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# Earthing- A.C.

Systems

Engr. S.M. Mujumdar
shrimujumdar@gmail.com

SMM 2

CAUTION

• Material presented is intended as a course material for a
specific training programme. No part of this may be
reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means
without explicit permission.
• Information contained herein is from sources believed to be
reliable. Author shall not be responsible for any errors,
omissions or damages arising out of use of this
information. It is not intended to provide engineering or
other professional services. If such services are required,
the assistance of an appropriate professional should be
sought.

7-Jul-13 SMM 3

Agenda
 Concept
 Effect of current on human
 Step, Touch & Transferred potential
 Earthing of equipment & Lines
 Earthing of GIS
 Earthing at consumer end
 Design of Earthmat
 Earthing audit
 Case studies

7-Jul-13 SMM 4

Fault current return path..(1)

7-Jul-13 SMM 5

Fault current return path..(2)

7-Jul-13 SMM 6

.(3) 7-Jul-13 SMM 7 . Fault current return path.

. Fault current return path.(4) 7-Jul-13 SMM 8 .

Objective of Earthing  A safe grounding (earthing) system has two objectives :  To provide means to carry electric currents into earth under normal and fault conditions without exceeding any operating and equipment limits or adversely affecting continuity of service  To assure that a person in the vicinity of grounded facilities is not exposed to the danger of critical electric shock. (IEEE Std. 80-2000) 7-Jul-13 SMM 9 .

Components of Earthing system 7-Jul-13 SMM 10 .

Earthmat Layout Vertical Earth electrodes Horizontal conductors 11 .

Typical Equipment earthing 7-Jul-13 SMM 12 .

Earth Electrode Rod Electrode Pipe Electrode Pipe-in-Pipe Electrode 7-Jul-13 SMM 13 .

of pipe. d = outer dia. Earth Resistance  Earth Resistance of Pipe / rod electrode R = ρ [ln(8L/d) – 1)] / 2πL L= length of pipe/rod in m. Of conductor. h = depth in m ρ=resistivity in ohm-m SMM 14 . d = outer dia. ρ=resistivity in ohm-m  Earth resistance of a horizontal round conductor buried at depth R = ρ{[ln(2L/√dh)] – 1}/πL L= length of Horizontal Conductor in m.

Plate Electrode R = ρ [√(π / 2Α)] / 4. ( A= Area of one face in sq. m) SMM 15 .

it becomes conducting.  Sandy soil drains faster.  Soil under the surface of earth is non-homogeneous.000 ΩM. With moisture content. nature of soil & physical / chemical composition of soil. Hence resistivity varies in wide range between 1 ΩM and 100. [ Conductivity of 25 x 4 mm Copper & 800 x 800 M (158 acre) soil is same]  Two main constituents of soil are Silicon Oxide & Aluminum Oxide which are insulators  Soil becomes conductive due to salts and moisture embedded in between  Surface of Soil layer – clay and sand mixed with decayed vegetable material. Solid rock does not retain water have higher ρ. Depends on type. When dry this does not conduct. Soil properties  Earth is a poor conductor of electricity  Typical Resistivity(ρ) of soil is 100 ΩM & ρ for Cu is 1.  Black cotton soil or soil with high organic contain retain moisture & have lower ρ.7 x 10-8 ΩM.  Soil resistivity measurement is important for design of earthing system SMM 16 .

50 5 Shale (fine grained rock of mud & clay) 5 .black clay 8 . Typical Resistivity of soil Sl. Usual variation 1 Tap water 0.000 7 Clay (viscous earth-Al silicate).250 7-Jul-13 SMM 17 .300 10 Sand clay and Gravel mixture 50 .01 .500 2 Sea water 0.500 9 Sand and Gravel 40 . sand & decayed organic) 5.500 6 Deep limestone 5 – 4.100 8 Concrete.02 -20 3 Lake water non polluted (in hilly terrain) 200 and up 4 Surface soil (clay. Type of Soil Resistivity (Ω-M) No. new or buried in earth 25 .

contd.000 19 Asphalt wet 10.000 15 Sandstone dry 1.> 1. mineral) 50 .000 .000 17 Gravel 1. Usual variation 11 Decomposed gneiss ( rock with quartz.000 Source: CBIP Publication No. granite) 10. Type of Soil Resistivity (Ώ-M) No.000.> 10. Sl.000 – 6.000 14 Concrete dry 200 .000 16 Basalt (dark colored fine rock) 1.000 – 10. Typical Resistivity of soil….000 18 Primary rock (gneiss.000 13 Granite 200 – 10.500 12 Surface limestone (mainly Calcium carbonate) 100 – 10. 302 7-Jul-13 SMM 18 .000 – 50.000.

