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Chapter Ten: Motivation, Personality and Emotion 10-1

2. Chapter 10: Motivation, Personality and


Emotion 1. The nature of motivation 2. Some
theories of motivation 3. How marketers can
appeal to consumers motives 4. The underlying
aspects of the theories of personality 5. The
relationship of personality to marketing 6. How
emotions can be used in marketing strategies
10-2

3. The nature of motivation Motivation The energising force that


activates or triggers behaviour Provides purpose, direction and drive
to that behaviour 10-3

4. The Nature of Motivation Motivation is the


reason for behavior. A motive is a construct
representing an unobservable inner force that
stimulates and compels a behavioral response
and provides specific direction to that response.
There are numerous theories of motivation, and
many of them offer useful insights for the
marketing manager. 10-4

5. Motivations The inner reasons or


driving forces behind human action as
consumers are driven to address real
needs. Human motivations are oriented
toward two key groups of behavior:
Homeostasis the body naturally reacts
in a way so as to maintain a constant,
normal blood stream. Self-
improvement changing ones current
state to a level that is more ideal. 10-5

6. Utilitarian and Hedonic Motivations Lead to Consumer Behaviors 10-6

7. Consumer Involvement Represents the Types: degree of personal Product relevance a


Shopping consumer finds in Situational pursuing value Enduring from a given Emotional
consumption act. Involvement affects the degree of motivation in consumer buying behavior 10-
7

8. The Nature of Motivation Two useful motivation theories: theories 1. Maslows Hierarchy of
Needs A macro theory designed to account for most human behavior in general terms. 2.
McGuires Psychological Motives A fairly detailed set of motives used to account for specific
aspects of consumer behavior. 10-8

9. Maslows hierarchy of needs 1. All humans acquire a similar set of motives through genetic
endowment and social interaction 2. Some motives are more basic or critical than others 3. The
more basic motives must be satisfied to a minimum level before other motives are activated 4. As
the basic motives become satisfied, the more advanced motives come into play. 10-9

10. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs 1-10

11. An Illustration of Consumer Motivations According to Maslows Hierarchy

12. Application of Maslows Hierarchy of Needs to the Marketing of Cars Source: Kotler,
Armstrong and da Silva (2006) Pearson Asia 10-12

13. The Nature of Learning and Memory Marketing Strategies and Maslows Needs Hierarchy
10-13

14. The Nature of Motivation McGuire developed a classification with16 categories Two criteria
determine four categories: Is the mode of motivation cognitive or affective? Is the motive
focused on preservation of the status quo or on growth? Four categories further subdivided: Is
this behavior actively initiated or in response to the environment? Does this behavior help the
individual achieve a new internal or a new external relationship to the environment? 10-14

15. McGuires psychological motives Cognitive preservation motives Cognitive growth


motives Affective growth motives Affective preservation motives 10-15

16. Nature of Motivation McGuires Psychological Motives 1. Cognitive Preservation Motives 1.


Cognitive Preservation Motives Need for Consistency (active, internal) Need for Consistency
(active, internal) Need for Attribution (active, external) Need for Attribution (active, external)
Attribution Theory Attribution Theory Need to Categorize (passive, internal) Need to Categorize
(passive, internal) Need for Objectification (passive, external) Need for Objectification (passive,
external) 10-16

17. Nature of Motivation McGuires Psychological Motives 2. Cognitive Growth Motives 2.


Cognitive Growth Motives Need for Autonomy (active, internal) Need for Autonomy (active,
internal) Need for Stimulation (active, external) Need for Stimulation (active, external)
Teleological Need (passive, internal) Teleological Need (passive, internal) Utilitarian Need
(passive, external) Utilitarian Need (passive, external) 10-17

18. The need for observable cues regarding the desired image sought 10-18

19. McGuires psychological motives: Cognitive motives (see table 10.2) 10-19

20. Nature of Motivation McGuires Psychological Motives 3. Affective Preservation Motives 3.


Affective Preservation Motives Need for Tension Reduction (active, internal) Need for Tension
Reduction (active, internal) Need for Expression (active, external) Need for Expression (active,
external) Need for Ego Defense (passive, internal) Need for Ego Defense (passive, internal)
Need for Reinforcement (passive, external) Need for Reinforcement (passive, external) 10-20

