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Mathematics-II

MATH F112
BITS Pilani Dr. Ashish Tiwari
Pilani Campus

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Finite Dimensional
Vector Space
(Sec.4.1)
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What is vector?
What is scalar?
What is vector addition?
Notation for addition.
What is scalar multiplication?
Notation for scalar multiplication.
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DEFINITION of VECTOR SPACE

Let V be a non-empty set.


Let be the set of real numbers.
Define vector addition + and scalar

multiplication .

such that :
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(A) u + v V for all u, v V:
V is closed under vector addition.
Moreover,
A1. u + v = v + u for all u, v V
A2. (u +v) + w = u + (v + w)
for all u, v, w V
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A3. There is an element 0 V such
that
0 + u = u=u + 0 for all u V
A4. For each u V there is -u V
such that u + (-u) = 0
NOTE: V is a commutative group
under vector addition
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(B) u V for all u in V , is real:
V is closed under scalar multiplication.
Moreover

B1. ( u + v) = u + v
for all u, v V, for all real
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B2. ( + ) u = u + u
for all u V , for all real ,
B3. ( ) u = ( u )
for all u V, for all real ,
B4. 1 . u = u for all u V,

Note: B1-B4: scalar multiplication with


vectors
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Ex: Let V = { f | f : [a, b] }
Define
(f + g)(x) = f(x) + g(x)
( f)(x) = f(x), is real no.
Then, V is real vector space.

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Ex: Let Pn be the set of all polynomials of
degree n in the variable x with coefficients in
.
Then Pn is a vector space, with addition of
polynomials and scalar multiplication of a
polynomial
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Ex: Let V= 2 with addition and scalar multiplication
defined by
x, y w, z x w 1, y z 2
. x, y x 1, y 2 2

Show that V forms a vector space with respect to above


operations.

Proof: Both operations satisfy the closure property. A1,


A2 and B1-B4 can be shown using definition of the
operations.
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Existence of Zero Element (A3): However, zero element
can be found in the following way

Zero element

u, v x, y u x 1, v y 2
x, y u x 1, v y 2
u 1, v 2

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Existence of Additive Inverse (A4): However, additive
inverse of an element can be found in the following way
Additive inverse
Zero element

x, y x' , y' 1, 2
x x'1, y y'2 1, 2
x' 2 x, y ' 4 y
x' , y' 2 x, 4 y
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Note: Zero element and additive inverse are unique
in a vector space.

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Theo 4.1: Let V be a vector space. Then

1. 0.u = 0 for every u V, 0 V, 0 .

2. . 0 = 0 for every scalar , 0 V .

3. (-1).u = -u for every u V.

4. . u = 0 => = 0 or u = 0
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Proof-(1):
0u=(0+0)u as 0 is an element of
=0u+0u using B2
Adding (0u) to both sides:
0=-(0u)+(0u+0u)=(-(0u)+(0u))+0u
(using A4 on left side and A2 on right side)
=0+0u using A4
=0u
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using A3 16
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Proof-(2):
0= (0+0) using A3
= 0+ 0 using B1
Adding (0) to both sides:
0=-(0)+( 0 + 0)=(-(0)+(0))+ 0 using
A4 on left side and A2 on right side
=0+ 0 using A4
= 0
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using A3 17
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Proof-(3):
(-1)u+u=(-1)u+1u using B4
=(-1+1)u using B2
=0u where 0
=0 where 0 V using (1)
Using A4, (-1)u is the negative of u
Hence (-1)u=-u

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Proof-(4):
Suppose that u=0 and 0 we have
u=1u=(1/ )u
=1/ ( u) using B3
=1/ 0=0 since using (2)
=0

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Q. Does set of all nxn matrices Mnn forms a vector space with
matrix addition and scalar multiplication.

Q. What if above set is replaced by matrices of order nxn in


RREF.

Q. What if above set is replaced by non-singular matrices of


order nxn.

Q. What if above set is replaced by singular matrices of order


nxn.

