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CPB30004- Process Dynamics and Control

Experiment 5: Heat Exchanger Process Control Page |1

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Shell and tube heat exchanger is widely used in the industries. The reason that this
type of heat exchanger is applicable in chemical industries is because of the thermal stressed
that can be applied in it. Other than that, the boiling or condensation can be applied either in
shell or in the tube. In addition, the pressure drop can be varied in wide range plus the design
of heat exchanger can be done either in vertical or horizontal; suitable with plant layout
(Subramanian, n.d).

The necessary of heat exchanger to be present in plant is depending on production


process. The present of it is in order to transfer liquid with different temperatures throughout
the process. From (Max S. Peters & Klaus D. Timmerhaus, 1991), the design and equipment
scale up can be describes as follow:

Table 1: Design and equipment scale up for Heat Exchanger

Type of Is pilot Major Major variables Maximum Approximate


equipment plant is variables characterizing scale-up recommended
usually for operational size or capacity ratio based safety or
necessary? design (other on indicated overdesign
than flow rate) characterizin factor, %
g
variable
Tube-and- No -Temperatures -Flow rate > l00: l 15
shell -Viscosities -Heat-transfer > 100: l
heat -Thermal area
exchangers conductivities

From the table 1 above, it shows that major variables for operational design (other
than flow rate) are varying with temperatures, viscosities and thermal conductivities. By
CPB30004- Process Dynamics and Control
Experiment 5: Heat Exchanger Process Control Page |2

application on process control, thermal and temperatures that present in shell and tube heat
exchanger can be influenced the process itself.

In this heat exchanger process control experiment, the controller that had been used is
PID controller (proportional-integral-derivatives controller) which by using this, the offset
can be eliminated and it can reduce the error to zero. It also gives a better performance of the
process control (National instrument, 2011).

Figure 1: Response of a typical PID closed loop system.

Source from National Instrument, http://www.ni.com/white-paper/3782/en/#toc2

Figure 1 shows the response of typical PID in closed loop system. From the figure, it
can deduce that by applied this type of controller in process control system, the offset can be
eliminate and also the error can be reduce to zero.

2.0 PROCEDURE
A. STARTUP PROCEDURES
1. The following steps had been carried out before starting the experiment:
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Experiment 5: Heat Exchanger Process Control Page |3

i. The tank T62 and the product tank T61 were filled with water up their
overflow drain pipe.
ii. The manual valve was checked at the product downstream pipeline TSV62
was opened to the external drain system.
iii. The main power supply at the front cubicle was turned on.
2. The various manual valve was checked as follow:
i. All suction and discharge valve pumps (P61, P62 and P611) were opened.
ii. Manual pass valve for each pumps and control valve TCV61, TSV61, TSV62
and LSV61 was shut.
iii. The manual valve at the inlet of LSV61 was opened.
iv. Bottom drain valves of tank T61 and T62 were always shut.
3. The PID controller TIC61 was learned to use
i. The TIC61 was displayed in mode Manual (M) mode. The MV was set MV=
100% to open the control. The control valve was checked was open at the
plant.
ii. The SV was set to 40 C.
iii. The PID turning page PID1 was accessed and the PID values was change to
first (I) trial values.
a.PB1= 15 %
b. T11= 35 sec
c. TD1= 8 sec
iv. The on/off control (TIC61 and TIC611) at the P/T register page at PO1 and
PO2 were accessed.
v. The recorder TR61 was started by pressing On the RCD pushbutton.
4. The control valve was stroke with MV= 25 % , 50 % and 100 % with TIC61 in the
Manual (M) mode where the opening TCV61 at the plant was checked.

B. ON/OFF TEMPERATURE CONTROL

The heating medium for the heat exchanger was produced by heating water in the tank T62. It
maintained constant by the on/off controller TIC62. It controlled with 0.5C less or more
from the set point values.