Range of earth resistivity Type of earth Average Resistivity(Ω-m) Wet organic soil 10 Moist soil 100 Dry soil 1.000 Lake water non polluted 200 and up (in hilly terrain) 7-Jul-13 SMM 19 .000 Rock 10.

Jan 1945 IEEE Std. & Salt 103 103 103 102 102 102 10 10 10 1 1 1 Reinhold Rudenberg. Effect of Moisture. Temp. Fundamental Considerations on Grounding Currents. ‘Grounding Principles and Practices-Part 1.’ Electrical Engineering. 81-1983 7-Jul-13 SMM 20 .

due to climatic conditions. Conditions which increase / decrease distribution of moisture content in the soil. measurements in dry season are to be adopted. Variation of soil resistivity  Moisture in the soil is the most important factor determining its conductivity / resistivity.  Values of resistivity are minimum in rainy season and maximum in summer / dry season. 7-Jul-13 SMM 21 .  For safe design of earthmat. result in corresponding changes.  Resistivity undergoes seasonal changes as per moisture in the soil.

Tester should have inbuilt capability to filter out such noise signals. Soil resistivity measurement  ‘Soil resistivity tester’ is used for measurement of soil resistivity.  The testers of two types are available namely:  Battery operated digital tester  Crank operated tester  Power frequency and also harmonic leakage currents often flow in the earth.  Tester should be calibrated prior to operation  Normally two methods are used for measurements:  Four electrode(pin) method  Three electrode(pin) method 7-Jul-13 SMM 22 .

Frank Wenner (US) in 1915 7-Jul-13 SMM 23 . Wenner’s four Electrode method Earth Tester C1 P1 P2 C2 a a a Depth of burial of spike < a/20 ρ=2πaR This method was developed by Dr.

Schlumberger.Palmer four Electrode method Earth Tester C1 P1 P2 C2 c d c Depth of burial of spike < d & c ρ = π c (c+d) R /d C > 2d Shortcoming of Wenner method: When Spacing is increased. 7-Jul-13 SMM 24 . there is a rapid decrease in magnitude of potential between inner electrodes which some instruments may not read.

Three-pin method ρ = 2π b R / [ ln (8 b/d)-1] 7-Jul-13 SMM 25 .

2.10. Soil Resistivity Measurement Measure the resistivity along perpendicular and diagonal directions by varying distance ‘a’  ‘a’= 1.20 & 35…50 m 7-Jul-13 SMM 26 .5.

soil can be considered as Uniform soil.  If readings are beyond above limit soil to be considered as Non-uniform soil.30 %. 7-Jul-13 SMM 27 . Interpretation of measurements  Calculate the average value of soil resistivity  If most of the readings are within +/.

But human can sustain larger currents at 25 Hz or DC or at frequencies in the range of 3. a condition of uncoordinated action of main chambers of the heart.000 . Effect of current thro’ human body  Effect of electric current through the vital parts of human body depend on the duration. Most dangerous consequence could be ventricular fibrillation. 7-Jul-13 SMM 28 . intravascular spaces etc.1 A can be lethal. Skin resistance increases with thickness and diminishes with moisture / perspiration. resulting in immediate arrest of blood circulation. offer conduction system.  Currents at 50 Hz about 0. Except for skin.  Current depends on voltage applied and body resistance.10. magnitude and frequency of this current. blood vessels. Resistance is mainly offered by skin.000 Hz.

Convulsive contraction 7-Jul-13 SMM 29 . DC. Effect of AC / DC current on human AC DC ∙ ∙ AC.Extended Muscle contraction.

Influence of frequency on human Source: IS 8437 7-Jul-13 SMM 30 .

