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MATH F112

BITS Pilani Dr. Ashish Tiwari

Pilani Campus

2/7/2015 1

Finite Dimensional

Vector Space

(Sec.4.1)

2/7/2015 2

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

What is vector?

What is scalar?

What is vector addition?

Notation for addition.

What is scalar multiplication?

Notation for scalar multiplication.

2/7/2015 3

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

DEFINITION of VECTOR SPACE

Let be the set of real numbers.

Define vector addition + and scalar

multiplication .

such that :

2/7/2015 4

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

(A) u + v V for all u, v V:

V is closed under vector addition.

Moreover,

A1. u + v = v + u for all u, v V

A2. (u +v) + w = u + (v + w)

for all u, v, w V

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BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

A3. There is an element 0 V such

that

0 + u = u=u + 0 for all u V

A4. For each u V there is -u V

such that u + (-u) = 0

NOTE: V is a commutative group

under vector addition

2/7/2015 6

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

(B) u V for all u in V , is real:

V is closed under scalar multiplication.

Moreover

B1. ( u + v) = u + v

for all u, v V, for all real

2/7/2015 7

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

B2. ( + ) u = u + u

for all u V , for all real ,

B3. ( ) u = ( u )

for all u V, for all real ,

B4. 1 . u = u for all u V,

vectors

2/7/2015 8

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Ex: Let V = { f | f : [a, b] }

Define

(f + g)(x) = f(x) + g(x)

( f)(x) = f(x), is real no.

Then, V is real vector space.

2/7/2015 9

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Ex: Let Pn be the set of all polynomials of

degree n in the variable x with coefficients in

.

Then Pn is a vector space, with addition of

polynomials and scalar multiplication of a

polynomial

2/7/2015 10

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Ex: Let V= 2 with addition and scalar multiplication

defined by

x, y w, z x w 1, y z 2

. x, y x 1, y 2 2

operations.

A2 and B1-B4 can be shown using definition of the

operations.

2/7/2015 11

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Existence of Zero Element (A3): However, zero element

can be found in the following way

Zero element

u, v x, y u x 1, v y 2

x, y u x 1, v y 2

u 1, v 2

2/7/2015 12

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Existence of Additive Inverse (A4): However, additive

inverse of an element can be found in the following way

Additive inverse

Zero element

x, y x' , y' 1, 2

x x'1, y y'2 1, 2

x' 2 x, y ' 4 y

x' , y' 2 x, 4 y

2/7/2015 13

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Note: Zero element and additive inverse are unique

in a vector space.

2/7/2015 14

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Theo 4.1: Let V be a vector space. Then

4. . u = 0 => = 0 or u = 0

2/7/2015 15

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Proof-(1):

0u=(0+0)u as 0 is an element of

=0u+0u using B2

Adding (0u) to both sides:

0=-(0u)+(0u+0u)=(-(0u)+(0u))+0u

(using A4 on left side and A2 on right side)

=0+0u using A4

=0u

2/7/2015

using A3 16

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Proof-(2):

0= (0+0) using A3

= 0+ 0 using B1

Adding (0) to both sides:

0=-(0)+( 0 + 0)=(-(0)+(0))+ 0 using

A4 on left side and A2 on right side

=0+ 0 using A4

= 0

2/7/2015

using A3 17

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Proof-(3):

(-1)u+u=(-1)u+1u using B4

=(-1+1)u using B2

=0u where 0

=0 where 0 V using (1)

Using A4, (-1)u is the negative of u

Hence (-1)u=-u

2/7/2015 18

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Proof-(4):

Suppose that u=0 and 0 we have

u=1u=(1/ )u

=1/ ( u) using B3

=1/ 0=0 since using (2)

=0

2/7/2015 19

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Q. Does set of all nxn matrices Mnn forms a vector space with

matrix addition and scalar multiplication.

RREF.

order nxn.

nxn.

2/7/2015 20

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

SUBSPACES

(Section 4.2)

2/7/2015 21

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Definition:

Let V be a vector space and W be non-

empty subset of V.

