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# Mathematics-II

MATH F112
BITS Pilani Dr. Ashish Tiwari
Pilani Campus

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Finite Dimensional
Vector Space
(Sec.4.1)
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What is vector?
What is scalar?
What is vector addition?
What is scalar multiplication?
Notation for scalar multiplication.
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DEFINITION of VECTOR SPACE

## Let V be a non-empty set.

Let be the set of real numbers.
Define vector addition + and scalar

multiplication .

such that :
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(A) u + v V for all u, v V:
V is closed under vector addition.
Moreover,
A1. u + v = v + u for all u, v V
A2. (u +v) + w = u + (v + w)
for all u, v, w V
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A3. There is an element 0 V such
that
0 + u = u=u + 0 for all u V
A4. For each u V there is -u V
such that u + (-u) = 0
NOTE: V is a commutative group
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(B) u V for all u in V , is real:
V is closed under scalar multiplication.
Moreover

B1. ( u + v) = u + v
for all u, v V, for all real
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B2. ( + ) u = u + u
for all u V , for all real ,
B3. ( ) u = ( u )
for all u V, for all real ,
B4. 1 . u = u for all u V,

## Note: B1-B4: scalar multiplication with

vectors
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Ex: Let V = { f | f : [a, b] }
Define
(f + g)(x) = f(x) + g(x)
( f)(x) = f(x), is real no.
Then, V is real vector space.

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Ex: Let Pn be the set of all polynomials of
degree n in the variable x with coefficients in
.
Then Pn is a vector space, with addition of
polynomials and scalar multiplication of a
polynomial
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Ex: Let V= 2 with addition and scalar multiplication
defined by
x, y w, z x w 1, y z 2
. x, y x 1, y 2 2

operations.

## Proof: Both operations satisfy the closure property. A1,

A2 and B1-B4 can be shown using definition of the
operations.
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Existence of Zero Element (A3): However, zero element
can be found in the following way

Zero element

u, v x, y u x 1, v y 2
x, y u x 1, v y 2
u 1, v 2

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Existence of Additive Inverse (A4): However, additive
inverse of an element can be found in the following way
Zero element

x, y x' , y' 1, 2
x x'1, y y'2 1, 2
x' 2 x, y ' 4 y
x' , y' 2 x, 4 y
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Note: Zero element and additive inverse are unique
in a vector space.

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Theo 4.1: Let V be a vector space. Then

## 3. (-1).u = -u for every u V.

4. . u = 0 => = 0 or u = 0
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Proof-(1):
0u=(0+0)u as 0 is an element of
=0u+0u using B2
Adding (0u) to both sides:
0=-(0u)+(0u+0u)=(-(0u)+(0u))+0u
(using A4 on left side and A2 on right side)
=0+0u using A4
=0u
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using A3 16
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Proof-(2):
0= (0+0) using A3
= 0+ 0 using B1
Adding (0) to both sides:
0=-(0)+( 0 + 0)=(-(0)+(0))+ 0 using
A4 on left side and A2 on right side
=0+ 0 using A4
= 0
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using A3 17
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Proof-(3):
(-1)u+u=(-1)u+1u using B4
=(-1+1)u using B2
=0u where 0
=0 where 0 V using (1)
Using A4, (-1)u is the negative of u
Hence (-1)u=-u

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Proof-(4):
Suppose that u=0 and 0 we have
u=1u=(1/ )u
=1/ ( u) using B3
=1/ 0=0 since using (2)
=0

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Q. Does set of all nxn matrices Mnn forms a vector space with
matrix addition and scalar multiplication.

RREF.

order nxn.

## Q. What if above set is replaced by singular matrices of order

nxn.

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SUBSPACES
(Section 4.2)

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Definition:
Let V be a vector space and W be non-
empty subset of V.
If W is a vector space with respect to
operations in V, then W is called a
subspace of V.
Every vector space V has at least two
subspaces: {0} and V itself.
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{0} known as trivial subspace.

