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Reading 10-1 → 10-6 11-1 → 11-2 Problems 10-38, 10-48, 10-57, 10-70, 10-71, 10-78, 10-92 10-117, 10-121, 10-153 11-14, 11-19, 11-39, 11-45, 11-53, 11-91

**Fourier Law of Heat Conduction
**

x=L x+Dx x x=0 Qx A x Qx+Dx

insulated

g

∂ ∂x

k

∂T ∂x

+

g ˙

internal heat generation

= ρC

∂T ∂t

longitudinal conduction

thermal inertia

Special Cases

1. Multidimensional Systems: The general conduction equation can be extended to three dimensional Cartesian systems as follows: ∂ ∂x k ∂T ∂x + ∂ ∂y k ∂T ∂y + ∂ ∂z k ∂T ∂z + g = ρC ˙ ∂T ∂t

2. Constant Properties: If we assume that properties are independent of temperature, then the conductivity can be taken outside the derivative

1

k

∂ 2T ∂x2

+

∂ 2T ∂y 2

+

∂ 2T ∂z 2

2

+ g = ρC ˙ g ˙ k

∂T ∂t

T +

=

1 ∂T α ∂t

where = del operator ≡ ∂ ∂x + ∂ ∂y + ∂ ∂z

α = thermal diffusivity ≡

k ρC ∂ ∂t →0

3. Steady State: If t → ∞ then all terms g ˙ k

2

T =−

⇐ Poisson’s Equation

**4. No Internal Heat Generation:
**

2

T =0

⇐ Laplace’s Equation

2

**Thermal Resistance Networks
**

Resistances in Series

Conditions for 1-D heat ﬂow through a plane wall include: • constant cross sectional area, A • steady ﬂow conditions

**The total heat ﬂow across the system can be written as T∞1 − T∞2 Rtotal
**

4

˙ Q=

where Rtotal =

Ri

i=1

The heat ﬂow rate is sometimes written in terms of an overall heat transfer coefﬁcient, U ˙ Q = U A(T∞1 − T∞2 ) where 1 Rtotal 1 1 h1 A + L2 k2 A + L3 k3 A + 1 h4 A

UA =

=

3

Resistances in Parallel

L k1 Q1 k2 Q2 R2

R1

T1

T2

For systems of parallel ﬂow paths as shown above, we can use the 1st law to preserve the total energy ˙ ˙ ˙ Q = Q1 + Q2 In general, for parallel networks we can use a parallel resistor network as follows:

R1 T1 R2 R3 T2

=

T1

Rtotal

T2

where 1 Rtotal and ˙ Q= T1 − T2 Rtotal = 1 R1 + 1 R2 + 1 R3 + ···

4

Thermal Contact Resistance

• heat ﬂow through the contact turns to seek out the solid-solid contact points, leading to an increase in resistance and a temperature drop across the interface ˙ ˙ ˙ Qtotal = Qcontact + Qgap • the total heat ﬂow rate can be written as ˙ Qtotal = hc A∆Tinterf ace where: hc = thermal contact conductance A = apparent or project area of the contact ∆Tinterf ace = average temperature drop across the interface The conductance can be written in terms of a resistance as ˙ Qtotal ∆T 1 Rc

hc A =

=

where: Rc = contact resistance (K/W ) Table 10-2 can be used to obtain some representative values for contact conductance.

5

Cylindrical Systems

k r2 r1 T1 r Qr T2 L A=2prL

Performing a 1st law energy balance on a control mass from the annular ring of the cylindrical cylinder

r C.M. Qr

dr Qr +

leads to the following equation ˙ Qr = T1 − T2 ln(r2 /r1 ) 2πkL where R = ln(r2 /r1 ) 2πkL

dQr dr dr

Composite Cylinders

Then the total resistance can be written as Rtotal = R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 6

=

1 h1 A1

+

ln(r2 /r1 ) 2πk2 L

+

ln(r3 /r2 ) 2πk3 L

+

1 h4 A4

Critical Thickness of Insulation

The resistor network can be written as a series combination of the resistance of the insulation, R1 and the convective resistance, R2 ln(ro /ri ) 2πkL 1 h2πro L

Rtotal = R1 + R2 =

+

Although the purpose of adding more insulation is to increase resistance and decrease heat transfer, we can see from the resistor network that increasing ro actually results in a decrease in the convective resistance. 7

Could there be a situation in which adding insulation increases the overall heat transfer?

