Calc II Improper Integrals Solutions

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Calc II Improper Integrals Solutions

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Preface

Here are the solutions to the practice problems for my Calculus II notes. Some solutions will have more

or less detail than other solutions. As the difficulty level of the problems increases less detail will go into

the basics of the solution under the assumption that if youve reached the level of working the harder

problems then you will probably already understand the basics fairly well and wont need all the

explanation.

This document was written with presentation on the web in mind. On the web most solutions are broken

down into steps and many of the steps have hints. Each hint on the web is given as a popup however in

this document they are listed prior to each step. Also, on the web each step can be viewed individually by

clicking on links while in this document they are all showing. Also, there are liable to be some formatting

parts in this document intended for help in generating the web pages that havent been removed here.

These issues may make the solutions a little difficult to follow at times, but they should still be readable.

Improper Integrals

1. Determine if the following integral converges or diverges. If the integral converges determine its

value.

(1 + 2 x ) e dx

x

0

Hint : Dont forget that we cant do the integral as long as there is an infinity in one of the limits!

Step 1

First, we need to recall that we cant do the integral as long as there is an infinity in one of the limits.

Therefore, well need to eliminate the infinity first as follows,

0 (1 + 2 x ) e dx =lim (1 + 2 x ) e x dx

t

t 0

x

Note that this step really is needed for these integrals! For some integrals we can use basic logic and

evaluate at infinity to get the answer. However, many of these kinds of improper integrals cant be

done that way! This is the only way to make sure we can deal with the infinite limit in those cases.

So even if this ends up being one of the integrals in which we can evaluate at infinity we need to be in

the habit of doing this for those that cant be done that way.

Step 2

Next, lets do the integral. Well not be putting a lot of explanation/detail into the integration process. By

this point it is assumed that your integration skills are getting pretty good. If you find your integration

skills are a little rusty you should go back and do some practice problems from the appropriate earlier

sections.

Calculus II

In this case we need to do integration by parts to evaluate this integral. Here is the integration work.

u=

1+ 2x du =

2dx

x

dv =

e dx e x

v=

(1 + 2 x ) e (1 + 2 x ) e x + 2 e x dx = ( 3 + 2 x ) e x + c

(1 + 2 x ) e x 2e x + c =

x

dx =

Note that we didnt do the definite integral here. The limits dont really affect how we do the integral and

so we held off dealing with them until the next step.

Step 3

Okay, now lets take care of the limits on the integral.

lim ( ( 3 + 2 x ) e x ) = lim ( 3 ( 3 + 2t ) e t )

t

(1 + 2 x ) e dx=

x

0 t 0 t

Step 4

We now need to evaluate the limit in our answer from the previous step and note that, in this case, we

really cant just evaluate at infinity! We need to do the limiting process here to make sure we get the

correct answer.

We will need to do a quick LHospitals Rule on the second term to properly evaluate it. Here is the limit

work.

3 + 2t 2

(1 + 2 x ) e dx = lim 3 lim et = 3 lim et = 3 0 = 3

x

0 t t t

Step 5

The final step is to write down the answer!

In this case, the limit we computed in the previous step existed and was finite (i.e. not an infinity).

Therefore, the integral converges and its value is 3.

2. Determine if the following integral converges or diverges. If the integral converges determine its

value.

(1 + 2 x ) e dx

0

x

Hint : Dont forget that we cant do the integral as long as there is an infinity in one of the limits!

Step 1

First, we need to recall that we cant do the integral as long as there is an infinity in one of the limits.

Therefore, well need to eliminate the infinity first as follows,

Calculus II

(1 + 2 x ) e dx =tlim (1 + 2 x ) e x dx

0 0

t

x

Note that this step really is needed for these integrals! For some integrals we can use basic logic and

evaluate at infinity to get the answer. However, many of these kinds of improper integrals cant be

done that way! This is the only way to make sure we can deal with the infinite limit in those cases.

So even if this ends up being one of the integrals in which we can evaluate at infinity we need to be in

the habit of doing this for those that cant be done that way.

Step 2

Next, lets do the integral. Well not be putting a lot of explanation/detail into the integration process. By

this point it is assumed that your integration skills are getting pretty good. If you find your integration

skills are a little rusty you should go back and do some practice problems from the appropriate earlier

sections.