## Ex-1: Let V = 3 & W = {(x, y, 0 )| x, y }

All the conditions for vector space are
satisfying
W is a vector space and
Hence W is subspace of V.

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Theo: Let V be a vector space.
Let W be non-empty subset of V.
Then, W is subspace of V iff
1. x, y W x + y W
(Closed under vector addition)
2. is scalar, x W x W.
(Closed under scalar multiplication)
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Proof:
First Necessary Part

Let W be a subspace of V
W is a vector space
Conditions (1) and (2) are satisfying
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Converse(Sufficient Part):
Let conditions (1) and (2) hold:
We have to prove that W is a vector
space

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Conditions (1) and (2) W is a
closed under vector addition and
scalar multiplication
Axioms A1, A2, B1-B4 are
automatically satisfied for any
elements of W since these laws
already hold for element of V

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Now we have to show the existence
of certain elements
(zero and additive inverse of each
element of W) in W

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Existence of Zero:
Take =0:
Now from Condition(2),
0u W 0 W using 0u=0
There exist zero element in W

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Existence of Inverse:
Take =-1:
Now from Condition(2),
(-1)u W -u W
for every element u of W

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Ex-1: Let V = 3
Then W = {(x, y, 0 )| x, y } is a
subspace of V.
(First show that W is a non-empty set)

## Ex-2: Let V = P (Set of all polynomials p)

W = {p P| degree of p=3 }
Then W is NOT a subspace of P.

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Ex:
W = {x n| Ax = 0, O(A) = m x n }
=Null space
is a subspace of n
Ex:
W = {xn | Ax = b, O(A) = m x n }
is NOT a subspace of n
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Q18. Intersection of two subspaces of a vector
space is a subspace.

## A B as A & B both contains zero element of V

x, y A B x, y A & x, y B
x y & x A & x y & x B
as A & B are subspaces
x y & x A B
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Ex: V = 2
A = { (a, 0) | a is real }
B = { (0, b) | b is real }
Then, A and B are subspaces of V.
Intersection of A & B is {(0,0)} which is a
subspace of 2

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But A U B = { (a, 0), (0,b) | a, b are real }
is NOT a subspace .
Q. Union of two subspaces is a subspace iff
one of them is contained in other.
Sol: If one subspace is contained in other
then the union will be one of them which is
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For second part: Let union of A and B be a subspace

## Let x A but x B and y B but y A

use it to get a contradict ion i.e. x B

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Q. Let A and B be subspaces of V
Let A + B = { a + b | a A, b B }
Then A + B is a subspace of V.

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Span
( Section 4.3)

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Finite Linear Combination (LC) :
Let V be a vector space.
Let v1, v2, ...... , vk V.
Then, v V is linear combination of
v1, v2, ...... , vk if
v = c1 v1 + c2 v2 + ......+ ck vk , ci

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Ex:(2, 3) is LC of (1, 0) and (0, 1) in
2
Ex: v = (2, 1, 5) in is LC of
3

## x = (1, 2, 1), y = (1, 0, 2),

z = (1, 1, 0).
because v = x + 2y z.
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Span of a set:
Let V be a vector space and
S = { v1, v2, ...... , vk} be a subset of
V.
Then, span (S) = [S]
={c1 v1 + c2 v2 + .....+ ck vk | ci }
=set of elements generated by the elements of
S
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Ex: Let V = 3
Let S = {(1, 0, 0), (0, 0, 1) }
Then span(S) = { (a, 0, b) | a, b }

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Th 4.5: Let V be a vector space.
Let S be a non-empty subset of V.
Then (I) S is subset of span(S),
(II) span(S) is subspace of V
(III) span(S) is the smallest
subspace of V containing subset
S.
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Proof (I):
We must show that each w S is also in
span(S).
But if w S , then w=1w is a sum of scalar
multiples from the subset {w} of S.
Hence w span(S)