Spherical Systems

Ti ri

ro

To

We can write the heat transfer as 4πkri ro (r0 − ri ) (Ti − To ) R ro − ri 4πkri ro

˙ Q=

(Ti − To ) =

where R =

8

**Heat Transfer from Finned Surfaces
**

The rate of heat transfer from a surface is given by Newton’s Law of Cooling ˙ Q = hA(Ts − T∞ ) • heat transfer is improved by h ↑ and A ↑ • it is difﬁcult to obtain a signiﬁcant increase in h • an increase in A is easily achieved through extended surfaces or ﬁns

The conduction equation for a ﬁn with constant cross section is d2 T ∂x2

kAc

− hP (T − T∞ ) = 0

lateral convection

longitudinal conduction

9

The temperature difference between the ﬁn and the surroundings (temperature excess) is usually expressed as θ = T (x) − T∞ which allows the 1-D ﬁn equation to be written as d2 θ dx2

− m2 θ = 0

**where the ﬁn parameter m is hP kAc
**

1/2

m=

The solution to the differential equation for θ is θ(x) = C1 sinh(mx) + C2 cosh(mx) The heat transfer ﬂowing through the base of the ﬁn can be determined as ˙ Qb = Ac −k dT dx

@x=0

= θb (kAc hP )1/2 tanh(mL)

**Transient Heat Conduction
**

TH − Ts Ts − T∞ L/(k · A) 1/(h · A) hL k internal resistance to H.T. external resistance to H.T.

=

=

=

= Bi ≡ Biot number

10

Rint << Rext : the Biot number is small and we can conclude TH − Ts << Ts − T∞ and in the limit TH ≈ Ts

Rext << Rint : the Biot number is large and we can conclude Ts − T∞ << TH − Ts and in the limit Ts ≈ T∞

**Lumped System Analysis
**

• if the internal temperature of a body remains relatively constant with respect to time – can be treated as a lumped system analysis – heat transfer is a function of time only, T = T (t) • typical criteria for lumped system analysis → Bi ≤ 0.1 The characteristic length for the 3-D object is given as L = V /A. Other characteristic lengths for conventional bodies include:

Slab

V As V As V As

=

W H2L 2W H

2 πro L

=L r0 2 r0 3

Rod

=

2πr0 L

3 4/3πro 2 4πr0

=

Sphere

=

=

At t > 0, T = T (x, y, z, t), however, when Bi < 0.1 then we can assume T ≈ T (t). 11

For an incompressible substance speciﬁc heat is constant and we can write dT dt

mC

≡Cth

= − Ah (T − T∞ )

1/Rth

where Cth = lumped capacitance This type of an approach is only valid for Bi = hV kA < 0.1

T (t) − T∞ Ti − T∞ where 1 b

= e−t/(Rth ·Cth ) = e−t/τ = e−bt

= τ = Rth · Cth = thermal time constant =

mC Ah

12

Heisler Charts

The lumped system analysis can be used if Bi = hL/k < 0.1 but what if Bi > 0.1 • need to solve the partial differential equation for temperature • leads to an inﬁnite series solution ⇒ difﬁcult to obtain a solution The solution procedure for temperature is a function of several parameters T (x, t) = f (x, L, t, k, α, h, Ti , T∞ ) We must ﬁnd a solution to the PDE ∂ 2T ∂x2 1 ∂T α ∂t

=

**The analytical solution to this equation takes the form of a series solution nλ T (x, t) − T∞ Ti − T∞
**

∞ −

2

=

An e

n=1,3,5...

L

αt

cos

nλx L

If we let F o = αt/L2 , we can see that the ﬁrst term with n = 1 provides a very good estimate to the inﬁnite series solution. By using dimensionless groups, we can reduce the temperature dependence to 3 dimensionless parameters Dimensionless Group temperature position heat transfer time Formulation θ(x, t) = x = x/L Bi = hL/k F o = αt/L2 Biot number Fourier number T (x, t) − T∞ Ti − T∞

13

note: Cengel uses τ instead of F o. Now we can write θ(x, t) = f (x, Bi, F o) The characteristic length for the Biot number is slab cylinder sphere L=L L = ro L = ro

contrast this versus the characteristic length for the lumped system analysis. With this, two approaches are possible 1. use the ﬁrst term of the inﬁnite series solution. This method is only valid for F o > 0.2 2. use the Heisler charts for each geometry as shown in Figs. 11-15, 11-16 and 11-17 First term solution: F o > 0.2 → error about 2% max.

Plane Wall: Cylinder: Sphere:

θwall (x, t) = θcyl (r, t) = θsph (r, t) =

T (x, t) − T∞ Ti − T∞

= A1 e−λ1 F o cos(λ1 x/L)

2

2

T (r, t) − T∞ Ti − T∞ Ti − T∞

= A1 e−λ1 F o J0 (λ1 r/ro )

2

T (r, t) − T∞

= A1 e−λ1 F o

sin(λ1 r/ro ) λ1 r/ro

where λ1 , A1 can be determined from Table 18-1 based on the calculated value of the Biot number (will likely require some interpolation).

14

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