If W is a vector space with respect to

operations in V, then W is called a

subspace of V.

Every vector space V has at least two

subspaces: {0} and V itself.

2/7/2015 22

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

{0} known as trivial subspace.

All the conditions for vector space are

satisfying

W is a vector space and

Hence W is subspace of V.

2/7/2015 23

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Theo: Let V be a vector space.

Let W be non-empty subset of V.

Then, W is subspace of V iff

1. x, y W x + y W

(Closed under vector addition)

2. is scalar, x W x W.

(Closed under scalar multiplication)

2/7/2015 24

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Proof:

First Necessary Part

Let W be a subspace of V

W is a vector space

Conditions (1) and (2) are satisfying

2/7/2015 25

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Converse(Sufficient Part):

Let conditions (1) and (2) hold:

We have to prove that W is a vector

space

2/7/2015 26

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Conditions (1) and (2) W is a

closed under vector addition and

scalar multiplication

Axioms A1, A2, B1-B4 are

automatically satisfied for any

elements of W since these laws

already hold for element of V

2/7/2015 27

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Now we have to show the existence

of certain elements

(zero and additive inverse of each

element of W) in W

2/7/2015 28

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Existence of Zero:

Take =0:

Now from Condition(2),

0u W 0 W using 0u=0

There exist zero element in W

2/7/2015 29

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Existence of Inverse:

Take =-1:

Now from Condition(2),

(-1)u W -u W

for every element u of W

2/7/2015 30

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Ex-1: Let V = 3

Then W = {(x, y, 0 )| x, y } is a

subspace of V.

(First show that W is a non-empty set)

W = {p P| degree of p=3 }

Then W is NOT a subspace of P.

2/7/2015 31

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Ex:

W = {x n| Ax = 0, O(A) = m x n }

=Null space

is a subspace of n

Ex:

W = {xn | Ax = b, O(A) = m x n }

is NOT a subspace of n

2/7/2015 32

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Q18. Intersection of two subspaces of a vector

space is a subspace.

x, y A B x, y A & x, y B

x y & x A & x y & x B

as A & B are subspaces

x y & x A B

2/7/2015 33

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Ex: V = 2

A = { (a, 0) | a is real }

B = { (0, b) | b is real }

Then, A and B are subspaces of V.

Intersection of A & B is {(0,0)} which is a

subspace of 2

2/7/2015 34

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

But A U B = { (a, 0), (0,b) | a, b are real }

is NOT a subspace .

Q. Union of two subspaces is a subspace iff

one of them is contained in other.

Sol: If one subspace is contained in other

then the union will be one of them which is

already a subspace

2/7/2015 35

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

For second part: Let union of A and B be a subspace

use it to get a contradict ion i.e. x B

2/7/2015 36

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Q. Let A and B be subspaces of V

Let A + B = { a + b | a A, b B }

Then A + B is a subspace of V.

2/7/2015 37

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Span

( Section 4.3)

2/7/2015 38

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Finite Linear Combination (LC) :

Let V be a vector space.

Let v1, v2, ...... , vk V.

Then, v V is linear combination of

v1, v2, ...... , vk if

v = c1 v1 + c2 v2 + ......+ ck vk , ci

2/7/2015 39

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Ex:(2, 3) is LC of (1, 0) and (0, 1) in

2

Ex: v = (2, 1, 5) in is LC of

3

z = (1, 1, 0).

because v = x + 2y z.

2/7/2015 40

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Span of a set:

Let V be a vector space and

S = { v1, v2, ...... , vk} be a subset of

V.

Then, span (S) = [S]

={c1 v1 + c2 v2 + .....+ ck vk | ci }

=set of elements generated by the elements of

S

2/7/2015 41

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Ex: Let V = 3

Let S = {(1, 0, 0), (0, 0, 1) }

Then span(S) = { (a, 0, b) | a, b }

2/7/2015 42

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Th 4.5: Let V be a vector space.

