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- HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER BY INCROPERA
- Heat and Mass Transfer
- HEAT CONDUCTION EQUATION
- Heat transfer lectures 2 (convection)
- HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER NOTES
- Free & Damped Vibration Apparatus
- Heat Transfer Notes eBook
- EXPERIMENT 1: EFFECT OF WATER AND AIR FLOW CHANGES IN GAS ABSORPTION
- Heat Conduction in Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates I
- complete report 9
- Experiment 4 - Electrostatic Precipitator
- Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer
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- Lab BMM 3553 Free Vibration of an Undamped Spring Mass
- Heat Transfer
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- Heat and Mass Transfer Notes
- Convection

You are on page 1of 14

Reading Problems

10-1 → 10-6 10-38, 10-48, 10-57, 10-70, 10-71, 10-78, 10-92

10-117, 10-121, 10-153

11-1 → 11-2 11-14, 11-19, 11-39, 11-45, 11-53, 11-91

x=L

insulated

Qx+Dx

x+Dx

x x

x=0 g

Qx A

!

∂ ∂T ∂T

k + ġ = ρC

∂x ∂x |{z}

| {z∂t}

| {z } internal

longitudinal heat thermal

generation inertia

conduction

Special Cases

1. Multidimensional Systems: The general conduction equation can be extended to three dimen-

sional Cartesian systems as follows:

! ! !

∂ ∂T ∂ ∂T ∂ ∂T ∂T

k + k + k + ġ = ρC

∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂t

2. Constant Properties: If we assume that properties are independent of temperature, then the

conductivity can be taken outside the derivative

1

∂ 2T ∂ 2T ∂ 2T

!

∂T

k + + + ġ = ρC

∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 ∂t

ġ 1 ∂T

∇2 T + =

k α ∂t

where

!

∂ ∂ ∂

∇ = del operator ≡ + +

∂x ∂y ∂z

k

α = thermal diffusivity ≡

ρC

∂

3. Steady State: If t → ∞ then all terms →0

∂t

ġ

∇2 T = − ⇐ Poisson’s Equation

k

∇2 T = 0 ⇐ Laplace’s Equation

2

Thermal Resistance Networks

Resistances in Series

Conditions for 1-D heat flow through a plane wall include:

4

T∞1 − T∞2 X

Q̇ = where Rtotal = Ri

Rtotal i=1

The heat flow rate is sometimes written in terms of an overall heat transfer coefficient, U

Q̇ = U A(T∞1 − T∞2 )

where

1 1

UA = =

Rtotal 1 L2 L3 1

+ + +

h1 A k2 A k3 A h4 A

3

Resistances in Parallel

k1 R1

Q1

k2 R2

Q2

T1 T2

For systems of parallel flow paths as shown above, we can use the 1st law to preserve the total

energy

Q̇ = Q̇1 + Q̇2

In general, for parallel networks we can use a parallel resistor network as follows:

R1

T1 R2 T2 T1 Rtotal T2

=

R3

where

1 1 1 1

= + + + ···

Rtotal R1 R2 R3

and

T1 − T2

Q̇ =

Rtotal

4

Thermal Contact Resistance

• heat flow through the contact turns to seek out the solid-solid contact points, leading to an

increase in resistance and a temperature drop across the interface

where:

hc = thermal contact conductance

A = apparent or project area of the contact

∆Tinterf ace = average temperature drop across the interface

Q̇total 1

hc A = =

∆T Rc

where:

Table 10-2 can be used to obtain some representative values for contact conductance.

5

Cylindrical Systems

k

r2 r1

T1

r

Qr A=2prL

T2

Performing a 1st law energy balance on a control mass from the annular ring of the cylindrical

cylinder

C.M. Qr

dr

dQr

Qr + dr

dr

!

