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LESSON37DesignofSprinklerIrrigationSystemI

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LESSON37DesignofSprinklerIrrigationSystemI
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37.1GeneralConsiderations
Currentcourse
IE Asprinklerirrigationsystemneedstobelaidanddesignedproperlytosuitthe
Participants conditions of a particular site to achieve high efficiencies. The choice of
General sprinklersystemdependsoni)landtopographythatcannotbeproperlyleveled
Module1:Water owing to the subsoil being exposed and cost involved in land leveling ii) soil
Resources
Utilization&
texture, particularly infiltration rate of the soil so that the application or
Irrigati... precipitation rate of the system is less than the infiltration rate of the soil iii)
Module available water resources and eventually matching the capacity of sprinkler
2:Measurementof systemwiththewaterrequirementofthecropsand,thesystemwithhighwater
IrrigationWater
application efficiency, and iv) cost effective from the point of crop production
Module3:Irrigation
WaterConveyance economics. This lesson deals with various aspects required for the design of
Systems sprinklerirrigationsystem.
Module4:Land
GradingSurveyand
Design
Module5:Soil 37.2InventoryoftheLandandWaterResources
Water
Atmosphere Theinventoryofresourcesincludesfollowing:
PlantsIntera...
Module6:Surface i)TopographicalmapoftheArea:Thetopographicalmapofthefieldneedstobe
IrrigationMethods prepared. The map should include the field boundaries and the locations of the
Module7: bunds, farm roads building and location of water resources. The map may also
Pressurized
include possibly the areas selected for cultivation of different crops in the field.
Irrigation
Thisisrequiredforknowingthetotalareatobeirrigatedfordifferentcropsand
LESSON35.
Sprinkler thenestimatingthequantityofwaterrequiredforeachirrigation.Themapshould
Irrigation also include the contour map of the area. The contour map enables to determine
Lesson35Quiz theslopeofthefield,ifany,inboththedirection.Theslopeisrequiredtodecide
LESSON36 the layout and placement of the pipe network (main, sub main and laterals) and
Typesand
Componentsof
computationoftheelevationdifferencewhichisrequiredforthedesignofpipesin
SprinklerSystem termsofitsdiameterandlength.
Lesson36Quiz
ii) Water Resources: The information on quantity and quality of available water
LESSON37
Designof resources is required for design of sprinkler system. The quantity of the water
Sprinkler resourcesintermsoftheseasonalavailabilityofthewateranddischargeavailable
Irrigation
SystemI
forirrigatingthefieldanddurationforwhichitisavailableperdayarerequiredto
Lesson37Quiz
match with the crop water requirement. This information is particularly required
LESSON38
fordecidingwhethertheentireareaoftheproposedfieldortheportionofthearea
Designof of the field can be irrigated. The location of the source of water in the field is
Sprinkler desiredtoestimatethelengthanddiameterofthemain,submainandlateralpipes.
Irrigation
SystemII The water quality parameters include EC, pH and SAR. Some crops may have
Lesson38Quiz detrimentalorscorchingeffectonleaves,ifwaterhavinghighsolublesaltsused
LESSON39 forsprinklingwater.Thequalityofwateristhusimportanttodecideitssuitability