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SUBSPACES
(Section 4.2)

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Definition:
Let V be a vector space and W be non-
empty subset of V.
If W is a vector space with respect to
operations in V, then W is called a
subspace of V.
Every vector space V has at least two
subspaces: {0} and V itself.
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{0} known as trivial subspace.

Ex-1: Let V = 3 & W = {(x, y, 0 )| x, y }


All the conditions for vector space are
satisfying
W is a vector space and
Hence W is subspace of V.

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Theo: Let V be a vector space.
Let W be non-empty subset of V.
Then, W is subspace of V iff
1. x, y W x + y W
(Closed under vector addition)
2. is scalar, x W x W.
(Closed under scalar multiplication)
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Proof:
First Necessary Part

Let W be a subspace of V
W is a vector space
Conditions (1) and (2) are satisfying
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Converse(Sufficient Part):
Let conditions (1) and (2) hold:
We have to prove that W is a vector
space

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Conditions (1) and (2) W is a
closed under vector addition and
scalar multiplication
Axioms A1, A2, B1-B4 are
automatically satisfied for any
elements of W since these laws
already hold for element of V

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Now we have to show the existence
of certain elements
(zero and additive inverse of each
element of W) in W

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Existence of Zero:
Take =0:
Now from Condition(2),
0u W 0 W using 0u=0
There exist zero element in W

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Existence of Inverse:
Take =-1:
Now from Condition(2),
(-1)u W -u W
for every element u of W

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Ex-1: Let V = 3
Then W = {(x, y, 0 )| x, y } is a
subspace of V.
(First show that W is a non-empty set)

Ex-2: Let V = P (Set of all polynomials p)


W = {p P| degree of p=3 }
Then W is NOT a subspace of P.

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Ex:
W = {x n| Ax = 0, O(A) = m x n }
=Null space
is a subspace of n
Ex:
W = {xn | Ax = b, O(A) = m x n }
is NOT a subspace of n
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Q18. Intersection of two subspaces of a vector
space is a subspace.

Proof: Let A, B be subspaces of a vector space V.

A B as A & B both contains zero element of V


x, y A B x, y A & x, y B
x y & x A & x y & x B
as A & B are subspaces
x y & x A B
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Ex: V = 2
A = { (a, 0) | a is real }
B = { (0, b) | b is real }
Then, A and B are subspaces of V.
Intersection of A & B is {(0,0)} which is a
subspace of 2

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But A U B = { (a, 0), (0,b) | a, b are real }
is NOT a subspace .
Q. Union of two subspaces is a subspace iff
one of them is contained in other.
Sol: If one subspace is contained in other
then the union will be one of them which is
already a subspace
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For second part: Let union of A and B be a subspace

Let x A but x B and y B but y A


use it to get a contradict ion i.e. x B

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Q. Let A and B be subspaces of V
Let A + B = { a + b | a A, b B }
Then A + B is a subspace of V.

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Span
( Section 4.3)

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Finite Linear Combination (LC) :
Let V be a vector space.
Let v1, v2, ...... , vk V.
Then, v V is linear combination of
v1, v2, ...... , vk if
v = c1 v1 + c2 v2 + ......+ ck vk , ci

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Ex:(2, 3) is LC of (1, 0) and (0, 1) in
2
Ex: v = (2, 1, 5) in is LC of
3

x = (1, 2, 1), y = (1, 0, 2),


z = (1, 1, 0).
because v = x + 2y z.
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Span of a set:
Let V be a vector space and
S = { v1, v2, ...... , vk} be a subset of
V.
Then, span (S) = [S]
={c1 v1 + c2 v2 + .....+ ck vk | ci }
=set of elements generated by the elements of
S
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Ex: Let V = 3
Let S = {(1, 0, 0), (0, 0, 1) }
Then span(S) = { (a, 0, b) | a, b }

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Th 4.5: Let V be a vector space.
Let S be a non-empty subset of V.
Then (I) S is subset of span(S),
(II) span(S) is subspace of V
(III) span(S) is the smallest
subspace of V containing subset
S.
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Proof (I):
We must show that each w S is also in
span(S).
But if w S , then w=1w is a sum of scalar
multiples from the subset {w} of S.
Hence w span(S)