T1 − T2 ln(r2 /r1 )

Q̇r = ! where R =

ln(r2 /r1 ) 2πkL

2πkL

Composite Cylinders

Rtotal = R1 + R2 + R3 + R4

6

1 ln(r2 /r1 ) ln(r3 /r2 ) 1

= + + +

h1 A1 2πk2 L 2πk3 L h4 A4

The resistor network can be written as a series combination of the resistance of the insulation, R1

and the convective resistance, R2

ln(ro /ri ) 1

Rtotal = R1 + R2 = +

2πkL h2πro L

Although the purpose of adding more insulation is to increase resistance and decrease heat trans-

fer, we can see from the resistor network that increasing ro actually results in a decrease in the

convective resistance.

7

Could there be a situation in which adding insulation increases the overall heat transfer?

Spherical Systems

Ti

ri

To

ro

4πkri ro (Ti − To ) ro − ri

Q̇ = (Ti − To ) = where R =

(r0 − ri ) R 4πkri ro

8

Heat Transfer from Finned Surfaces

The rate of heat transfer from a surface is given by Newton’s Law of Cooling

Q̇ = hA(Ts − T∞ )

d2 T

kAc 2

− hP (T − T∞ ) = 0

| {z∂x }

| {z }

lateral

longitudinal convection

conduction

9

The temperature difference between the fin and the surroundings (temperature excess) is usually

expressed as

θ = T (x) − T∞

d2 θ

− m2 θ = 0

dx2

!1/2

hP

m=

kAc

The heat transfer flowing through the base of the fin can be determined as

!

dT

Q̇b = Ac −k

dx @x=0

= =

Ts − T∞ 1/(h · A) external resistance to H.T.

hL

= = Bi ≡ Biot number

k

10

Rint << Rext : the Biot number is small and we can conclude

Rext << Rint : the Biot number is large and we can conclude

• if the internal temperature of a body remains relatively constant with respect to time

– heat transfer is a function of time only, T = T (t)

The characteristic length for the 3-D object is given as L = V /A. Other characteristic lengths for

conventional bodies include:

V W H2L

Slab = =L

As 2W H

V πro2 L r0

Rod = =

As 2πr0 L 2

V 4/3πro3 r0

Sphere = =

As 4πr02 3

At t > 0, T = T (x, y, z, t), however, when Bi < 0.1 then we can assume T ≈ T (t).

11

For an incompressible substance specific heat is constant and we can write

dT

mC = − Ah

|{z} (T − T∞ )

| {z }

≡Cth

dt 1/Rth

hV

This type of an approach is only valid for Bi = < 0.1

kA

T (t) − T∞

= e−t/(Rth ·Cth ) = e−t/τ = e−bt

Ti − T∞

where

1 mC

= τ = Rth · Cth = thermal time constant =

b Ah

12

Heisler Charts

The lumped system analysis can be used if Bi = hL/k < 0.1 but what if Bi > 0.1

T (x, t) = f (x, L, t, k, α, h, Ti , T∞ )

∂ 2T 1 ∂T

=

∂x2 α ∂t

The analytical solution to this equation takes the form of a series solution

!2

nλ

∞ − αt !

T (x, t) − T∞ X L nλx

= An e cos

Ti − T∞ n=1,3,5... L

If we let F o = αt/L2 , we can see that the first term with n = 1 provides a very good estimate

to the infinite series solution.

parameters

T (x, t) − T∞

temperature θ(x, t) =

Ti − T∞

position x = x/L

13

note: Cengel uses τ instead of F o.

slab L=L

cylinder L = ro

sphere L = ro

contrast this versus the characteristic length for the lumped system analysis.

1. use the first term of the infinite series solution. This method is only valid for F o > 0.2

2. use the Heisler charts for each geometry as shown in Figs. 11-15, 11-16 and 11-17

T (x, t) − T∞ 2

Plane Wall: θwall (x, t) = = A1 e−λ1 F o cos(λ1 x/L)

Ti − T∞

T (r, t) − T∞ 2

Cylinder: θcyl (r, t) = = A1 e−λ1 F o J0 (λ1 r/ro )

Ti − T∞

T (r, t) − T∞ 2 sin(λ1 r/ro )

Sphere: θsph (r, t) = = A1 e−λ1 F o

Ti − T∞ λ1 r/ro

where λ1 , A1 can be determined from Table 18-1 based on the calculated value of the Biot number

(will likely require some interpolation).

14

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