In this case we need to do integration by parts to evaluate this integral. Here is the integration work.

u=

1+ 2x du =

2dx

x

dv =

e dx e x

v=

(1 + 2 x ) e (1 + 2 x ) e x + 2 e x dx =

(1 + 2 x ) e x 2e x + c =

( 3 + 2 x ) e x + c

x

dx =

Note that we didnt do the definite integral here. The limits dont really affect how we do the integral and

so we held off dealing with them until the next step.

Step 3

Okay, now lets take care of the limits on the integral.

0 0

x

t t t

Step 4

We now need to evaluate the limit in our answer from the previous step. In this case we can see that the

first term will go to negative infinity since it is just a product of one factor that goes to negative infinity

and another factor that goes to infinity. Therefore the full limit will also be negative infinity since the

constant second term wont affect the final value of the limit.

(1 + 2 x ) e dx = lim ( 3 + 2t ) e t lim 3 = ( )( ) 3 = 3 =

0

x

t t

Step 5

The final step is to write down the answer!

In this case, the limit we computed in the previous step existed and but was negative infinity. Therefore,

the integral diverges.

Calculus II

3. Determine if the following integral converges or diverges. If the integral converges determine its

value.

1

1

dz

5 10 + 2 z

Hint : Dont forget that we cant do the integral as long as there is a division by zero in the integrand at

some point in the interval of integration!

Step 1

First, notice that there is a division by zero issue (and hence a discontinuity) in the integrand at z = 5

and this is the lower limit of integration. We know that as long as that discontinuity is there we cant do

the integral. Therefore, well need to eliminate the discontinuity first as follows,

1 1

1

= 1

dz lim dz

5 10 + 2 z t 5 t 10 + 2 z

+

Dont forget that the limits on these kinds of integrals must be one-sided limits. Because the interval of

integration is [ 5,1] we are only interested in the values of z that are greater than -5 and so we must use a

right hand limit to reflect that fact.

Step 2

Next, lets do the integral. Well not be putting a lot of explanation/detail into the integration process. By

this point it is assumed that your integration skills are getting pretty good. If you find your integration

skills are a little rusty you should go back and do some practice problems from the appropriate earlier

sections.

In this case we can do a simple Calc I substitution. Here is the integration work.

1 dz =

1

ln 10 + 2 z + c

10 + 2 z 2

Note that we didnt do the definite integral here. The limits dont really affect how we do the integral and

so we held off dealing with them until the next step.

Step 3

Okay, now lets take care of the limits on the integral.

1

1 1

1

1

= lim+ ln 10 +=

1

lim+ ln 12 ln 10 + 2t

dz 2z

5 10 + 2 z t 5 2 t t 5 2 2

Step 4

We now need to evaluate the limit in our answer from the previous step. Here is the limit work.

1 1

1

1 1

dz = lim+ ln 12 ln 10 + 2t

= ln 12 + =

5 10 + 2 z t 5 2 2 2

Calculus II

Step 5

The final step is to write down the answer!

In this case, the limit we computed in the previous step existed and but was infinity. Therefore, the

integral diverges.

4. Determine if the following integral converges or diverges. If the integral converges determine its

value.

2

4w

dw

1 3

w2 4

Hint : Dont forget that we cant do the integral as long as there is a division by zero in the integrand at

some point in the interval of integration!

Step 1

First, notice that there is a division by zero issue (and hence a discontinuity) in the integrand at w = 2

and this is the upper limit of integration. We know that as long as that discontinuity is there we cant do

the integral. Therefore, well need to eliminate the discontinuity first as follows,

2 t

4w 4w

dw = lim dw

1 3

w 4

2 t2

1

3

w2 4

Dont forget that the limits on these kinds of integrals must be one-sided limits. Because the interval of

integration is [1, 2] we are only interested in the values of t that are less than 2 and so we must use a left

hand limit to reflect that fact.

Next, lets do the integral. Well not be putting a lot of explanation/detail into the integration process. By

this point it is assumed that your integration skills are getting pretty good. If you find your integration

skills are a little rusty you should go back and do some practice problems from the appropriate earlier

sections.

In this case we can do a simple Calc I substitution. Here is the integration work.

4w

dw= 3 ( w2 4 ) 3 + c

2

3 2

w 4

so we held off dealing with them until the next step.

