that the flue complies with applicable requirements.

I3 STAGE 2 ACTIVATIONRUN WITHOUT FUEL


(a) Check that all fuels have been isolated.
(b) Ensure that burner isolating valves are closed, i.e. start and main safety shut off
valves.

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105 AS 38142009

(c) Check all valves, joints and components for gas leakage.
(d) Set control instruments (e.g. regulators and air pressure switch) to a level at which
they will not cause the burner to lockout.
(e) Switch on power supply.
(f) Check the operation of all fan motors, including the direction of rotation.
(g) Prove that all valves operate in the correct sequence, check and set any valve-proving
provisions.
(h) Check the sequence of the burner management system up to lockout, with no start gas
present.
(i) Check that the purge and/or combustion air pressure switch contacts change over
from the no-flow condition to the start-up flow condition, and that the proving
provisions for both conditions function correctly.
(j) Check the purge time, and that the purge is monitored during the entire purge period.
(k) Check and verify the exhaust rates, dilution air rates, process flow rates etc are as per
specification.

I4 STAGE 3 ACTIVATIONRUN WITH FUEL


(a) Check that the gas supply, burner, appliance, flue, plantroom and process are ready
for a safe run on gas.
(b) Open the appliance manual isolating valve.
(c) Ensure the isolation of main gas to the burner by closing the test firing valve or by
removing the test firing link.
(d) Ensure that air flow for the start flame is adequate.
(e) Admit gas to the burner system inlet.
(f) Switch burner on, establish start flame.
(g) Check start rate.
(h) Prove the operation of the flame safeguard system for start flame.
(i) Check for reliable ignition of start flame.
(j) After the establishment of start flame, introduce main gas and establish main flame.
(k) Prove the operation of the flame safeguard system for main flame.
(l) Check the gas flow rate with the appliance specification.
(m) Re-check the start rate.
(n) If high/low firing, check the low fire rate and air setting, and check the flame stability
during transition.

I5 STAGE 4 OPERATION
(a) Carry out combustion checks over the operating range of the burners to ensure that
combustion is appropriate for the appliance and complies with the requirements of
this Standard and the technical regulator.
(b) Check and adjust any air pressure switch.
(c) Check and set all safety and operating controls.
(d) Check the operation of pressure relief devices.

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AS 38142009 106

(e) Check the operation of all interlocks (not forgetting any plantroom ventilation
interlocks).
(f) Check and verify the exhaust rates, dilution air rates, process flow rates and any other
process flow rates and conditions are as per specification.
(g) Check that all covers, such as regulator caps, pressure test point screws, hatches, on
controls have been replaced.
(h) Secure all locking devices.
(i) Conduct any required performance verification or efficiency tests.

I6 STAGE 5 COMPLETION
(a) Ensure that the appropriate operative, supervisory or maintenance staff, or the
owner/operator, receive the relevant instructions on the following:
(i) Burner electrical schematic drawings.
(ii) Burner component details.
(iii) Operating sequence.
(iv) Adjustments and settings.
(v) Fault finding.
(vi) Maintenance.
(b) Complete the commissioning data sheet and provide a copy to the owner/operator.
(c) Record and re-submit any variations to the appliance if these constitute a departure
from the original specification.
(d) Record the gas supply details.
(e) Check that safe operating instructions are permanently and prominently displayed
near the appliance operating station.
(f) Check that any necessary post-commissioning approvals, including that of the
technical regulator, have been completed.
(g) Hand over to the owner/operator. Commissioning completed.

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107 AS 38142009

APPENDIX J
TYPICAL FIELD CHECK LIST
(Informative)
This checklist should only be used after the full requirements of the Standard have been
consulted and understood. The checklist is not totally comprehensive and is to be used only
as an aid to thorough field testing of gas appliances.
The installation of gas appliances is covered by AS 5601. Both AS 5601 and this Standard
should be consulted when assessing any gas appliance installation to ensure that, not only
the appliance is safe, but its installation is safe as well.