Applicationof forcropsforsprinklerirrigation.Thisinformationisalsorequiredfordecidingthe
Fertilizersand irrigationfrequency.Thewaterwithhighsolublesaltcontentsmayberequiredto
Chemicals...
beappliedmorefrequentlycomparedtogoodqualitywater.
Lesson39Quiz
LESSON40 iii) Crops to be Irrigated: The information on crops, its root zone depth, crop
Evaluationof
RotatingHead
coefficient, and allowable depletion level is required for computing the water
Sprinklersa... requirementofthecropsandirrigationfrequency.Theclimaticandsoilparameters
Lesson40Quiz arerequiredtodeterminecropwaterrequirement.
LESSON41Drip
Irrigation iv) Soils: The soil parameters such as field capacity, wilting point, bulk density
Lesson41Quiz and infiltration rate are used for irrigation system design. Field capacity, wilting
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LESSON42 point,bulkdensityarerequiredforestimatingtheavailablesoilwaterintheroot
Componentsof
DripIrrigation
zone. Allowable soil water depletion for a specified crop and climate data are
SystemI required for computing the depth of irrigation and frequency of irrigation. The
Lesson42Quiz informationoninfiltrationrateisusedinselectingthenozzlesize,typeofnozzle
LESSON43 andlateralspacing.
Descriptionof
DripSystem v) Climate: The weather parameters such as pan evaporation, rainfall,
Components
temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and sunshine hours are required to
an...
compute the water requirement of the crops. The peak water requirement
Lesson43Quiz
estimation requires peak summer weather parameters such as solar radiation,
LESSON44
Planningand temperature,humidityetc.
DesignofDrip
IrrigationS... vi)AvailabilityofPowerSource:Thetypeofsourceofpowercanbeelectricityor
Lesson44Quiz dieselorboth.Irrigationsystemcanbeplannedanddesignedbasedontheassured
LESSON45 timingsofavailabilityofpowersupply.
Evaluationof
DripEmittersand 37.3TypesofSprinklerSystemsLayout
Designo...
Lesson45Quiz The layout of sprinkler system is made based on water source and location of water
LESSON46 supply.Thesourceofwatersupplyforsprinklerirrigationcanbesurfacewater(river,
Installation canal, pond etc.) or ground water (a tube well or open well). When deciding the
Operationand
Maintenanceo... locationofwell,itcanbelocatedatacorneror,atthecenterofthefarmtominimize
Lesson46Quiz thelengthofmainpipe.Thesourceathigherelevationisdesirable.Thelayoutofthe
Module8: mains depends on the location of the well. Fig. 37.1 shows the layout of stationary
Economic watersourceandpumpatcenteroffieldandlateralsaremovedtosuccessiveposition
Evaluationof
IrrigationProjec...
up one side of the main and then down on the other. Fig. 37.2. shows fully portable
Topic9
pumpingsetunit.InaPortablesprinklersystemfieldchannelrunsalongoneedgeof
Courses
the farm. In this system a portable pumping set and sprinkler unit with the lateral
extendingtothefieldareusedtodrawwaterdirectlyfromthechannelanddistributeit
throughthesprinklers.Anotheralternativeistohaveapermanentpumpingplantatthe
source and distribute water in buried pressurized pipelines. These pipelines will
usually run down the center of the field so that the outlets offer little hindrance to
tillageandotherfarmoperations.