Let S be a non-empty subset of V.

Then (I) S is subset of span(S),

(II) span(S) is subspace of V

(III) span(S) is the smallest

subspace of V containing subset

S.

2/7/2015 43

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Proof (I):

We must show that each w S is also in

span(S).

But if w S , then w=1w is a sum of scalar

multiples from the subset {w} of S.

Hence w span(S)

2/7/2015 44

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Proof (II): span(S) is a non-empty set since

S is non-empty.

Let u, v span(S) then

u = c1 u1 + c2 u2 + ......+ cm um

for some scalar ci, for some uis S

and a positive integer m

2/7/2015 45

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

and v = d1v1 + d2v2 + ......+ dnvn

for some scalar di, for some vis S

and a positive integer n

Now u+v= c1u1 + c2u2 + ......+ cmum

+ d1 v1 + d2 v2 + ......+ dn vn

is a finite linear combination

elements of S

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BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Therefore u+v span(S)

Similarly,

au = (ac1) u1 + (ac2 )u2 + ......+ (acm) um

for any scalar a is a finite linear

combination of S

So au span(S)

Hence span(S) is subspace of V

2/7/2015 47

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Let V be a vector space and let S1 , S2

be subsets of V then

2/7/2015 48

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Ex: Let V = P2

S = { t2 + 1, t 1, t2 + t }

Does S spans V ?? i.e. V = [S] ??

2/7/2015 49

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Sol: S V [S ] V

Let any element p(t) = at2 + bt + c V ;

a, b, c are real number

Now p(t) [S] if

at2 + bt + c = (t2 + 1)+( t 1)+( t2 +

t) for any a, b & c for some , &

2/7/2015 50

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

System consistent if c a + b = 0

p(t) does not belongs to [S]

V is not a subset of [S]

Hence V [S]

2/7/2015 51

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Ex: Let

a b

W : a, b, c R

b c

Then, W is a subspace (consist of

2 X 2 SYMMETRIC matrices) of M22

Let

1 1 1 0 0 1

S , , ,

1 1 0 0 1 0

Then S spans W. i.e. W = [S]

2/7/2015 52

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Writing span(S) in simplified

form:

Let S be a finite subset of n containing

k vectors (k2):

1. Form a matrix A s.t. o(A)=kxn, with

vectors of S are rows of A.

2. Reduce A into RREF.

3. Linear combination of Non zero

rows represent span(S).

2/7/2015 53

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Ex: Find the span(S) in simplified form

Sol: Consider the matrix

1 3 0 1

0

0 1 1

A

0 1 0 1

1 5 1 4

2/7/2015 54

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Matrix in RREF 1 0 0 2

0 1 0 1

A

0 0 1 1

0 0 0 0

a, b, c,2a b c a, b, c R

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BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Linear Independence (LI):

v1, v2, .... , vk V are LI if

c1 v1 + c2 v2 + .... + ck vk = 0

=> ci = 0 for all i

Otherwise, vectors are Linearly

Dependent.

2/7/2015 56

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Ex : v1 = (2, 0), v2 = (0, 5) in 2

are LI

What is LI set

Ex : {(1,0), (0,1)} is a LI set

2/7/2015 57

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Linear Dependence (LD):

space V are LD if

there exist scalars ci ,i = 1,2, ... , k Not

all zero such that

c1 v1 + c2 v2 + .... + ck vk = 0

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Ex : v1 = (1, 2), v2 = (5, 10) in 2

are not LI, i.e. Linearly

Dependent.

2/7/2015 59

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Ex: Is S = { p1(t), p2(t), p3(t) } LI? where

p1(t) = t2 + t + 2

p2(t) = 2t2 + t

p3(t) = 3t2 + 2t + 2

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BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Soln.

a p1(t) +b p2(t) +c p3(t) =0

Which gives the system of

linear equations in a, b & c:

a+2b+3c=0

a+b+2c=0

2a+2c=0

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BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

1 2 3

The coefficient matrix is 1 1 2

2 0 2

Row echelon form:

1 2 3

The homogeneous system in

0 1 1 a, b, c has non-trivial solution

0 0 0

Hence S is not LI set

2/7/2015 62

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Theo: Every subset containing zero

vector in a vector space is LD.