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Proof (II): span(S) is a non-empty set since
S is non-empty.
Let u, v span(S) then
u = c1 u1 + c2 u2 + ......+ cm um
for some scalar ci, for some uis S
and a positive integer m
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and v = d1v1 + d2v2 + ......+ dnvn
for some scalar di, for some vis S
and a positive integer n
Now u+v= c1u1 + c2u2 + ......+ cmum
+ d1 v1 + d2 v2 + ......+ dn vn
is a finite linear combination
elements of S
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Therefore u+v span(S)

Similarly,
au = (ac1) u1 + (ac2 )u2 + ......+ (acm) um
for any scalar a is a finite linear
combination of S
So au span(S)
Hence span(S) is subspace of V
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Let V be a vector space and let S1 , S2
be subsets of V then

## S1 S2 span ( S1) span (S2 )

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Ex: Let V = P2
S = { t2 + 1, t 1, t2 + t }
Does S spans V ?? i.e. V = [S] ??

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Sol: S V [S ] V
Let any element p(t) = at2 + bt + c V ;
a, b, c are real number
Now p(t) [S] if
at2 + bt + c = (t2 + 1)+( t 1)+( t2 +
t) for any a, b & c for some , &

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System consistent if c a + b = 0
p(t) does not belongs to [S]
V is not a subset of [S]
Hence V [S]

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Ex: Let

a b

W : a, b, c R

b c

Then, W is a subspace (consist of
2 X 2 SYMMETRIC matrices) of M22
Let
1 1 1 0 0 1
S , , ,
1 1 0 0 1 0
Then S spans W. i.e. W = [S]
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Writing span(S) in simplified
form:
Let S be a finite subset of n containing
k vectors (k2):
1. Form a matrix A s.t. o(A)=kxn, with
vectors of S are rows of A.
2. Reduce A into RREF.
3. Linear combination of Non zero
rows represent span(S).
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Ex: Find the span(S) in simplified form

## S 1, 3, 0,1, 0, 0,1,1, 0,1, 0,1, 1, 5,1, 4

Sol: Consider the matrix

1 3 0 1
0
0 1 1
A
0 1 0 1

1 5 1 4
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Matrix in RREF 1 0 0 2
0 1 0 1
A
0 0 1 1

0 0 0 0

## span( S ) a1,0,0,2 b0,1,0,1 c0,0,1,1 a, b, c R

a, b, c,2a b c a, b, c R

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Linear Independence (LI):

## Let V be a vector space. Then

v1, v2, .... , vk V are LI if
c1 v1 + c2 v2 + .... + ck vk = 0
=> ci = 0 for all i
Otherwise, vectors are Linearly
Dependent.
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Ex : v1 = (2, 0), v2 = (0, 5) in 2

are LI
What is LI set
Ex : {(1,0), (0,1)} is a LI set

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Linear Dependence (LD):

## The vectors v1, v2, .... , vk in a vector

space V are LD if
there exist scalars ci ,i = 1,2, ... , k Not
all zero such that
c1 v1 + c2 v2 + .... + ck vk = 0

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Ex : v1 = (1, 2), v2 = (5, 10) in 2
are not LI, i.e. Linearly
Dependent.

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Ex: Is S = { p1(t), p2(t), p3(t) } LI? where

p1(t) = t2 + t + 2
p2(t) = 2t2 + t
p3(t) = 3t2 + 2t + 2

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Soln.
a p1(t) +b p2(t) +c p3(t) =0
Which gives the system of
linear equations in a, b & c:
a+2b+3c=0
a+b+2c=0
2a+2c=0
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1 2 3

The coefficient matrix is 1 1 2
2 0 2

Row echelon form:
1 2 3
The homogeneous system in
0 1 1 a, b, c has non-trivial solution
0 0 0
Hence S is not LI set
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Theo: Every subset containing zero
vector in a vector space is LD.
Ex:
For what value of , the vectors
t + 3 and 2 t + +2 in P1 are
2

LI
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Let a(t + 3) + b( 2 t + 2 +2 )=0 for some
scalar a &b.
t(a+2b)+(3a+b 2 +2b)=0
The system of equations:
a+2b=0 & 3a+b (2 +2)=0
For LI, this system in a & b should have
only trivial solution:
2 +2-60 i.e, 2, -2
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Th : Let x and y be non-zero
vectors in a vector space V. Then
{ x, y} is LD iff one of a vector is a
scalar multiple of other.