03 to 3.5% of all persons can safely withstand without ventricular fibrillation.& SB = 0.0246 for person weighing 70 kg i. Ts IB (50 kg) IB (70 kg) 0.e.0 sec 116 mA 157 mA 7-Jul-13 SMM 31 . Tolerable current for human body  As per studies by Dalziel. 99. the passage of current (IB) for duration ranging from 0.e.0 sec and is related to energy absorbed by the body as per formula: SB = (IB)2 x ts Value of SB = 0.0135 for person weighing 50 kg i.5 sec 164 mA 222 mA 1.2 sec 259 mA 351 mA 0. IB = 116 mA for 1 sec. IB = 157 mA for 1 sec.

socks.  For earthing design.  Ground resistance of foot on surface of a earth resistivity ρ (Ω−m) is : Rf = ρ/(4 x r) r=0.  Human foot is represented as a conducting metallic disc and resistance of shoes.08 m Rf ≈ 3ρ Ω per foot. etc. foot-to-foot and also hand-to-hand is considered as 1000 ohm as per IEEE 80-2000. 7-Jul-13 SMM 32 . Human Body and foot resistance  Body resistance including skin ranges from 500 to 3000 Ω which reduces by damage or puncture of skin at contact point. is neglected. resistance of human body from hand-to-feet.

Electrode – Earthing Resistance Earthing Resistance of Electrode is made up of : 1. Resistance of (metal) electrode 2. Soil resistance from electrode to infinite earth 7-Jul-13 SMM 33 . Contact resistance to soil 3.

7-Jul-13 SMM 34 . 90% of the resistance between R= (ρ/2π) ∫dx/x2 driven rod & earth lies within a radius of about two m from rod. Resistance offered by earth Concentric shells of Earth Approx.

Voltage on soil around earth rod 7-Jul-13 SMM 35 .

Touch and step potential Surface Potential Distribution (SPD) 7-Jul-13 SMM 36 .

Transferred Potential Station 1 Station 2 GPR STN 1 Et r r d GPR STN 2 7-Jul-13 SMM 37 .

electrical potential that a substation grounding grid may attain relative to a distant grounding point assumed to be at potential of remote earth. 80)  Ground Potential Rise (GPR):  Max.  Mesh voltage :  The maximum touch voltage within a mesh of grounding grid. 7-Jul-13 SMM 38 .  Transferred voltage :  A special case of the touch voltage where a voltage is transferred into or out of substation from or to a remote point external to substation site.  Step Voltage :  The difference in surface potential experienced by a person bridging a distance of 1 m with the feet without contacting any other object.  Touch Voltage :  The potential difference between the ground potential rise (GPR) & the surface potential at the point where a person is standing while simultaneously having a hand in contact with a grounded structure. Definitions (IEEE std.

7-Jul-13 SMM 39 . Touch / Step voltage…. Eq. circuit.

 Installations & apparatus <650 V: Every earthing system . Shall be tested for its resistance to earth on a dry day during dry season not less than once a year and records of such tests shall be maintained and produced.. Shall be tested for its resistance to earth on a dry day during dry season not less than once in every two year and records of such tests shall be maintained and produced 7-Jul-13 SMM 40 . Earth resistance measurement  Installations & apparatus >650 V: Every earthing system ..

Connection with Earth  For installations & apparatus >650 V “(1)All non-current carrying metal parts associated with HV /EHV installation shall be effectively earthed to a grounding system or mat which shall – (i) Limit the step and touch potential to tolerable values. (2) In the case of star-connected system with earthed neutrals or delta connected system with earthed artificial neutral point- (i) the neutral point of every generator & transformer shall be earthed by connecting it to earthing system not by less than two separate & distinct connections 7-Jul-13 SMM 41 . (ii) Limit ground potential rise to tolerable value so as to prevent danger… (iii) Maintain the resistance of earth connection to such value as to make operation of protective device effective.

” Core winding System connection 7-Jul-13 SMM 42 . Zigzag earthing transformer “In case of the delta connected system the neutral point shall be obtained by the insertion of a grounding transformer and current limiting resistance or impedance wherever considered necessary at the commencement of such a system.

delta earthing transformer 7-Jul-13 SMM 43 . Star.

7-Jul-13 SMM 44 .  the frame of generator. stationary motor.. Transformer and Generator Neutral point of every generator and transformer shall be earthed by connecting it to the earthing system by not less than two separate and direct connections.& all metallic parts not intended as conductors of all transformers.  In case of generating stations and sub-stations... the system neutral earthing and protective frame earthing may be integrated into common earthing grid provided combined mat does not exceed permissible step & touch potential.shall be earthed by two separate and direct connections with earth.

Earthing of Power Transformer or Reactor End view Plan 7-Jul-13 SMM 45 .

Earthing of DTC To main earth ring 7-Jul-13 SMM 46 .

Earthing of Pole mounted DTC 7-Jul-13 SMM 47 .

Earthing of Isolator (Aux. Earthmat) 7-Jul-13 SMM 48 .

Earthing of Surge Arrestor 7-Jul-13 SMM 49 .