1. The heating medium circulation was started.


i. The valves MV62 and B62 was make sure were opened.
ii. Pump P62 was started.
iii. The water was ensured flow through the heat exchanger and back to T62.
iv. The by pass valve B62 was shut.
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Experiment 5: Heat Exchanger Process Control Page |4

v. The heaters were switch on. The temperature was made sure increased in the
tank T62and the heater is on.
vi. The water in the tank T62 was topped up when necessary.
2. The chart recorder was started by pressing the RCD button at the recorder TR61.
i. The selector was used and switch to TE62 and TIT62 so that only Green pen
was selected to record.
ii. The rise in temperature of water in tank T62 was observed.
iii. 15-20 minutes were taken by TE62 reached 55 C during this time, the
recorder was stop and RCD button was pushed and the steps 3 and 4 were
proceed.
3. Annunciator buzzer was pressed ACKNOWLEDGE button to silence the buzzer when
it was on. The cause of alarm was rationalize.
4. The parameters of the on/off controller T1C62 were set:
i. The menu was accessed and select P/T register button to set the high
temperature limit and dead band of controller TIC62
PO1: high temperature limit= 55C
PO2: dead band= 0.5 C
PO3: high limit for annunciator TAH62 (same as PO1)
PO4: dead band for annunciator TAH61 (same as PO2)
ii. The menu was accessed and selected I/O data button and the following data
was noted:
X2: TE62/TIT62, % of 0-100 C, input variable to controller
DO1: heater status in T62, I(on) and 0 (off)
DO2: annunciator TAH62 status, 1(on) and 0(off)
5. The temperature was approaching 55 C, the recorder TR61 was started by pushing
RCD buttons.
i. Both recorder TR61 Green pen and the I/O data X2, DO1 and DO2 were
observed.
ii. The high temperature limit and dead band data on the chart paper beside
Green pen were wrote down.
6. The temperature TE62/TIT62 at X2 was observed and the following checklist was
went through:
i. TE62/TIT62 rise and exceeded the high limit 55C
The heater was off
The annunciator TAH62 was activated
ii. The status of DO1, DO2 abd X2 at I/O data were checked and the data on the
chart paper was recorded.
iii. The TE62/TIT62 was continue to rise for example the overshoot beyond the
high limit
iv. The TE62/TIT62 was dropped to high limit (55C) but the heater was still off
v. The TE62/TIT62 dropped further by an amount equal to dead band (0.5C)
Heater was switched on again
The annunciator TAh62 was switched off
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The status DO1, DO2 and X2 at I/O data was checked and data on the
chart paper was recorded
vi. The observation was continued to get a full cycle for example 2 temperature
peaks or bottom.
vii. The oscillatory nature on/off was noted at the Green pen of the recorder.
7. The record was stopped by pushing the RCD button at the recorder. The chart paper
was noted.

C. PID CONTROL OF TEMPERATURE


1. The temperature of heated product at the exit of heat exchanger was measured by
TE61/TIT61 which was controlled by PID (Loop1) of TIC61
2. The on/off controller TIC62 was maintained the temperature of tank T62 at 55 C. the
controller TIC was set as follow:
i. The setpoint SV was endured SV= 40 C.
ii. TIC61 in Manual (M) mode , the output MV= 100 % was set
iii. The PID controller was checked to the trial (I) value
PB1= 15 %
T11= 35 sec
TD1= 8 sec
3. The cold water circulation was started.
i. The valve MV61 and B61 were opened
ii. Pump 61 was started and ensured the water flew through rotameter FI61
iii. She bypass B61 was shut
iv. The manual valve was adjust at MV61 to set the flow rate to 1.3 m3/hr
v. The circulating pump P611 was started
4. The TIC61 was switched to Auto (A) mode
i. The product flow rate FI61, setpoint, SV and PID value were wrote on the
chart paper beside its response.
ii. The response TE61/TIT61 were observed at the recorder RED pen till it
become steady around 40 C .
5. Test disturbance- setpoint change
i. The PID values of controller TIC61 was set to the second (II) trial values
PB1= 10 %
T11= 30 sec
TD1= 7 sec
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ii. The setpoint SV= 42 % was changed. The chart paper was marked on the new
setpoint value. The setpoint values did not increased above 44 C.
iii. The response was watched at recorder till it is almost steady or continued to
oscillate even after 3 cycle.
6. Test disturbance- load change
i. The systems were made sure at steady state.
ii. The product flow rate was stepped change by opening fully MV61. The flow
rate FI61 was noted and the value at chart paper was written.
iii. The relevant portions of the chart paper were watched and the result was
attached in the report.
7. The relevant portions of the chart paper were retrieved and the results were attached
to the report.