Ex:

For what value of , the vectors

t + 3 and 2 t + +2 in P1 are

2

LI

2/7/2015 63

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Let a(t + 3) + b( 2 t + 2 +2 )=0 for some

scalar a &b.

t(a+2b)+(3a+b 2 +2b)=0

The system of equations:

a+2b=0 & 3a+b (2 +2)=0

For LI, this system in a & b should have

only trivial solution:

2 +2-60 i.e, 2, -2

2/7/2015 64

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Th : Let x and y be non-zero

vectors in a vector space V. Then

{ x, y} is LD iff one of a vector is a

scalar multiple of other.

2/7/2015 65

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Proof.:

Suppose {x, y} is LD.

Then there exists scalars a, b with

at least one of them, say a is non-

zero, such that ax+by=0

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BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Therefore x=-(b/a)y

Which means x is scalar multiple of y.

Conversely, if x is scalar multiple of y

Then x=ay i.e, (1)x-ay=0

Hence x & y are LD

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BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Th : The non-zero vectors v1, v2,

.... , vk in a vector space V are LD

iff one of the vectors vj is linear

combination of preceding vectors

v1, v2, .... , vj-1 , j >1 (similar to Ex-

22, P-254)

2/7/2015 68

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Th : Let S1 and S2 be finite subsets

of a vector space V.

Let S1 be subset of S2 .

Then 1. S2 LI => S1 is LI

(Converse is not true)

2. S1 LD => S2 is LD

(Converse is not true)

2/7/2015 69

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Proof:.

subset of m elements of V and

S2 = { u1, u2, ...... , um, v1, v2, ......

, vn} be a finite subset of m+n

elements of V

2/7/2015 70

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For (1): Let S2 be LI:

For c1

u1 + c2 u2 + .....+ cm um =0

=> c1 u1 + c2 u2 + .....+ cm um + 0

v1 + 0 v2 + .....+ 0 vn=0

=> All cis =0 (since S2 is LI)

So, c1 u1 + c2 u2 + .....+ cm um =0

=> All cis =0

Therefore S2 LI => S1 is LI .

2/7/2015 71

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For (2 ): Let S1 be LD:

There exists scalars c1, c2, .., cm , not all zero,

such that

c1 u1 + c2 u2 + .....+ cm um=0

c1 u1 + c2 u2 + .....+ cm um

+ 0 v1 + 0v2 + .....+ 0 vn =0

for any vectors v1, v2, ...... , vn of

S2

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Therefore

...... , vn} is LD

2/7/2015 73

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Theo 4.9:

Let S = {v1, v2, .... ,vn } be a non empty

subset of a vector space V. Then S is

LI iff every vector of v span (S) can

be expressed uniquely as a linear

combination of elements of S.

Proof.:

S is a finite LI subset of V.

Let v be any vector of span (S).

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On the contrary, we assume that v can be

expressed as linear combination of elements of

S in two different ways.

i.e.

v=c1 v1 + c2 v2 + .....+ cn vn ----(1)

for some scalars c1, c2, .., cn

and v=d1 v1 + d2 v2 + .....+ dn vn ---(2)

for some other scalars d1, d2, .., dn

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Now subtract (1)-(2):

0=(c1 d1)v1 + (c2 d2) v2 + .....+ (cn dn)

vn

Which implies

(ci di)=0 for i=1,2,,n

since v1,..,vn are element of LI set S

Hence ci = di for i=1,2,,n

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Converse part:

Assume that every vector v span (S)

can be expressed uniquely as a linear

combination of elements of S.

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0 span (S) and has a unique

representation

c2,..., cn

such that

0=c1 v1 + c2 v2 + .....+ cn vn for some non-

zero cis .