Typical Earthing arrangement 7-Jul-13 SMM 50 .

Statutory Provision… O.H. Lines

 “Earthing
 All metal supports and all reinforced and prestressed cement
concrete supports of over-head lines and metallic fittings
attached thereto, shall be permanently and efficiently earthed.
For this purpose a continuous earth wire shall be provided and
securely fastened to each pole and connected with earth
ordinarily at three points in every km. the spacing between the
points being as nearly equidistant as possible. Alternatively,
each support and the metallic fitting attached thereto shall
be efficiently earthed.
 Each stay-wire shall be similarly earthed unless an insulator has
been placed in it at a height not less than 3.0 metres from the
ground.”

7-Jul-13 SMM 51

Earthing of Tower
STUB ANGLE

7-Jul-13 SMM 52

Counterpoise type of earthing
(For lines)

 Lightning strokes have
the ability to discharge
thousands of amperes
in short time. This
needs to be discharged
into earth. If ground has
high resistance, Back
flashover occurs.
 Back flashover can be
avoided by improving
resistance of the earth
point.

7-Jul-13 SMM 53

lines 7-Jul-13 SMM 54 . Earthing for Dist.

Earthing for Dist. Lines …. 7-Jul-13 SMM 55 .contd.

.  (ii) the earth electrodes so provided. To bring the earth resistance to a satisfactory value both at generating station and at sub-station.contd. Overhead lines.  (iii) neutral conductor shall also be earthed at one or more points along the distribution system or service line 7-Jul-13 SMM 56 . shall be inter-connected to reduce earth resistance.  (For installations and apparatus < 650 V)  (i) neutral conductor of a 3 Ф 4 w system .. Shall be earthed by not less than two separate and distinct connections with min.. of two different earth electrodes.

T. L.Earthing Systems TN-S System TN-C System 7-Jul-13 SMM 57 .

Earthing of Cable screens Short length cables Circulating currents reduce the Ampacity. Open End or Maximum sheath voltage is taken as 65 V 7-Jul-13 SMM 58 .

Earthing of Cable screens Induced Screen Voltage Cross Bonding of the metallic screens 7-Jul-13 SMM 59 .

Earthed terminal on consumer's premises Earthed terminal on consumer's premises • “(1) The supplier shall provide and maintain on the consumer's premises for the consumer's use a suitable earthed terminal in an accessible position at or near the point of Earthed Terminal commencement of supply.” • Metallic bearer wire . service line of voltage <650 V shall be efficiently earthed..H.supporting O.. H-2 & 3 . 7-Jul-13 REC Standard SMM 60 Drg.

.where the consumer's premises supply voltage is not exceeding • In case of installation of voltage exceeding 250 V the consumer shall.” 7-Jul-13 SMM 61 . provide his own earthing system with an independent electrode. Consumer premises • Regulation  Earthed terminal on 41(xiv)”…. in addition.

Earthing of enclosures .where the supply voltage is not exceeding 250 V and where the installations are either new or renovated all plug sockets shall be of the three-pin type.” 7-Jul-13 SMM 62 . and the third pin shall be permanently and efficiently earthed.

Earthing of GIS  Characteristics of GIS  Area occupied is 10-25% of equivalent AIS  Equipment are placed closer requiring “ high density” grid i. 7-Jul-13 SMM 63 . 60 Ω at 10 MHz ) . Earth connection must be short /direct. HF currents cause local transient potential rise because of high reactance of earth connection ( 1 m Cu 0.e. phase to earth faults and discharges during switching ( of say Isolators) . more ground conductor in given area  Transient Enclosure Voltage (TEV) : Due to Lightening strokes. Main flange joints made using sandwich of metal flange & insulating spacer can lead to sparking during switching operations. Hence HF transients generated inside of screening get transferred to exterior of GIS.  Discontinuities : GIS has discontinuities in the enclosure.003 Ω at 50 Hz. generate very High Frequency (HF) transients (at most for 20-30 ms) that can couple onto the grounding system.

Metal-to-Metal touch situation (Typical in GIS) Touch voltage criteria for GIS √ (Et 2 + E to max 2 ) < E touch permissible 7-Jul-13 SMM 64 .