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Proof (II): span(S) is a non-empty set since
S is non-empty.
Let u, v span(S) then
u = c1 u1 + c2 u2 + ......+ cm um
for some scalar ci, for some uis S
and a positive integer m
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and v = d1v1 + d2v2 + ......+ dnvn
for some scalar di, for some vis S
and a positive integer n
Now u+v= c1u1 + c2u2 + ......+ cmum
+ d1 v1 + d2 v2 + ......+ dn vn
is a finite linear combination
elements of S
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Therefore u+v span(S)

Similarly,
au = (ac1) u1 + (ac2 )u2 + ......+ (acm) um
for any scalar a is a finite linear
combination of S
So au span(S)
Hence span(S) is subspace of V
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Let V be a vector space and let S1 , S2
be subsets of V then

S1 S2 span ( S1) span (S2 )

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Ex: Let V = P2
S = { t2 + 1, t 1, t2 + t }
Does S spans V ?? i.e. V = [S] ??

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Sol: S V [S ] V
Let any element p(t) = at2 + bt + c V ;
a, b, c are real number
Now p(t) [S] if
at2 + bt + c = (t2 + 1)+( t 1)+( t2 +
t) for any a, b & c for some , &

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System consistent if c a + b = 0
p(t) does not belongs to [S]
V is not a subset of [S]
Hence V [S]

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Ex: Let


a b

W : a, b, c R

b c

Then, W is a subspace (consist of
2 X 2 SYMMETRIC matrices) of M22
Let
1 1 1 0 0 1
S , , ,
1 1 0 0 1 0
Then S spans W. i.e. W = [S]
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Writing span(S) in simplified
form:
Let S be a finite subset of n containing
k vectors (k2):
1. Form a matrix A s.t. o(A)=kxn, with
vectors of S are rows of A.
2. Reduce A into RREF.
3. Linear combination of Non zero
rows represent span(S).
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Ex: Find the span(S) in simplified form

S 1, 3, 0,1, 0, 0,1,1, 0,1, 0,1, 1, 5,1, 4


Sol: Consider the matrix

1 3 0 1
0
0 1 1
A
0 1 0 1

1 5 1 4
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Matrix in RREF 1 0 0 2
0 1 0 1
A
0 0 1 1

0 0 0 0

span( S ) a1,0,0,2 b0,1,0,1 c0,0,1,1 a, b, c R


a, b, c,2a b c a, b, c R

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Linear Independence (LI):

Let V be a vector space. Then


v1, v2, .... , vk V are LI if
c1 v1 + c2 v2 + .... + ck vk = 0
=> ci = 0 for all i
Otherwise, vectors are Linearly
Dependent.
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Ex : v1 = (2, 0), v2 = (0, 5) in 2

are LI
What is LI set
Ex : {(1,0), (0,1)} is a LI set

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Linear Dependence (LD):

The vectors v1, v2, .... , vk in a vector


space V are LD if
there exist scalars ci ,i = 1,2, ... , k Not
all zero such that
c1 v1 + c2 v2 + .... + ck vk = 0

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Ex : v1 = (1, 2), v2 = (5, 10) in 2
are not LI, i.e. Linearly
Dependent.

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Ex: Is S = { p1(t), p2(t), p3(t) } LI? where

p1(t) = t2 + t + 2
p2(t) = 2t2 + t
p3(t) = 3t2 + 2t + 2

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Soln.
a p1(t) +b p2(t) +c p3(t) =0
Which gives the system of
linear equations in a, b & c:
a+2b+3c=0
a+b+2c=0
2a+2c=0
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1 2 3

The coefficient matrix is 1 1 2
2 0 2

Row echelon form:
1 2 3
The homogeneous system in
0 1 1 a, b, c has non-trivial solution
0 0 0
Hence S is not LI set
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Theo: Every subset containing zero
vector in a vector space is LD.
Ex:
For what value of , the vectors
t + 3 and 2 t + +2 in P1 are
2

LI
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Let a(t + 3) + b( 2 t + 2 +2 )=0 for some
scalar a &b.
t(a+2b)+(3a+b 2 +2b)=0
The system of equations:
a+2b=0 & 3a+b (2 +2)=0
For LI, this system in a & b should have
only trivial solution:
2 +2-60 i.e, 2, -2
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Th : Let x and y be non-zero
vectors in a vector space V. Then
{ x, y} is LD iff one of a vector is a
scalar multiple of other.

