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Original Title: Problem 6 003

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You are on page 1of 16

REVISION NO.: 0

EXAMPLE 6-003

LINK GAP ELEMENT

PROBLEM DESCRIPTION

This example uses a single-bay, single-story rigid frame to test the gap link

element. This link element carries compression loads only; it has zero stiffness

when subjected to tension. The gap element is paced at the bottom of the right-

hand column in the frame. The frame is then loaded with a gravity load P (10

kips) at the center of the beam. Once the full load P is applied, a lateral load V

(20 kips) is applied, pushing the frame from right to left. The compression load

in the gap element after the full load P has been applied and the uplift at the gap

after the full load V has been applied are compared with independent hand

calculated results.

The model is created in the XZ plane. Only the Ux, Uz and Ry degrees of freedom

are active for the analysis. The gap element is modeled as a single-joint link

element at joint 2. This means that one end of the gap element is connected to the

ground and the other end is connected to joint 2. The gap element is oriented

such that its positive local 1 axis is parallel to the positive global Z axis. This is

the default orientation of single joint link elements. Only U1 degree of freedom

properties are defined for the gap element.

All three frame elements have identical properties. The compression stiffness of

the gap element is chosen to be approximately 100 times the axial stiffness of the

frame element directly above it, frame element 2. The initial gap element

opening is zero inches.

The loading is applied as follows. First the full load P is applied. Then, while the

load P is maintained, the full load V is applied. The analysis is run several times

using different types of load cases. Nonlinear static, nonlinear modal time history

and nonlinear direct time history load cases are used. See the subsequent section

titled Summary of Load Cases for more information.

Two different models are used in this example. In Model A the linear effective

stiffness of the gap element is set equal to zero. In Model B the linear effective

stiffness of the gap element is set equal to the nonlinear stiffness of the gap

element.

EXAMPLE 6-003 - 1

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000

REVISION NO.: 0

The gap linear effective stiffness is only used for the linear load cases, which in

this example are load cases P, V and MODAL. The gap linear effective stiffness

is not used in the other load cases and thus has no direct effect on them; however,

it does indirectly affect the nonlinear modal

time history cases named NLMHIST1 and Joint Mass kip-s2/in

NLMHIST2 because those cases are solved Joint DOF Ux DOF Uz

using the modes from the load case named

MODAL. 2 0 0.001

to the right are used for the modal and

modal time history analyses. 4 0.3 0.1

144"

Link Properties (Gap U1 DOF)

P = 10 k Linear Ke (Model A) = 0 k/in

V = 20 k Linear Ke (Model B) = 200,000 k/in

Linear Ce = 0 k-sec/in

3 3 4 Nonlinear K = 200,000 k/in

Nonlinear Open = 0 in

Frame Material Properties

144"

1 2

E = 29,900 k/in2

= 0.3

Z G = 11,500 k/in2

1 2

Y Frame Section Properties

Single-joint link element (gap) A = 10 in2

X with compression stiffness I = 100 in4

defined for the U1 degree of Av = 2 in2 (shear area)

freedom

Loading

First apply full load P; then

apply full load V

Active Degrees of Freedom

Ux, Uz, Ry

EXAMPLE 6-003 - 2

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000

REVISION NO.: 0

The following table summarizes the load cases that are used in this example.

A linear static load case with a 10 kip gravity load applied in the negative

P

global Z direction at the center of frame element 3.

A linear static load case with a 20 kip lateral load applied in the negative

V

global X direction at joint 2.

A ritz-type modal load case with starting loads defined for load P, load V

MODAL

and the link element.

A nonlinear modal time history starting from zero initial conditions and

using a ramp load to apply the load P.

20 second ramp load rise time.

NLMHIST1 99.9% modal damping for all modes.

20 output steps and a 2 second output time step (40 seconds of

output total).

Default values for all nonlinear parameters (tolerances).

A nonlinear modal time history starting from the conditions at the end of

NLMHIST1 and using a ramp load to apply the load V.

40 second ramp load rise time.

20 output steps and a 4 second output time step (80 seconds of

NLMHIST2 output total).