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Proof.:
Suppose {x, y} is LD.
Then there exists scalars a, b with
at least one of them, say a is non-
zero, such that ax+by=0

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Therefore x=-(b/a)y
Which means x is scalar multiple of y.
Conversely, if x is scalar multiple of y
Then x=ay i.e, (1)x-ay=0
Hence x & y are LD

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Th : The non-zero vectors v1, v2,
.... , vk in a vector space V are LD
iff one of the vectors vj is linear
combination of preceding vectors
v1, v2, .... , vj-1 , j >1 (similar to Ex-
22, P-254)
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Th : Let S1 and S2 be finite subsets
of a vector space V.
Let S1 be subset of S2 .
Then 1. S2 LI => S1 is LI
(Converse is not true)
2. S1 LD => S2 is LD
(Converse is not true)
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Proof:.

## S1 = { u1, u2, ...... , um} be a finite

subset of m elements of V and
S2 = { u1, u2, ...... , um, v1, v2, ......
, vn} be a finite subset of m+n
elements of V
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For (1): Let S2 be LI:

For c1
u1 + c2 u2 + .....+ cm um =0
=> c1 u1 + c2 u2 + .....+ cm um + 0
v1 + 0 v2 + .....+ 0 vn=0
=> All cis =0 (since S2 is LI)
So, c1 u1 + c2 u2 + .....+ cm um =0
=> All cis =0
Therefore S2 LI => S1 is LI .
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For (2 ): Let S1 be LD:
There exists scalars c1, c2, .., cm , not all zero,
such that

c1 u1 + c2 u2 + .....+ cm um=0
c1 u1 + c2 u2 + .....+ cm um
+ 0 v1 + 0v2 + .....+ 0 vn =0
for any vectors v1, v2, ...... , vn of
S2
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Therefore

## S2 = { u1, u2, ...... , um, v1, v2,

...... , vn} is LD

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Theo 4.9:
Let S = {v1, v2, .... ,vn } be a non empty
subset of a vector space V. Then S is
LI iff every vector of v span (S) can
be expressed uniquely as a linear
combination of elements of S.
Proof.:
S is a finite LI subset of V.
Let v be any vector of span (S).
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On the contrary, we assume that v can be
expressed as linear combination of elements of
S in two different ways.
i.e.
v=c1 v1 + c2 v2 + .....+ cn vn ----(1)
for some scalars c1, c2, .., cn
and v=d1 v1 + d2 v2 + .....+ dn vn ---(2)
for some other scalars d1, d2, .., dn
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Now subtract (1)-(2):
0=(c1 d1)v1 + (c2 d2) v2 + .....+ (cn dn)
vn
Which implies
(ci di)=0 for i=1,2,,n
since v1,..,vn are element of LI set S
Hence ci = di for i=1,2,,n

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Converse part:
Assume that every vector v span (S)
can be expressed uniquely as a linear
combination of elements of S.

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0 span (S) and has a unique
representation

## So, it is not possible to find scalars c1,

c2,..., cn
such that
0=c1 v1 + c2 v2 + .....+ cn vn for some non-
zero cis .
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Note: Let S be a LD subset of a vector
space V then there is some vector v S
such that span (S-{v})=span (S).