8. SHUTDOWN PROCEDURE
i. The controller TIC61 was switched to Manual (M) mode and MV= 100 % were
switched.
ii. Heater was switched off
iii. All pumps P61, P62 and P611 were stopped
iv. The main power supply was switched off.
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3.0 RESULTS & CALCULATIONS


3.1 P&ID of Process
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3.2 Start-up Procedure Report


For this process which known as heat exchanger process control, we had been
exposed to process plants instrument which consists of two tanks that are T61 and T62. We
also been manage to identify other major instruments that are involve in this process which
are centrifugal pumps that consists of P61,P62 and P63, shell and tube heat exchanger (the
most important instrument for this process), control valve TCV 61 (the final control element
that function to control the flow rate of water), on / off controller TIC62, PID Controller
TIC61(controller used to give better performance of the process system) and the
measurement involves in this process which are TE61/TIT61, RTD, and TE62/TIT61,Type K.
By following the start-up procedure, the tank 61 and tank 62 had been filled with water up to
their overflow drain pipe and the manual valves had been checked at the product downstream
line so that it had been opened to external drain system. The next actions that need to be taken
is to on the power supply and check various manual valves according to manual given. This is
done to make sure all necessary valves had been opened or closed correctly to avoid trouble
shooting during conduct the process. After make sure all valves had been opened or closed
correctly, the next action to be done during start-up is to test the PID controller of TIC61.
This was done by put the TIC61 in the following conditions:

Manual mode (M)


MV=100%
SV=40 C
PID values first trial:
-PB1=15%
-T11=35sec
-TD1=8sec

Next action in this stage is to access on/off controller (TIC62, TIC611) at P/T
Register page at PO1 and PO5 and the recorder TR61 is been started by pressing it on the
RCD pushbutton. By TIC61 in manual mode, control valve is being stroke with
MV=25%,50% and 100%. This is done in stage to learn the PID controller system and
observe the graph produce.
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Figure 2: Graph at recorder TR61-PID learning system.

Figure 2 shows the result in start-up procedure about learning the PID controller. It
been initially put in conditions manual mode with MV=100%, SV=40%, with PID values of
PB1=15%, T11=35sec and TD1=8sec. after that, the control valve had been stroke to change
the MV to 25%, 50% and 100%. The figure 2 shows the result of this PID controller

3.3 On/Off Controller Results Sheet Table

The On/Off control results were tabulated in the table below for different process. Table 3,
shows the values of set point for high temperature limit and dead band for controller and
annunciator when the heater was OFF.
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Table 3: On/Off temperature control of the electric heaters, when Heater OFF
P T Register I/O Data
High Temp
Dead Band Status
Limit
TIC62, Controller PO1 =__55 C PO2 = _0.5 C DO1: 0 (off)

TAH62, Annunciator PO3 =__55 C PO4 =__0.5 C DO2: 1 (on)

Meanwhile Table 4 shows the values of set point and dead band for controller and
annunciator when the heater is ON.

Table 4: On/Off temperature control of the electric heaters, when Heater ON


P T Register I/O Data
High Temp
Dead Band Status
Limit
TIC62, Controller PO1 =__55 C PO2 = _0.5 C DO1: 1 (on)

TAH62, Annunciator PO3 =__55 C PO4 =__0.5 C DO2: 0 (off)

The results of this controlled process is shown as in Figure 3 and Figure 4.

3.4 Comparison for Different Response on Different PID Values


Part 1: On / Off Temperatures control
Set point values = 40oC
High temperature limit = 55oC
Dead band = 0.5oC
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Figure 3: Graph at recorder TR61-heater off.