99.9% modal damping for all modes.

Default values for all nonlinear parameters (tolerances), except in

Model B the Force Convergence Tolerance is reduced from the

default 1E-05 to 1E-11.

A nonlinear static case starting from zero initial conditions and applying

NLSTAT1

the load P. This load case uses default nonlinear parameters (tolerances).

A nonlinear static case starting from the conditions at the end of NLSTAT1

NLSTAT2 and applying the load V. This load case uses default nonlinear parameters

(tolerances).

EXAMPLE 6-003 - 3

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000

REVISION NO.: 0

A nonlinear static case starting from the conditions at the end of the direct

NLSTAT3 integration time history NLDHIST1 and applying the load V. This load

case uses default nonlinear parameters (tolerances).

conditions and using a ramp load to apply the load P.

20 second ramp load rise time.

400 output steps and a 0.1 second output time step (40 seconds of

output total).

NLDHIST1 Mass and stiffness proportional damping is used with damping set

to 99.9% at periods of 1 and 3.4 seconds.

Default values for all nonlinear parameters (tolerances) except for

the Maximum Iterations per Substep and the Iteration Convergence

Tolerance. The Maximum Iterations per Substep item is increased

from the default 10 to 100. The Iteration Convergence Tolerance is

reduced from the default 1E-04 to 1E-06.

A nonlinear direct integration time history starting from the conditions at

the end of NLDHIST1 and using a ramp load to apply the load V.

40 second ramp load rise time.

800 output steps and a 0.1 second output time step (80 seconds of

output total).

NLDHIST2 Mass and stiffness proportional damping is used with damping set

to 99.9% at periods of 1 and 3.4 seconds.

Default values for all nonlinear parameters (tolerances), except for

the Maximum Iterations per Substep and the Iteration Convergence

Tolerance. The Maximum Iterations per Substep item is increased

from the default 10 to 100. The Iteration Convergence Tolerance is

reduced from the default 1E-04 to 1E-06.

A nonlinear direct integration time history that is the same as NLDHIST2,

NLDHIST3 except it starts from the conditions at the end of nonlinear static case

NLSTAT1 instead of nonlinear direct integration time history NLDHIST1.

EXAMPLE 6-003 - 4

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000

REVISION NO.: 0

The ramp times for the load cases are selected using the rule of thumb that the

ramp loading time should be approximately 10 times the period of interest. The

period of interest is assumed to be the period of the first mode. The following

table shows the first mode period obtained for the two models.

Modal (Linear) Analysis Mode 1 Period

Model k/in sec

A 0 3.42

B 200,000 1.90

The load P is applied first and it causes the gap element to always be in

compression. Thus the 1.90 sec period, which is the period when the gap stiffness

is 200,000 k/in, is taken as the period of interest for application of the load P. The

ramp rise time for this load is chosen as 20 seconds, which is approximately 10

times the period of interest.

The load V is applied after load P and it causes the gap element to eventually

uplift. Thus the 3.42 sec period, which is the period when the gap stiffness is

0 k/in, is taken as the period of interest for application of the load V. The ramp

rise time for this load is chosen as 40 seconds, which is approximately 10 times

the period of interest.

Load case NLMHIST2 in Model B requires 200 output steps (800 seconds total)

instead of the 20 output steps (80 seconds total) required in Model A. This occurs

because in Model B the modes are calculated using the gap effective stiffness of

200,000 k/in and the 99.9% damping is applied to those modes. When the gap

opens and the gap effective stiffness becomes zero, the period lengthens. Because

the modal damping coefficient is held constant, the percent of critical damping

increases in proportion to the period lengthening, thus over-damping the system.

This over-damping that initiates when the gap opens is the reason that it takes so

long for analysis to reach its final value in case NLMHIST2 for Model B.

1E-11 rather than the default 1E-05. The following equation, which is equation

of motion used to solve nonlinear modal time history analyses, helps explain the

rationale for the change in the convergence tolerance.

EXAMPLE 6-003 - 5

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000

REVISION NO.: 0

. ..