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Proof.:
Suppose {x, y} is LD.
Then there exists scalars a, b with
at least one of them, say a is non-
zero, such that ax+by=0

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Therefore x=-(b/a)y
Which means x is scalar multiple of y.
Conversely, if x is scalar multiple of y
Then x=ay i.e, (1)x-ay=0
Hence x & y are LD

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Th : The non-zero vectors v1, v2,
.... , vk in a vector space V are LD
iff one of the vectors vj is linear
combination of preceding vectors
v1, v2, .... , vj-1 , j >1 (similar to Ex-
22, P-254)
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Th : Let S1 and S2 be finite subsets
of a vector space V.
Let S1 be subset of S2 .
Then 1. S2 LI => S1 is LI
(Converse is not true)
2. S1 LD => S2 is LD
(Converse is not true)
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Proof:.

S1 = { u1, u2, ...... , um} be a finite


subset of m elements of V and
S2 = { u1, u2, ...... , um, v1, v2, ......
, vn} be a finite subset of m+n
elements of V
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For (1): Let S2 be LI:

For c1
u1 + c2 u2 + .....+ cm um =0
=> c1 u1 + c2 u2 + .....+ cm um + 0
v1 + 0 v2 + .....+ 0 vn=0
=> All cis =0 (since S2 is LI)
So, c1 u1 + c2 u2 + .....+ cm um =0
=> All cis =0
Therefore S2 LI => S1 is LI .
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For (2 ): Let S1 be LD:
There exists scalars c1, c2, .., cm , not all zero,
such that

c1 u1 + c2 u2 + .....+ cm um=0
c1 u1 + c2 u2 + .....+ cm um
+ 0 v1 + 0v2 + .....+ 0 vn =0
for any vectors v1, v2, ...... , vn of
S2
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Therefore

S2 = { u1, u2, ...... , um, v1, v2,


...... , vn} is LD

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Theo 4.9:
Let S = {v1, v2, .... ,vn } be a non empty
subset of a vector space V. Then S is
LI iff every vector of v span (S) can
be expressed uniquely as a linear
combination of elements of S.
Proof.:
S is a finite LI subset of V.
Let v be any vector of span (S).
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On the contrary, we assume that v can be
expressed as linear combination of elements of
S in two different ways.
i.e.
v=c1 v1 + c2 v2 + .....+ cn vn ----(1)
for some scalars c1, c2, .., cn
and v=d1 v1 + d2 v2 + .....+ dn vn ---(2)
for some other scalars d1, d2, .., dn
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Now subtract (1)-(2):
0=(c1 d1)v1 + (c2 d2) v2 + .....+ (cn dn)
vn
Which implies
(ci di)=0 for i=1,2,,n
since v1,..,vn are element of LI set S
Hence ci = di for i=1,2,,n

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Converse part:
Assume that every vector v span (S)
can be expressed uniquely as a linear
combination of elements of S.

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0 span (S) and has a unique
representation

0=0v1 + 0v2 + .....+0 vn .

So, it is not possible to find scalars c1,


c2,..., cn
such that
0=c1 v1 + c2 v2 + .....+ cn vn for some non-
zero cis .
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Note: Let S be a LD subset of a vector
space V then there is some vector v S
such that span (S-{v})=span (S).