DO1: Heater status in T62 = 0 (off)


DO2: annunciator TAH62 status = 1 (on)
X2=TE62/TIT62, % of 0-100oC, input variables to the controller = 55.1oC

From the figure 3 above, the graph indicates the increase in line and then constant
steady line (green pen). The increase in line indicates the temperature is keep rising until the
temperature constant at 55oC with dead band of 0.5oC. For the constant steady line, during
this time, the input variables; X2, is not exceed the high limit temperatures and also in the
range of dead band. The process is run smoothly without any disturbance applied on it.
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Figure 4: Graph at recorder TR61-heater on.

DO1: Heater status in T62 = 1 (on)


DO2: annunciator TAH62 status = 0 (off)
X2=TE62/TIT62, % of 0-100oC, input variables to the controller = 54.3oC

From the figure 4 above, the graph indicates the change in line (green pen) which now
it oscillates with half cycle. During this time, the input variables; X2 is now below the dead
band range; which by that, the heater at DO1 need to be switch on while the annunciator at
DO2 is to be switch off. Here is the disturbance; that is heater, is being switch on to make the
process back to the steady state as shown in the graph. By switch the heater to on, it increases
the temperature in shell and tube heat exchanger and maintain the dead band around 0.5oC.
Part 2: PID control of temperature

Part 2: Manual Mode and Auto Mode Control

Figure 5: Graph at recorder TR61-manual / auto mode.

At controller TIC61-First (I) trial values:


1. Manual mode
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Experiment 5: Heat Exchanger Process Control P a g e | 15

MV: manipulated values (output)= 100%


SV: Set point values= 40oC
PB1=15%
T11=35sec
TD1=8sec
2. Switching to auto mode
MV: manipulated values (output)= 47.5%
SV: Set point values= 40oC
PV=41.4
FI61: Product flow rate= 1.3 m3 / hr

From figure 5 above, it shows the changes from manual mode process to auto mode
process. At manual mode; by referring to red pen, the line kept at steady line. This indicates
the process is run smoothly without any disturbance occurred. By switching the process to
auto mode, by referring to red pen, the line become decline drastically due to disturbance
occurred. By comparing the manipulated values; MV from both manual at auto mode, the
values are 100% and 47.5% respectively. From the MV values of both modes, there is 52.5%
big difference of them. By such a great difference, that is the reason why the red line decline
drastically when converting the process mode from auto to manual.

Part 3: Test Disturbance-set point change

Figure 6: Graph at recorder TR61-set point change.

At controller TIC61-Second (II) trial values:


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SV: Set point values= 42oC


PB1=10%
T11=30sec
TD1=7sec

From the figure 6 above, for the set point change from 40oC to 42oC, the line for green
pen oscillates continually. But for red pen, the line after changing the set point oscillates at
the beginning and then after a few minutes, it keeps in steady state line. The reason that the
line keep oscillates for green lines is due to changing of set point in the process. The
disturbance was introduced in the process. Supposedly, the set point is to be set at 40 oC but
after changing it to 42 oC, the process needs to reduce it to initial set point so that a steady
state line can be achieved. The PID controller keeps changing because it needs to reduce the
set point so that the zero error can be reduced and the offset can be eliminated. That is the
reason why the green pen line keeps oscillate throughout the process.

Part 4: Test Disturbance

Figure 7: Graph at recorder TR61-load change.

By opening fully MV61;


FI61: Product flow rate= 2.7 m3 / hr
PV=41.6
SV=42oC
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MV=76.0%

From the figure 7 above, after changing the load by opening fully MV61, the line shows
continually oscillations which indicates this process not steady and the disturbance is kept
been applying in this process. The PID controller need to minimize the zero error during the
disturbance takes place in the system.

4.0 ANALYSIS
In this experiment, two types of sensor is used which are red pen and
green pen. Red pen indicates the wall of the heater temperature which it
represent RTD by ON/OFF controller. Green pen indicates the temperature
of the flow rate and it represented RTD by PID controller.