JOB IDENTIFICATION REFERENCE No.: ..........................................................................

OWNER/OPERATOR:........................................................................................................

CONTACT: ........................................................................................................................

ADDRESS: ........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................... POSTCODE: ......................................................

GAS TYPE: ........................................ SUPPLY PRESSURE:....................................kPa

CONTRACTOR:.................................................................................................................

ADDRESS: ........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................... POSTCODE: ....................................

COMMISSIONING PERSON: .............................................................................................

DATE OF COMMISSIONING:.................. /.............. /....................

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AS 38142009 108

Markings and instructions


Data plate (Section 4)
1 Manufacturers name
2 Model identification
3 Nominal gas consumption
4 Gas type
5 Maximum & minimum gas supply pressure
6 Purge times
7 Gas pressure at burner head for nominal gas consumption
8 Combustion chamber volume
9 Maximum appliance design temperature
10 Total volume swept by the combustion products in passing
from the burner to the flue connection
11 Serial number
12 Date of manufacture
13 Purge volume for combustible atmospheres
14 Dilution air volume m/min at 20C (where applicable)
15 Design solvent (where applicable) Type
Quantity (1/h)
16 Any other markings required by the technical regulator
Other markings correct (Clause 4.1)
Instructions, available and sufficient (Clause 4.2)
Appliance design and construction
Design, construction & components conform to submission (Clauses 2.1 to 2.7)
Any special hazards, eg solvents, dust
Suitable location
Controls & indicators adequate & well located
Adjustable devices
Sound construction
Parts secure
No sharp edges
Appliance supports
Provision to sample flue gases
Access to controls, burners & safety devices
Flame visible
Surface and component temperatures
Electrical connection, ease & cross connection
Operator access to controls
Materials suitable

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109 AS 38142009

Special appliance requirements (Clauses 5.1 to 5.13)


High input appliances
Air-gas mixing machines and blowers
Atmosphere generators
Process after-burners
Steam and hot water boilers
Direct fired air heaters and curtains
Stationary gas engines and turbines
Incinerators and cremators
Ovens direct-fired
Rotary process equipment and ovens direct-fired
Smoke ovens direct-fired
Water heaters
Multi-fuel firing systems
Gas pipework and valve trains
Comply with AS5601 or Technical Regulator (Clause 2.8.1)
Gas tight (Clause 2.8.1)
Enclosure ventilation (Clause 2.8.2)
Pressure rating (Clause 2.8.3)
Use of pressurized air, oxygen or standby gases
(Clause 2.8.4)
Multi position manual valve indication (Clause 2.8.5)
Design of valve handles, dials & pointers (Clause 2.8.6)
Appliance isolating valve requirements (Clause 2.8.7)
Main burner isolation and location (Clause 2.8.8.1)
Main burner for commissioning (Clause 2.8.8.2)
Gas filter fitted >7kPa (Clause 2.13.1)
Gas filter requirements & location (Clause 2.13.2)
Gas pressure regulation (Clause 2.9) Set:
Fitted Clause 2.9 1)
Requirements Clause 2.9.2)
Accuracy Clause 2.9 3)
Position (Clause 2.9 4)
Venting (Clause 2.9.5)
Over-pressure protection (Clause 2.10) Set:
Shut off gas supply (Clause 2.10 1)
Required (Clause 2.10.2)

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AS 38142009 110

Setting (Clause 2.10.3)