Step 3

Okay, now lets take care of the limits on the integral.

Calculus II

( ) ( )

2

t

dw lim 3 ( w2 4=

) 3 tlim 3 ( t 2 4 ) 3 3 ( 3) 3

4w 2 2 2

=

1 2

3

w 4

2 t2

1

Step 4

We now need to evaluate the limit in our answer from the previous step. Here is the limit work.

( )

2

dw =lim 3 ( t 2 4 ) 3 3 ( 3) 3 =

4w 2

( 3) 3

3 ( 3) 3 =

2 2 5

1 3

w2 4 t2

Step 5

The final step is to write down the answer!

In this case, the limit we computed in the previous step existed and was finite (i.e. not an infinity).

Therefore, the integral converges and its value is ( 3) 3 .

5

5. Determine if the following integral converges or diverges. If the integral converges determine its

value.

1

6 y dy

Hint : Dont forget that we cant do the integral as long as there is an infinity in one of the limits!

Step 1

First, we need to recall that we cant do the integral as long as there is an infinity in one of the limits.

Therefore, well need to eliminate the infinity first as follows,

1 1

6 y=

dy lim

t t 6 y dy

Note that this step really is needed for these integrals! For some integrals we can use basic logic and

evaluate at infinity to get the answer. However, many of these kinds of improper integrals cant be

done that way! This is the only way to make sure we can deal with the infinite limit in those cases.

So even if this ends up being one of the integrals in which we can evaluate at infinity we need to be in

the habit of doing this for those that cant be done that way.

Next, lets do the integral. Well not be putting a lot of explanation/detail into the integration process. By

this point it is assumed that your integration skills are getting pretty good. If you find your integration

skills are a little rusty you should go back and do some practice problems from the appropriate earlier

sections.

In this case we can do a simple Calc I substitution. Here is the integration work.

23 ( 6 y ) 2 + c

3

6 y dy =

Calculus II

so we held off dealing with them until the next step.

Step 3

Okay, now lets take care of the limits on the integral.

( ) ( )

1

6 y dy = lim 23 ( 6 y ) 2 = lim 23 ( 5 ) 2 + 23 ( 6 t ) 2

3 3 3

t t t

Step 4

We now need to evaluate the limit in our answer from the previous step. Here is the limit work.

6 y dy =

t

( 3 3

)

23 ( 5 ) 2 + =

lim 23 ( 5 ) 2 + 23 ( 6 t ) 2 =

3

Step 5

The final step is to write down the answer!

In this case, the limit we computed in the previous step existed and but was infinity. Therefore, the

integral diverges.

6. Determine if the following integral converges or diverges. If the integral converges determine its

value.

9

dz

2 (1 3 z )

4

First, we need to recall that we cant do the integral as long as there is an infinity in one of the limits.

Therefore, well need to eliminate the infinity first as follows,

t

9 9

dz = lim dz

2 (1 3 z ) 2 (1 3 z )

4 t 4

evaluate at infinity to get the answer. However, many of these kinds of improper integrals cant be

done that way! This is the only way to make sure we can deal with the infinite limit in those cases.

the habit of doing this for those that cant be done that way.

Step 2

Calculus II

Next, lets do the integral. Well not be putting a lot of explanation/detail into the integration process. By

this point it is assumed that your integration skills are getting pretty good. If you find your integration

skills are a little rusty you should go back and do some practice problems from the appropriate earlier

sections.

In this case we can do a simple Calc I substitution. Here is the integration work.

9 1

= dz +c

(1 3 z ) (1 3z )

4 3

so we held off dealing with them until the next step.

Step 3

Okay, now lets take care of the limits on the integral.

t

9 1 1 1

= dz lim =

t

lim

t

2 (1 3 z ) ( ) ( )

4 3 3

1 3 z 2 1 3t 125

Step 4

We now need to evaluate the limit in our answer from the previous step. Here is the limit work

9 1 1 1

= dz lim +=

t

2 (1 3 z ) (1 3t ) 125 125

4 3

Step 5

The final step is to write down the answer!

In this case, the limit we computed in the previous step existed and was finite (i.e. not an infinity).

1

Therefore, the integral converges and its value is 125 .

7. Determine if the following integral converges or diverges. If the integral converges determine its

value.