21. Appealing to the individuals need for self-expression 10-21

22. Nature of Motivation McGuires Psychological Motives 4. Affective Growth Motives 4.


Affective Growth Motives Need for Assertion (active, internal) Need for Assertion (active,
internal) Need for Affiliation (active, external) Need for Affiliation (active, external) Need for
Identification (passive, internal) Need for Identification (passive, internal) Need for Modeling
(passive, external) Need for Modeling (passive, external) 10-22

23. Appealing to consumers need to enhance their self-esteem 10-23

24. Applications in Consumer Behavior The Mercedes-Benz ad provides an excellent example of


targeting women high in need for assertion They are competitive achievers, seeking success,
admiration, and dominance. Important to them are power, accomplishment, and esteem. Courtesy
Mercedes Benz USA, Inc. 10-24

25. McGuires psychological motives: Affective motives 10-25

26. Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy Consumers do not buy products; instead they buy
motive satisfaction or problem solutions. solutions Managers must discover the motives that their
product and brands can satisfy and develop marketing mixes around these motives. Do marketers
create needs? 10-26

27. Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy Marketers do create demand! demand Demand is
the willingness to buy a particular product or service. It is caused by a need or motive, but it is
not the motive. 10-27

28. Discovering purchase motives Latent motives Manifest motives 10-28

29. Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy Discovering Purchase Motives Manifest motives
are motives that are known and freely admitted. Latent motives are either unknown to the
consumer or are such that he/she is reluctant to admit them. Projective techniques are designed to
provide information on latent motives. 10-29

30. Impact of Magazine covers ?? 10-30

31. Latent and manifest motives in a purchase situation 10-31

32. Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy Marketing Strategies Based on Multiple Motives
Communication Strategy 1 Product advertising must communicate multiple benefits 3 2 Indirect
appeals are Direct appeals are often frequently used for latent effective for manifest motives
motives Latent Manifest Motives Motives 10-32

33. Motivation research techniques Association techniques Word association Successive


word association Completion techniques Sentence completion Story completion
Construction techniques Cartoon techniques Third-person techniques Picture techniques
10-33

34. Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy Motivation Research Techniques 10-34

35. Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy Marketing Strategies Based on Motivation
Conflict Three types of motivational conflict: 1. Approach-Approach Motivational Conflict A
choice between two attractive alternatives 2. Approach-Avoidance Motivational Conflict A
choice with both positive and negative consequences 3. Avoidance-Avoidance Motivational
Conflict A choice involving only undesirable outcomes 10-35

36. Approach-avoidance motivational conflict in advertising 10-36

37. Personality Personality is an individuals characteristic response tendencies across similar


situations. While motivations are the energizing and directing force that makes consumer
behavior purposeful and goal directed, the personality of the consumer guides and directs the
behavior chosen to accomplish goals in different situations. 10-37

38. Personality Qualities Unique to an individual Can be conceptualized as a combination of


specific traits or characteristics Traits are relatively stable and interact with situations to
influence behavior Specific behaviors can vary across time 10-38

39. Five-Factor Model 10-39

40. Personality Individual personality theories Social learning theories A combined approach
10-40

41. Personality Individual personality theories Sigmund Freud Neo-Freudians Trait theory
10-41

42. Psychoanalytic Approach (Freud) Basic instinctive needs, animal like, strong sexual Id Id
connotations How society expects us to behave- norms and values Superego Superego The
balancing centre- to Ego Ego achieve rational behavior acceptable to society 10-42

43. Personality Trait theories examine personality as an individual difference, allowing marketers
to segment consumers on these differences. Trait theories assume 1. All individuals have internal
characteristics or traits related to action tendencies, and 2. There are consistent and measurable
differences between individuals on those characteristics. 10-43

44. Important Traits Studied Value consciousness Value consciousness Materialism Materialism
Innovativeness Innovativeness Complaint proneness Complaint proneness Competitiveness
Competitiveness 10-44