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Independence Test Method:

Let S be a finite set of vectors in n . To


determine whether S is LI, use following
steps:
1. Form a matrix A with vectors in S are
columns of A.
2. Reduce A into RREF
3. If there is a pivot in every column then S
is LI otherwise LD.
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Ex: check whether S is LI or LD.
S 2, 1, 3, 4, 1, 6, 2, 0, 2

Sol : Consider matrix A with each column as vectors in S


2 4 2

A 1 1 0
3 6 2

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RREF of matrix A is
1 0 0

B 0 1 0
0 0 1

As each column has a pivot so S is LI.

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Ex: check whether S is LI or LD.
S 5,2, 3, 4,1, 7, 7, 4, 5

Sol : Consider matrix A with each column as vectors in S


5 4 7

A 2 1 4
3 7 5

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RREF of matrix A is
1 0 3

B 0 1 2
0 0 0

As third column does not have a pivot so S is not LI.


Hence, S is LD.

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Basis and Dimension &
Constructing Special
Bases
(Section 4.5-4.6)
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Basis:
Let V be a vector space.
Let S = {v1, v2, .... ,vn} be a subset
of V
Then S is Basis of V if
1. S is LI and
2. [S] = V.
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Ex: S = {(1, 0), (0, 1)} is a basis of
R2
2 n
Ex: { 1, t, t , .... , t } is a basis of
Pn
(called Standard / Natural Basis)

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Example : Let S = 2
{t +t,
t-1, t+1}
Show that S is a basis of P2
Sol. For [S]=P2 :
Can we find , & s.t.
at2 + bt + c = (t2 + t)+( t 1)+(
t + 1) for any a, b, c
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Which gives the system of linear
equations in , & :
=a
++ =b The coefficient matrix is
- + =c 1 0 0 a

1 1 1 b
0 1 1 c

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The Row Echelon Form is


1 0 0 a

0 1 1 b a
0 0 1 b a c
2
The system is consistent for any values
of a, b & c.
Therefore [S]=P2
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For LI of S:
Consider
(t2 + t)+( t 1)+( t + 1) =0
Which gives
=0
++ =0
- + =0
Which is the corresponding
homogeneous system
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The row echelon form:
1 0 0 0

0 1 1 0
0 0 1 0

The system will have only trivial
Solution: = = =0
Therefore S is LI
Hence S is Basis for P2
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Finite Dimensional Vector Space:

A vector space V is finite


dimensional if there exists a
finite subset of V which forms a
basis of V.

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Dimension

Dimension of a nonzero vector space


is the no. of vectors in a Basis of V

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Notation for Dimension:
The number of element of a set S
=|S|
The Dimension of a Vector space V
=dim(v)
Ex: dim(2 ) = 2,
Ex: dim(3 ) = 3,
Ex: dim( P2 ) = 3

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Note:
(I) If V = { 0 }, Then dim V=0.
(II) If P= Set of all polynomials is
infinite-dimensional

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Ex: Find a basis and dimension of
the plane x-3y+4z=0
Ans.
Let S={(x, y, z) 3|x -3 y+4z= 0}
So S is a subspace of 3
{(3,1,0), (-4,0,1)} is basis and
dimension (S)=2
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Ex. Find the dimension of the subspace
of P2 consisting of all vectors of the form
at2+bt+c where a=b+c
Ans. S={at2+bt+c P2 | a=b+c}
dim(S)=2

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Lemma : 4.11
Let S and T be subsets of vector space
V such that S spans V, S is finite and
T is LI. Then T is finite
T S.
Where,Tis number of elements in T.

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Theorem 4.12:

Let S = {x1, x2, .... ,xm } and


T = {y1, y2, .... ,yn }
be two bases of a vector space V. Then
m = n.
In other way: For a vector space V, every
basis must contain same number of
elements
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Theorem 4.17:

Let S = {v1, v2, .... ,vn } be a set of


nonzero vectors in a vector space V.
Then some subset of S is a basis
for [S].
If [S]=V, then some subset of S is a
basis for V.
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Ex: Let S = {v1, v2,v3 , v4, v5 } be a set of
vectors in R4 where
v1 = (1, 2, -2, 1), v2 = (-3, 0, -4, 3)
v3 = (2, 1, 1, -1), v4 = (-3, 3, -9, 6)
v5 = (9, 3, 7, -6)
Find a subset of S that forms a
basis for span(S) (not for 4 )
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Step-1: Form
c1 v1 + c2 v2 + .... + c5 v5 = 0
Step-2:
Construct the augmented matrix associated
with the above homogeneous system and
transform to reduced row echelon form
(Do not forget to write the homogenous
system for ci)
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Then in Row reduced Echelon form
1 0 1/2 3/2 3/2 0
0 1 -1/2 3/2 -5/2 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0

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Step-3: The vectors corresponding to the
columns containing the leading 1s form a
basis for [S]
The leading 1s appear in columns 1 & 2
Hence { v1, v2 } forms a basis for [ S ]
Note: Writing
c 1 v 4 + c 2 v 3 + c 3 v 2 + c4 v 1 + c5 v 5 = 0
The Row reduced Echelon form of the
augmented matrix is
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1 0 1/3 1/3 -1/3 0
0 1 -1 1 4 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
The leading 1s appear in columns 1 & 2
Hence { v4, v3 } also a basis for [ S ]
Conl.: Therefore a non-zero real vector space always
has infinitely many bases
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Note:
If we have a set of polynomials S P4 then elements of S
can be represente d as
pt 2t 3t 5t t 2
4 3 2


2, 3, 5,1, 2

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Theo :4.18

Every LI subset of a finite


dimensional vector space V can
be extended to form a basis of
V.

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Ex: Let V = 4
Let T={v1 =(1, 0,1,0), v2 =(-1, 1,-1,
0)}
Extend T to form a basis of V.

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Sol:
Let S = {v1,v2, e1, e2, e3, e4 } where
{e1, e2, e3 ,e4 } is natural basis of
4.
Since {e1, e2, e3, e4 } spans V
Hence S spans V i.e, span(S)=V.
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Now using Theorem ( Let S = {v1, v2,
.... ,vn } be a set of nonzero vectors in a
vector space V . Then some subset of S
is a basis for span( S ). ),
we have to find a subset of S which
will be a basis for span(s) i.e, for V

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Follow the same procedure applied
for the problem based on that
theorem.
Step-1: Form
c1v1+c2v2+c3e1+c4e2+c5e3+c6e4 = 0
(Note: write v1 & v2 at the
beginning)
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Step-2:
Construct the augmented matrix
associated with the above
homogeneous system and transform
to reduced row echelon form

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The RREF is
1 0 0 1 1 0 0
0 1 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 -1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 1 0

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Step-3: Since leading 1s appear in
column 1, 2, 3 & 6
Hence {v1,v2, e1, e4 } is a basis of
V

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Th:
Let dim V = n
Let S={v1, v2, .... ,vn } such that
V=[S]
Then S is basis of V.
Proof: Hint (It is enough to show
that S is LI)
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Theorem: Let dim V = n.
Then any n + 1 vectors in V are LD.

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Proof.: Let S be a set of n+1 vectors.
Let us assume that S is LI.
Then using theorem[If S = {v1, v2, .... ,vn }
is a basis for a vector space V and T =
{w1, w2, .... ,wr } is LI set of vectors in V,
then r n ], we get
n+1n which is wrong
Hence S is LD
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Row space and column
space of a matrix
(Section 2.3)

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Definition:
a11 a12 a1n
a a a
21 22 2n

A
a
ai1 ai 2 in

am1 am 2 amn
Let vi = (ai1, ai2, .... ... , ain ), i = 1,..,m
Let S = { v1, v2 , ... ... , vm }
Then span(S) is a subspace of n and
is called Row Space of A
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Let

a1 j


w j aij

a
mj
Let W = { w1, w2, ... , wn }
Then [W] is is a subspace of m and
is Column Space of A
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Theorem 2.8:Let A and B are two
m x n row equivalent matrices,
then Row space of A =
Row space of B.

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Row Rank of A =
Dimension of Row space of A.
Column Rank of A =
Dimension of Column space of A.

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