4

x

2 dx

0 x 9

Hint : Dont forget that we cant do the integral as long as there is a division by zero in the integrand at

some point in the interval of integration! Also, do not just assume the division by zero will be at one of

the limits of the integral.

Step 1

First, notice that there is a division by zero issue (and hence a discontinuity) in the integrand at x = 3 and

note that this is between the limits of the integral. We know that as long as that discontinuity is there we

cant do the integral.

Calculus II

However, recall from the notes in this section that we can only deal with discontinuities that if they occur

at one of the limits of the integral. So, well need to break up the integral at x = 3 .

4 3 4

= x x

dx + 2

x

2 dx 2 dx

0 x 9 0 x 9 3 x 9

Remember as well, that we can only break up the integral like this provided both of the new integrals are

convergent! If it turns out that even one of them is divergent then it will turn out that we couldnt have

done this and the original integral will be divergent.

So, not worrying about if this was really possible to do or not, lets proceed with the problem.

4 t 4

=

x x

dx + lim+ 2

x

2 dx lim 2 dx

0 x 9 t 3 0 x 9 s 3 s x 9

Dont forget that the limits on these kinds of integrals must be one-sided limits.

Next, lets do the integral. Well not be putting a lot of explanation/detail into the integration process. By

this point it is assumed that your integration skills are getting pretty good. If you find your integration

skills are a little rusty you should go back and do some practice problems from the appropriate earlier

sections.

In this case we can do a simple Calc I substitution. Here is the integration work.

x = 1

ln x 2 9 + c

2 dx

x 9 2

Note that we didnt do the definite integral here. The limits dont really affect how we do the integral and

the integral for each was the same with only the limits being different so no reason to do the integral

twice.

Step 3

Okay, now lets take care of the limits on the integral.

t 4

1 1

4

x

2= dx lim ln x 2 9 + lim+ ln x 2 9

0 x 9 t 3 2 0 s3 2 s

1 1 1 1

= lim ln t 2 9 ln ( 9 ) + lim+ ln ( 7 ) ln s 2 9

t 3 2 2 s3 2 2

Step 4

We now need to evaluate the limits in our answer from the previous step. Here is the limit work.

Calculus II

1 1

4

= x 1 1

dx lim ln t 2 9 ln ( 9 ) + lim+ ln ( 7 ) ln s 2 9

2

0 x 9 t 3 2 2 s3 2 2

1 1

= ln ( 9 ) + ln ( 7 ) +

2 2

Note that we put the answers for each limit in brackets to make it clear what each limit was. This will be

important for the next step.

Step 5

The final step is to write down the answer!

Now, from the limit work in the previous step we see that,

1

3

x 1

dx = lim ln t 2 9 ln ( 9 ) =

1

2

0 x 9 t 3 2 2 2 ln ( 9 ) =

1 1

4

x 1

dx = lim+ ln ( 7 ) ln s 2 9 = ln ( 7 ) + =

2

3 x 9 s3 2 2 2

Therefore each of these integrals are divergent. This means that we were, in fact, not able to break up the

integral as we did back in Step 1.

8. Determine if the following integral converges or diverges. If the integral converges determine its

value.

6 w3

dw

( )

2

w 4

+ 1

Hint : Dont forget that we cant do the integral as long as there is an infinity in one of the limits! Also,

dont forget that infinities in both limits need as extra step to get set up.

Step 1

First, we need to recall that we cant do the integral as long as there is an infinity in one of the limits.

Note as well that in this case we have infinities in both limits and so well need to split up the integral.

The integral can be split up at any point in this case and w = 0 seems like a good point to use for the split

point. Splitting up the integral gives,

0

6 w3 6 w3 6 w3

= dw dw + dw

( ) ( ) 0 ( )

2 2 2

w 4

+ 1 w 4

+ 1 w 4

+ 1

Calculus II

Remember as well, that we can only break up the integral like this provided both of the new integrals are

convergent! If it turns out that even one of them is divergent then it will turn out that we couldnt have

done this and the original integral will be divergent.

So, not worrying about if this was really possible to do or not, lets proceed with the problem.