Location sense point (Clause 2.10.4)
Pressure test points (Clause 2.12)
Fitted (Clause 2.12 1)
Isolation / manual valve>7kPa (Clause 2.12.3)
Safety shut off systems (Clause 2.14)
Certified (Clause 2.14.1)
Operation (Clause 2.14.2)
Correct for input (Clause 2.14.3)
Requirements (Clause 2.14.6)
(Rated for pressure, orientation, vent valve size)
Not bypassed (Clause 2.14.7)
Vent line to AS 5601 (Clause 2.14.8)
Position-proving system (Clause 2.14.9)
POC switch operation (Clause 2.14.9.1)
Leakage detection (Clause 2.14.10)
Actuators (Clause 2.14.12)
Other
Combustion air controls (Clauses 2.15 to 2.20)
General
Correctly sized, clean air, unobstructed
Atmospheric burner aeration
Burner airflow to manufacturer specifications
Air flow detector(s) proof of flow Set: Trip:
Air flow detector(s) self check
Shutdown if air fails
Air-gas mixture <50% ignition temp
Dampers
o Fixed/Adjustable

Secure
Interlocked for purge
Interlocked burner ignition
o Automatic

Maintain satisfactory combustion


Failure mode correct
o Manual damper stops & indicator

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111 AS 38142009

Appliance purging
Adequate flow
Occurs correctly
Set: Trip:
Interlocked, sealed
Proving fitted, self check, reset
Proof of recirculation zone fans Set: Trip:
Mechanical means conduct
Five changes, >25%, circulation OK
If inert, proved and interlocked
Natural draught requirements
Process controls Set: Trip:
Process limits to cause lockout
Over temperature protection on Recirculation fans
Pilot burners
Stable (Clause 2.22.1)
Ignition of main burner (Clause 2.22.1)
Manual ignition system (Clause 2.21.2)
Support and location (Clause 2.1.7)
Ignition systems (Clause 2.21)
Control circuits (Clause 2.26)
Flame safeguards (Section 2.24)
Required
Reaction time
Self check/flame simulation
Multi-fuel firing systems (Clause 5.13)
Alternative
Simultaneous
Appliance operation
General
Smooth & reliable ignition of burners (Clause 2.21.1)
Main burner (Section 2.23)
Ignition within combustion chamber, prevent blockage,
retract/swivel, cross ignite, zones

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AS 38142009 112

Ignition (Clause 3.2)


Starting sequence interlocks
Ignition sequence
Start gas rate %CO2
Main burners (Clause 3.3)
Start flame proving period, main flame establishment period,
supervision, start rate
Interlocks & limit devices
Effective
Interlock fitted, tested
Correctly installed & operating Set:
Limit devices
Correctly installed
Trip and lockout Set:
Operation sequences (Clause 3.5)
Power interruption, sequence correct, safe on shut down,
re-ignition attempt
Flame safeguard systems
Certified, to be fitted, class (Clause 2.24.1 to 4)
Max shut-off time (Clause 2.24.5)
Self check, no simulation (Clause 2.24.3 & 7)
Not to detect other flame (Clause 24.8)
Start interlocks (Clause 3.2.1)
Pre-purge (Clause 2.19)
Spark/ignition (Clause 3.2.2.1)
Start flame establishment period (Clause 3.2.2.3)
Main flame establishment period (Clause 3.3.2)
Lockout of burner(s) (Clause 3.5.4)
Flame visibility, maintenance and operation (Clause 2.3)
Interlocks and limit devices (Clause 3.4)
Interlocks not to be bypasses
Interlocks provided for process safety
Requirements for Interlock devices
Limit device requirements
Limit devices to be failsafe

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113 AS 38142009

Control Circuits (Clauses 2.25 to 2.26)


Requirements, single failure no hazard
Gas actuated
Use of PES
Certified, safety systems hardwired, evaluated
Bleed lines
Gas air ratio controls (Clause 2.27)
General requirements design and configuration
Interference with interlocks
Variations in control settings and control response
Preheated combustion air control
Requirements for independent gas and air
Preheated combustion air control
Requirements for independent gas and air
Special requirements for PES based Gas/Air Ratio control
Pneumatic control weep and sense lines
Combustion conditions & analysis
Combustion conditions (Clause 3.6)
Ignition smooth & reliable
Complete within combustion chamber
Combustion stable

