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CURS 2

PARACTICA GENERALA IN ANALIZAREA AVARIILOR

Obiectivele investigarii
Etapele analizarii unei avarii
Analiza dovezilor, formularea concluziilor, intocmirea raportului
Prezentarea unui laborator portabil de analizare a avariilor

Dei succesiunea stadiilor este variabil n funcie de natura cedrii


specifice, stadiile principale care cuprind investigaia i analiza unei cedri
sunt urmtoarele:
colectarea datelor de baz i selectarea mostrelor;
examinarea preliminar a piesei cedate (examinarea vizual i
conformitatea nregistrrii);
testare nedistructiv;
ncercarea mecanic (incluznd duritatea i tenacitatea);
examinarea i analiza macroscopic (suprafeele de rupere, fisuri
secundare i alte fenomene de suprafa);
examinarea i analiza microscopic;
selectarea i pregtirea probelor metalografice;
examinarea i analiza probelor metalografice;
determinarea mecanismului de cedare;
analiza chimic (de volum, local, produse de coroziune de suprafa,
depuneri sau nveliuri, i analiza microprobelor);
analiza mecanismelor de rupere;
testarea n condiii de serviciu simulat (teste speciale);
analiza tuturor dovezilor, formularea concluziilor i scrierea raportului
(incluznd recomandri).
Timpul folosit pentru stabilirea tuturor circumstanelor cedrii este un timp
bine petrecut. Cnd este primit pentru examinare o component rupt,
investigatorul este uneori nclinat s pregteasc imediat epruvetele fr s
nscoceasc o procedur de investigare. O asemenea lips de prevedere ar
trebui s fie evitat, deoarece n final o mare cantitate de timp i efort pot fi
irosite, n timp ce considernd de la nceput atent fundamentul cedrii i
studiul trsturilor generale se va indicat o procedur mai informativ. La
investigarea cedrilor unor componente, vizitarea locului cedrii poate fi
nepractic sau imposibil pentru analistul cedrii. n aceste cazuri datele i
mostrele pot fi colectate de ctre inginerul de teren sau de alt personal la faa
locului. Poate fi utilizat o schem de raport sau o list de verificare a
cedrii pe teren pentru a ne asigura c toate informaiile pertinente privind
cedarea au fost nregistrate.

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