0 s

6 w3 6 w3 6 w3

=

dw lim dw + lim dw

t s

( w + 1) t ( w + 1) 0 ( w + 1)

4 2 4 2 4 2

Next, lets do the integral. Well not be putting a lot of explanation/detail into the integration process. By

this point it is assumed that your integration skills are getting pretty good. If you find your integration

skills are a little rusty you should go back and do some practice problems from the appropriate earlier

sections.

In this case we can do a simple Calc I substitution. Here is the integration work.

6 w3 3 1

dw =

+c

4

( ) +

2 4

w + 1 2 w 1

Note that we didnt do the definite integral here. The limits dont really affect how we do the integral and

the integral for each was the same with only the limits being different so no reason to do the integral

twice.

Step 3

Okay, now lets take care of the limits on the integral.

6 w3 3 1

0

3 1

s

dw = lim + lim

( ) + 2 w +1 0

2 t 4 s 4

w 4

+ 1 2 w 1 t

3 3 1 3 1 3

= lim + 4 + lim 4 +

t

2 2 t +1 s

2 s +1 2

Step 4

We now need to evaluate the limits in our answer from the previous step. Here is the limit work

6 w3 3 3 1 3 1 3

= lim + 4

dw + lim 4 +

( w + 1) 2 2 t + 1 s 2 s + 1 2

4 2 t

3 3

= 2 + 2

Calculus II

Note that we put the answers for each limit in brackets to make it clear what each limit was. This will be

important for the next step.

Step 5

The final step is to write down the answer!

Now, from the limit work in the previous step we see that,

0

6 w3 3 3 1 3

dw =lim + 4 =

( w + 1) 2 2 t +1

2 t

4 2

6 w3 3 1 3 3

dw = lim 4 + =

0 ( w + 1) 2 s +1 2 2

4 2 s

Therefore each of the integrals are convergent and have the values shown above. This means that we

could in fact break up the integral as we did in Step 1. Also, the original integral is now,

0

6 w3 6 w3 6 w3

= dw dw + dw

( w + 1) ( w + 1) 0 ( w + 1)

4 2 4 2 4 2

3 3

= +

2 2

=0

9. Determine if the following integral converges or diverges. If the integral converges determine its

value.

4

1

2 dx

1 x + x 6

Hint : Dont forget that we cant do the integral as long as there is a division by zero in the integrand at

some point in the interval of integration! Also, do not just assume the division by zero will be at one of

the limits of the integral.

Step 1

First, notice that there is a division by zero issue (and hence a discontinuity) in the integrand at x = 2 and

note that this is between the limits of the integral. We know that as long as that discontinuity is there we

cant do the integral.

However, recall from the notes in this section that we can only deal with discontinuities that if they occur

at one of the limits of the integral. So, well need to break up the integral at x = 2 .

Calculus II

2 4

4

=

1 1

dx +

1

2 dx dx

1 x + x 6 1 ( x + 3)( x 2 ) 2 ( x + 3)( x 2 )

Remember as well, that we can only break up the integral like this provided both of the new integrals are

convergent! If it turns out that even one of them is divergent then it will turn out that we couldnt have

done this and the original integral will be divergent.

So, not worrying about if this was really possible to do or not, lets proceed with the problem.

t 4

4

=

1 1

dx + lim+

1

2 dx lim dx

1 x + x 6 t2

1 ( x + 3)( x 2 ) s 2

s ( x + 3)( x 2 )

Dont forget that the limits on these kinds of integrals must be one-sided limits.

Next, lets do the integral. Well not be putting a lot of explanation/detail into the integration process. By

this point it is assumed that your integration skills are getting pretty good. If you find your integration

skills are a little rusty you should go back and do some practice problems from the appropriate earlier

sections.

In this case we will need to do some partial fractions in order to the integral. Here is the partial fraction

work.

1 A B

= + 1= A ( x 2 ) + B ( x + 3)

( x + 3)( x 2 ) x+3 x2

=x 2=

: 1 5B A = 15

x=3 : 1 =

5 A B = 15

1 5 5 =

1 1

1 1

=

dx dx ln x 2 ln x + 3 + c

( x + 3)( x 2 ) x2 x+3 5 5

Note that we didnt do the definite integral here. The limits dont really affect how we do the integral and

the integral for each was the same with only the limits being different so no reason to do the integral

twice.

Step 3

Okay, now lets take care of the limits on the integral.