 Use of non-linear resistances at the location of discontinuities  Proper routing of control circuits and screening of control cables.  Use of deep driven rods or chemical treatment of the soil. Earthing of GIS …. Group of Control cables can be enclosed in metallic conduits.  Provision of Mesh arrangement : to provide larger length by adopting mesh arrangement.contd. Connection should be as near to ground level as possible.  Connection to reinforced concrete mat : connecting earthmat to reinforcing steel provided in the concrete floor slab. 7-Jul-13 SMM 65 .  Frequent and short connections of GIS enclosures to earthgrid.  Interact and adopt the recommendations of GIS manufacturer .  Basic requirement of earthing system for AIS & GIS are same.

Exclusive earth electrode should be provided along with interconnection with earthing grid. It should not be enclosed in metallic conduit. Earthing connection preferably should be through insulated cable from about 2 m from ground level. 7-Jul-13 SMM 66 . The inductance of the grounding conductor may introduce a high impedance to lightening current which is not desirable. Hence Lightning Arrestor earthing conductor should be short and direct. Special aspects (1)  Earthing of Lightning Arrestors Current through Lightning Arrestor have high frequency components.

Down conductors from top of Lightning Masts and Peak to the tower are clamped down and connected to low impedance earthing system. Otherwise high transient potential could appear on earthing connections. Each CVT shall be earthed through a independent earth electrode and it should be connected to earthmat. Low impedance earth connection should be provided. 7-Jul-13 SMM 67 . Special aspects (2)  Earthing of Capacitive Voltage Transformer (CVT)  CVT offers relatively low value of impedance to steep fronted surges.  Earthing of Lightning Mast & Tower with peak  Lightning Masts and Peak to the tower are provided for Direct stroke Lightening Protection (DSLP). Hence high frequency currents flow through it to earth.

) Gate Opening area to be part of earthmat. Special aspects (3) Exclusive two earth electrode for transformer Neutral. every 30m Cable supporting structures to be earthed. Rails supporting transformers to be earthed min. All interconnections to be welded (thermoweld) except equipment earthing pads Fence Earthing (Normally earthing grid is extended 1 to 2 m outside fence. All structures within substation to be connected to earthmat at min. two points. 7-Jul-13 SMM 68 .

Contd. Special aspects…. Gravel / PCC in Switchyard Operating shaft / mechanism box to be connected to extra ground mat at shallow depth Metallic conductor going outside switchyard (Transferred potential) Provision of earthing ring around control room building All panels / cubicles within control room to be connected to above ring Spacing between electrodes 7-Jul-13 SMM 69 .

Spacing between Earth Electrode Over lapping resistance areas of two earth rods 7-Jul-13 SMM 70 .

Central Board of Irrigation & Power – India (CBIP) Publication Nr. 302 & 311.  Estimation of fault current flowing between the grid and earth (SLG or LLG fault)  Basic Objectives:  Adequacy of Ground conductor for fault current (considering corrosion)  Step potential within tolerable  Touch (Mesh) Potential limit  Minimum Ground Resistance 7-Jul-13 SMM 71 . Design Considerations  Guiding standards – IEEE 80.

Maximum grid current v. Area covered by substation ii. Resistivity of soil at site iii. Fault clearing time vi. Gravel or PCC) 7-Jul-13 SMM 72 . Data for Design of Earthing system  Data required i. Resistivity and depth of surface layer (i.e. Maximum earth fault current iv.

(b)  Maximum from (a) or (b) is considered for design 7-Jul-13 SMM 73 . Earth fault current  Design of earthing system requires magnitude and duration of  Maximum current that flows thro’ earthing conductors  Maximum current that flows between earth conductors and soil  Zero sequence fault current I0 (for single line to ground fault) I0 = E /(X1+X2+X0) …….(a)  Zero sequence fault current I0 (for double line to ground fault) I0 = E *X2/ X1 * (X2+X0)+ (X2+X0) …….

Grid Current Path for the flow of the current supplied to the fault by remote source through transmission line 7-Jul-13 SMM 74 .

Df.5 or more Df 1.25 1.008 0.65 1.1 0. 0. Grid Current computation  IG = Sf .25 0. If Sf is fault current division factor – Component of If flowing thro’ soil Df is decrement factor for entire duration of fault ( Takes care of DC offset current) Fault duration sec.Rg (Ground Potential Rise – The maximum electrical potential that a substation earthing grid may attain relative to a distant earthing point) 7-Jul-13 SMM 75 .0 If is rms value of ground fault current in A  GPR = IG.10 1.