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Note: Let S be a LD subset of a vector

space V then there is some vector v S

such that span (S-{v})=span (S).

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BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Independence Test Method:

determine whether S is LI, use following

steps:

1. Form a matrix A with vectors in S are

columns of A.

2. Reduce A into RREF

3. If there is a pivot in every column then S

is LI otherwise LD.

2/7/2015 80

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Ex: check whether S is LI or LD.

S 2, 1, 3, 4, 1, 6, 2, 0, 2

2 4 2

A 1 1 0

3 6 2

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RREF of matrix A is

1 0 0

B 0 1 0

0 0 1

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Ex: check whether S is LI or LD.

S 5,2, 3, 4,1, 7, 7, 4, 5

5 4 7

A 2 1 4

3 7 5

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RREF of matrix A is

1 0 3

B 0 1 2

0 0 0

Hence, S is LD.

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Basis and Dimension &

Constructing Special

Bases

(Section 4.5-4.6)

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Basis:

Let V be a vector space.

Let S = {v1, v2, .... ,vn} be a subset

of V

Then S is Basis of V if

1. S is LI and

2. [S] = V.

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Ex: S = {(1, 0), (0, 1)} is a basis of

R2

2 n

Ex: { 1, t, t , .... , t } is a basis of

Pn

(called Standard / Natural Basis)

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Example : Let S = 2

{t +t,

t-1, t+1}

Show that S is a basis of P2

Sol. For [S]=P2 :

Can we find , & s.t.

at2 + bt + c = (t2 + t)+( t 1)+(

t + 1) for any a, b, c

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Which gives the system of linear

equations in , & :

=a

++ =b The coefficient matrix is

- + =c 1 0 0 a

1 1 1 b

0 1 1 c

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The Row Echelon Form is

1 0 0 a

0 1 1 b a

0 0 1 b a c

2

The system is consistent for any values

of a, b & c.

Therefore [S]=P2

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For LI of S:

Consider

(t2 + t)+( t 1)+( t + 1) =0

Which gives

=0

++ =0

- + =0

Which is the corresponding

homogeneous system

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The row echelon form:

1 0 0 0

0 1 1 0

0 0 1 0

The system will have only trivial

Solution: = = =0

Therefore S is LI

Hence S is Basis for P2

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Finite Dimensional Vector Space:

dimensional if there exists a

finite subset of V which forms a

basis of V.

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Dimension

is the no. of vectors in a Basis of V

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Notation for Dimension:

The number of element of a set S

=|S|

The Dimension of a Vector space V

=dim(v)

Ex: dim(2 ) = 2,

Ex: dim(3 ) = 3,

Ex: dim( P2 ) = 3

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Note:

(I) If V = { 0 }, Then dim V=0.

(II) If P= Set of all polynomials is

infinite-dimensional

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Ex: Find a basis and dimension of

the plane x-3y+4z=0

Ans.

Let S={(x, y, z) 3|x -3 y+4z= 0}

So S is a subspace of 3

{(3,1,0), (-4,0,1)} is basis and

dimension (S)=2

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Ex. Find the dimension of the subspace

of P2 consisting of all vectors of the form

at2+bt+c where a=b+c

Ans. S={at2+bt+c P2 | a=b+c}

dim(S)=2

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Lemma : 4.11

Let S and T be subsets of vector space

V such that S spans V, S is finite and

T is LI. Then T is finite

T S.

Where,Tis number of elements in T.

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Theorem 4.12:

T = {y1, y2, .... ,yn }

be two bases of a vector space V. Then

m = n.

In other way: For a vector space V, every

basis must contain same number of

elements

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Theorem 4.17:

nonzero vectors in a vector space V.

Then some subset of S is a basis

for [S].

If [S]=V, then some subset of S is a

basis for V.