KLu(t) + KNu(t) + Cu(t) +Mu(t) + rN(t) = r(t) + KNu(t)

In the preceding equation KL is the stiffness of all the linear elements, including

the linear degrees of freedom of the link elements; KN is the linear effective

stiffness matrix for all link element nonlinear degrees of freedom; C is the

proportional damping matrix; M is the diagonal mass matrix; r is the vector of

applied loads; and rN is the vector of forces from the nonlinear degrees of

freedom of the link elements that is computed by iteration at time t.

In the preceding equation, if the KN term is very large compared to the other

terms, the relative force convergence tolerance needs to be very small to capture

an accurate representation of rN. This is why the 1E-11 force convergence

tolerance is required for load case NLMHIST2 in Model B.

The nonlinear direct integration load cases need the maximum number of

iterations per substep set to 100 rather than the default 10 and the iteration

convergence tolerance set to 1E-06 rather than the default 1E-04. Reducing the

iteration convergence tolerance to 1E-06 eliminates the slight fluctuations (high

frequency chatter) in the results.

iterations per substep to 100 decreases the running time of the problem by several

orders of magnitude. Using the default 10 maximum iterations per substep causes

the program to have to cut the time steps from the initially specified 0.1 second

to as low as approximately 1E-07 second to solve the problem. When 100

maximum iterations per substep are allowed, the program does not have to

reduce the time step size below 0.1 second to solve the problem.

Gap element links

Force-controlled nonlinear static analysis

Nonlinear modal time history analysis

Nonlinear direct time history analysis

Frame point loads

Joint force loads

Joint mass assignments

Ramp loading for time histories

EXAMPLE 6-003 - 6

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000

REVISION NO.: 0

RESULTS COMPARISON

Independent results are hand calculated using the unit load method described on

page 244 in Cook and Young 1985. The results are presented separately for

Model A and Model B

Output Percent

Parameter Load Case SAP2000 Independent Difference

full load P is

applied NLSTAT1 -4.534 -4.534 0%

kip NLDHIST1 -4.534 0%

NLMHIST2 3.917 0%

Link

NLSTAT2 3.917 0%

deformation

after full load

NLSTAT3 3.917 3.917 0%

V is applied

NLDHIST2 3.917 0%

inch

NLDHIST3 3.917 0%

EXAMPLE 6-003 - 7

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000

REVISION NO.: 0

Output Percent

Parameter Load Case SAP2000 Independent Difference

full load P is

applied NLSTAT1 -4.534 -4.534 0%

kip NLDHIST1 -4.534 0%

NLMHIST2 3.917 0%

Link

NLSTAT2 3.917 0%

deformation

after full load

NLSTAT3 3.917 3.917 0%

V is applied

NLDHIST2 3.917 0%

inch

NLDHIST3 3.917 0%

CONCLUSION

The SAP2000 results show an acceptable comparison with the independent

results both for Model A where the gap linear effective stiffness, Ke, is 0 k/in and

for Model B where the gap linear effective stiffness, Ke, is 200,000 k/in. The

comparison is exact when sufficiently small convergence tolerances are used.

This example illustrates that solution of nonlinear problems using gap elements

can be sensitive to the convergence and iteration tolerances that are used. For this

verification example, it is easy to determine if the tolerances used are sufficient

because the hand calculated results were available. In other situations it is helpful

to run the analysis two or more times using tolerances that are different by an

order of magnitude or more and verify that the results are the same. This is a

good check that the tolerances used are sufficient.

EXAMPLE 6-003 - 8

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000

REVISION NO.: 0

HAND CALCULATION

EXAMPLE 6-003 - 9

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000

REVISION NO.: 0

EXAMPLE 6-003 - 10

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000

REVISION NO.: 0

EXAMPLE 6-003 - 11

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000

REVISION NO.: 0

EXAMPLE 6-003 - 12

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000

REVISION NO.: 0

EXAMPLE 6-003 - 13

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000

REVISION NO.: 0

EXAMPLE 6-003 - 14

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000

REVISION NO.: 0

EXAMPLE 6-003 - 15

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000

REVISION NO.: 0

EXAMPLE 6-003 - 16

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