34 Silver +0.) Magnesium -2.5 (Noble) Ref.: The Electrochemical Series Referred to Hydrogen electrode 7-Jul-13 SMM 76 .66 Zinc -0.76 Iron -0.13 Copper +0.8 Protected End (+) Gold +1. Metals for earthing Galvanic Electrode Potential series (Volts) Corroded End ( .44 Tin -0.14 Lead -0.37 Aluminum -1.

78 VOLTS 7-Jul-13 SMM 77 . Dissimilar metal – Galvanic cell 0.

December 2010] 7-Jul-13 SMM 78 . Copper theft [Source: Transmission & Distribution World.

Copper-clad steel 7-Jul-13 SMM 79 .

7 5.8 Steel 12. Size of Earth conductor  Size of earth conductor mainly depends on:  Material being used  Fusing temperature of the material  Type of conductor-to-conductor joints  In flammable areas.mm & I in kA Material K for welded joints K for bolted joints Copper 4.15 15.4 12.0 7-Jul-13 SMM 80 .7 Aluminium 8. specified maximum temperature  A= Kx I√ t  A in sq.

 Often earth electrode conductor is extended 1 to 2 meters beyond fence line. For buildings.G. Area of substation  Following premises are generally covered within fenced area of substation:  Switchyard  Control room  D.fighting pump house  LT station for auxiliary power supply  Earthing conductor shall be buried covering entire fenced area. set building  Fire. (save in case of masonry wall along border) 7-Jul-13 SMM 81 . the earthing conductor shall be laid around the building typically at 1500 mm.

M. considering operation of backup protection 1 sec. for Digital/Static relay & 3 sec. for E.  Computing maximum permissible value of Estep/ Etouch potential (ts) 0. relays. Duration of fault current  Duration of fault current is considered for:  Sizing of earth conductor (tf) should be maximum. 7-Jul-13 SMM 82 . relays. for E. for Digital/Static relay & 1 sec.M.5 sec.

 Emesh = ( RB + Rf /2) IB  Emesh = (1000 + 1.Resistivity of Gravel (≈3000 Ω−m ) .5 Cs ρs) 0.{[0.116 / √ ts 7-Jul-13 SMM 83 . ΙΒ− 116 mΑ  Estep = (1000 + 6 Cs ρs) 0.09(1.116 / √ ts Cs . Tolerable voltages  Tolerable Step potential  Estep = ( RB + 2 Rf) IB RB – Body Resistance 1000 Ω. Hence Mesh voltage is considered while designing. ρ . Rf –Foot resistance 3ρ Ω.09]} ρs .Reduction factor to account for depth of laying (hs) and Gravel = 1.Resistivity of soil  Tolerable Touch / Mesh potential Touch voltage is maximum within a mesh of earth grid.ρ / ρs)]/[2hs+0.

Ki -factors considering depth of burial.75(LC-Length of Grid conductor) + 0.Km. IG / LS Ks. LM =LC+{1. Resistivity of soil  Achievable Touch/Mesh potential  Emesh = ρ . spacing. IG / LM Km spacing factor as per proposed mat layout of plot.55+1.Ks. geometry of plot etc.Ki. LM Total length of Horizontal and vertical earth rod (LC + LR ) Otherwise i. 7-Jul-13 SMM 84 . with ground rods in corner and along perimeter.  Length of conductor influences achievable values. If there are no ground rods in corner or along perimeter . LS = 0. plot shape. depth of conductor burial etc.Ki. Achievable voltages  Achievable Step potential  Estep = ρ .85(LR-Length of all Ground rods) ρ .22 [LR/√(L2X+L2Y)]}*LR LX &LY are maximum length in X & Y direction respectively.e.

Not on material or cross section of conductor. Substation Ground Resistance 1 ρ is the resistivity of the soil in ohm-m Resistance is mainly dependant on area & length of buried conductor. 7-Jul-13 SMM 85 .

Modify spacing. 7-Jul-13 SMM 86 . Design Procedure  Assume some spacing  Compute tolerable values of EStep & ETouch (EMesh)  Compute Resistance & Grid Potential Rise  Compute attainable values of EStep & ETouch (EMesh)  Attainable Value less than Tolerable values ?  if Yes design is over. add more vertical rods & Repeat till it is OK. if not ….