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Independence Test Method:

## Let S be a finite set of vectors in n . To

determine whether S is LI, use following
steps:
1. Form a matrix A with vectors in S are
columns of A.
2. Reduce A into RREF
3. If there is a pivot in every column then S
is LI otherwise LD.
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Ex: check whether S is LI or LD.
S 2, 1, 3, 4, 1, 6, 2, 0, 2

## Sol : Consider matrix A with each column as vectors in S

2 4 2

A 1 1 0
3 6 2

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RREF of matrix A is
1 0 0

B 0 1 0
0 0 1

## As each column has a pivot so S is LI.

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Ex: check whether S is LI or LD.
S 5,2, 3, 4,1, 7, 7, 4, 5

## Sol : Consider matrix A with each column as vectors in S

5 4 7

A 2 1 4
3 7 5

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RREF of matrix A is
1 0 3

B 0 1 2
0 0 0

## As third column does not have a pivot so S is not LI.

Hence, S is LD.

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Basis and Dimension &
Constructing Special
Bases
(Section 4.5-4.6)
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Basis:
Let V be a vector space.
Let S = {v1, v2, .... ,vn} be a subset
of V
Then S is Basis of V if
1. S is LI and
2. [S] = V.
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Ex: S = {(1, 0), (0, 1)} is a basis of
R2
2 n
Ex: { 1, t, t , .... , t } is a basis of
Pn
(called Standard / Natural Basis)

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Example : Let S = 2
{t +t,
t-1, t+1}
Show that S is a basis of P2
Sol. For [S]=P2 :
Can we find , & s.t.
at2 + bt + c = (t2 + t)+( t 1)+(
t + 1) for any a, b, c
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Which gives the system of linear
equations in , & :
=a
++ =b The coefficient matrix is
- + =c 1 0 0 a

1 1 1 b
0 1 1 c

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The Row Echelon Form is

1 0 0 a

0 1 1 b a
0 0 1 b a c
2
The system is consistent for any values
of a, b & c.
Therefore [S]=P2
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For LI of S:
Consider
(t2 + t)+( t 1)+( t + 1) =0
Which gives
=0
++ =0
- + =0
Which is the corresponding
homogeneous system
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The row echelon form:
1 0 0 0

0 1 1 0
0 0 1 0

The system will have only trivial
Solution: = = =0
Therefore S is LI
Hence S is Basis for P2
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Finite Dimensional Vector Space:

## A vector space V is finite

dimensional if there exists a
finite subset of V which forms a
basis of V.

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Dimension

## Dimension of a nonzero vector space

is the no. of vectors in a Basis of V

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Notation for Dimension:
The number of element of a set S
=|S|
The Dimension of a Vector space V
=dim(v)
Ex: dim(2 ) = 2,
Ex: dim(3 ) = 3,
Ex: dim( P2 ) = 3

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Note:
(I) If V = { 0 }, Then dim V=0.
(II) If P= Set of all polynomials is
infinite-dimensional

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Ex: Find a basis and dimension of
the plane x-3y+4z=0
Ans.
Let S={(x, y, z) 3|x -3 y+4z= 0}
So S is a subspace of 3
{(3,1,0), (-4,0,1)} is basis and
dimension (S)=2
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Ex. Find the dimension of the subspace
of P2 consisting of all vectors of the form
at2+bt+c where a=b+c
Ans. S={at2+bt+c P2 | a=b+c}
dim(S)=2

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Lemma : 4.11
Let S and T be subsets of vector space
V such that S spans V, S is finite and
T is LI. Then T is finite
T S.
Where,Tis number of elements in T.

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Theorem 4.12:

## Let S = {x1, x2, .... ,xm } and

T = {y1, y2, .... ,yn }
be two bases of a vector space V. Then
m = n.
In other way: For a vector space V, every
basis must contain same number of
elements
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Theorem 4.17:

## Let S = {v1, v2, .... ,vn } be a set of

nonzero vectors in a vector space V.
Then some subset of S is a basis
for [S].
If [S]=V, then some subset of S is a
basis for V.
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Ex: Let S = {v1, v2,v3 , v4, v5 } be a set of
vectors in R4 where
v1 = (1, 2, -2, 1), v2 = (-3, 0, -4, 3)
v3 = (2, 1, 1, -1), v4 = (-3, 3, -9, 6)
v5 = (9, 3, 7, -6)
Find a subset of S that forms a
basis for span(S) (not for 4 )
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Step-1: Form
c1 v1 + c2 v2 + .... + c5 v5 = 0
Step-2:
Construct the augmented matrix associated
with the above homogeneous system and
transform to reduced row echelon form
(Do not forget to write the homogenous
system for ci)
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Then in Row reduced Echelon form
1 0 1/2 3/2 3/2 0
0 1 -1/2 3/2 -5/2 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0

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Step-3: The vectors corresponding to the
columns containing the leading 1s form a
basis for [S]
The leading 1s appear in columns 1 & 2
Hence { v1, v2 } forms a basis for [ S ]
Note: Writing
c 1 v 4 + c 2 v 3 + c 3 v 2 + c4 v 1 + c5 v 5 = 0
The Row reduced Echelon form of the
augmented matrix is
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1 0 1/3 1/3 -1/3 0
0 1 -1 1 4 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
The leading 1s appear in columns 1 & 2
Hence { v4, v3 } also a basis for [ S ]
Conl.: Therefore a non-zero real vector space always
has infinitely many bases
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Note:
If we have a set of polynomials S P4 then elements of S
can be represente d as
pt 2t 3t 5t t 2
4 3 2

2, 3, 5,1, 2

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Theo :4.18

## Every LI subset of a finite

dimensional vector space V can
be extended to form a basis of
V.

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Ex: Let V = 4
Let T={v1 =(1, 0,1,0), v2 =(-1, 1,-1,
0)}
Extend T to form a basis of V.

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Sol:
Let S = {v1,v2, e1, e2, e3, e4 } where
{e1, e2, e3 ,e4 } is natural basis of
4.
Since {e1, e2, e3, e4 } spans V
Hence S spans V i.e, span(S)=V.
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Now using Theorem ( Let S = {v1, v2,
.... ,vn } be a set of nonzero vectors in a
vector space V . Then some subset of S
is a basis for span( S ). ),
we have to find a subset of S which
will be a basis for span(s) i.e, for V

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Follow the same procedure applied
for the problem based on that
theorem.
Step-1: Form
c1v1+c2v2+c3e1+c4e2+c5e3+c6e4 = 0
(Note: write v1 & v2 at the
beginning)
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Step-2:
Construct the augmented matrix
associated with the above
homogeneous system and transform
to reduced row echelon form

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The RREF is
1 0 0 1 1 0 0
0 1 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 -1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 1 0

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Step-3: Since leading 1s appear in
column 1, 2, 3 & 6
Hence {v1,v2, e1, e4 } is a basis of
V

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Th:
Let dim V = n
Let S={v1, v2, .... ,vn } such that
V=[S]
Then S is basis of V.
Proof: Hint (It is enough to show
that S is LI)
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Theorem: Let dim V = n.
Then any n + 1 vectors in V are LD.

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Proof.: Let S be a set of n+1 vectors.
Let us assume that S is LI.
Then using theorem[If S = {v1, v2, .... ,vn }
is a basis for a vector space V and T =
{w1, w2, .... ,wr } is LI set of vectors in V,
then r n ], we get
n+1n which is wrong
Hence S is LD
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Row space and column
space of a matrix
(Section 2.3)

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Definition:
a11 a12 a1n
a a a
21 22 2n

A
a
ai1 ai 2 in

am1 am 2 amn
Let vi = (ai1, ai2, .... ... , ain ), i = 1,..,m
Let S = { v1, v2 , ... ... , vm }
Then span(S) is a subspace of n and
is called Row Space of A
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Let

a1 j

w j aij

a
mj
Let W = { w1, w2, ... , wn }
Then [W] is is a subspace of m and
is Column Space of A
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Theorem 2.8:Let A and B are two
m x n row equivalent matrices,
then Row space of A =
Row space of B.

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Row Rank of A =
Dimension of Row space of A.
Column Rank of A =
Dimension of Column space of A.

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