This experiment is to operate ON/OFF temperature control and RTD is


used because of its sensitivity. Table 3 and 4 show the P T register and I/O
Data input for ON/OFF temperature control of the heater. The setting of
the value will keep the temperature stable around 55C. The ON/OFF
controller will always switch the output only when the temperature has
crossed the set point. The heater will automatically turn off when the
temperature of the water reached above the set temperature which is
55C. The heater will automatically turn on in order to keep the
temperature at the desired temperature when the temperature drop
below the set temperature.
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Green pen represented PID controller. Based on the response


observed in the chart paper, it can be seen that there is an increase in the
amplitude of an oscillation compared to the red pen. To be concluded,
from the response observed, the ON/OFF controller has higher damping
compared with PID controller where damping is the decrease in amplitude
of an oscillation.

The experiment continued with test disturbance with setpoint


change and load change respectively. It is shown on the chart paper that
both of the pen show the fluctuate reading of the oscillations as the set
point changed. PID controller is more fluctuated that ON/OFF controller.
The flow rate was changed by opened fully the valve under steady state
system. The oscillation ON/OFF controller is more stable compared to PID
controller. The oscillation of PID controller response is quite slow
compared to before disturbance. If there is a disturbance, the reading of
the response are easily fluctuate.

The temperature increased slowly and in time it fluctuate and went


down a little bit before going up again when the mode is change from
Manual [M] mode to Auto [A] mode. Annunciator is initiated when the
temperature exceed the desired value as the heater is not turn off
because of the heater will automatically turn on when the temperature is
lowered than wanted temperature.

5.0 DISCUSSION

The Heat Exchanger Process Control objectives were to study the On/Off temperature
control of electric heaters and to study the temperature control in heat exchanger using PID
controller. Based on the results obtained as shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4, the chart shows
that the High Temperature Limit of the process being controlled by the heat exchanger
perfectly. The curves in Figure 3 shows that the temperature increasing gradually until reach
the temperature limit, and it stopped increasing afterward. It also shows that the process was
able to run smoothly when there is no disturbance applied to the process.
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The disturbance might interfere with the process thus resulting a decreasing or increasing in
temperature if applied to the process. By referring to Figure 4, the process curves show that it
oscillates in half cycle. In this step, the disturbance has cause the process output variable, X2
reading below the dead band range. To control this condition, the heater is on and able to
regulate the temperature in shell and heat exchanger and maintain the dead band around 0.5
C.

The experiment was continued to the second part, to study the Manual Mode (M), and
Auto Mode (A) control of process. According to the chart paper retrieved, when the process
was in Manual mode, the process able to run smoothly because there is no disturbance when
the process is being control in Manual mode. Differ from the Auto mode, when the process
was conducted automatically, the process shows that there is disturbance in the process,
where can be seen in Figure 5, the curve line decrease and decline drastically. Big difference
can be seen for the manipulated value, MV for Manual and Auto mode where for Manual
mode, the MV is at 100% while in Auto mode, the MV is at 47.5%.

Auto mode in PID control, the output is calculated by the controller using the error signal -
the difference between set point and the process variable. Meanwhile, manual mode is
when the output is set manually (Common terms in the process control terminology, n.d)
Auto mode of PID control have a better response compared to Manual mode because Auto
mode able to regulate the condition of the process to the set point compared to Manual mode
where the process need to be controlled manually by human to regulate the operating
condition to original set point. So, Auto mode is much better compare to Manual mode.
However, based on the results obtained, its shown that Manual mode results is much better
than Auto mode controller.

For the next part, the process was continued with test disturbance-set point change. The set
point value is 42 C, PB1 is 10%, TI1 is 30 secs and TD1 is 7 secs. The curve as shown in
Figure 6, where the disturbance applied to this process shows an oscillation where the
process control was reducing the disturbance to produce a stable process to achieve a steady
state line. The controller tries to eliminate the disturbance to achieve zero error of a process.
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Lastly, the process was tested with test disturbance to observe the ability of the process
controller in reducing the disturbance being apply to the process. based on Figure 7, the
curves in the chart portion retrieved shows that it keeps oscillating, indicates that the
controller try to reduce the disturbance applied throughout the whole process.