Calculus II

t 4

1 1

4

1 1 1

2 = dx lim ln x 2 ln x + 3 + lim+ ln x 2 ln x + 3

1 x + x 6 t 2 5 5 1 s 2 5 5 s

1 1 1 1

= lim ln t 2 ln t + 3 ln (1) ln ( 4 )

t2

5 5 5 5

1 1 1 1

+ lim+ ln ( 2 ) ln ( 7 ) ln s 2 ln s + 3

s 2

5 5 5 5

Step 4

We now need to evaluate the limits in our answer from the previous step. Here is the limit work.

4

1 1 1 1 1

2 = dx lim ln t 2 ln t + 3 ln (1) ln ( 4 )

1 x + x 6 t 2

5 5 5 5

1 1 1 1

+ lim+ ln ( 2 ) ln ( 7 ) ln s 2 ln s + 3

s 2

5 5 5 5

1 1 1 1 1

= 5 ln ( 5 ) + 5 ln ( 4 ) + 5 ln ( 2 ) 5 ln ( 7 ) + 5 ln ( 5 ) +

Note that we put the answers for each limit in brackets to make it clear what each limit was. This will be

important for the next step.

Step 5

The final step is to write down the answer!

Now, from the limit work in the previous step we see that,

2

1 1 1 1 1

dx = lim ln t 2 ln t + 3 ln (1) ln ( 4 ) =

1 ( x + 3)( x 2 ) t2

5 5 5 5

4

1 1 1 1 1

dx =lim+ ln ( 2 ) ln ( 7 ) ln s 2 ln s + 3 =

2 ( x + 3)( x 2 ) s 2

5 5 5 5

Therefore each of these integrals are divergent. This means that we were, in fact, not able to break up the

integral as we did back in Step 1.

10. Determine if the following integral converges or diverges. If the integral converges determine its

value.

Calculus II

0 1

ex

x 2 dx

Hint : Be very careful with this problem as it is nothing like what we did in the notes. However, you

should be able to take the material from the notes and use that to figure out how to do this problem.

Step 1

Now there is clearly an infinite limit here, but also notice that there is a discontinuity at x = 0 that well

need to deal with.

Based on the material in the notes it should make sense that, provided both integrals converge, we should

be able to split up the integral at any point. In this case lets split the integral up at x = 1 . Doing this

gives,

0 1 1 1 0 1

ex ex ex

=

2 dx 2

dx +

x 2 dx

x x 1

Keep in mind that splitting up the integral like this can only be done if both of the integrals converge! If

it turns out that even one of them is divergent then it will turn out that we couldnt have done this and the

original integral will be divergent.

So, not worrying about if this was really possible to do or not lets proceed with the problem.

0 1 1 1 s 1

ex ex ex

=

dx lim 2 dx + lim 2 dx

x2 t x s 0 x

t 1

Next, lets do the integral. Well not be putting a lot of explanation/detail into the integration process. By

this point it is assumed that your integration skills are getting pretty good. If you find your integration

skills are a little rusty you should go back and do some practice problems from the appropriate earlier

sections.

In this case we can do a simple Calc I substitution. Here is the integration work.

1

ex 1

x2 dx =e x

+c

the integral for each was the same with only the limits being different so no reason to do the integral

twice.

Step 3

Calculus II

0 1 1 s

ex 1x 1x 1 1t 1s

dx = lim e + lim e = lim e + e + lim e + e 1

x2 t

t s 0 1 t s 0

Step 4

We now need to evaluate the limits in our answer from the previous step. Here is the limit work

0 1

ex 1 1t 1s

=

dx lim e + e + lim e + e 1

x 2 t

s 0

= e 1 + e0 + 0 + e 1

Note that,

1

lim =

s 0 s

since we are doing a left hand limit and so s will be negative. This in turn means that,

1

lim e s =

0

s 0

Step 5

The final step is to write down the answer!

Now, from the limit work in the previous step we see that,

1 1 0 1

ex ex

e 1 + 1

x 2 dx = e 1

x 2 dx =

1

Therefore each of the integrals are convergent and have the values shown above. This means that we

could in fact break up the integral as we did in Step 1. Also, the original integral is now,

0 1 1 1 0 1

ex ex ex

=

2

dx

x2 dx +

x 2 dx

x 1

= e 1 + 1 + e 1

=1

Calculus II

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