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# Prepared by Asst.

## B.S. ABDUR RAHMAN UNIVERSITY

Fluid Mechanics & Machinery (ME202) B.E.-3(MECH)
Internal Test II (24.09.2013)
Answer all the questions and dont mix-up Part-A with other answers.
Only non-programmable calculator is allowed
Part A (Marks: 5 x 2 = 10)
1. Define streak line and stream line.
2. Define uniform and non-uniform flow.
3. What is flow net?
4. List the application of Bernoulli's equation.
5. Write Navier Stokes equations.
Part B (Marks: 2 x 20 = 40)
6 (a) (i) In an incompressible flow, velocity vector is given by (12)
= (6 + 2 ) + (3 + 2 ) + ( 2 6)
Verify whether the continuity equation is satisfied and determine the
acceleration vector at point (2, 2, 2) at = 2.
(ii) Water flows through a pipe AB of diameter 1.2m at 3m/s and then passes (8)
through a pipe BC of diameter 1.5m. At C, the pipe branches. Branch CD is
of 0.8m in diameter and carries one third of the flow in AB. The flow velocity
in branch CE is 2.5 m/s. Find the volume flow rate in AB, the velocity in BC
the velocity in CD and diameter of CE.
(OR)
(b) (i) Derive Eulers equation of motion. (12)
(ii) A vertical venturimeter carries a liquid of relative density 0.8 and has inlet (8)
and throat diameter of 150mm and 75mm respectively. The pressure
connection at the throat is 150mm above that at the inlet. If the actual flow
rate is 40litets/sec and Cd = 0.96, calculate the pressure difference between
the inlet and the throat in N/m2.
7 (a) (i) Shown that lift on airfoil can be expressed as: (20)

= 2 2 ( , )

Where, = mass density, V = Velocity of flow, d = characteristic length, =
angle of incidence and = coefficient of viscosity.

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(OR)
(b) (i) Derive Hagen Poiseuilles equation. (14)
(ii) Oil of absolute viscosity 1.5poise and density 848.3kg/m3 flows through a (6)
pipe of diameter 30cm. If the head loss in 3000m length of pipe is 20m,
assuming laminar flow, determine the velocity, Reynolds number and friction
factor (Fannings).

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Answers

Part A
1. The line joining all the fluid particles at any instant having passed from the same point is called
Streak Line.
The imaginary line drawn in the flow domain, such that the tangent at any point on the line gives
the velocity of the particle at that point.
2. When the flow parameters dont change with respect to space coordinates, then the flow is called
uniform flow. On the other hand if the flow parameters do change with respect to space
coordinates, it is called non-uniform flow.
For the uniform flow:

( ) = 0, ( ) = 0, ( )=0

For non-uniform flow:

( ) 0, ( ) 0, ( )0

3. Flow net is a net like structure formed by stream lines and velocity potential lines. These two
lines are always perpendicular to each other at every location.

4. Bernoullis equation is utilised in making calculation for the Pitot tube and other discharge
measuring devices like Venturimeter and Orifice meter etc.
5. Navier-Stokes equations are:
1 2 2 2
+ ( + + ) = [ + ( + + ) + g ]
2 2 2
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1 2 2 2
+ ( + + ) = [ + ( + + ) + g ]
2 2 2
1 2 2 2
+ ( + + ) = [ + ( + + ) + g ]
2 2 2

Part B
6. (a) (i) The given equation is:
= (6 + 2 ) + (3 + 2 ) + ( 2 6)
On reducing the velocity in its components:
= 6 + 2 , = 3 + 2 , = 2 6
For continuity:

+ + =0

(6 + 2 ) + (3 + 2 ) + ( 2 6)

= (6 + 0) + (0 + 2) + (0 2 6) = 0
The flow is continuous.
Now
At (2, 2, 2) at t = 2sec.
= 6 2 2 + 2 22 = 32,
= 3 2 + 2 22 = 14,
= 2 2 2 2 2 2 6 2 2 = 36

= 6 = 12, = 6 = 12, = 2 = 4, = 2 = 8

= 3 = 3, = 2 = 4, = 2 = 8, =0=0

= 6 = 12, = 2 = 6, = 2 = 6, = 2 6 = 20

Now:

= + ( + + ) = 12 + (32 12 + 14 4 36 8) = 164

= + ( + + ) = 3 + (32 4 + 14 8 36 0) = 243

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= + ( + + ) = 12 + (32 6 14 6 + 36 20) = 432

The acceleration vector will be:
= + + = +
Above is the acceleration vector at (2, 2, 2) at t = 2sec.
(a) (ii) given that:
1 = 1.2, 2 = 1.5, 3 = 0.8, 1 = 3.0 , 4 = 2.5 ,
1
3 = , 1 =?, 2 =?, 3 =?, 4 =?
3

1 = 12 = (1.2)2 = 1.131 2 , 2 = 22 = (1.5)2 = 1.767 2
4 4 4 4
2
3 = 3 = (0.8)2 = 0.5026 2
4 4

= 1 1 = 1.131 3.0 = .

It is clear that:
3 2 3.393
2 = 1 2 = 3.393 = = = .
2 1.767
1 3.393 3 3 1.131
3 = = = 1.131 = = = .
3 3 3 0.5026
21
Since one third of the flow goes to CD, two third will go through CE. i.e. 4 = 3

21 2 3.393 3
4 = = = 2.262
3 2
4 2.262
4 = = = 0.9048 2
4 2.5

4 0.9048
4 = = = .
4 4

## (b) (i) Let us consider upon a 1D flow in which

flow is taking place along s-direction
and a small length of the fluid is
considered. The situation of the forces
acting on the fluid element will be as
shown in the picture below. Let the area
of the cross section of the fluid element
be .
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Now due to the difference in the pressure on either side of the element, fluid element will
feel a force which will be equal to:
= ( + )

= = ( )

Now weight of the fluid element will be given by:
g = = g
This force of gravity will act on the fluid element in the direction downward. So the
component of the force along the fluid motion will be:

= g cos = g = g

The net force acting on the fluid element will be:

= + g = ( ) g

Mass of the element:
=
Acceleration of the fluid element:

= = + = /for steady flow

Now applying Newtons second law of motion,

( ) g = ( ) ( )

On some manipulation the above equation takes the shape of:

g = + + =

Above equation is known as Eulers equation of motion. It is a differential equation
containing differential coefficients.
(b) (ii) Given data are:
Let the inlet condition are taken as station 1 and the throat condition are taken as station
2. Then the following data can be written as:
= 150 mm, = 75 mm, = 800g, 1 2 = 150 mm,
liter
= 40 , = 0.96
sec

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2
1 = = (0.15)2 = 0.01767 m2 ,
4 4

2 = 2 = (0.075)2 = 0.004418 m2
4 4
From the venturi meter equation:
1 2
= 2g
12 22
0.01767 0.004418
40 103 = 0.96 2 9.81
0.017672 0.0044182
7.494 105
40 103 = 4.4294
0.0171
40 103 0.0171
= = 2.0606
7.494 105 4.4294
= 4.2461 m
This is the head difference between two locations:
1 2
= ( + 1 ) ( + 2 )

1 2
= (1 2 ) = 4.2461 + 0.150 = 4.396

= 4.0635 = 4.0635 800g = .
7. (a) (i) The given equation is to be established is:

= 2 2 ( , )

Let the force on an aerofoil depends upon following parameters:

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