6.0 ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS


1. Based on the results, discuss the difference/characteristics of measurement taken by
Thermocouple and RTD.

Differences/ characteristics
No.
Thermocouple RTD
Thermocouples are temperature sensors RTDs are temperature sensors that use the
1. that use two different metals in the sensor changes in the electrical resistance of metals
to produce a voltage that can be read to to measure the changes in the local
determine the local temperature. temperature.
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Thermocouple has better cost, cheaper, RTD has high cost, low measurement
2.
measurement speeds and range of speeds and narrow range of temperature.
temperature than RTD
Thermocouples are designed to be more RTDs are superior to thermocouples in that
durable and react faster to changes in their readings are more accurate and more
3.
temperature because of that same design. repeatable which over multiple trials, the
readings of temperature produce same
results.
Thermocouple is produced to be sturdier RTD react slower than thermocouple to
4.
and react quickly to changes in changes in temperature in same design.
temperature in same design.
Thermocouple accept less strong signals RTD continue bearing constant readings
and it is complicated to alter and read the longer than Thermocouple. RTD accept
5.
readings. more strong signals and it is easier to
mechanically alter or read the readings due
to the design produced

2. Temperature is considered as a process variable with a slow response. Discuss the


statement.

Temperature is considered as process variable with slow response because it is parameter


that takes time to increase or decrease the readings. It is hard to see any different in
responding curve when the temperature takes a longer time to response.
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7.0 CONCLUSION

There are two main objectives in the Heat Exchanger Process Control experiment. They
are to study on/off temperature control of electric heaters and to study temperature control in
heat exchanger using PID controller. By controlling the on/off of the heater, the temperature
in shell and tube heat exchanger was managed to increase or and the dead band was
maintained around 0.5C. The heater was switched on so that the process can go back to its
steady state as shown in the graph. Except on figure 6, the green line was oscillating perfectly
but for the red line it oscillates at the beginning and kept a steady line after a few minutes.
This happened because the set point was changed or a disturbance was introduced. The PID
controller keeps changing because it needs to reduce the set point so that the zero error can be
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reduced and the offset can be eliminated. By seeing all the important findings throughout the
experiment, the objectives of the experiment was achieved and it was a success.

8.0 SUGGESTIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS

To make sure the experiment was running smoothly, all members must follow the
instructions in the lab manual very carefully. The result that we obtained could have been
better if we remember to close the by-pass valve B62 during on/off temperature procedure.
This is an important step to obtain more accurate and desirable result and data of this
experiment in the future. It is necessary to make sure manual valves is in correct whether
open or shut and the manual valve. Besides that, make sure the result or chart is recorded
subsequently the data is set up in monitor so that the output response in the chart will stable.
Other than that, make sure to know the differences between oscillatory and steady. This is
important to test whether the set point was set up correctly or not. If not, the objective to
study temperature control using the PID controller cannot be achieved.

9.0 REFERENCES
CPB30004- Process Dynamics and Control
Experiment 5: Heat Exchanger Process Control P a g e | 24

1. Max S. Peters & Klaus D. Timmerhaus. (1991). PLANT DESIGN AND


ECONOMICS FOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERS. New York: McGraw-Hill Chemical
Engineering Series: Fourth Edition. Retrieved November 17, 2016, from McGraw-
Hill Chemical Engineering Series: Fourth Edition.

2. National instrument. (2011, March 29). PID Theory Explained. Retrieved November
17, 2016, from National Instrument: http://www.ni.com/white-paper/3782/en/#toc2

3. Subramanian, R. S. (n.d). Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers. Retrieved November 17,


2016, from http://web2.clarkson.edu/projects/subramanian/ch302/notes/shelltube.pdf

4. Process Control and Common Terms. (n.d.). Retrieved November 17, 2016, from
http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/process-control-terms-d_666.htm