To obtain a reasonable degree of uniformity in the discharge of each sprinkler, the
mainsshouldruninthedirectionofthesteepestslope,withthelateralsatrightangles
and as close as on contours. Generally design is made considering running on level
land.Ifthelateralslopesupgradeappreciably,itisdifficulttodesignforaverylong
pipelength.Ifitslopesdowngrade,thelengthcanbelongerthanusual,butrarelydoes
thesloperemainsuniformforeachsetting.


Fig.37.1.LayoutplanforsprinklerirrigationsystemforstationarywaterSourceof
wellandpump.(Source:Michael,2010)

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Fig.37.2.Typicalfieldlayoutsforfullyportablesprinklerunitsdrawingwaterfrom
streamsorfieldchannels.(Source:Michael,2010)

37.3.1LayoutforSetMoveSprinklerSystem
DifferentlayoutsforsetmovesprinklesystemsareshownthroughFigs.37.3(a),
(b), (c), (d), (e), & (f). The guide lines for setmove sprinkler system are stated
below:
i)Mainsshouldbelaidupanddownhill.
ii) Laterals should be laid across slope or nearly on the contour as for as
possible.
iii)Formultiplelateraloption,lateralpipesizesshouldbelimitedtonotmore
thantwodiameters.
iv)Ifpossible,watersupplynearesttothecenterofareashouldbechosen.
v)Layoutsshouldfacilitateminimallateralmovementduringacropseason.
vi)Differencesinnumberofsprinklersoperatingforvarioussetupsshouldbe
minimum.
vii)Boosterpumpsshouldbeconsideredwheresmallportionsoffieldwould
requirehighpressureatthepump.
viii)Layoutshouldbemodifiedtoapplydifferentratesandamountsofwater
wheresoilsaregreatlydifferentinthedesignarea.
ix)Mainlineandsubmainlayoutiskeyedtolaterallayout.
x) When laterals run across prominent slopes, mainlines or sub mains will
normallyrunupanddowntheslopesFig37.3(a)and(b).
xi)Whenitisnecessarytorunlateralsupanddownhill,themainlinesorsub
mainsshouldbelocatedonridgesFig37.3(c),(d),(e)&(f)toavoidlateralsto
runuphill.

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Fig.37.3.Layoutsforsetmovesprinklesystems.(Source:JamesLarry,1988)

(a) Layout on moderate, uniform slopes with water supply at center (b) Layout
illustratinguseofoddnumberoflateralstoproviderequirednumberofoperating
sprinklers. (c) Layout with gravity pressure where pressure gain approximates
friction loss and allows running laterals downhill. (d) Layout illustrating area
wherelateralshavetobelaiddownslopetoavoidwidepressurevariationcaused
by running laterals upslope. (e) Layout with two main lines on ridges to avoid
runninglateralsuphill.(f)Layoutwithtwomainlinesonthesidesoftheareato
avoid running the laterals
uphill.

37.3.2SplitLateralLayouts
i)Inthislayoutmainlinesandsubmainsarelocatedsuchthatsetmovelaterals
mayoperateoneithersideofthem(Fig.37.3(a),(b)and(e)).
ii)Theyminimizefrictionlossbecauseofshorterlaterals.
iii) Split layouts also allow setmove laterals to be rotated around mainlines
(Fig.37.3(a),(b)).
iv) Labor requirement is reduced by eliminating the need to move lateral pipes
backtostartingpoint(Fig37.3(c)and37.3(d)).

37.4SprinklerSystemDesignParameters
37.4.1 Sprinkler Discharge Considering Area of Coverage: The actual selection of
different components of the sprinkler system is based on specifications furnished by
the manufacturers of the equipment. The selection depends on wetting diameter of
nozzle, at a given operating pressure at nozzle, sprinkler discharge, combination of
sprinkler spacing and lateral moves, application rate suiting to soil and wind
conditions.Therequireddischargeofanindividualsprinklerisafunctionofthewater
application rate and the twoway spacing of the sprinklers. It may be determined by
thefollowingequation:
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(37.1)

inwhich,
q=requireddischargeofindividualsprinkler,
S1=spacingofsprinklersalongthelaterals,m

Sm=spacingoflateralsalongthemain,m

I=optimumapplicationrate,mm

The values of maximum rate of application for various soil types and slopes are
presentedinTable37.1.

Table:37.1Maximumapplicationratesfordifferenttypesofsoils

0to5% 5to8% 8to12%


Soiltextureandprofile
slope slope slope

Coarsesandysoilsto2m 5.10 3.75 2.54

Coarsesandysoilsovermorecompact
3.75 2.54 1.9
soils

Lightsandyloamsto2m 2.54 2.03 1.5

Lightsandyloamsovermorecompact
1.9 1.27 1.02
soil

Siltloamto2m 1.27 1.02 0.76

Siltloamsovermorecompactsoils 0.76 0.63 0.38

Heavytexturedclaysorclayloams 0.38 0.25 0.20

Source:AdaptedfromSCS(1993).

37.4.2HeightofSprinklerRiserPipes:Sprinklersarelocatedjustabovethecropsto
beirrigatedand,therefore,theheightoftherisersdependuponthemaximumheightof
thecrop.Toavoidexcessiveturbulenceintheriserpipestheminimumheightofriser
is300mmfor25mmdiameterand150mmfor15mmto20mmdiameter.