45. Examples of Other Traits in Consumer Research 10-45

46. Personality 1. Multi-trait Approach The Five-Factor Model is the most commonly used by
marketers and identifies five basic traits that are formed by genetics and early learning. 2. Single
Trait Approach Consumer Ethnocentrism Need for Cognition Consumers Need for
Uniqueness 10-46

47. Personality Multitrait Approach Multitrait personality theory identifies several traits that in
combination capture a substantial portion of the personality of the individual. The Five-Factor
Model is commonly used by marketers, which identifies five basic traits that are formed by
genetics and early learning. 10-47

48. The five-factor model of personality Core trait Manifestation Extroversion Prefer to be in a
group than alone, talkative, bold Instability Moody, temperamental, touchy Agreeableness
Sympathetic, kind, polite Openness to Imaginative, appreciative of art, find novel experience
solutions Conscientiousness Careful, precise, efficient 10-48

49. Personality Single Trait Approach Single trait theories emphasize one trait as being
particularly relevant. They do not suggest that other traits are nonexistent or unimportant. Rather,
they study a single trait for its relevance to a set of behaviors. 10-49

50. Personality Examples of Single-Trait Theories Neuroticism Vanity Trait Locus of Sensation
Anxiety Control Seeking Compulsive Materialism Affect Self- Buying Intensity Monitoring 10-
50

51. Personality Three additional traits: 1. Consumer Ethnocentrism Reflects an individual


difference in consumers propensity to be biased against the purchase of foreign products. 2.
Need for Cognition (NFC) Reflects an individual difference in consumers propensity to engage
in and enjoy thinking. 3. Consumers Need for Uniqueness Reflects an individual difference in
consumers propensity to pursue differentness relative to others through the acquisition,
utilization, and disposition of consumer goods. 10-51

52. The Use of Personality in Marketing Practice Other times, Sometimes consumers use
consumers choose products to bolster products that fit their an area of their personality.
personality where they feel weak. 10-52

53. The Use of Personality in Marketing Practice Brand image is what people think of and feel
when they hear or see a brand name. Brand personality is a set of human characteristics that
become associated with a brand and are a particular type of image that some brands acquire. 10-
53

54. Dimensions of brand personality 10-54

55. Brand Personality Dimensions 10-55

56. Communicating brand personality through advertising 10-56

57. Communicating brand personality through advertising (cont.) 10-57

58. The Use of Personality in Marketing Practice Communicating Brand Personality Three
important advertising tactics: 1. Celebrity Endorsers 2. User Imagery 3. Executional Factors 10-
58

59. The Use of Personality in Marketing Practice Communicating Brand Personality Celebrity
endorsers are often a useful way to personify a brand. The characteristics and meaning of the
celebrity can transfer to the brand. 10-59

60. The Use of Personality in Marketing Practice Communicating Brand Personality User
imagery involves showing a typical user along with images of the types of activities they engage
in while using the brand. User imagery helps to define who the typical user is in terms of their
traits, activities, and emotions. 10-60

61. The Use of Personality in Marketing Practice Communicating Brand Personality Executional
factors go beyond the core message to include how it is communicated, such as the tone of
the ad (serious vs. quirky) appeal used (fear vs. humor) logo and typeface characteristics
(scripted font may signal sophistication) pace of the ad media outlet chosen 10-61

62. Emotion Emotion is the identifiable specific feeling, and


affect is the liking/disliking aspect of the specific feeling.
Emotions are strong, relatively uncontrolled feelings that affect
behavior. They are strongly linked to needs, motivation, and
personality. Unmet needs create motivation which is related to
the arousal component of emotion. Personality also plays a role,
e.g., some people are more emotional than others, a consumer
trait referred to as affect intensity. intensity 10-62

63. Emotions Psychobiological reactions to appraisals.


Psychobiological because they involve psychological processing
and physical responses. Create visceral responses certain
feeling states are tied to behavior in a very direct way. 10-63

64. Visceral Responses to Emotions by Consumers 10-64

65. Emotion Terminology Mood a transient (temporary and


changing) and general affective state. Mood-congruent
judgments the value of a target is influenced in a consistent
way by ones mood. Affect represents the feelings a
consumer has about a particular product or activity. 10-65