Earthing Design.Flat (FGL .5 kA  Soil Resistivity (ρ) : 68.) E step 2231 371 365 356 353 E touch 681 787 772 691 680 7-Jul-13 SMM 87 .. a case study  Switchyard area : 210 m X 180 m  3Φ fault current : 40 kA.7 Ω m  Earthing conductor : 75 X 10 mm M.600 mm)  Gravel thickness : 100 mm (ρ = 3000 Ω m) Spacing – m Permissible 20 20 17 17 No of Ground. 1Φ fault current : 26.S. Rods Values – Volts 50 68 50 68 (116 mA 1 sec.

the magnitude of the available fault current. IEEE Guide for Safety in AC Substation Grounding is based on the safety criteria of acceptable touch and step potentials. and the physical layout of the ground grid itself determines a safe design. Criteria for safe design Following is the clarification issued by IEEE in year 2001. Substations with low resistances are not an indication of safe design. “…. …” 7-Jul-13 SMM 88 . The resistivity of the soil. IEEE Std 80-2000. nor is a substation with a high resistance necessarily an indication of an unsafe design.

If available.  Placing of ground enhancement material around grounding conductor in trench. Measures to lower resistance  Increase the area for laying the earthmat.  Concrete-encased electrodes (Concrete is hygroscopic with resistivity of 30-90 Ω-m).  Provide satellite earth grid  Increase the length of conductor by laying more vertical rods along perimeter or increasing length of the rods. connect with adjacent grounding facilities.  Reducing spacing between earthmat grid. 7-Jul-13 SMM 89 .

Satellite Earthgrid Source: CBIP Publications No. 302 7-Jul-13 SMM 90 .

Counterpoise grid in s/s Spacing of main grid may be okay for Step voltage but not for Touch voltage. 302 7-Jul-13 SMM 91 . Counterpoise mat is provided with less spacing at shallow depth Source: CBIP Publications No.

 Conductive cement ( Marconite) is premixed with water and absorbs moisture from surrounding soil. It retains absorbed moisture for longer period. Calcium chloride.9 is also used. pH value ranges between 8 to 10. Soil Treatment  One of the method to improve soil resistivity is to use resistivity enhancement material along with vertical rod electrode. This method effectively increases the diameter of the electrode by modifying the soil surrounding the electrode.2 to 6. 7-Jul-13 SMM 92 . Calcium sulphate (Gypsum) having pH value 6.  Use Sodium chloride. Magnesium / Copper sulphate  Use of Bentonite (natural clay) which can absorb water up to 5 times its weight & swells up to 13 times of dry volume.

302 7-Jul-13 SMM 93 . Rod electrode (with Ground resistance improvement material) Source: CBIP Publications No.

Earth conductor (with Ground resistance improvement material) SMM 94 .

Effect of Artificial Treatment Source: Megger 7-Jul-13 SMM 95 .

Test should not be carried out during the period of lightening activity. helmet etc.V. well-known precautions be observed. each of them is to be tested for its individual resistance. Earthing Audit  Assessment of Quality and Capability of earthing system. precaution for safety of personnel and equipment must be taken. rated insulated gloves / boots. as well as for existing stations. Use of H.  Typically tasks involved are:  To check continuity of all connections to earth electrode  To perform the ‘Fall of Potential’ test on the earthing grid  Where number of separate earth electrodes are connected together. 7-Jul-13 SMM 96 .  This exercise is carried out before energisation of newly constructed substation. eye protection. It is preferable to switch off the source supply during test.  While conducting test at an energised station.

Fall of Potential Method…. Methodology % Distance from earth grid under test 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 100% Earth Grid G P1 P2 C2 C1 7-Jul-13 SMM 97 .

7-Jul-13 SMM 98 .contd. Fall of Potential Method ….

set up for a 90/180o test 7-Jul-13 SMM 99 . Test eqpt.

Typical 90/1800 test results o 7-Jul-13 SMM 100 .

Acceptable Bonding Readings 7-Jul-13 SMM 101 .

Resistance measurement (Ground Electrode) LEM Geo X Earth Tester 7-Jul-13 SMM 102 .

Power Distribution: Computer. Electronic devices Isolating Transformer 415/240 V Power Supply Panel Source: IEEE Std. 142-2007 7-Jul-13 SMM 103 .

Clarifications(1)  Earth resistance of Copper electrode is better than Steel electrode ??  Pipe / rod electrode: R = ρ [ln(8L/d) – 1)] / 2πL  Round conductor buried at depth: R = ρ{[ln(2L/√dh)] – 1}/πL  Plate Electrode: R = ρ [√(π / 2Α)] / 4.  It is seen from above equations that Resistance is independent of resistivity of material. It depends on resistivity of soil 7-Jul-13 SMM 104 .