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Ex: Let S = {v1, v2,v3 , v4, v5 } be a set of

vectors in R4 where

v1 = (1, 2, -2, 1), v2 = (-3, 0, -4, 3)

v3 = (2, 1, 1, -1), v4 = (-3, 3, -9, 6)

v5 = (9, 3, 7, -6)

Find a subset of S that forms a

basis for span(S) (not for 4 )

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Step-1: Form

c1 v1 + c2 v2 + .... + c5 v5 = 0

Step-2:

Construct the augmented matrix associated

with the above homogeneous system and

transform to reduced row echelon form

(Do not forget to write the homogenous

system for ci)

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Then in Row reduced Echelon form

1 0 1/2 3/2 3/2 0

0 1 -1/2 3/2 -5/2 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

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Step-3: The vectors corresponding to the

columns containing the leading 1s form a

basis for [S]

The leading 1s appear in columns 1 & 2

Hence { v1, v2 } forms a basis for [ S ]

Note: Writing

c 1 v 4 + c 2 v 3 + c 3 v 2 + c4 v 1 + c5 v 5 = 0

The Row reduced Echelon form of the

augmented matrix is

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1 0 1/3 1/3 -1/3 0

0 1 -1 1 4 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

The leading 1s appear in columns 1 & 2

Hence { v4, v3 } also a basis for [ S ]

Conl.: Therefore a non-zero real vector space always

has infinitely many bases

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Note:

If we have a set of polynomials S P4 then elements of S

can be represente d as

pt 2t 3t 5t t 2

4 3 2

2, 3, 5,1, 2

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Theo :4.18

dimensional vector space V can

be extended to form a basis of

V.

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Ex: Let V = 4

Let T={v1 =(1, 0,1,0), v2 =(-1, 1,-1,

0)}

Extend T to form a basis of V.

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Sol:

Let S = {v1,v2, e1, e2, e3, e4 } where

{e1, e2, e3 ,e4 } is natural basis of

4.

Since {e1, e2, e3, e4 } spans V

Hence S spans V i.e, span(S)=V.

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Now using Theorem ( Let S = {v1, v2,

.... ,vn } be a set of nonzero vectors in a

vector space V . Then some subset of S

is a basis for span( S ). ),

we have to find a subset of S which

will be a basis for span(s) i.e, for V

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Follow the same procedure applied

for the problem based on that

theorem.

Step-1: Form

c1v1+c2v2+c3e1+c4e2+c5e3+c6e4 = 0

(Note: write v1 & v2 at the

beginning)

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Step-2:

Construct the augmented matrix

associated with the above

homogeneous system and transform

to reduced row echelon form

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The RREF is

1 0 0 1 1 0 0

0 1 0 1 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 -1 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 1 0

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Step-3: Since leading 1s appear in

column 1, 2, 3 & 6

Hence {v1,v2, e1, e4 } is a basis of

V

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Th:

Let dim V = n

Let S={v1, v2, .... ,vn } such that

V=[S]

Then S is basis of V.

Proof: Hint (It is enough to show

that S is LI)

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Theorem: Let dim V = n.

Then any n + 1 vectors in V are LD.

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Proof.: Let S be a set of n+1 vectors.

Let us assume that S is LI.

Then using theorem[If S = {v1, v2, .... ,vn }

is a basis for a vector space V and T =

{w1, w2, .... ,wr } is LI set of vectors in V,

then r n ], we get

n+1n which is wrong

Hence S is LD

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Row space and column

space of a matrix

(Section 2.3)

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Definition:

a11 a12 a1n

a a a

21 22 2n

A

a

ai1 ai 2 in

am1 am 2 amn

Let vi = (ai1, ai2, .... ... , ain ), i = 1,..,m

Let S = { v1, v2 , ... ... , vm }

Then span(S) is a subspace of n and

is called Row Space of A

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Let

a1 j

w j aij

a

mj

Let W = { w1, w2, ... , wn }

Then [W] is is a subspace of m and

is Column Space of A

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Theorem 2.8:Let A and B are two

m x n row equivalent matrices,

then Row space of A =

Row space of B.

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Row Rank of A =

Dimension of Row space of A.

Column Rank of A =

Dimension of Column space of A.

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