COMBUSTION LOW MID HIGH DFAH

Carbon dioxide
Carbon monoxide
Oxygen
Start gas/low start fire carbon dioxide (Clause 3.2.3) %
CO/CO2 ratio < 0.02 (Clause 3.6.1)
Airflow measurements
Purge air flow Required: Actual:
Purge time Required: Actual:
Commissioning
Systematic and correct

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AS 38142009 114

Special appliance requirements


High input appliances (Clause 5.2)
Multiple main burner ignition
Burner control
Flame safeguards
Continuous checking required?
Multiple burner supervision
Extra flame safeguard
Intermittent/permanent pilots
Air-gas mixing machines and mixing blowers (Clause 5.3)
Strength sufficient
Material satisfactory
Air-gas ratio fixing
Safety shut off system and operation
Pipework and fittings strength sufficient
Mixing blower outlet not exceeding 1 m
Blow out discs and non-return valve
Flame arrestors correct & correctly installed
Atmosphere generators and special atmospheres (Clause 5.4)
Water cooling system Set:
Flow indicators
Venting of special atmospheres
Generator start-up
Automatic atmosphere relief device Set:
Disposal of special atmospheres
Vent lines
Special atmosphere (combustible)
Safe discharge
Reliable ignition
Flame arrestor
Flame arrestor operation
Piping for special atmosphere
Storage of special atmospheres
Compressed special atmosphere

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115 AS 38142009

Exothermic atmosphere generators


Flame safeguard
Low temperature limit Set: Trip:
Pressure detectors High: Set: Lockout:
Low: Set: Lockout:
Manual ignition
Purging Time: Rate:
Air-gas ratio control
Endothermic atmospheric generators
Safety shut off valves Trip:
Air shut off device Trip:
Pressure detectors High gas: Set: Trip:
Low gas: Set: Trip:
High air: Set: Trip:
Process after-burners (Clause 5.5)
Interlocking
Flame failure
Excessive process products limit Set: Trip:
Combustion air supply
Shutdown
Air in process exhaust gas
Pre-purge Time: Rate: Omission:
Steam and hot water boilers (Clause 5.6)
Registered Number:
Emergency valve (AS 5601)
Safe, accessible & remote
Type
Appropriate sign
Direct-fired air heaters (Clause 5.7)
Air supply directly from outside
Air flow detector No flow: Set: Trip:
High temperature limit Trip: Set: (80C max)
Start gas rate (10% max) Rate:
Combustion CO 2: % CO: ppm
Aldehydes odour:
Correct test conditions:
Additional markings as required

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AS 38142009 116

Stationary gas engines and turbines (Clause 5.8)


Safety shut off system Trip:
Turbine shut off system Trip:
Emergency isolation systems
Turbine Purging
Flexible connection
Exhaust system strength
Blow disc interlock
No manifolding of exhaust systems
External terminal location
Ventilation requirements for buildings and
enclosures
Turbine Ignition requirements
Extinction safety time for turbines
Indirect flame monitoring systems
Incinerators and cremators (Clause 5.9)
Safety shut off system Trip:
Visual flame loss indicator
Primary burner interlock Set: Trip:
Combustion air Set: Trip:
Pre-purge Time: Rate:
Flue not interconnected
Rotary process equipment and ovens (Clause 5.10)
Pre-purge Time: Rate:
Provision of air
Explosion relief
High temperature limit Set: Trip:
Access for cleaning
Processes with solvent and combustible dusts
Provision of dilution air
Recirculation fans interlocking
Monitoring of LEL

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117 AS 38142009

Smoke ovens direct-fired (Clause 5.11)


Lighting torch
Combustion air supply
Explosion relief Area:
Shielding of burners
Sawdust tray location
Flue cross-sectional area
Flue damper restriction
Water heaters (Clause 5.12)
Thermostat fitted
High temperature limit Trip: Set: (99C max)
Unvented heater relief valve(s) Total rating:
Draining

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AS 38142009 118

NOTES

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119 AS 38142009

NOTES
AS 38142009 120

NOTES

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