7-Jul-13 SMM 105 . Moisture content is one of the controlling factors of earth resistivity (upto 20% moisture). Clarifications (2)  Buckets and buckets of water poured in the earth pit will bring down earth resistance value ??  The resistance to earth of a given earth electrode depends upon the electrical resistivity of the soil in which it is installed.

Clarifications (3)  Earth pit filled to the brim with salt and charcoal will reduce resistance drastically ??  To reduce soil resistivity. it is necessary to dissolve in the moisture. there is no point. Dry additives do not serve any purpose at all. in just filling up the pit with salt & charcoal. So. only when it is dissolved in the moisture in the soil. which is highly conductive in its water solution. 7-Jul-13 SMM 106 . The most commonly used substances are salt & charcoal in suitable proportion. It must be noted that the additive substance would reduce the resistivity of the soil. (normally contained in the soil) some substance.

there is no appreciable change in resistance to earth of the electrode. after about 3m depth. 7-Jul-13 SMM 107 . Clarifications (4)  Vary vary long rod / pipe electrodes would reduce the resistance substantially ??  The resistance to earth of a pipe or rod Electrode diminishes rapidly within the first few meters of driving. Except in special cases. but less so at depths greater than 2 to 3m in soil of uniform resistivity. As can be seen from the graph.

7-Jul-13 SMM 108 . Clarifications (5)  Plate electrode is efficient than strip electrode ??  Consider a Plate electrode (1m x 1m x 8 mm) and Strip electrode (28 mm dia.  For plate electrode R = ρ [√(π / 2Α)] / 4 = 31.3 Ώ  For strip electrode R = ρ{[ln(2L/dh)] – 1}/πL = 14.008m3). Soil with ρ = 100 Ώ-m and electrode buried at 1 m below ground.3 Ώ  Hence plate electrode is rarely used in present practice. L= 13 m) with same volume(0.

28 0. Case study (1)….16 Courtesy : CPRI 7-Jul-13 SMM 109 .72 2.average Metal (Months) Untreated Treated soil : Treated soil: soil Salt-Charcoal Bentonite Mild steel 60 0.36 0.26 0.40 1.44 Iron (GI) Copper 60 0.44 2. Corrosion of material Grounding Duration Corrosion rate-mils per year .86 Galvanised 60 0.

Gravel 150 mm thick with ρ= 3000 Ώ m. Permissible touch voltage = 856 V 7-Jul-13 SMM 110 . Case study(2) Soil ρ=100 Ώ m .

Contd. Case study(2). Transferred potential 7-Jul-13 SMM 111 ..

Contd. Case study(2). 7-Jul-13 SMM 112 ..

Bentonite Chandigarh May 88 117. Rod Resistance (ohm) In 300 mm Location Period % Reduction Normal dia. Soil) Sept 88 22 20 9.95 44.5 49.33 Source: CBIP Technical Report No.6 (River Bed) Sept 88 12 11 8.25 58 (Ord. Case study(3) Effectiveness of Bentonite Ref. 1992 7-Jul-13 SMM 113 .1 Mohali May 88 36 19.86 Nov.

Any Questions ???? 7-Jul-13 SMM 114 .

Prevents formation of oil pool from leaked oil. Discourages growth of weeds. Discourages running of person in the switchyard. Helps in retaining moisture in the underlying soil. Impediment to the movement of reptiles. Advantages Provides high resistivity surface layer (Prime objective). 7-Jul-13 SMM 115 . Use of Gravel….

 Often cable tracer is employed to locate broken ground conductor. 0-300 A). voltage / current measuring device & two test leads. Ground grid integrity test  Test conducted before energisation of newly constructed substation to detect open ends.  Procedure repeated for different sets of risers. current is measured (by clamp-on Ammeter).  Typically 300 A is injected and voltage drop.  This test is also carried out following damage.  Variable voltage source (0-35 V.  One lead is connected to reference ground riser and other to ground riser under test. 7-Jul-13 SMM 116 . to electronic / solid state equipment due to lightening surge. if any. if any.

Bonding test 7-Jul-13 SMM 117 .

 Empirical formulae provides estimation of Step / Touch (Mesh) voltage in worst case.etc. 7-Jul-13 SMM 118 . Factors for achievable voltage  Achievable value of Step / Touch (Mesh) voltage depends on:  Grid current  Length of Conductor used for earth mat  Diameter of Conductor used for earth mat  Depth at which the earth mat is buried  Spacing between earthing conductor  Shape of plot  Provision of electrode along periphery  Dissipation of current from earthing conductor to soil  etc.