37.4.3SprinklerSpacing:Theuniformityofwaterdistributionfromsprinklersdepends
on the operating pressure, wind velocity, rotation of sprinklers, spacing between
sprinklersandlaterals.Thespacingofsprinklersonlateralsandthelateralsspacingare
adjusted for obtaining maximum uniformity for given condition. Greater depth of
water accumulate near sprinkler head and depth decreases gradually with distance
fromthesprinklers.Thereforethereisanecessityofoverlappingofthespraypattern
oftheindividualsprinkler,toobtainuniformdepthofwaterapplication.Sprinklersare
arrangedalongalateralsuchthatthediameterofthewaterspreadareaofsprinkleris
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overlapped.Ifthereisawindofconsiderablespeed,thespacingbetweensprinklersis
furtherreducedasgiveninTable37.2.

Table.37.2.Overlappingofsprinklerspacingfordifferentwindspeeds.

Sl.No. Averagewindspeed Spacing

1 Nowind 65%ofthewaterspreadareaofasprinkler

2 06km/h 60%ofthewaterspreadareaofasprinkler

3 6.5to13km/h 50%ofthewaterspreadareaofasprinkler

4 Above13km/h 30%ofthewaterspreadareaofasprinkler

Source:AdaptedfromSCS(1993)

37.4.4Capacityofsprinklersystem:Thecapacityofasprinklersystemisaimportant
design parameter. This is estimated after knowing the total area to be irrigated by a
sprinklerirrigationsystem.Theformulatocomputesystemcapacityisgivenby

Q=2780 (37.2)

inwhich,
Q=dischargecapacityofthepump,
A=areatobeirrigated,ha
d=netdepthofwaterapplication,cm
F=numberofdaysallowedforthecompletionofoneirrigation

H=numberofactualoperatinghoursday1
E=waterapplicationefficiency,percent

37.4.5SprinklerDischarge:Thedischargeofasprinklerisestimatedbyknowingthe
diameter of nozzle and operating pressure available at the nozzle by following
formula.
Q=CA (37.3)


where,

Q=discharge,cm3s1
C=sprinklerdischargecoefficientwhichvaryfrom0.80to0.95

A=crosssectionalareaofnozzleororifice,cm2

g=accelerationduetogravity,cm/s2,and
h=pressurehead,cm

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37.4.6 Spread of Sprinkler: The area covered by a rotating head sprinkler can be
estimatedfromtheformulastatedinequation37.4.

(37.4)
where,
R=radiusofthewettedareacoveredbysprinkler,m
d=diameterofnozzle,m
h=pressureheadatnozzle,m

Themaximumcoverageisattainedwhenthejetemergesfromthesprinklernozzleat
anglebetween300and320.

37.4.7 Rate of Water Application or Precipitation Intensity: The rate of water
applicationbyanindividualnozzleisestimatedbytheformulaasstatedbelow.

(37.5)

where,
Ra=rateofwaterapplication,cm

Q=rateofdischargeofsprinkler,

A=wettedareaofsprinkler,m2
References
Michael, A. M. (2010). Irrigation Theory and Practice, Vikas Publishing House Pvt.
Ltd,Noida,India:591592.
James,LarryG.(1988).PrinciplesofFarmIrrigationSystemDesign,JohnWileyand
Sons,Inc.,NewYork:235.
U.S.DepartmentofAgriculture,NaturalResourcesConservationService.(1993).Soil
SurveyManual.AgriculturalHandbookNo.18,chapter3.U.S.GovernmentPrinting
Office,Washington,DC.

SuggestedReadings
Heermann, D.F. and Kohl, R.A. (1980). Fluid Dynamics of Sprinkler systems.
(Chapter 14 in Design and Operation of Farm Irrigation systems edited by Jensen,
M.E.)ASAEMonograph3.St.Joseph,MI.

Lastmodified:Saturday,15March2014,11:02AM

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