66. Emotions What is this consumer feeling? 10-66

67. A simple example of a research instrument used to test


moods 10-67

68. The nature of emotions 10-68

69. Emotion Dimensions of Emotion (see Table 10.6 on page


319) Pleasure Arousal Dominance 10-69

70. Emotion Emotional Dimensions, Emotions, and Emotional


Indicators Dimension Emotion Indicator/Feeling Pleasure Duty
Moral, virtuous, dutiful Faith Reverent, worshipful, spiritual
Pride Proud, superior, worthy Affection Loving, affectionate,
friendly Innocence Innocent, pure, blameless Gratitude Grateful,
thankful, appreciative Serenity Restful, serene, comfortable,
soothed Desire Desirous, wishful, craving, hopeful Joy Joyful,
happy, delighted Competence Confident, in control, competent
Source: Adapted with permission from M. B. Holbrook and R.
Batra, Assessing the Role of Emotions on Consumer Response
to Advertising, Journal of Consumer Research, December
1987, pp. 404-20. Copyright 1987 by the University of
Chicago. 10-70

71. Emotion Emotional Dimensions, Emotions, and Emotional


Indicators Dimension Emotion Indicator/Feeling Arousal
Interest Attentive, curious Hypoactivation Bored, drowsy,
sluggish Activation Aroused, active, excited Surprise Surprised,
annoyed, astonished Dj vu Unimpressed, uninformed,
,unexcited Involvement Involved, informed, enlightened,
benefited Distraction Distracted, preoccupied, inattentive
Surgency Playful, entertained, lighthearted Contempt Scornful,
contemptuous, disdainful Source: Adapted with permission from
M. B. Holbrook and R. Batra, Assessing the Role of Emotions
on Consumer Response to Advertising, Journal of Consumer
Research, December 1987, pp. 404-20. Copyright 1987 by the
University of Chicago. 10-71

72. Emotion Emotional Dimensions, Emotions, and Emotional


Indicators Dimension Emotion Indicator/Feeling Dominance
Conflict Tense, frustrated, conflictful Guilt Guilty, remorseful,
regretful Helplessness Powerless, helpless, dominated Sadness
Sad, distressed, sorrowful, dejected Fear Fearful, afraid, anxious
Shame Ashamed, embarrassed, humiliated Anger Angry,
initiated, enraged, mad Hyperactivation Panicked, confused,
overstimulated Disgust Disgusted, revolted, annoyed, full of
loathing Skepticism Skeptical, suspicious, distrustful Source:
Adapted with permission from M. B. Holbrook and R. Batra,
Assessing the Role of Emotions on Consumer Response to
Advertising, Journal of Consumer Research, December 1987,
pp. 404-20. Copyright 1987 by the University of Chicago. 10-
72

73. Schema-Based Affect Emotions become stored as Emotions


become stored as part of the meaning for a part of the meaning
for a category. category. 10-73

74. Examples of Schema-Based Affect 10-74

75. Emotions and Marketing Strategy Marketers have always


used emotions to guide the following on an intuitive level:
product positioning sales presentations, and advertising
However, deliberate, systematic study of the relevance of
emotions in marketing strategy is relatively new. 10-75

76. Types of emotional states 10-76

77. Emotions and Marketing Strategy Emotion Arousal as a


Product Benefit Consumers actively seek products whose
primary or secondary benefit is emotion arousal. Emotion
Reduction as a Product Benefit Marketers design or position
many products to prevent or reduce the arousal of unpleasant
emotions. 10-77

78. Emotions and marketing strategy Emotion arousal as a


product benefit Sad movies Disney World Emotion
reduction as a product benefit Retail therapy Flowers 10-78

79. Emotional arousal as a product benefit 10-79

80. Emotions and Marketing Strategy Emotion in Advertising


Emotional content in ads can enhance attention, attraction, and
maintenance capabilities. Emotional messages may be processed
more thoroughly due to their enhanced level of arousal.
Emotional ads may enhance liking of the ad itself. Repeated
exposure to positive-emotion-eliciting ads may increase brand
preference through classical conditioning. Emotion may operate
via high-involvement processes especially if emotion is decision
relevant. 10-80
81. Illustration of Emotion Aiding Learning (associating
feeling good with buying the brand) 10-81